Sample records for high-speed optical diagnostic

  1. High speed manyframe optical methods for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Zorev, N.N.


    A complex of active optical plasma and strong ionized shock wave diagnostics is described. The complex consisted of a specially developed high speed manyframe systems of shadow, schlieren and interferometric photography. The comparison of results obtained by a simultaneous registration of investigated object by means of different optical methods allowed us to determine optimal employment range for the methods. The sensitivity, temporal and space resolution of each optical method under conditions of high probe radiation refraction are discussed. The application boundaries of these methods for ionized shock wave investigation were found to depend on the shock wave front width. The methods described were used for the study of laser-produced plasma phenomena, occuring in the experiments on powerful nine-channel laser installation ''Kalmar''. (author)

  2. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: Applied to low voltage circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J. W.; Balestrero, A.; Tribulato, G.; Ghezzi, L.; Cross, K. J.


    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1x10 6 images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  3. A High-Speed Optical Diagnostic that uses Interference Filters to Measure Doppler Shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Cates, C.; Mauel, M.; Maurer, D.; Navratil, G.; Shilov, M.


    A high-speed, non-invasive velocity diagnostic has been developed for measuring plasma rotation. The Doppler shift is determined by employing two detectors that view line emission from the identical volume of plasma. Each detector views through an interference filter having a passband that varies linearly with wavelength. One detector views the plasma through a filter whose passband has a negative slope and the second detector views through one with a positive slope. Because each channel views the same volume of plasma, the ratio of the amplitudes is not sensitive to variations in plasma emission. With suitable knowledge of the filter characteristics and the relative gain, the Doppler shift is readily obtained in real time from the ratio of two channels without needing a low throughput spectrometer. The systematic errors--arising from temperature drifts, stability, and frequency response of the detectors and amplifiers, interference filter linearity, and ability to thoroughly homogenize the light from the fiber bundle--can be characterized well enough to obtain velocity data with + or - 1 km/sec with a time resolution of 0.3 msec

  4. Development of high-speed and wide-angle visible observation diagnostics on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak using catadioptric optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. H.; Hu, L. Q.; Zang, Q.; Han, X. F.; Shao, C. Q.; Sun, T. F.; Chen, H.; Wang, T. F.; Li, F. J.; Hu, A. L.; Yang, X. F.


    A new wide-angle endoscope for visible light observation on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has been recently developed. The head section of the optical system is based on a mirror reflection design that is similar to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wide-angle observation diagnostic on the Joint European Torus. However, the optical system design has been simplified and improved. As a result, the global transmittance of the system is as high as 79.6% in the wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm, and the spatial resolution is <5 mm for the full depth of field (4000 mm). The optical system also has a large relative aperture (1:2.4) and can be applied in high-speed camera diagnostics. As an important diagnostic tool, the optical system has been installed on the HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) for its final experimental campaign, and the experiments confirmed that it can be applied to the investigation of transient processes in plasma, such as ELMy eruptions in H-mode, on EAST

  5. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.


    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  6. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.


    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  7. High speed all optical networks (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ganz, Aura


    An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point wide area network (WAN) architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. The first solution to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation is presented. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs. The principle of the Lightnet architecture is the construction and use of virtual topology networks, embedded in the original network in the wavelength domain. For this construction Lightnets utilize the new concept of lightpaths which constitute the links of the virtual topology. Lightpaths are all-optical, multihop, paths in the network that allow data to be switched through intermediate nodes using high throughput passive optical switches. The use of the virtual topologies and the associated switching design introduce a number of new ideas, which are discussed in detail.

  8. High speed all-silicon optical modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marris-Morini, Delphine; Le Roux, Xavier; Pascal, Daniel; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Damlencourt, Jean Francois; Bouville, David; Palomo, Jose; Laval, Suzanne


    Electrorefractive effect is experimentally demonstrated in an all-silicon optical structure. A highly doped Si P + layer is embedded in the intrinsic region of a PIN diode integrated in a SOI waveguide. Holes are confined at equilibrium around the P + layer. By applying a reverse bias to the diode, electrical field sweeps the carriers out of the active region. Free carrier concentration variations are responsible for local refractive index variations leading to an effective index variation of the waveguide optical mode and to an optical absorption variation. As a figure of merit, the product V π L π , determined from the measured effective index variation, is equal to 3.1 V cm. Furthermore, the device performances have theoretically been investigated. Estimations show that V π L π as small as 1 V cm are feasible using optimized structures. Response times lower than 2 ps are predicted, which gives the possibility to achieve very high-speed modulation. Furthermore, a temperature increases from 300 to 400 K does not change the index variation amplitude, and despite the carrier mobility reduction, response times are still lower than 2 ps

  9. High speed photography diagnostics in laser-plasma interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.L.


    The authors report on their effort in the development of techniques involved in laser-plasma experiments. This includes not only laser technology but also diagnostics studies and targets design and fabrication. Among the different kind of diagnostics currently used are high speed streak cameras, fast oscilloscopes and detectors sensitive in the i.r., visible, the u.v. region and the x-rays. In this presentation the authors describe the three high power lasers which are still in operation (P 102, OctAL and PHEBUS) and the main diagnostics used to characterize the plasma

  10. Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB.......This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....

  11. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu


    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  12. High speed all-optical networks (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich


    An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point WAN architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. This report presents the first solution to WDM based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs.

  13. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.


    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  14. High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system (United States)

    Zhao, Zeping; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Ninghua


    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems. Project supported by the Preeminence Youth Fund of China (No. 61625504).

  15. Recent progress on high-speed optical transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Yu


    Full Text Available The recently reported high spectral efficiency (SE and high-baud-rate signal transmission are all based on digital coherent optical communications and digital signal processing (DSP. DSP simplifies the reception of advanced modulation formats and also enables the major electrical and optical impairments to be processed and compensated in the digital domain, at the transmitter or receiver side. In this paper, we summarize the research progress on high-speed signal generation and detection and also show the progress on DSP for high-speed signal detection. We also report the latest progress on multi-core and multi-mode multiplexing.

  16. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  17. High speed electro optic polymer micro-ringresonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, Arne; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.


    An electro-optic polymer micro-ring resonator for high speed modulation was designed, realized and characterized. The design of layer-stack and electrodes was done such that modulation frequencies up till 1 GHz should be possible. The device consists of a ridge waveguide, defined in a negative

  18. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P


    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  19. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    Semiconductor optical amplifiers are useful building blocks for all-optical gates as wavelength converters and OTDM demultiplexers. The paper reviews the progress from simple gates using cross-gain modulation and four-wave mixing to the integrated interferometric gates using cross-phase modulation....... These gates are very efficient for high-speed signal processing and open up interesting new areas, such as all-optical regeneration and high-speed all-optical logic functions...

  20. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.


    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  1. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix


    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  2. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    with a photonic layer on top to interconnect them. For such systems, silicon is an attractive candidate enabling both electronic and photonic control. For some network scenarios, it may be beneficial to use optical on-chip packet switching, and for high data-density environments one may take advantage...... of the ultra-fast nonlinear response of silicon photonic waveguides. These chips offer ultra-broadband wavelength operation, ultra-high timing resolution and ultra-fast response, and when used appropriately offer energy-efficient switching. In this presentation we review some all-optical functionalities based...... on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show...

  3. High-speed VCSEL-based optical interconnects (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih S.


    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have made significant inroads into commercial realization especially in the area of data communications. Single VCSEL devices are key components in Gb Ethernet Transceivers. A multi-element VCSEL array is the key enabling technology for high-speed multi Gb/s parallel optical interconnect modules. In 1996, several companies introduced a new generation of fiber optic products based VCSEL technology such as multimode fiber transceivers for the ANSI Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. VCSELs offer unique advantages over its edge-emitting counterparts in several areas. These include low-cost (LED-like) manufacturability, low current operation and array integrability. As data rates continue to increase, VCSELs offer the advantage of being able to provide the highest modulation bandwidth per milliamp of modulation current. Currently, most of the VCSEL-based products use short (780 - 980 nm) wavelength lasers. However, significant research efforts are taking place at universities and industrial research labs around the world to develop reliable, manufacturable and high-power long (1300 - 1550 nm) wavelength VCSELs. These lasers will allow longer (several km) transmission distances and will help alleviate some of the eye-safety issues. Perhaps, the most important advantage of VCSELs is the ability to form two-dimensional arrays much easier than in the case of edge-emitting lasers. These arrays (single and two-dimensional) will allow a whole new family of applications, specifically in very high-speed computer and switch interconnects.

  4. High Resolution, High-Speed Photography, an Increasingly Prominent Diagnostic in Ballistic Research Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Muelder, S.


    High resolution, high-speed photography is becoming a prominent diagnostic in ballistic experimentation. The development of high speed cameras utilizing electro-optics and the use of lasers for illumination now provide the capability to routinely obtain high quality photographic records of ballistic style experiments. The purpose of this presentation is to review in a visual manner the progress of this technology and how it has impacted ballistic experimentation. Within the framework of development at LLNL, we look at the recent history of large format high-speed photography, and present a number of photographic records that represent the state of the art at the time they were made. These records are primarily from experiments involving shaped charges. We also present some examples of current photographic technology, developed within the ballistic community, that has application to hydro diagnostic experimentation at large. This paper is designed primarily as an oral-visual presentation. This written portion is to provide general background, a few examples, and a bibliography

  5. Holistic design in high-speed optical interconnects (United States)

    Saeedi, Saman

    Integrated circuit scaling has enabled a huge growth in processing capability, which necessitates a corresponding increase in inter-chip communication bandwidth. As bandwidth requirements for chip-to-chip interconnection scale, deficiencies of electrical channels become more apparent. Optical links present a viable alternative due to their low frequency-dependent loss and higher bandwidth density in the form of wavelength division multiplexing. As integrated photonics and bonding technologies are maturing, commercialization of hybrid-integrated optical links are becoming a reality. Increasing silicon integration leads to better performance in optical links but necessitates a corresponding co-design strategy in both electronics and photonics. In this light, holistic design of high-speed optical links with an in-depth understanding of photonics and state-of-the-art electronics brings their performance to unprecedented levels. This thesis presents developments in high-speed optical links by co-designing and co-integrating the primary elements of an optical link: receiver, transmitter, and clocking. In the first part of this thesis a 3D-integrated CMOS/Silicon-photonic receiver will be presented. The electronic chip features a novel design that employs a low-bandwidth TIA front-end, double-sampling and equalization through dynamic offset modulation. Measured results show -14.9dBm of sensitivity and energy eciency of 170fJ/b at 25Gb/s. The same receiver front-end is also used to implement source-synchronous 4-channel WDM-based parallel optical receiver. Quadrature ILO-based clocking is employed for synchronization and a novel frequency-tracking method that exploits the dynamics of IL in a quadrature ring oscillator to increase the effective locking range. An adaptive body-biasing circuit is designed to maintain the per-bit-energy consumption constant across wide data-rates. The prototype measurements indicate a record-low power consumption of 153fJ/b at 32Gb/s. The

  6. High-speed noise-free optical quantum memory (United States)

    Kaczmarek, K. T.; Ledingham, P. M.; Brecht, B.; Thomas, S. E.; Thekkadath, G. S.; Lazo-Arjona, O.; Munns, J. H. D.; Poem, E.; Feizpour, A.; Saunders, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.


    Optical quantum memories are devices that store and recall quantum light and are vital to the realization of future photonic quantum networks. To date, much effort has been put into improving storage times and efficiencies of such devices to enable long-distance communications. However, less attention has been devoted to building quantum memories which add zero noise to the output. Even small additional noise can render the memory classical by destroying the fragile quantum signatures of the stored light. Therefore, noise performance is a critical parameter for all quantum memories. Here we introduce an intrinsically noise-free quantum memory protocol based on two-photon off-resonant cascaded absorption (ORCA). We demonstrate successful storage of GHz-bandwidth heralded single photons in a warm atomic vapor with no added noise, confirmed by the unaltered photon-number statistics upon recall. Our ORCA memory meets the stringent noise requirements for quantum memories while combining high-speed and room-temperature operation with technical simplicity, and therefore is immediately applicable to low-latency quantum networks.

  7. NbN nanowire optical detectors for high speed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, O; Pagano, S; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C; Pessina, E; Fontana, F


    We have developed a novel geometry for single photon optical detectors (SSPD) based on NbN nanowires. Traditionally the SSPD are realized in a meander structure in order to realize a reasonable (few square microns) collecting area. This has the disadvantage of generating a large detector inductance, mostly of kinetic origin, that strongly limits the detector operation in high speed applications, such as telecommunication. Moreover the extreme aspect ratio of the detector (a nanowire a fraction of mm long and 100 nm wide) puts strong requirements on the nanofabrication processes, with negative effects on the production yield. Our novel proposed geometry is based on a parallel stripes configuration designed in such a way that the light induced switching of a single stripe generates the switching of all the other through a cascade mechanism. The net result is an SSPD device that has a much lower intrinsic inductance, and consequently a much wider bandwidth (up to 10 GHz range). Moreover the signal amplitude generated is much larger than that of traditional SSPD, due to the contribution of all the parallel stripe. We present here the design and results of numerical simulation of the response of this novel type of SSPD. In particular we discuss of the design solutions that allow the cascade operation of the detector, by realizing a very fast and synchronous switching of all the parallel lines. Key issues, such as the optimal number of parallel lines, with respect to fabrication and operation constraints of the detectors are also discussed

  8. Novel high speed fiber-optic pressure sensor systems. (United States)


    The goal of this project is to develop a complete test of this technology for high-speed, high-accuracy applications, specifically cost-effective data acquisition techniques and practical mounting methods tailored for the subject environment. The sec...

  9. Molecular filter-based diagnostics in high speed flows (United States)

    Elliott, Gregory S.; Samimy, MO; Arnette, Stephen A.


    The use of iodine molecular filters in nonintrusive planar velocimetry methods is examined. Detailed absorption profiles are obtained to highlight the effects that determine the profile shape. It is shown that pressure broadening induced by the presence of a nonabsorbing vapor can be utilized to significantly change the slopes bounding the absorbing region while remaining in the optically-thick regime.

  10. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner


    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  11. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks (United States)

    Tobagi, F. A.


    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  12. Electro-optic polymers for high speed modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Megret, P.; Wuilpart, M.; Bette, S.; Staquet, N.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature $(T_g)$ and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). The electro-optic chromophore,

  13. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.


    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  14. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events.


    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio


    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optic...

  15. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  16. New Architecture of Optical Interconnect for High-Speed Optical Computerized Data Networks (Nonlinear Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. El-Badawy


    Full Text Available Although research into the use of optics in computers has increased in the last and current decades, the fact remains that electronics is still superior to optics in almost every way. Research into the use of optics at this stage mirrors the research into electronics after the 2nd World War. The advantages of using fiber optics over wiring are the same as the argument for using optics over electronics in computers. Even through totally optical computers are now a reality, computers that combine both electronics and optics, electro-optic hybrids, have been in use for some time. In the present paper, architecture of optical interconnect is built up on the bases of four Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser Diodes (VCSELD and two optical links where thermal effects of both the diodes and the links are included. Nonlinear relations are correlated to investigate the power-current and the voltage-current dependences of the four devices. The good performance (high speed of the interconnect is deeply and parametrically investigated under wide ranges of the affecting parameters. The high speed performance is processed through three different effects, namely the device 3-dB bandwidth, the link dispersion characteristics, and the transmitted bit rate (soliton. Eight combinations are investigated; each possesses its own characteristics. The best architecture is the one composed of VCSELD that operates at 850 nm and the silica fiber whatever the operating set of causes. This combination possesses the largest device 3-dB bandwidth, the largest link bandwidth and the largest soliton transmitted bit rate. The increase of the ambient temperature reduces the high-speed performance of the interconnect

  17. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K.K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Buchholz, P.; Heidbrink, S. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany); Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vogt, M.; Ziolkowski, M. [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Siegen, Siegen (Germany)


    We have designed and fabricated a compact parallel optical engine for transmitting data at 5 Gb/s. The device consists of a 4-channel ASIC driving a VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array in an optical package. The ASIC is designed using only core transistors in a 65 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. The ASIC contains an 8-bit DAC to control the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels in the VCSEL array. The performance of the optical engine up at 5 Gb/s is satisfactory.

  18. High-Speed Fiber Optic Micromultiplexer for Space and Airborne Lidar, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for high-speed fiber optic multiplexers for next generation lidar systems, Luminit proposes to develop a new Fiber...

  19. Photodefinable electro-optic polymer for high-speed modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Faccini, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Verboom, Willem; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne


    Direct waveguide definition of a negative photoresist (SU8) containing tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) as electro-optic (EO) chromophore, has been demonstrated for the first time. This was possible by utilising the chromophore low absorption window in the UV region allowing

  20. Application of Nanophotonic Devices in High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana

    All-optical signal processing has attracted a significant research interest in the past decade as it might become competitive with electronics in terms of compactness, energy consumption, and reliability. Furthermore it might solve the current bandwidth mismatch between optical transmission...... linear and nonlinear impairments, which accumulate along the link and limit the reach of the system. These impairments need to be compensated. Since four-wave mixing provides phase conjugation of the converted signal, dispersion and nonlinearity distortion accumulated during transmission can...

  1. High Speed PAM -8 Optical Interconnects with Digital Equalization based on Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars


    We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission.......We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission....

  2. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lightwave may be expressed by a modulation amplitude ¯E(z,t) of the optical electric field. E(z,t). E(z,t) = 1. 2. ¯E(z ... the lightwaves is important to minimize the pulse deformation even in case of the digital formats. ...... Pure Appl. Math. 21, 467 ...

  3. High-speed optical coherence tomography by circular interferometric ranging (United States)

    Siddiqui, Meena; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Tozburun, Serhat; Lippok, Norman; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J.


    Existing three-dimensional optical imaging methods excel in controlled environments, but are difficult to deploy over large, irregular and dynamic fields. This means that they can be ill-suited for use in areas such as material inspection and medicine. To better address these applications, we developed methods in optical coherence tomography to efficiently interrogate sparse scattering fields, that is, those in which most locations (voxels) do not generate meaningful signal. Frequency comb sources are used to superimpose reflected signals from equispaced locations through optical subsampling. This results in circular ranging, and reduces the number of measurements required to interrogate large volumetric fields. As a result, signal acquisition barriers that have limited speed and field in optical coherence tomography are avoided. With a new ultrafast, time-stretched frequency comb laser design operating with 7.6 MHz to 18.9 MHz repetition rates, we achieved imaging of multi-cm3 fields at up to 7.5 volumes per second.

  4. High speed all optical logic gates based on quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. (United States)

    Ma, Shaozhen; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Hongzhi; Dutta, Niloy K


    A scheme to realize all-optical Boolean logic functions AND, XOR and NOT using semiconductor optical amplifiers with quantum-dot active layers is studied. nonlinear dynamics including carrier heating and spectral hole-burning are taken into account together with the rate equations scheme. Results show with QD excited state and wetting layer serving as dual-reservoir of carriers, as well as the ultra fast carrier relaxation of the QD device, this scheme is suitable for high speed Boolean logic operations. Logic operation can be carried out up to speed of 250 Gb/s.

  5. Optical investigation of high-speed aerosol-microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, J.


    Aerosol-jets are generated by the expansion of an aerosol-gas mixture from different types of micro-nozzles. The particle velocity is measured by means of a Fabry-Perot laser Doppler anemometer, whereas the geometrical structure of the jet will be investigated by direct optical observation. Comparative measurements show that Laval-nozzles are more suitable for the generation of rapid, intense aerosol-jets than simple orifices, because the internal energy of the carrier gas may be transformed more perfectly into one-directional kinetic energy. Moreover, the particles gain high velocities due to the smooth acceleration process. (author)

  6. High-speed optical coherence tomography signal processing on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiqi; Shi Guohua; Zhang Yudong


    The signal processing speed of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has become a bottleneck in many medical applications. Recently, a time-domain interpolation method was proposed. This method not only gets a better signal-to noise ratio (SNR) but also gets a faster signal processing time for the SD-OCT than the widely used zero-padding interpolation method. Furthermore, the re-sampled data is obtained by convoluting the acquired data and the coefficients in time domain. Thus, a lot of interpolations can be performed concurrently. So, this interpolation method is suitable for parallel computing. An ultra-high optical coherence tomography signal processing can be realized by using graphics processing unit (GPU) with computer unified device architecture (CUDA). This paper will introduce the signal processing steps of SD-OCT on GPU. An experiment is performed to acquire a frame SD-OCT data (400A-linesx2048 pixel per A-line) and real-time processed the data on GPU. The results show that it can be finished in 6.208 milliseconds, which is 37 times faster than that on Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  7. High-Speed Non-Volatile Optical Memory: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Zayets


    Full Text Available We have proposed, fabricated, and studied a new design of a high-speed optical non-volatile memory. The recoding mechanism of the proposed memory utilizes a magnetization reversal of a nanomagnet by a spin-polarized photocurrent. It was shown experimentally that the operational speed of this memory may be extremely fast above 1 TBit/s. The challenges to realize both a high-speed recording and a high-speed reading are discussed. The memory is compact, integratable, and compatible with present semiconductor technology. If realized, it will advance data processing and computing technology towards a faster operation speed.

  8. Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.K.; Buchholz, P.; Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D.S.; Wiese, A.; Ziolkowski, M.


    We have designed an ASIC for use in a parallel optical engine for a new layer of the ATLAS pixel detector in the initial phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASIC is a 12-channel VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array driver capable of operating up to 5 Gb/s per channel. The ASIC is designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. A scheme for redundancy has also been implemented to allow bypassing of a broken VCSEL. The ASIC also contains a power-on reset circuit that sets the ASIC to a default configuration with no signal steering. In addition, the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels are programmable. The performance of the first prototype ASIC up to 5 Gb/s is satisfactory. Furthermore, we are able to program the bias and modulation currents and to bypass a broken VCSEL channel. We are currently upgrading our design to allow operation at 10 Gb/s per channel yielding an aggregated bandwidth of 120 Gb/s. Some preliminary results of the design will be presented

  9. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio


    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optical fluorescence microscope. This was accomplished by developing a tip-scanning system, instead of a sample-scanning system, which operates on an inverted optical microscope. This novel device enabled the acquisition of high-speed AFM images of morphological changes in individual cells. Using this instrument, we conducted structural studies of living HeLa and 3T3 fibroblast cell surfaces. The improved time resolution allowed us to image dynamic cellular events.

  10. All-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER <10−9 performance for all channels.......We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER

  11. Scalable Active Optical Access Network Using Variable High-Speed PLZT Optical Switch/Splitter (United States)

    Ashizawa, Kunitaka; Sato, Takehiro; Tokuhashi, Kazumasa; Ishii, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Yamanaka, Naoaki; Oki, Eiji

    This paper proposes a scalable active optical access network using high-speed Plumbum Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) optical switch/splitter. The Active Optical Network, called ActiON, using PLZT switching technology has been presented to increase the number of subscribers and the maximum transmission distance, compared to the Passive Optical Network (PON). ActiON supports the multicast slot allocation realized by running the PLZT switch elements in the splitter mode, which forces the switch to behave as an optical splitter. However, the previous ActiON creates a tradeoff between the network scalability and the power loss experienced by the optical signal to each user. It does not use the optical power efficiently because the optical power is simply divided into 0.5 to 0.5 without considering transmission distance from OLT to each ONU. The proposed network adopts PLZT switch elements in the variable splitter mode, which controls the split ratio of the optical power considering the transmission distance from OLT to each ONU, in addition to PLZT switch elements in existing two modes, the switching mode and the splitter mode. The proposed network introduces the flexible multicast slot allocation according to the transmission distance from OLT to each user and the number of required users using three modes, while keeping the advantages of ActiON, which are to support scalable and secure access services. Numerical results show that the proposed network dramatically reduces the required number of slots and supports high bandwidth efficiency services and extends the coverage of access network, compared to the previous ActiON, and the required computation time for selecting multicast users is less than 30msec, which is acceptable for on-demand broadcast services.

  12. Characterizing shock waves in hydrogel using high speed imaging and a fiber-optic probe hydrophone (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip A.; Betney, M. R.; Doyle, H. W.; Tully, B.; Ventikos, Y.; Hawker, N. A.; Roy, Ronald A.


    The impact of a stainless steel disk-shaped projectile launched by a single-stage light gas gun is used to generate planar shock waves with amplitudes on the order of 102MPa in a hydrogel target material. These shock waves are characterized using ultra-high-speed imaging as well as a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. Although the hydrogel equation of state (EOS) is unknown, the combination of these measurements with conservation of mass and momentum allows us to calculate pressure. It is also shown that although the hydrogel behaves similarly to water, the use of a water EOS underpredicts pressure amplitudes in the hydrogel by ˜10 % at the shock front. Further, the water EOS predicts pressures approximately 2% higher than those determined by conservation laws for a given value of the shock velocity. Shot to shot repeatability is controlled to within 10%, with the shock speed and pressure increasing as a function of the velocity of the projectile at impact. Thus the projectile velocity may be used as an adequate predictor of shock conditions in future work with a restricted suite of diagnostics.

  13. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    the speed limitation of electronics. Thus, all-optical signal processing techniques are highly desirable to support the necessary optical switching functionalities in future ultrahigh-speed optical packet-switching networks. To cope with the wide use of optical phase-modulated signals, in the thesis, an all-optical logic for DPSK or PSK input signals is developed, for the first time. Based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier, the structure of the logic gate is simple, compact, and capable of supporting ultrafast operation. In addition to the general logic processing, a simple label recognition scheme, as a specific signal processing function, is proposed for phase-modulated label signals. The proposed scheme can recognize any incoming label pattern according to the local pattern, and is potentially capable of handling variable-length label patterns. Optical access network with multicast overlay and centralized light sources. In the arena of optical access networks, wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is a promising technology to deliver high-speed data traffic. However, most of proposed WDM-PONs only support conventional point-to-point service, and cannot meet the requirement of increasing demand on broadcast and multicast service. In this thesis, a simple network upgrade is proposed based on the traditional PON architecture to support both point-to-point and multicast service. In addition, the two service signals are modulated on the same lightwave carrier. The upstream signal is also remodulated on the same carrier at the optical network unit, which can significantly relax the requirement on wavelength management at the network unit.

  14. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing


    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.


    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large ...

  15. Rad-Tolerant, Thermally Stable, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Network for Harsh Environments (United States)

    Leftwich, Matt; Hull, Tony; Leary, Michael; Leftwich, Marcus


    Future NASA destinations will be challenging to get to, have extreme environmental conditions, and may present difficulty in retrieving a spacecraft or its data. Space Photonics is developing a radiation-tolerant (rad-tolerant), high-speed, multi-channel fiber-optic transceiver, associated reconfigurable intelligent node communications architecture, and supporting hardware for intravehicular and ground-based optical networking applications. Data rates approaching 3.2 Gbps per channel will be achieved.

  16. High speed all optical shear wave imaging optical coherence elastography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.


    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a non-invasive testing modality that maps the mechanical property of soft tissues with high sensitivity and spatial resolution using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT). Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a leading technique that relies on the speed of propagating shear waves to provide a quantitative elastography. Previous shear wave imaging OCT techniques are based on repeated M-B scans, which have several drawbacks such as long acquisition time and repeated wave stimulations. Recent developments of Fourier domain mode-locked high-speed swept-source OCT system has enabled enough speed to perform KHz B-scan rate OCT imaging. Here we propose ultra-high speed, single shot shear wave imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation to perform SW-OCE. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, which allows the detection of high-frequency shear wave of up to 8 kHz. The shear wave is generated photothermal-acoustically, by ultra-violet pulsed laser, which requires no contact to OCE subjects, while launching high frequency shear waves that carries rich localized elasticity information. The image acquisition and processing can be performed at video-rate, which enables real-time 3D elastography. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine ocular tissue. This approach opens up the feasibility to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE in clinical applications, to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurement of tissue biomechanical property.

  17. Optical Amplication for Terabit-per-Second Ultra-High Speed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh

    The present thesis is concerned with fiber optical parametric amplification and regeneration for high-speed optical communication systems. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) have multi-functional applications depending on their implementation in optical systems. Based on a few femtosecond...... and saturation effect in order to assess the degradation of the amplified signal. In a very good agreement with the performed experiments, it is shown that the noise transferred to the signal can be effectively suppressed by operating in the saturation regime. The amplification of short few picosecond...

  18. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong


    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  19. High-speed Light Peak optical link for high energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.X. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiang, F. [FOCI Fiber Optic Comm., Inc., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Deng, B. [Hubei Polytechnic University, Huangshi, Hubei (China); Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Hou, J. [FOCI Fiber Optic Comm., Inc., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hou, S., E-mail: [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.; Liu, T. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Teng, P.K. [Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.H. [National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Xu, T. [Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)


    Optical links provide high speed data transmission with low mass fibers favorable for applications in high energy experiments. We report investigation of a compact Light Peak optical engine designed for data transmission at 4.8 Gbps. The module is assembled with bare die VCSEL, PIN diodes and a control IC aligned within a prism receptacle for light coupling to fiber ferrule. Radiation damage in the receptacle was examined with {sup 60}Co gamma ray. Radiation induced single event effects in the optical engine were studied with protons, neutrons and X-ray tests.

  20. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  1. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos, NM; Nguyen, Dinh C [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Santa Fe, NM; Gorshkov, Vacheslav N [Kiev, UA


    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  2. Hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness of high-speed optical access networks (United States)

    Bai, Hui-feng


    As the speed of optical access networks soars with ever increasing multiple services, the service-supporting ability of optical access networks suffers greatly from the shortage of service awareness. Aiming to solve this problem, a hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness mechanism is proposed for high-speed optical access networks. This approach builds a so-called hierarchy Bayesian model, according to the structure of typical optical access networks. Moreover, the proposed scheme is able to conduct simple services awareness operation in each optical network unit (ONU) and to perform complex services awareness from the whole view of system in optical line terminal (OLT). Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to achieve better quality of services (QoS), in terms of packet loss rate and time delay.

  3. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  4. Design of an Electro-Optic Modulator for High Speed Communications (United States)

    Espinoza, David

    The telecommunications and computer technology industries have been requiring higher communications speeds at all levels for devices, components and interconnected systems. Optical devices and optical interconnections are a viable alternative over other traditional technologies such as copper-based interconnections. Latency reductions can be achieved through the use of optical interconnections. Currently, a particular architecture for optical interconnections is being studied at the University of Colorado at Boulder in the EMT/NANO project, called Broadcast Optical Interconnects for Global Communication in Many-Core Chip Multiprocessor. As with most types of networks, including optical networks, one of the most important components are modulators. Therefore adequate design and fabrication techniques for modulators contribute to higher modulation rates which lead to improve the efficiency and reductions in the latency of the optical network. Electro-optical modulators are presented in this study as an alternative to achieve this end. In recent years, nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have been used for the fabrication of high-speed electro-optical modulators. Polymers doped with chromophores are an alternative among NLO materials because they can develop large electro-optic coefficients and low dielectric constants. These two factors are critical for achieving high-speed modulation rates. These polymer-based electro-optical modulators can be fabricated using standard laboratory techniques, such as polymer spin-coating onto substrates, UV bleaching to achieve a refractive index variation and poling techniques to align the chromophores in cured polymers. The design of the electro-optic modulators require the use of the optical parameters of the materials to be used. Therefore the characterization of these materials is a required previous step. This characterization is performed by the fabrication of chromophores-doped polymer samples and conducting transmission and

  5. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph


    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  6. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye. (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua


    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  7. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    may be possible. Recently, interest has increased in exploring the spatial dimension of light to increase capacity, both in fiber as well as free-space communication channels. The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, carried by Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams have the interesting property that, in theory, an infinite number of OAMs can be transmitted; which due to its inherent orthogonality will not affect each other. Thus, in theory, one can increase the channel capacity arbitrarily. However, in practice, the device dimensions will reduce the number of OAMs used. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical signal processing may play a role in the future development of more efficient optical transmission systems. The hope is that performing signal processing in the optical domain may reduce optical-to-electronic conversion inefficiencies, eliminate bottlenecks and take advantage of the ultrahigh bandwidth inherent in optics. While 40 to 50 Gbit/s electronic components are the peak of commercial technology and 100 Gbit/s capable RF components are still in their infancy, optical signal processing of these high-speed data signals may provide a potential solution. Furthermore, any optical processing system or sub-system must be capable of handling the wide array of data formats and data rates that networks may employ. The work presented in this Ph.D. dissertation attempts at addressing the issue of optical processing for advanced optical modulation formats, and particularly explores the state of the art in increasing the capacity of an optical link by a combination of wavelength/phase/polarization/OAM dimensions of light. Spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing of both coherently and directly detected signals at the 100 Gbit/s Ethernet standard is addressed. The application of a continuously tunable all-optical delay for all-optical functionality like time-slot interchange at high data-rates is presented. Moreover the interplay of chirp

  8. The diagnostic role of high-speed vocal fold vibratory imaging. (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Abie H; Remacle, Marc; Courey, Mark S; Gerhard, Friedrich; Postma, Gregory N


    Although high-speed imaging (HSI) has been identified as a valuable tool in phonatory biomechanics research, to date, there have only been a selected number of reports investigating the clinical utility of HSI. We aim to elucidate the role of HSI in the diagnosis of the dysphonic patient. The video files from 28 consecutive dysphonic patients with concurrently acquired videostroboscopy and HSI were retrospectively collected. Stroboscopy video files were edited to include vibratory motion only. Videos were then anonymously and randomly presented to four academic laryngologists. Experts were asked to assign a single best diagnosis for each video file. Assigned diagnoses were then compared with treatment diagnoses conferred based on medical history, phonatory evaluation, laryngeal examination, and response to treatment. Interrater analysis for the four laryngologists demonstrated significant and meaningful correlations for the diagnoses of polyps, cysts, nodules, and normal examination using stroboscopy (kappa > 0.40, P 0.40, P diagnostic accuracy above stroboscopy alone. Although specific laryngeal states such as presbyphonia may be better diagnosed with HSI, further studies are required to define HSI's precise role in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostics of high-speed liquid lithium jet for IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Horiike, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Matsushita, Izuru


    Regarding R and Ds on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), hydraulic stability of the liquid Li jet simulating the IFMIF Li target is planned to be validated using EVEDA Li Test Loop (ELTL). IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron-lithium (Li) neutron source for research and development of fusion reactor materials. The stable Li target is required in IFMIF to maintain the quality of the neutron fluence and integrity of the Li target itself. This paper presents diagnostics of the Li jet to be implemented in validation tests of the jet stability in ELTL, and those specifications and methodologies are introduced. In the tests, the following physical parameters need to be measured; thickness of the jet; surface structure (height, length/width and frequency of free-surface waves); local flow velocity at the free surface; and Li evaporation rate. With regard to measurement of jet thickness and the surface wave height, a contact-type liquid level sensor is to be used. As for measurement of wave velocity and visual understanding of detailed free-surface structure, a high-speed video camera is to be leveraged. With respect to Li evaporation measurement, weight change of specimens installed near the free surface and frequency change of a crystal quartz are utilized. (author)

  10. Full-field parallel interferometry coherence probe microscope for high-speed optical metrology. (United States)

    Safrani, A; Abdulhalim, I


    Parallel detection of several achromatic phase-shifted images is used to obtain a high-speed, high-resolution, full-field, optical coherence probe tomography system based on polarization interferometry. The high enface imaging speed, short coherence gate, and high lateral resolution provided by the system are exploited to determine microbump height uniformity in an integrated semiconductor chip at 50 frames per second. The technique is demonstrated using the Linnik microscope, although it can be implemented on any polarization-based interference microscopy system.

  11. Ultra high speed framing photographs of laser produced plasmas using a picosecond optical shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, G.B.; Ramsden, S.A.


    A study has been carried out of the spatial transmission properties of the optical Kerr effect shutter and it has been used to take ultra high speed framing photographs of laser produced plasmas in air and from solid targets. With a 1cm long CS 2 cell of aperture 5cm 2 a transmission of approximately 5% and an on/off contrast ratio of 10 4 was obtained. An image intensifier was necessary to obtain adequately exposed photographs of the plasma and the overall spatial resolution of the system was approximately 2μ. (author)

  12. Fabrication and Characterisation of Silicon Waveguides for High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    This Ph.D. thesis treats various aspects of silicon photonics. From the limitations of silicon as a linear and nonlinear waveguide medium to its synergy with other waveguide materials. Various methods for reducing sidewall roughness and line edge roughness of silicon waveguides are attempted...... was too high for any practical applications. It is speculated that the attempt at creating a material with low density of dangling bonds was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, linear losses of 2.4dB/cm at 1550nm wavelength in the silicon waveguides remained sufficiently low that high speed nonlinear optical...

  13. FOCEX: A fiber-optic extender for a high speed parallel RS485 data cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.T.; Anderson, J.T.; Cooper, P.S.; Engelfried, J.; Franzen, J.W.; Forster, B.G.; Levinson, F.; Rawls, J.; Haber, S.


    For longer-distant, high speed data links, optical fibre becomes most cost-effective than copper or other hard wire cable systems. Fermilab supplied to Finisar Corp. of Menlo Park, CA., a set of specifications for card functions, sizes and interconnector pin assignments. Finisar designed and assembled a set of fiber optical P.C. cards using 100 megabyte/sec commercial optoelectronics and a serialization and deserialization HOT-ROD chipset designed by GAZELLE Microcircuits, Inc. (A Tri Quint Semiconductors company). The cooperative effort between Fermilab and Finisar has allowed Fermilab to created a reliable 50 Megabytes/sec (40 bit parallel RS485 DART data bus) cable to cable extender using a virtually invisible Fiber Channel point-to-point(FC-0) fiber optical single-simplex system. The system is easily capable of sustaining a 50 megabytes/sec of data, control and status line throughput at distances of 1625 feet (500 meters) using standard multi-mode fiber

  14. Multiple component codes based generalized LDPC codes for high-speed optical transport. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Wang, Ting


    A class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes suitable for optical communications is proposed, which consists of multiple local codes. It is shown that Hamming, BCH, and Reed-Muller codes can be used as local codes, and that the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding of these local codes by Ashikhmin-Lytsin algorithm is feasible in terms of complexity and performance. We demonstrate that record coding gains can be obtained from properly designed GLDPC codes, derived from multiple component codes. We then show that several recently proposed classes of LDPC codes such as convolutional and spatially-coupled codes can be described using the concept of GLDPC coding, which indicates that the GLDPC coding can be used as a unified platform for advanced FEC enabling ultra-high speed optical transport. The proposed class of GLDPC codes is also suitable for code-rate adaption, to adjust the error correction strength depending on the optical channel conditions.

  15. Diagnostics for liquid dispersion due to a high-speed impact with accident or vulnerability assessment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepsen, Richard A; O'Hern, Timothy; Demosthenous, Byron; Bystrom, Ed; Nissen, Mark; Romero, Edward; Yoon, Sam S


    The high-speed impact and subsequent dispersion of a large liquid slug is of interest for assessing vulnerability of structures when subjected to such an event. The Weber number associated with such liquid impacts is generally between 10 5 and 10 8 . Because of the experiment scale and destructive nature of these high-energy impacts, most traditional diagnostics are difficult to implement. Therefore, unique diagnostics were employed in several tests to gather information on impact force, spreading instability, slug break-up, ejection velocity, droplet deformation and spray characteristics. Measurement techniques discussed here include high-speed photometrics, particle image velocimetry (PIV), TrackEye particle analysis, speckle correlation, single-pass schlieren imaging, phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and load cell measurements as applied to large-scale, high-speed liquid impacts

  16. Diagnostics of high-speed streams and coronal holes using geomagnetic pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakova, O.V.; Troitskaya, V.A.


    In order to study the relations of high-speed solar wind streams and coronal holes analyzed are the parameters of geomagnetic pulsations of the Rs3 type and of high-speed streams at the decrease branch and in the minimum of solar activity. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation regime determined are the differences in characteristics of high-speed stream properties. Presented are the graphical distributions of a number of occurrances of high-speed streams, coronal holes and pure regimes of Rs3R pulsations in several sections of 1973 in the Sun rotations of N1903-1919 and of the change of solar wind velocity while passing through the high-speed streams. It is found that Rs3R occurrance can serve an indicator of the high-speed flux connection with the large equatorial coronal hole. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation properties determined are the differences in the stream characteristics. However the preliminary estimates permit to adopt neither the first nor the second of the existing hypotheses on the sourse of formation of high-speed streams

  17. High speed diagnostics for characterization of oxygen / hydrogen rocket injector flowfields (United States)

    Locke, Justin M.

    Temporally-resolved diagnostics are needed to characterize the highly-turbulent flowfields of rocket engine combustors. Two different high speed diagnostic techniques have been applied successfully to study the combustion and mixing characteristics of single-element shear-coaxial injector flowfield in a rocket combustor. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is applied to make in-situ measurements with combusting gas-gas propellants, and high speed imaging incorporating backlighting is applied to combusting and non-combusting liquid-gas and gas-gas propellants. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to make path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction measurements in a gaseous oxygen / gaseous hydrogen uni-element rocket chamber with hot background flow. Four mixture conditions were studied at a nominal chamber pressure of 115 psia. Near infrared diode lasers were utilized to target rovibrational transitions of water vapor, which is created through the combustion processes. Both direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic (1f-normalized WMS-2 f) techniques were applied, with the harmonic detection technique found to yield the best results. Centerline measurements were made at two axial locations, in the near-injector region and far-field region further downstream. Time-resolved measurements of temperature and H2O mole fraction in the rocket chamber are presented. The TDLAS measurements shows clear differences between the near-injector and downstream measurement locations. Mean path-integrated temperatures and H2O mole fractions in the near-injector region are lower than the downstream measurement location. Fluctuations in path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction in the downstream location are significantly greater than the near-injector region. This suggests increased turbulence and larger-scale mixing processes are occurring in the downstream


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav A. Loparev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with fiber-optical cable winding methods for realization of fiber-optic communication line with high-speed object. We consider possible options of coils for optical cable winding providing mobility of one of the cable ends on an object. It is shown that the choice of a winding process is caused by the need of ensuring the minimum deformation of fiber-optical micro cable in case of separation from a winding body. It is revealed that the minimum tension value and its unevenness are observed when reeling from coils with a rocket form. Design ratios for determination of winding parameters are given. It is shown that reduction of tension unevenness reduces the jumps of internal tension and probability of break and emergence of optical signal local attenuation. Decrease in internal stresses occurs due to the absence of overlapping of the coils of the underlying layers with the overlying ones. To confirm the operability and the possibility of constructive implementation of the selected winding scheme, experiments were carried out to perform rocket and other types of winding with the use of a specially designed machine model. It is shown that the application of line rocket winding enables to achieve stability when reeling a cable during the movement and excludes breaks. Attenuation of optical signal decreases due to the increase in the bend minimum radius. This phenomenon is explained by reduction of the internal stresses causing optical signal attenuation in the place of cable separation from the coil.

  19. Advanced Modular, Multi-Channel, High Speed Fiber Optic Sensing System for Acoustic Emissions Monitoring, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to prove the feasibility of innovations based on ultra-light-weight, ultra-high-speed, multi-channel,...

  20. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  1. In-plane deeply-etched optical MEMS notch filter with high-speed tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Yasser M; Eltagoury, Yomna M; Shebl, Ahmed; Khalil, Diaa; Soliman, Mostafa; Sadek, Mohamed


    Notch filters are used in spectroscopy, multi-photon microscopy, fluorescence instrumentation, optical sensors and other life science applications. One type of notch filter is based on a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot cavity, which is formed by a reflector (external mirror) facing a dielectric-coated end of an optical fiber. Tailoring this kind of optical filter for different applications is possible because the external mirror has fewer mechanical and optical constraints. In this paper we present optical modeling and implementation of a fiber-coupled Fabry–Pérot filter based on dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a micromachined fiber groove facing a metallized micromirror, which is driven by a high-speed MEMS actuator. The optical MEMS chip is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology on a silicon on insulator wafer, where the optical axis is parallel to the substrate (in-plane) and the optical/mechanical components are self-aligned by the photolithographic process. The DRIE etching depth is 150 μm, chosen to increase the micromirror optical throughput and improving the out-of-plane stiffness of the MEMS actuator. The MEMS actuator type is closing-gap, while its quality factor is almost doubled by slotting the fixed plate. A low-finesse Fabry–Pérot interferometer is formed by the metallized surface of the micromirror and a cleaved end of a standard single-mode fiber, for characterization of the MEMS actuator stroke and resonance frequency. The actuator achieves a travel distance of 800 nm at a resonance frequency of 89.9 kHz. The notch filter characteristics were measured using an optical spectrum analyzer, and the filter exhibits a free spectral range up to 100 nm and a notch rejection ratio up to 20 dB around a wavelength of 1300 nm. The presented device provides batch processing and low-cost production of the filter. (paper)

  2. Experimental investigation by laser ultrasonics for high speed train axle diagnostics. (United States)

    Cavuto, A; Martarelli, M; Pandarese, G; Revel, G M; Tomasini, E P


    The present paper demonstrates the applicability of a laser-ultrasonic procedure to improve the performances of train axle ultrasonic inspection. The method exploits an air-coupled ultrasonic probe that detects the ultrasonic waves generated by a high-power pulsed laser. As a result, the measurement chain is completely non-contact, from generation to detection, this making it possible to considerably speed up inspection time and make the set-up more flexible. The main advantage of the technique developed is that it works in thermo-elastic regime and it therefore can be considered as a non-destructive method. The laser-ultrasonic procedure investigated has been applied for the inspection of a real high speed train axle provided by the Italian railway company (Trenitalia), on which typical fatigue defects have been expressly created according to standard specifications. A dedicated test bench has been developed so as to rotate the axle with the angle control and to speed up the inspection of the axle surface. The laser-ultrasonic procedure proposed can be automated and is potentially suitable for regular inspection of train axles. The main achievements of the activity described in this paper are: – the study of the effective applicability of laser-ultrasonics for the diagnostic of train hollow axles with variable sections by means of a numerical FE model, – the carrying out of an automated experiment on a real train axle, – the analysis of the sensitivity to experimental parameters, like laser source – receiving probe distance and receiving probe angular position, – the demonstration that the technique is suitable for the detection of surface defects purposely created on the train axle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fault-tolerance techniques for high-speed fiber-optic networks (United States)

    Deruiter, John


    Four fiber optic network topologies (linear bus, ring, central star, and distributed star) are discussed relative to their application to high data throughput, fault tolerant networks. The topologies are also examined in terms of redundancy and the need to provide for single point, failure free (or better) system operation. Linear bus topology, although traditionally the method of choice for wire systems, presents implementation problems when larger fiber optic systems are considered. Ring topology works well for high speed systems when coupled with a token passing protocol, but it requires a significant increase in protocol complexity to manage system reconfiguration due to ring and node failures. Star topologies offer a natural fault tolerance, without added protocol complexity, while still providing high data throughput capability.

  4. High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Nanou


    Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.

  5. Electro-optical system for the high speed reconstruction of computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresp, V.


    An electro-optical system for the high-speed reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images has been built and studied. The system is capable of reconstructing high-contrast and high-resolution images at video rate (30 images per second), which is more than two orders of magnitude faster than the reconstruction rate achieved by special purpose digital computers used in commercial CT systems. The filtered back-projection algorithm which was implemented in the reconstruction system requires the filtering of all projections with a prescribed filter function. A space-integrating acousto-optical convolver, a surface acoustic wave filter and a digital finite-impulse response filter were used for this purpose and their performances were compared. The second part of the reconstruction, the back projection of the filtered projections, is computationally very expensive. An optical back projector has been built which maps the filtered projections onto the two-dimensional image space using an anamorphic lens system and a prism image rotator. The reconstructed image is viewed by a video camera, routed through a real-time image-enhancement system, and displayed on a TV monitor. The system reconstructs parallel-beam projection data, and in a modified version, is also capable of reconstructing fan-beam projection data. This extension is important since the latter are the kind of projection data actually acquired in high-speed X-ray CT scanners. The reconstruction system was tested by reconstructing precomputed projection data of phantom images. These were stored in a special purpose projection memory and transmitted to the reconstruction system as an electronic signal. In this way, a projection measurement system that acquires projections sequentially was simulated

  6. High speed optical wireless data transmission system for particle sensors in high energy physics (United States)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.


    High speed optical fiber or copper wire communication systems are frequently deployed for readout data links used in particle physics detectors. Future detector upgrades will need more bandwidth for data transfer, but routing requirements for new cables or optical fiber will be challenging due to space limitations. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can provide high bandwidth connectivity with an advantage of reduced material budget and complexity of cable installation and management. In a collaborative effort, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and INFN Pisa are pursuing the development of a free-space optical link that could be installed in a future particle physics detector or upgrade. We describe initial studies of an OWC link using the inner tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as a reference architecture. The results of two experiments are described: the first to verify that the laser source transmission wavelength of 1550 nm will not introduce fake signals in silicon strip sensors while the second was to study the source beam diameter and its tolerance to misalignment. For data rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s over a 10 cm working distance it was observed that a tolerance limit of ±0.25 mm to ±0.8 mm can be obtained for misaligned systems with source beam diameters of 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, respectively.

  7. High-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography using non-uniform fast Fourier transform (United States)

    Chan, Kenny K. H.; Tang, Shuo


    The useful imaging range in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is often limited by the depth dependent sensitivity fall-off. Processing SD-OCT data with the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) can improve the sensitivity fall-off at maximum depth by greater than 5dB concurrently with a 30 fold decrease in processing time compared to the fast Fourier transform with cubic spline interpolation method. NFFT can also improve local signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce image artifacts introduced in post-processing. Combined with parallel processing, NFFT is shown to have the ability to process up to 90k A-lines per second. High-speed SD-OCT imaging is demonstrated at camera-limited 100 frames per second on an ex-vivo squid eye. PMID:21258551

  8. On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for ultra-high-speed optical transmission. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting


    We propose two reduced-complexity (RC) LDPC decoders, which can be used in combination with large-girth LDPC codes to enable ultra-high-speed serial optical transmission. We show that optimally attenuated RC min-sum sum algorithm performs only 0.46 dB (at BER of 10(-9)) worse than conventional sum-product algorithm, while having lower storage memory requirements and much lower latency. We further study the use of RC LDPC decoding algorithms in multilevel coded modulation with coherent detection and show that with RC decoding algorithms we can achieve the net coding gain larger than 11 dB at BERs below 10(-9).

  9. High-speed carrier-depletion silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulators with lateral PN junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Trevor Reed


    Full Text Available This paper presents new experimental data from a lateral PN junction silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator. Efficiencies in the to range are demonstrated for drive voltages between 0V and 6V. High speed operation up to 52Gbit/s is also presented. The performance of the device which has its PN junction positioned in the centre of the waveguide is then compared to previously reported data from a lateral PN junction device with the junction self-aligned to the edge of the waveguide rib. An improvement in modulation efficiency is demonstrated when the junction is positioned in the centre of the waveguide. Finally we propose schemes for achieving high modulation efficiency whilst retaining self-aligned formation of the PN junction.

  10. Secure Communications in High Speed Fiber Optical Networks Using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I; Bond, S; Welty, R; Du, Y; Yoo, S; Reinhardt, C; Behymer, E; Sperry, V; Kobayashi, N


    This project is focused on the development of advanced components and system technologies for secure data transmission on high-speed fiber optic data systems. This work capitalizes on (1) a strong relationship with outstanding faculty at the University of California-Davis who are experts in high speed fiber-optic networks, (2) the realization that code division multiple access (CDMA) is emerging as a bandwidth enhancing technique for fiber optic networks, (3) the realization that CDMA of sufficient complexity forms the basis for almost unbreakable one-time key transmissions, (4) our concepts for superior components for implementing CDMA, (5) our expertise in semiconductor device processing and (6) our Center for Nano and Microtechnology, which is where the majority of the experimental work was done. Here we present a novel device concept, which will push the limits of current technology, and will simultaneously solve system implementation issues by investigating new state-of-the-art fiber technologies. This will enable the development of secure communication systems for the transmission and reception of messages on deployed commercial fiber optic networks, through the CDMA phase encoding of broad bandwidth pulses. CDMA technology has been developed as a multiplexing technology, much like wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or time division multiplexing (TDM), to increase the potential number of users on a given communication link. A novel application of the techniques created for CDMA is to generate secure communication through physical layer encoding. Physical layer encoding devices are developed which utilize semiconductor waveguides with fast carrier response times to phase encode spectral components of a secure signal. Current commercial technology, most commonly a spatial light modulator, allows phase codes to be changed at rates of only 10's of Hertz ({approx}25ms response). The use of fast (picosecond to nanosecond) carrier dynamics of semiconductors

  11. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing. (United States)

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N


    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling.

  12. Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, Lucky; Rupanshi,; Chaubey, V. K.


    This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.

  13. Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharan, Lucky, E-mail:; Rupanshi,, E-mail:; Chaubey, V. K., E-mail: [EEE Department, BITS-Pilani, Rajasthan, 333031 (India)


    This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.

  14. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar (United States)

    Suckow, Will; Roberts, Tony; Switzer, Gregg; Terwilliger, Chelle


    Current fiber switch technologies use mechanical means to redirect light beams, resulting in slow switch time, as well as poor reliability due to moving parts wearing out quickly at high speeds. A non-mechanical ability to switch laser output into one of multiple fibers within a fiber array can provide significant power, weight, and costs savings to an all-fiber system. This invention uses an array of crystals that act as miniature prisms to redirect light as an electric voltage changes the prism s properties. At the heart of the electro-optic fiber-optic switch is an electro- optic crystal patterned with tiny prisms that can deflect the beam from the input fiber into any one of the receiving fibers arranged in a linear array when a voltage is applied across the crystal. Prism boundaries are defined by a net dipole moment in the crystal lattice that has been poled opposite to the surrounding lattice fabricated using patterned, removable microelectrodes. When a voltage is applied across the crystal, the resulting electric field changes the index of refraction within the prism boundaries relative to the surrounding substrate, causing light to deflect slightly according to Snell s Law. There are several materials that can host the necessary monolithic poled pattern (including, but not limited to, SLT, KTP, LiNbO3, and Mg:LiNbO3). Be cause this is a solid-state system without moving parts, it is very fast, and does not wear down easily. This invention is applicable to all fiber networks, as well as industries that use such networks. The unit comes in a compact package, can handle both low and high voltages, and has a high reliability (100,000 hours without maintenance).

  15. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION: Simulation of autosoliton optical pulses in high-speed fibreoptic communication systems (United States)

    Latkin, A. I.


    The propagation of a pulse in a fibreoptic communication link with periodically included regenerators — nonlinear optical loop mirrors, is studied. The autosoliton propagation regime of the optical pulse is revealed. It is shown that the inclusion of a ring mirror to the communication link leads to a substantial increase in the transmission distance of the pulse at a small negative average dispersion in the link.

  16. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method (United States)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic


    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  17. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny


    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  18. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed. (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David


    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  19. Assessing trophic linkages in and around offshore wind farms using two high-speed optical sensors (United States)

    Dudeck, Tim; Hufnagl, Marc; Auch, Dominik; Eckhardt, André; Möller, Klas-Ove; van Beusekom, Justus; Walter, Bettina; Möllmann, Christian; Floeter, Jens


    In search for clean, renewable energy sources European countries have built and planned numerous Offshore Wind Farms (OWF) in the North Sea region. While some research has been carried out on their influence on marine mammals and bottom-dwelling organisms, less is known about fish and lower trophic levels in these areas. Yet, marine mammals purposely seek these structures and there are indications that there are higher chances of fish encounters. However, the local bottom-up effects probably driving these aggregations of higher trophic level organisms are poorly understood. In this study we show preliminary results of primary and secondary production in and around German OWFs in the North Sea using a Laser Optical Particle Counter and a Video Plankton Recorder. With the two sensors working simultaneously on the TRIAXUS system at high speed, we were able to investigate and ground-truth size-spectrum changes on a very high spatial resolution making it possible to detect OWF effects from local to larger scales. Our results show new possibilities in OWF research and the necessity to collect highly resolved field data for meaningful results in these dynamic environments. Furthermore, the use of size spectra simplifies the integration of energy flow through low and medium trophic levels into biogeochemical models by using only a single automatically measurable variable such as size.

  20. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward. (United States)

    Prevedel, Robert; Walther, Philip; Tiefenbacher, Felix; Böhi, Pascal; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton


    As information carriers in quantum computing, photonic qubits have the advantage of undergoing negligible decoherence. However, the absence of any significant photon-photon interaction is problematic for the realization of non-trivial two-qubit gates. One solution is to introduce an effective nonlinearity by measurements resulting in probabilistic gate operations. In one-way quantum computation, the random quantum measurement error can be overcome by applying a feed-forward technique, such that the future measurement basis depends on earlier measurement results. This technique is crucial for achieving deterministic quantum computation once a cluster state (the highly entangled multiparticle state on which one-way quantum computation is based) is prepared. Here we realize a concatenated scheme of measurement and active feed-forward in a one-way quantum computing experiment. We demonstrate that, for a perfect cluster state and no photon loss, our quantum computation scheme would operate with good fidelity and that our feed-forward components function with very high speed and low error for detected photons. With present technology, the individual computational step (in our case the individual feed-forward cycle) can be operated in less than 150 ns using electro-optical modulators. This is an important result for the future development of one-way quantum computers, whose large-scale implementation will depend on advances in the production and detection of the required highly entangled cluster states.

  1. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David


    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  2. ImNet: a fiber optic network with multistar topology for high-speed data transmission (United States)

    Vossebuerger, F.; Keizers, Andreas; Soederman, N.; Meyer-Ebrecht, Dietrich


    ImNet is a fiber-optic local area network, which has been developed for high speed image communication in Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). A comprehensive analysis of image communication requirements in hospitals led to the conclusion that there is a need for networks which are optimized for the transmission of large datafiles. ImNet is optimized for this application in contrast to current-state LANs. ImNet consists of two elements: a link module and a switch module. The point-to-point link module can be up to 4 km by using fiber optic cable. For short distances up to 100 m a cheaper module using shielded twisted pair cable is available. The link module works bi-directionally and handles all protocols up to OSI-Level 3. The data rate per link is up to 140 MBit/s (clock rate 175 MHz). The switch module consists of the control unit and the cross-point-switch array. The array has up to fourteen interfaces for link modules. Up to fourteen data transfers each with a maximal transfer rate of 400 MBit/s can be handled at the same time. Thereby the maximal throughput of a switch module is 5.6 GBit/s. Out of these modules a multi-star network can be built i.e., an arbitrary tree structure of stars. This topology allows multiple transmissions at the same time as long as they do not require identical links. Therefore the overall throughput of ImNet can be a multiple of the datarate per link.

  3. Optical Flow-Field Techniques Used for Measurements in High-Speed Centrifugal Compressors (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J.


    The overall performance of a centrifugal compressor depends on the performance of the impeller and diffuser as well as on the interactions occurring between these components. Accurate measurements of the flow fields in each component are needed to develop computational models that can be used in compressor design codes. These measurements must be made simultaneously over an area that covers both components so that researchers can understand the interactions occurring between the two components. Optical measurement techniques are being used at the NASA Lewis Research Center to measure the velocity fields present in both the impeller and diffuser of a 4:1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor operating at several conditions ranging from design flow to surge. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure the intrablade flows present in the impeller, and the results were compared with analyses obtained from two three-dimensional viscous codes. The development of a region of low throughflow velocity fluid within this high-speed impeller was examined and compared with a similar region first observed in a large low-speed centrifugal impeller at Lewis. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a relatively new technique that has been applied to measuring the diffuser flow fields. PIV can collect data rapidly in the diffuser while avoiding the light-reflection problems that are often encountered when LDV is used. The Particle Image Velocimeter employs a sheet of pulsed laser light that is introduced into the diffuser in a quasi-radial direction through an optical probe inserted near the diffuser discharge. The light sheet is positioned such that its centerline is parallel to the hub and shroud surfaces and such that it is parallel to the diffuser vane, thereby avoiding reflections from the solid surfaces. Seed particles small enough to follow the diffuser flow are introduced into the compressor at an upstream location. A high-speed charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera is

  4. Progress Towards High-Speed Operation of the Magnetorotational Instability Experiment and Diagnostic Development (United States)

    Gilson, E. P.; Caspary, K.; Choi, D.; Ebrahimi, F.; Goodman, J.; Ji, H.; Lysandrou, M.; Sloboda, P.; Tabbutt, M.


    Estimates and simulations both suggest that the Princeton MRI experiment must operate with inner cylinder rotation rates > 1,500 rpm, corresponding to magnetic Reynolds numbers Rm > 3 , in order for the flow to be unstable to the MRI. Results will be presented demonstrating progress towards high-speed operation while avoiding adverse effects from large dynamic pressure and heat. Recent studies show that conductive end caps increase the magnitude of the saturated MRI signal, enabling easier detection. However, motor control feedback and pneumatically-driven brakes must be used to maintain control when forces arise from the interaction between induced currents in the rotating end caps and the 3,000 G applied magnetic field. The use of Hall probes and strain gauges to measure the azimuthal magnetic field and the torque at the inner cylinder will be discussed. Results from the Spectral Finite Element and Navier Stokes code have been used to better understand the expected shape of the MRI threshold curve with conducting end caps, the nature of the forces on the end caps, and to predict the magnetic fields and torques at the inner cylinder that result from the onset of the MRI.

  5. Optically controlled polarizer using a ladder transition for high speed Stokesmetric Imaging and Quantum Zeno Effect based optical logic. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Subramanian; Wang, Y; Tu, Y; Tseng, S; Shahriar, M S


    We demonstrate an optically controlled polarizer at ~1323 nm using a ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the 5S(1/2),F = 1->5P(1/2),F = 1,2->6S(1/2),F = 1,2 transitions is excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser locked to a saturated absorption signal, representing the control beam. A tunable fiber laser at ~1323 nm is used to excite the upper leg of the transitions, representing the signal beam. When the control beam is linearly polarized, it produces an excitation of the intermediate level with a particular orientation of the angular momentum. Under ideal conditions, this orientation is transparent to the signal beam if it has the same polarization as the control beam and is absorbed when it is polarized orthogonally. We also present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, and identify means to improve the performance of the polarizer. A novel algorithm to compute the evolution of large scale quantum system enabled us to perform this computation, which may have been considered too cumbersome to carry out previously. We describe how such a polarizer may serve as a key component for high-speed Stokesmetric imaging. We also show how such a polarizer, combined with an optically controlled waveplate, recently demonstrated by us, can be used to realize a high speed optical logic gate by making use of the Quantum Zeno Effect. Finally, we describe how such a logic gate can be realized at an ultra-low power level using a tapered nanofiber embedded in a vapor cell.

  6. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.


    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  7. Simultaneous observation of cavitation bubbles generated in biological tissue by high-speed optical and acoustic imaging methods (United States)

    Suzuki, Kai; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro


    Acoustic cavitation bubbles are useful for enhancing the heating effect in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. Many studies were conducted to investigate the behavior of such bubbles in tissue-mimicking materials, such as a transparent gel phantom; however, the detailed behavior in tissue was still unclear owing to the difficulty in optical observation. In this study, a new biological phantom was developed to observe cavitation bubbles generated in an optically shallow area of tissue. Two imaging methods, high-speed photography using light scattering and high-speed ultrasonic imaging, were used for detecting the behavior of the bubbles simultaneously. The results agreed well with each other for the area of bubble formation and the temporal change in the region of bubbles, suggesting that both methods are useful for visualizing the bubbles.

  8. Comparative study on stained InGaAs quantum wells for high-speed optical-interconnect VCSELs (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jia, Xiaowei


    The gain-carrier characteristics of InGaAs quantum well for 980 nm high-speed, energy-efficient vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are investigated. We specially studied the potentially InGaAs quantum well designs can be used for the active region of energy-efficient, temperature-stable 980-nm VCSEL, which introduced a quantum well gain peak wavelength-to-cavity resonance wavelength offset to improve the dynamic performance at high operation temperature. Several candidate quantum wells are being compared in theory and measurement. We found that ∼5 nm InGaAs QW with ∼6 nm barrier thickness is suitable for the active region of high-speed optical interconnect 980 nm VCSELs, and no significant improvement in the 20% range of In content of InGaAs QWs. The results are useful for next generation green photonic device design.

  9. A study on high speed wavefront control algorithm for an adaptive optics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Seo, Young Seok


    We developed a high speed control algorithm and system for measuring and correcting the wavefront distortions based on Windows operating system. To get quickly the information of wavefront distortion from the Hartman spot image, we preprocessed the image to remove background noises and extracted the centroid position by finding the center of weights. We moved finely the centroid position with sub-pixel resolution repeatedly to get the wavefront information with more enhanced resolution. We designed a differential data communication driver and an isolated analog driver to have robust system control. As the experimental results, the measurement resolution of the wavefront was 0.05 pixels and correction speed was 5Hz

  10. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II effort will develop a 1 x 10 prototype non-mechanical fiber optic switch for use with high power lasers. The proposed optical device is a...

  11. Effects of fourth-order dispersion in very high-speed optical time-division multiplexed transmission. (United States)

    Capmany, J; Pastor, D; Sales, S; Ortega, B


    We present a closed-form expression for computation of the output pulse's rms time width in an optical fiber link with up to fourth-order dispersion (FOD) by use of an optical source with arbitrary linewidth and chirp parameters. We then specialize the expression to analyze the effect of FOD on the transmission of very high-speed linear optical time-division multiplexing systems. By suitable source chirping, FOD can be compensated for to an upper link-length limit above which other techniques must be employed. Finally, a design formula to estimate the maximum attainable bit rate limited by FOD as a function of the link length is also presented.

  12. Simulation of autosoliton optical pulses in high-speed fibreoptic communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkin, A I


    The propagation of a pulse in a fibreoptic communication link with periodically included regenerators - nonlinear optical loop mirrors, is studied. The autosoliton propagation regime of the optical pulse is revealed. It is shown that the inclusion of a ring mirror to the communication link leads to a substantial increase in the transmission distance of the pulse at a small negative average dispersion in the link. (optical communication)

  13. Comparison of microrings and microdisks for high-speed optical modulation in silicon photonics (United States)

    Ying, Zhoufeng; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Zheng; Dhar, Shounak; Pan, David Z.; Soref, Richard; Chen, Ray T.


    The past several decades have witnessed the gradual transition from electrical to optical interconnects, ranging from long-haul telecommunication to chip-to-chip interconnects. As one type of key component in integrated optical interconnect and high-performance computing, optical modulators have been well developed these past few years, including ultrahigh-speed microring and microdisk modulators. In this paper, a comparison between microring and microdisk modulators is well analyzed in terms of dimensions, static and dynamic power consumption, and fabrication tolerance. The results show that microdisks have advantages over microrings in these aspects, which gives instructions to the chip design of high-density integrated systems for optical interconnects and optical computing.

  14. Purification of optical imaging ligand-Cybesin by high-speed counter-current chromatography (United States)

    Ma, Zhiyong; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xilin; Ye, Yunpeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ito, Yoichiro


    Fluorescent Cybesin (Cypate-Bombesin Peptide Analogue Conjugate) was synthesized from Indocyanine Green (ICG) and the bombesin receptor ligand as a contrast agent for detecting pancreas tumors. However, the LC–MS analysis indicated that the target compound was only a minor component in the reaction mixture. Since preparative HPLC can hardly separate such a small amount of the target compound directly from the original crude reaction mixture without a considerable adsorptive loss onto the solid support, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for purification since the method uses no solid support and promises high sample recovery. A suitable two-phase solvent system composed of hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/methyl t.-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water) at a volume ratio of 1:1:1:4:4:7 was selected based on the partition coefficient of Cybesin (K ≈ 0.9) determined by LC–MS. The separation was performed in two steps using the same solvent system with lower aqueous mobile phase. From 400 mg of the crude reaction mixture the first separation yielded 7.7 mg of fractions containing the target compound at 12.8% purity, and in the second run 1 mg of Cybesin was obtained at purity of 94.0% with a sample recovery rate of over 95% based on the LC–MS Analysis. PMID:20933483

  15. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab


    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  16. High-speed asynchronous optical sampling for high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekorsy, T; Taubert, R; Hudert, F; Schrenk, G; Bartels, A; Cerna, R; Kotaidis, V; Plech, A; Koehler, K; Schmitz, J; Wagner, J


    A new optical pump-probe technique is implemented for the investigation of coherent acoustic phonon dynamics in the GHz to THz frequency range which is based on two asynchronously linked femtosecond lasers. Asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) provides the performance of on all-optical oscilloscope and allows us to record optically induced lattice dynamics over nanosecond times with femtosecond resolution at scan rates of 10 kHz without any moving part in the set-up. Within 1 minute of data acquisition time signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 7 are achieved. We present examples of the high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons in superlattices and of the coherent acoustic vibration of metallic nanoparticles

  17. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed optical device is a fiber-based multi-channel switch to quickly switch a fiber-coupled laser among many possible output channels to create a fiber-based...

  18. High-Speed Chaos in an Optical Feedback System with Flexible Timescales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blakely, Jonathan


    We describe a new optoelectronic device with timedelayed feedback that uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as passive nonlinearity and a semiconductor laser as a current-to-optical frequency converter...

  19. Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael


    This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....

  20. High-Speed Optical Wide-Area Data-Communication Network (United States)

    Monacos, Steve P.


    Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.

  1. Quantitative assessment of rat corneal thickness and morphology during stem cell therapy by high-speed optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Lal, Cerine; McGrath, James; Subhash, Hrebesh; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Leahy, Martin


    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive 3 dimensional optical imaging modality that enables high resolution cross sectional imaging in biological tissues and materials. Its high axial and lateral resolution combined with high sensitivity, imaging depth and wide field of view makes it suitable for wide variety of high resolution medical imaging applications at clinically relevant speed. With the advent of swept source lasers, the imaging speed of OCT has increased considerably in recent years. OCT has been used in ophthalmology to study dynamic changes occurring in the cornea and iris, thereby providing physiological and pathological changes that occur within the anterior segment structures such as in glaucoma, during refractive surgery, lamellar keratoplasty and corneal diseases. In this study, we assess the changes in corneal thickness in the anterior segment of the eye during wound healing process in a rat corneal burn model following stem cell therapy using high speed swept source OCT.

  2. High Speed and High Spatial Density Parameter Measurement Using Fiber Optic Sensing Technology (United States)

    Parker, Allen R. Jr. (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Hamory, Philip J (Inventor)


    The present invention is an improved fiber optic sensing system (FOSS) having the ability to provide both high spatial resolution and high frequency strain measurements. The inventive hybrid FOSS fiber combines sensors from high acquisition speed and low spatial resolution Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems and from low acquisition speed and high spatial resolution Optical Frequency Domain Reflection (OFDR) systems. Two unique light sources utilizing different wavelengths are coupled with the hybrid FOSS fiber to generate reflected data from both the WDM sensors and OFDR sensors operating on a single fiber optic cable without incurring interference from one another. The two data sets are then de-multiplexed for analysis, optionally with conventionally-available WDM and OFDR system analyzers.

  3. High-speed electro-optic switch with -80 dB crosstalk (United States)

    Pan, J. J.; Su, W. H.; Xu, J. Y.; Grove, C. H.


    Special device modeling, design and layout, and precision processing controls were employed to fabricate new balanced-bridge 2x2 and 4x4 switches on X-cut, Y-propagation LiNbO3 substrate using Ti indiffused optical waveguides. The best of these devices achieved extinction ratio and crosstalk isolation of better than 93 dB electrically (46.5 dB optically). The new switches demonstrate good reproducibility with electrical crosstalk less than -80 dB.

  4. Silicon photonic IC embedded optical-PCB for high-speed interconnect application (United States)

    Kallega, Rakshitha; Nambiar, Siddharth; Kumar, Abhai; Ranganath, Praveen; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar


    Optical-Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an emerging optical interconnect technology to bridge the gap between the board edge and the processing module. The technology so far has been used as a broadband transmitter using polymer waveguides in the PCB. In this paper, we report a Silicon Nitride based photonic IC embedded in the PCB along with the polymers as waveguides in the PCB. The motivation for such integration is to bring routing capability and to reduce the power loss due to broadcasting mode.

  5. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Fan, Chenwu; Gefken, Paul R


    Prediction of rigid body falling through water column with a high speed (such as Mk-84 bomb) needs formulas for drag/lift and torque coefficients, which depend on various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles...

  6. Solutions for ultra-high speed optical wavelength conversion and clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    This paper reports on our recent advances in ultra-fast optical communications relying on ultra-short pulses densely stacked in ultra-high bit rate serial data signals at a single wavelength. The paper describes details in solutions for the network functionalities of wavelength conversion and clock...... recovery at bit rates up to 320 Gb/s...

  7. High speed low power optical detection of sub-wavelength scatterer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S.; Bouwens, M.A.J.; Wei, L.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Walle, P. van der


    Optical detection of scatterers on a flat substrate, generally done using dark field microscopy technique, is challenging since it requires high power illumination to obtain sufficient SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) to be able to detect sub-wavelength particles. We developed a bright field technique,

  8. Noise caused by semiconductor lasers in high-speed fiber-optic links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, C. M.; Stubkjær, Kristian; Olesen, H.


    Theoretical and experimental results are presented for the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio caused by mode partition noise, intensity noise, and reflection-induced noise in optical data links. Under given conditions an additional noise source with a S /N ratio of 20 dB will cause a power penalty of 1 d...

  9. BER Reduction for mQAM High-Speed Tranmission in Optical Fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a software cosimulation environment with VPITransmissionMaker and Matlab software. The simulation results showed that error correcting codes and particularly LDPC codes are effective and provide satisfactory solutions to reduce the BER by fighting against optical transmission channel ...

  10. Starnet, a high-speed fiber optical network for particle physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacilieri, P.; Ghiselli, A.; Caccia, B.; Valentini, S.; Ciaffoni, O.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrer, M.L.; Martini, A.; Pace, E.; Trasatti, L.


    An asynchronous data transmission optical network using single-mode fibers and capable of transmitting frequencies of a few Gbit/s at distances of tens of kilometers is presented. This network (or part of it) is of interest for application in particle physics. (orig.)

  11. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Ragheb, Amr; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim


    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  12. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah


    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  13. Fiber-Coupled Wide Field of View Optical Receiver for High Speed Space Communication (United States)

    Suddath, Shannon N.

    Research groups at NASA Glenn Research Center are interested in improving data rates on the International Space Station (ISS) using a free-space optical (FSO) link. However, known flexure of the ISS structure is expected to cause misalignment of the FSO link. Passive-control designs for mitigating misalignment are under investigation, including using a fiber-bundle for improved field of view. The designs must overcome the obstacle of coupling directly to fiber, rather than a photodetector, as NASA will maintain the use of small form-factor pluggable optical transceivers (SFPs) in the ISS network. In this thesis, a bundle-based receiver capable of coupling directly to fiber is designed, simulated, and tested in lab. Two 3-lens systems were evaluated for power performance in the lab, one with a 20 mm focal length aspheric lens and the other with a 50 mm focal length aspheric lens. The maximum output power achieved was 8 muW.

  14. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.


    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  15. Optimised dispersion management and modulation formats for high speed optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokle, Torger


    both narrow spectral width and good transmission properties. The cost of an optical communication system can be lowered by using longer span lengths to reduce the number of amplifier stations. We experimentally study optimum dispersion compensation schemes for systems with 160 km fibre spans made...... modulated signals. In summary, we show that dispersion management using recently developed fibres in combination with advanced modulation formats significantly improves the transmission performance compared to traditional systems. Multi-level phase modulation is demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit......This thesis studies dispersion management and modulation formats for optical communication systems using per channel bit rates at and above 10 Gbit/s. Novel modulation formats—including recently proposed multilevel phase modulation—are investigated and demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit/s. New...

  16. Ultra high speed optical transmission using subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC-coded modulation. (United States)

    Batshon, Hussam G; Djordjevic, Ivan; Schmidt, Ted


    We propose a subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC bit-interleaved coded modulation scheme that is capable of achieving beyond 480 Gb/s single-channel transmission rate over optical channels. Subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC coded modulation scheme outperforms the corresponding dual polarization schemes by up to 4.6 dB in OSNR at BER 10(-8).

  17. Design of a compact high-speed optical modulator based on a hybrid plasmonic nanobeam cavity (United States)

    Javid, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Mehdi; Zarifkar, Abbas


    A hybrid plasmonic electro-optic modulator based on a polymer-filled one dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam (1D PhCNB) cavity is proposed here. In the proposed structure the optical intensity modulation is realized by shifting the resonant wavelength of the cavity through electrically tuning the refractive index of the electro-optic polymer in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide. As a result of the subwavelength light confinement in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide and the compact footprint of the 1D PhCNB cavity, the designed modulator has the small overall footprint of 3 . 6 μm2 and the required wavelength shift can be achieved by applying very small actuating power. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations show that the modulation depth of 10.9 dB, and insertion loss of 1.14 dB, along with very high modulation speed of 224 GHz can be achieved in the proposed modulator with very low modulation energy of 0.75 fJ/bit. A comparison between the performance parameters of the proposed modulator and those of previously reported PhCNB based modulators reveals the superior performance of the proposed structure in terms of modulation speed, energy consumption and overall footprint.

  18. Three-dimensional optical reconstruction of vocal fold kinematics using high-speed video with a laser projection system (United States)

    Luegmair, Georg; Mehta, Daryush D.; Kobler, James B.; Döllinger, Michael


    Vocal fold kinematics and its interaction with aerodynamic characteristics play a primary role in acoustic sound production of the human voice. Investigating the temporal details of these kinematics using high-speed videoendoscopic imaging techniques has proven challenging in part due to the limitations of quantifying complex vocal fold vibratory behavior using only two spatial dimensions. Thus, we propose an optical method of reconstructing the superior vocal fold surface in three spatial dimensions using a high-speed video camera and laser projection system. Using stereo-triangulation principles, we extend the camera-laser projector method and present an efficient image processing workflow to generate the three-dimensional vocal fold surfaces during phonation captured at 4000 frames per second. Initial results are provided for airflow-driven vibration of an ex vivo vocal fold model in which at least 75% of visible laser points contributed to the reconstructed surface. The method captures the vertical motion of the vocal folds at a high accuracy to allow for the computation of three-dimensional mucosal wave features such as vibratory amplitude, velocity, and asymmetry. PMID:26087485

  19. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser (United States)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.


    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  20. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    With decreasing transistor size, increasing chip speed, and larger numbers of processors in a system, the performance of a module/system is being limited by the off-chip and off-module bandwidth-distance products. Optical links have moved from fiber-based long distance communications to the cabinet level of 1m--100m, and recently to the backplane-level (10cm--1m). Board-level inter-chip parallel optical interconnects have been demonstrated recently by researchers from Intel, IBM, Fujitsu, NTT and a few research groups in universities. However, the board-level signal/clock distribution function using optical interconnects, the lightwave circuits, the system design, a practically convenient integration scheme committed to the implementation of a system prototype have not been explored or carefully investigated. In this dissertation, the development of a board-level 1 x 4 optical-to-electrical signal distribution at 10Gb/s is presented. In contrast to other prototypes demonstrating board-level parallel optical interconnects that have been drawing much attention for the past decade, the optical link design for the high-speed signal broadcasting is even more complicated and the pitch between receivers could be varying as opposed to fixed-pitch design that has been widely-used in the parallel optical interconnects. New challenges for the board-level high-speed signal broadcasting include, but are not limited to, a new optical link design, a lightwave circuit as a distribution network, and a novel integration scheme that can be a complete radical departure from the traditional assembly method. One of the key building blocks in the lightwave circuit is the distribution network in which a 1 x 4 multimode interference (MMI) splitter is employed. MMI devices operating at high data rates are important in board-level optical interconnects and need to be characterized in the application of board-level signal broadcasting. To determine the speed limitations of MMI devices, the

  1. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H [Department of Automatic Measurement and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 305, Harbin, 150001 (China)


    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  2. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique (United States)

    Ma, H. P.; Jin, Y. Q.; Ha, Y. W.; Liu, L. H.


    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  3. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H


    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system

  4. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels (United States)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.


    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  5. A high-speed 0.35μm CMOS optical communication link (United States)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Bogalecki, Alfons W.; Alberts, Antonie C.; Rademeyer, Pieter


    The idea of integrating a light emitter and detector in the cost effective and mature technology which is CMOS remains an attractive one. Silicon light emitters, used in avalanche breakdown, are demonstrated to switch at frequencies above 1 GHz whilst still being electrically detected, a three-fold increase on previous reported results. Utilizing novel BEOLstack reflectors and increased array sizes have resulted in an increased power efficiency allowing multi-Mb/s data rates. In this paper we present an all-silicon optical communication link with data rates exceeding 10 Mb/s at a bit error rate of less than 10-12, representing a ten-fold increase over the previous fastest demonstrated silicon data link. Data rates exceeding 40 Mb/s are also presented and evaluated. The quality of the optical link is established using both eye diagram measurements as well as a digital communication system setup. The digital communication system setup comprises the generation of 232-1 random data, 8B/10B encoding and decoding, data recovery and the subsequent bit error counting.

  6. "Cul-de-sac" microstrip resonators for high-speed integrated optical commutator switches (United States)

    Jaeger, Nicolas A.; Chen, Mingche


    A novel microstrip resonator structure for use with integrated Y-branch optical modulators fabricated in Ti:LiNbO3 is proposed. The legs of the structure are intended to act as the electrodes of the modulator, with light being directed into each of the output waveguides of the Y-branch on alternate half-cycles of the standing wave excited in the resonator; forming an optical commutator switch. Such resonators having Al2O3 substrates were designed, fabricated, and tested. Measurements on one such resonator, operating at 7.12 GHz and having an unloaded quality factor of 123, indicating that 50 V should develop across the ends of its legs for 35 mW dissipated power; the corresponding values, from the model used to design the resonator, were 179, 50 V,and 24 mW, respectively. Using the model it is shown that a similar resonator fabricated on LiNbO3 should be able to develop about 50 V for 100 mW dissipated power at 15 GHz.

  7. Blind channel estimation for MLSE receiver in high speed optical communications: theory and ASIC implementation. (United States)

    Gorshtein, Albert; Levy, Omri; Katz, Gilad; Sadot, Dan


    Blind channel estimation is critical for digital signal processing (DSP) compensation of optical fiber communications links. The overall channel consists of deterministic distortions such as chromatic dispersion, as well as random and time varying distortions including polarization mode dispersion and timing jitter. It is critical to obtain robust acquisition and tracking methods for estimating these distortions effects, which, in turn, can be compensated by means of DSP such as Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE). Here, a novel blind estimation algorithm is developed, accompanied by inclusive mathematical modeling, and followed by extensive set of real time experiments that verify quantitatively its performance and convergence. The developed blind channel estimation is used as the basis of an MLSE receiver. The entire scheme is fully implemented in a 65 nm CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Experimental measurements and results are presented, including Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements, which demonstrate the successful data recovery by the MLSE ASIC under various channel conditions and distances.

  8. Performance Evaluation of High Speed Multicarrier System for Optical Wireless Communication (United States)

    Mathur, Harshita; Deepa, T.; Bartalwar, Sophiya


    Optical wireless communication (OWC) in the infrared and visible range is quite impressive solution, especially where radio communication face challenges. Visible light communication (VLC) uses visible light over a range of 400 and 800 THz and is a subdivision of OWC technologies. With an increasing demand for use of wireless communications, wireless access via Wi-Fi is facing many challenges especially in terms of capacity, availability, security and efficiency. VLC uses intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) techniques and hence they require the signals to certainly be real valued positive sequences. These constraints pose limitation on digital modulation techniques. These limitations result in spectrum-efficiency or power-efficiency losses. In this paper, we investigate an amplitude shift keying (ASK) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal transmission scheme using LabVIEW for VLC technology.

  9. A good performance watermarking LDPC code used in high-speed optical fiber communication system (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; He, Wenxue


    A watermarking LDPC code, which is a strategy designed to improve the performance of the traditional LDPC code, was introduced. By inserting some pre-defined watermarking bits into original LDPC code, we can obtain a more correct estimation about the noise level in the fiber channel. Then we use them to modify the probability distribution function (PDF) used in the initial process of belief propagation (BP) decoding algorithm. This algorithm was tested in a 128 Gb/s PDM-DQPSK optical communication system and results showed that the watermarking LDPC code had a better tolerances to polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinearity than that of traditional LDPC code. Also, by losing about 2.4% of redundancy for watermarking bits, the decoding efficiency of the watermarking LDPC code is about twice of the traditional one.

  10. High-speed all-optical logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal. (United States)

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K


    In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter. A maximum product criterion for the noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. The time domain response of the inverter, which explores successful inversion operation at 100 Gb/s, is analyzed. Propagation delay of the inverter is on the order of 5 ps, which is less than the delay in most of the electronic logic families as of today. Overall dimension of the device is around 755  μm ×15  μm, which ensures integration compatibility with the matured silicon industry.

  11. Novel all-optical dispersion monitoring technique for ultra-high-speed WDM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Sheng; Li Li; Liu Deming, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, No.1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China)


    This paper represents a novel all-optical dispersion monitoring technique based on fiber parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). The monitoring method is truly bit-rate transparent because it is enabled by the exponential power transfer function (PTF) provided by the FOPA gain. The slope of the PTF is increased from 2 to 3 by choosing appropriate phase-matching conditions. Due to the steeper PTF the monitoring sensitivity is greatly improved compared to the other PTF-based methods proposed before. The PTF obtained by numerical simulations agrees very well with the experimental results. Numerical simulations are then used to demonstrate that our method can be used to monitor signals in various modulation formats.

  12. Low-cost and high-speed optical mark reader based on an intelligent line camera (United States)

    Hussmann, Stephan; Chan, Leona; Fung, Celine; Albrecht, Martin


    Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is thoroughly reliable and highly efficient provided that high standards are maintained at both the planning and implementation stages. It is necessary to ensure that OMR forms are designed with due attention to data integrity checks, the best use is made of features built into the OMR, used data integrity is checked before the data is processed and data is validated before it is processed. This paper describes the design and implementation of an OMR prototype system for marking multiple-choice tests automatically. Parameter testing is carried out before the platform and the multiple-choice answer sheet has been designed. Position recognition and position verification methods have been developed and implemented in an intelligent line scan camera. The position recognition process is implemented into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), whereas the verification process is implemented into a micro-controller. The verified results are then sent to the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for answers checking and statistical analysis. At the end of the paper the proposed OMR system will be compared with commercially available system on the market.

  13. On the optimum signal constellation design for high-speed optical transport networks. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In this paper, we first describe an optimum signal constellation design algorithm, which is optimum in MMSE-sense, called MMSE-OSCD, for channel capacity achieving source distribution. Secondly, we introduce a feedback channel capacity inspired optimum signal constellation design (FCC-OSCD) to further improve the performance of MMSE-OSCD, inspired by the fact that feedback channel capacity is higher than that of systems without feedback. The constellations obtained by FCC-OSCD are, however, OSNR dependent. The optimization is jointly performed together with regular quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (LDPC) code design. Such obtained coded-modulation scheme, in combination with polarization-multiplexing, is suitable as both 400 Gb/s and multi-Tb/s optical transport enabling technology. Using large girth LDPC code, we demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulations that a 32-ary signal constellation, obtained by FCC-OSCD, outperforms previously proposed optimized 32-ary CIPQ signal constellation by 0.8 dB at BER of 10(-7). On the other hand, the LDPC-coded 16-ary FCC-OSCD outperforms 16-QAM by 1.15 dB at the same BER.

  14. Strain monitoring of a newly developed precast concrete track for high speed railway traffic using embedded fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Crail, Stephanie; Reichel, D.; Schreiner, U.; Lindner, E.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Brandes, K.; Barner, A.; Ecke, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Kerstin


    In a German slab track system (Feste Fahrbahn FF, system Boegl) for speeds up to 300 km/h and more different fiber optic sensors have been embedded in several levels and locations of the track system. The track system consists of prestressed precast panels of steel fiber concrete which are supported by a cat-in-situ concrete or asphalt base course. The sensors are to measure the bond behavior or the stress transfer in the track system. For that, tiny fiber-optic sensors - fiber Fabry-Perot and Bragg grating sensors - have been embedded very near to the interface of the layers. Measurements were taken on a full scale test sample (slab track panel of 6.45 m length) as well as on a real high speed track. The paper describes the measurement task and discusses aspects with regard to sensor design and prefabrication of the sensor frames as well as the embedding procedure into the concrete track. Results from static and dynamic full scale tests carried out in the testing laboratory of BAM and from measurements on a track are given.

  15. High-Speed Semiconductor Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers for Optical Data-Transmission Systems (Review) (United States)

    Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Bobrov, M. A.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.


    The main problems of providing a high-speed operation semiconductor lasers with a vertical microcavity (so-called "vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers") under amplitude modulation and ways to solve them have been considered. The influence of the internal properties of the radiating active region and the electrical parasitic elements of the equivalent circuit of lasers are discussed. An overview of approaches that lead to an increase of the cutoff parasitic frequency, an increase of the differential gain of the active region, the possibility of the management of mode emission composition and the lifetime of photons in the optical microcavities, and reduction of the influence of thermal effects have been presented. The achieved level of modulation bandwidth of ˜30 GHz is close to the maximum achievable for the classical scheme of the direct-current modulation, which makes it necessary to use a multilevel modulation format to further increase the information capacity of optical channels constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  16. High-speed laser diagnostics for the study of flame dynamics in a lean premixed gas turbine model combustor (United States)

    Boxx, Isaac; Arndt, Christoph M.; Carter, Campbell D.; Meier, Wolfgang


    A series of measurements was taken on two technically premixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flames (at overall equivalence ratios of ϕ = 0.73 and 0.83) in an optically accessible gas turbine model combustor. The primary diagnostics used were combined planar laser-induced fluorescence of the OH radical and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) with simultaneous repetition rates of 10 kHz and a measurement duration of 0.8 s. Also measured were acoustic pulsations and OH chemiluminescence. Analysis revealed strong local periodicity in the thermoacoustically self-excited (or ` noisy') flame (ϕ = 0.73) in the regions of the flow corresponding to the inner shear layer and the jet-inflow. This periodicity appears to be the result of a helical precessing vortex core (PVC) present in that region of the combustor. The PVC has a precession frequency double (at 570 Hz) that of the thermo-acoustic pulsation (at 288 Hz). A comparison of the various data sets and analysis techniques applied to each flame suggests a strong coupling between the PVC and the thermo-acoustic pulsation in the noisy flame. Measurements of the stable (` quiet') flame (ϕ = 0.83) revealed a global fluctuation in both velocity and heat-release around 364 Hz, but no clear evidence of a PVC.

  17. Assessment of corneal dynamics with high-speed swept source Optical Coherence Tomography combined with an air puff system (United States)

    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Karnowski, Karol; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J.; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej


    We present a novel method and instrument for in vivo imaging and measurement of the human corneal dynamics during an air puff. The instrument is based on high-speed swept source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) combined with a custom adapted air puff chamber from a non-contact tonometer, which uses an air stream to deform the cornea in a non-invasive manner. During the short period of time that the deformation takes place, the ssOCT acquires multiple A-scans in time (M-scan) at the center of the air puff, allowing observation of the dynamics of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces as well as the anterior lens surface. The dynamics of the measurement are driven by the biomechanical properties of the human eye as well as its intraocular pressure. Thus, the analysis of the M-scan may provide useful information about the biomechanical behavior of the anterior segment during the applanation caused by the air puff. An initial set of controlled clinical experiments are shown to comprehend the performance of the instrument and its potential applicability to further understand the eye biomechanics and intraocular pressure measurements. Limitations and possibilities of the new apparatus are discussed.

  18. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study. (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A


    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  19. Optimization of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped silicon photonic MZMs for high-speed short-reach optical links. (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyu; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Sadeghipour, Khosrov; Scarcella, Carmelo; Eason, Cormac; Rensing, Marc; Power, Mark J; Antony, Cleitus; O'Brien, Peter; Townsend, Paul D; Ossieur, Peter


    We demonstrate how to optimize the performance of PAM-4 transmitters based on lumped Silicon Photonic Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZMs) for short-reach optical links. Firstly, we analyze the trade-off that occurs between extinction ratio and modulation loss when driving an MZM with a voltage swing less than the MZM's Vπ. This is important when driver circuits are realized in deep submicron CMOS process nodes. Next, a driving scheme based upon a switched capacitor approach is proposed to maximize the achievable bandwidth of the combined lumped MZM and CMOS driver chip. This scheme allows the use of lumped MZM for high speed optical links with reduced RF driver power consumption compared to the conventional approach of driving MZMs (with transmission line based electrodes) with a power amplifier. This is critical for upcoming short-reach link standards such as 400Gb/s 802.3 Ethernet. The driver chip was fabricated using a 65nm CMOS technology and flip-chipped on top of the Silicon Photonic chip (fabricated using IMEC's ISIPP25G technology) that contains the MZM. Open eyes with 4dB extinction ratio for a 36Gb/s (18Gbaud) PAM-4 signal are experimentally demonstrated. The electronic driver chip has a core area of only 0.11mm2 and consumes 236mW from 1.2V and 2.4V supply voltages. This corresponds to an energy efficiency of 6.55pJ/bit including Gray encoder and retiming, or 5.37pJ/bit for the driver circuit only.

  20. Ultra-high speed all-optical signal processing using silicon waveguides and a carbon nanotubes based mode-locked laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua

    This thesis concerns the use of nano-engineered silicon waveguides for ultra-high speed optical serial data signal processing. The fundamental nonlinear properties of nano-engineered silicon waveguides are characterized. Utilizing the nonlinear effect in nano-engineered silicon waveguides for dem...

  1. Influence of RZ and NRZ signal format on the high-speed performance of gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina; Wolfson, David; Kloch, Allan


    High-speed experiments show that the influence from the limited relaxation frequency of GC-SOAs that severely degrades the performance for NRZ signals is reduced by using RZ signals, thus resulting in a higher input power dynamic range.......High-speed experiments show that the influence from the limited relaxation frequency of GC-SOAs that severely degrades the performance for NRZ signals is reduced by using RZ signals, thus resulting in a higher input power dynamic range....

  2. High Speed Photomicrography (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.


    One of the most challenging areas in applying high-speed photography and videography in the plant and laboratory is in the recording of rapid events at macro and microscopic scales. Depth of field, exposure efficiency, working distance, and required exposure time are all reduced as optical magnification is increased, which severely taxes the skill and ingenuity of workers interested in recording any fast moving phenomena through the microscope or with magnifying lenses. This paper defines the problems inherent in photographing within macro and microscopic ranges and offers a systematic approach to optimizing the selection of equipment and choice of applicable techniques.

  3. Reconfigurable high-speed optical fibre networks: Optical wavelength conversion and switching using VCSELs to eliminate channel collisions (United States)

    Boiyo, Duncan Kiboi; Chabata, T. V.; Kipnoo, E. K. Rotich; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.


    We experimentally provide an alternative solution to channel collisions through up-wavelength conversion and switching by using vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This has been achieved by utilizing purely optical wavelength conversion on VCSELs at the low attenuation, 1550 nm transmission window. The corresponding transmission and bit error-rate (BER) performance evaluation is also presented. In this paper, two 1550 nm VCSELs with 50-150 GHz channel spacing are modulated with a 10 Gb/s NRZ PRBS 27-1 data and their interferences investigated. A channel interference penalty range of 0.15-1.63 dB is incurred for 150-50 GHz channel spacing without transmission. To avoid channel collisions and to minimize high interference penalties, the transmitting VCSEL with data is injected into the side-mode of a slave VCSEL to obtain a new up converted wavelength. A 16 dB extinction ratio of the incoming wavelength is achieved when a 15 dBm transmitting beam is injected into the side-mode of a -4.5 dBm slave VCSEL. At 8.5 Gb/s, a 1.1 dB conversion and a 0.5 dB transmission penalties are realized when the converted wavelength is transmitted over a 24.7 km G.655 fibre. This work offers a low-cost, effective wavelength conversion and channel switching to reduce channel collision probability by reconfiguring channels at the node of networks.

  4. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column (United States)


    various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles. A diagnostic- photographic method is developed in this study to determine the drag...nonlinear dynamics, body and multi-phase fluid interaction, supercavitation , and instability theory. The technical application of the hydrodynamics of...uV U ω= = − ×V e e e ei i , (29) where Eq.(9) is used. For a supercavitation area, a correction factor may be

  5. Potential of high speed x-ray cinematography as a fuel motion diagnostic for safety test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Choate, L.M.; Posey, L.D.


    Experiments have been performed which indicate the feasibility of using X-ray cinematography as a diagnostic tool for monitoring fuel motion in large pin bundle advanced reactor safety tests. This capability was demonstrated by imaging motion in a 37-pin bundle of simulated fuel elements at a data rate of 400 pictures per second using an active detector system coupled with a 10 MeV accelerator. 5 refs

  6. Optical beam diagnostics on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabersky, A.P.


    In designing the PEP optical diagnostics we have been able to build on the experience gained with SPEAR. Most of the problems at SPEAR could be traced to the optical diagnostic system being inside the tunnel. A machine shutdown is required for any maintenance or modification. This implies that in order to make such an instrument successful, a large engineering effort must be mounted to ensure 100% operation at startup. The functions that do not work at startup may never be made to work; this has happened at several machines. Experimental setups are likewise risky and time consuming. A point which has been borne out in both SPEAR and PEP is that the mechanical part of the instrument, the special vacuum chamber, the optical mounts, the alignment and adjustments, require approximately 60% of the effort and cost of the optical diagnostics. It is far better to economize on detectors and electronics than on mechanical and optical essentials

  7. Spectroscopical plasma diagnostics for the procedure optimization in laser-beam high-speed cutting; Spektroskopische Plasmadiagnostik zur Verfahrensoptimierung beim Laserstrahl-Hochgeschwindigkeitsschneiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nate, M.


    In the present thesis the laser-induced plasma typical for the high- speed cutting process was studied in the region of the interaction zone. For this especially the absorption properties of the plasma for the incident laser radiation and their correlation with the maximally reachable cutting speeds. For this with methods of the spectroscopic plasma diagnostics the influence of different process parameters on the quantities characterizing the plasma, electron density and temperature, was determined. On the base of these values in the framework of an equilibrium model the densities of all particles contained in the plasma were determined. With these values the plasma absorption coefficient was subsequently calculated and the laser radiation absorbed in the plasma estimated.

  8. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Sidorin, Y.; Waechter, C.A.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (Tg) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which

  9. Development of a guiding system and visual feedback real-time controller for the high-speed self-align optical cable winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kang, Hyun Kyoo; Shin, Kee Hyun


    Recently, the demand for the optical cable has been rapidly growing because of the increasing number of internet users and the high speed internet data transmission required. But the present optical cable winding systems have some serious problems such as pile-up and collapse of cables usually near the flange of the bobbin in the process of cables winding. To reduce the pile-up collapse in cable winding systems, a new guiding system is developed for a high-speed self-align cable winding. First, mathematical models for the winding process and bobbin shape fault compensation were proposed, the winding mechanism was analyzed and synchronization logics for the motions of winding, traversing, and the guiding were created. A prototype cable winding systems was manufactured to validate the new guiding system and the suggested logic. Experiment results showed that the winding system with the developed guiding system outperformed the system without the guiding system in reducing pile-up and collapse in high-speed winding

  10. High Speed Optical Diagnostics in a High Pressure, GOx/RP 2 Combustor (United States)


    essentially all the experiments. At higher pressures, helical spirals of luminosity near the GOx post are evident, apparently tracing the swirling fuel...At higher pressures, helical spirals of luminosity near the GOx post are evident, apparently tracing the swirling fuel patterns before more...Significant uncertainty exists, however, as to its utility for rocket-pressure, liquid fueled environments. This paper presents the methodology and

  11. The impact of LED transfer function nonlinearity on high-speed optical wireless communications based on discrete-multitone modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inan, B.; Lee, S.C.J.; Randel, S.; Neokosmidis, L.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Walewski, J.


    The nonlinear dependence of the optical power from white LEDs on the applied driving current and its impact on discrete-multitone modulation was investigated by use of numerical simulations for the case of optical wireless communications.

  12. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for azimuthal...

  13. 100 MHz high-speed strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating and optical filter applied for magnetostriction measurements of cobaltite at magnetic fields beyond 100 T (United States)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Tani, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato, Keisuke


    High-speed 100 MHz strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and an optical filter has been devised for the magnetostriction measurements under ultrahigh magnetic fields. The longitudinal magnetostriction of LaCoO 3 has been measured at room temperature, 115, 7 and 4.2 K up to the maximum magnetic field of 150 T. The field-induced lattice elongations are observed, which are attributed to the spin-state crossover from the low-spin ground state to excited spin-states.

  14. Shiva optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F.; Kobierecki, M.; Ozarski, R.; Seppala, L.; Manes, K.; Merritt, B.


    In the laser fusion program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, no target experiment is complete unless it is complemented by careful measurements of the laser pulse that irradiates the target. For this purpose, an incident beam diagnostics (IBD) package has been designed for the Shiva laser. The package will furnish data on items such as the total energy and the focusable energy out of the laser chain, and the spatial and temporal energy and power distribution at the target plane. Understanding laser-plasma interactions requires knowledge of the amount of 1.06 μm light energy that is scattered in various directions from the target. The light energy that is scattered toward the beam focusing lens is analyzed by a reflected beam diagnostic (RBD) package containing a calorimeter, a multiple image camera and a TV camera. This paper describes the detailed design and operation of the IBD and RBD packages as tools to align spatial filters and targets, as well as to diagnose the laser beams and target reflectivity

  15. Sonochemical and high-speed optical characterization of cavitation generated by an ultrasonically oscillating dental file in root canal models. (United States)

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Fernandez Rivas, D; Gardeniers, J G E; van der Sluis, L W M; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M


    Ultrasonically Activated Irrigation makes use of an ultrasonically oscillating file in order to improve the cleaning of the root canal during a root canal treatment. Cavitation has been associated with these oscillating files, but the nature and characteristics of the cavitating bubbles were not yet fully elucidated. Using sensitive equipment, the sonoluminescence (SL) and sonochemiluminescence (SCL) around these files have been measured in this study, showing that cavitation occurs even at very low power settings. Luminol photography and high-speed visualizations provided information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the cavitation bubbles. A large bubble cloud was observed at the tip of the files, but this was found not to contribute to SCL. Rather, smaller, individual bubbles observed at antinodes of the oscillating file with a smaller amplitude were leading to SCL. Confinements of the size of bovine and human root canals increased the amount of SL and SCL. The root canal models also showed the occurrence of air entrainment, resulting in the generation of stable bubbles, and of droplets, near the air-liquid interface and leading eventually to a loss of the liquid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical diagnostics for plasma etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, T.H.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; de Zeeuw, C.J.H.; Timmermans, C.J.


    Several optical diagnostics were used to det. plasma properties and etch rates in an single wafer etch reactor. Results of UV-visible spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy, indicating different mol. species and their densities are presented. The construction of an interferometer to det. the

  17. Error statistics during the propagation of short optical pulses in a high-speed fibreoptic communication line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, E G


    Simple analytic expressions are derived to approximate the bit error rate for data transmission through fibreoptic communication lines. The propagation of optical pulses is directly numerically simulated. Analytic estimates are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (fibreoptic communication)

  18. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, M. B. J.; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D. N.; Leinse, A.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (T g) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which was reported to have a high photochemical stability 1 has been employed in the current work. Tert-butyl-TCVDPA, having bulky side groups, was synthesized and a doubling of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) compared to the unmodified TCVDPA was shown. A microring resonator design was made based on the PS-TCVDPA system. SU8 (passive) and TCVDPA (active) channel waveguides were fabricated by the photodefinition technique and the passive waveguide losses were measured to be 5 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  19. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.


    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  20. Non-Intrusive Optical Diagnostic Methods for Flowfield Characterization (United States)

    Tabibi, Bagher M.; Terrell, Charles A.; Spraggins, Darrell; Lee, Ja. H.; Weinstein, Leonard M.


    Non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques such as Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF), Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Focusing Schlieren (FS) have been setup for high-speed flow characterization and large flowfield visualization, respectively. Fluorescence emission from the First Negative band of N2(+) with the (0,0) vibration transition (at lambda =391.44 nm) was obtained using the EBF technique and a quenching rate of N2(+)* molecules by argon gas was reported. A very high sensitivity FS system was built and applied in the High-Speed Flow Generator (HFG) at NASA LaRC. A LIF system is available at the Advanced Propulsion Laboratory (APL) on campus and a plume exhaust velocity measurement, measuring the Doppler shift from lambda = 728.7 nm of argon gas, is under way.

  1. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard


    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  2. High-speed all-optical DNA local sequence alignment based on a three-dimensional artificial neural network. (United States)

    Maleki, Ehsan; Babashah, Hossein; Koohi, Somayyeh; Kavehvash, Zahra


    This paper presents an optical processing approach for exploring a large number of genome sequences. Specifically, we propose an optical correlator for global alignment and an extended moiré matching technique for local analysis of spatially coded DNA, whose output is fed to a novel three-dimensional artificial neural network for local DNA alignment. All-optical implementation of the proposed 3D artificial neural network is developed and its accuracy is verified in Zemax. Thanks to its parallel processing capability, the proposed structure performs local alignment of 4 million sequences of 150 base pairs in a few seconds, which is much faster than its electrical counterparts, such as the basic local alignment search tool.

  3. All-Optical Wavelength Conversion of a High-Speed RZ-OOK Signal in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael


    All-optical wavelength conversion of a 320 Gb/s line-rate RZ-OOK signal is demonstrated based on four-wave mixing in a 3.6 mm long silicon nanowire. Bit error rate measurements validate the performance within FEC limits.......All-optical wavelength conversion of a 320 Gb/s line-rate RZ-OOK signal is demonstrated based on four-wave mixing in a 3.6 mm long silicon nanowire. Bit error rate measurements validate the performance within FEC limits....

  4. High-speed 2 × 2 silicon-based electro-optic switch with nanosecond switch time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Jun, Xu; Shao-Wu, Chen; Hai-Hua, Xu; Yang, Sun; Yu-De, Yu; Jin-Zhong, Yu; Qi-Ming, Wang


    A 2 × 2 electro-optic switch is experimentally demonstrated using the optical structure of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a submicron rib waveguide and the electrical structure of a PIN diode on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The switch behaviour is achieved through the plasma dispersion effect of silicon. The device has a modulation arm of 1 mm in length and cross-section of 400 nm×340 nm. The measurement results show that the switch has a V π L π figure of merit of 0.145 V·cm and the extinction ratios of two output ports and cross talk are 40 dB, 28 dB and −28 dB, respectively. A 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 90 MHz and a switch time of 6.8 ns for the rise edge and 2.7 ns for the fall edge are also demonstrated

  5. High-speed single-shot optical focusing through dynamic scattering media with full-phase wavefront shaping (United States)

    Hemphill, Ashton S.; Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lihong V.


    In biological applications, optical focusing is limited by the diffusion of light, which prevents focusing at depths greater than ˜1 mm in soft tissue. Wavefront shaping extends the depth by compensating for phase distortions induced by scattering and thus allows for focusing light through biological tissue beyond the optical diffusion limit by using constructive interference. However, due to physiological motion, light scattering in tissue is deterministic only within a brief speckle correlation time. In in vivo tissue, this speckle correlation time is on the order of milliseconds, and so the wavefront must be optimized within this brief period. The speed of digital wavefront shaping has typically been limited by the relatively long time required to measure and display the optimal phase pattern. This limitation stems from the low speeds of cameras, data transfer and processing, and spatial light modulators. While binary-phase modulation requiring only two images for the phase measurement has recently been reported, most techniques require at least three frames for the full-phase measurement. Here, we present a full-phase digital optical phase conjugation method based on off-axis holography for single-shot optical focusing through scattering media. By using off-axis holography in conjunction with graphics processing unit based processing, we take advantage of the single-shot full-phase measurement while using parallel computation to quickly reconstruct the phase map. With this system, we can focus light through scattering media with a system latency of approximately 9 ms, on the order of the in vivo speckle correlation time.

  6. Design and flight test results of high speed optical bidirectional link between stratospheric platforms for aerospace applications (United States)

    Briatore, S.; Akhtyamov, R.; Golkar, A.


    As small and nanosatellites become increasingly relevant in the aerospace industry1, 2, the need of efficient, lightweight and cost-effective networking solutions drives the need for the development of lightweight and low cost networking and communication terminals. In this paper we propose the design and prototype results of a hybrid optical and radio communication architecture developed to fit the coarse pointing capabilities of nanosatellites, tested through a proxy flight experiment on stratospheric balloons. This system takes advantage of the higher data-rate offered by optical communication channels while relying on the more mature and stable technology of conventional radio systems for link negotiation and low-speed data exchange. Such architecture allows the user to overcome the licensing requirements and scarce availability of high data-rate radio frequency channels in the commonly used bands. Outlined are the architecture, development and test of the mentioned terminal, with focus on the communication part and supporting technologies, including the navigation algorithm, the developed fail-safe approach, and the evolution of the pointing system continuing previous work done in 3. The system has been built with commercial-off-the-shelf components and demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon launch campaign. The paper outlines the results of an in-flight demonstration, where the two platforms successfully established an optical link at stratospheric altitudes. The results are then analyzed and contextualized in plans of future work for nanosatellite implementations.

  7. Control of Porosity and Spatter in Laser Welding of Thick AlMg5 Parts Using High-Speed Imaging and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Popescu


    Full Text Available We report on a feedback mechanism for rapid identification of optimal laser parameters during welding of AlMg5 coupons using real-time monitoring by high-speed imaging. The purpose was to constrain the liquid movement in the groove in order to obtain pore-free welds in this otherwise difficult-to-weld alloy. High-speed imaging of the welding process via an optical microscope allowed for recording at millimeter level, providing new information on liquid-metal dynamics during laser irradiation as well as plausible explanations for spatter occurrence and pores formation. The pore formation and especially the position of these pores had to be controlled in order to weld 3 mm thick samples. By tuning both laser power and pulse duration, pores were aligned on a single line, at the bottom of the weld. A laser pass of reduced power on that side was then sufficient for removing all pores and providing a suitable weld.

  8. Low-noise and high-speed photodetection system using optical feedback with a current amplification function. (United States)

    Akiba, M


    A photodetection system with an optical-feedback circuit accompanied by current amplification was fabricated to minimize the drawbacks associated with a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a very high resistance feedback resistor. Current amplification was implemented by extracting an output light from the same light source that emitted the feedback light. The current gain corresponds to the ratio of the photocurrent created by the output light to that created by the feedback light because the feedback current value is identical to the input photocurrent value generated by an input light to be measured. The current gain has no theoretical limit. The output light was detected by a photodiode with a TIA having a small feedback resistance. The expression for the input-referred noise current of the optical-feedback photodetection system was derived, and the trade-off between sensitivity and response, which is a characteristic of TIA, was found to considerably improve. An optical-feedback photodetection system with an InGaAs pin photodiode was fabricated. The measured noise equivalent power of the system was 1.7 fW/Hz(1/2) at 10 Hz and 1.3 μm, which is consistent with the derived expression. The time response of the system was found to deteriorate with decreasing photocurrent. The 50% rise time for a light pulse input increased from 3.1 μs at a photocurrent of 10 nA to 15 μs at photocurrents below 10 pA. The bandwidth of the input-referred noise current was 7 kHz, which is consistent with rise times below 10 pA.

  9. High-speed optical three-axis vector magnetometry based on nonlinear Hanle effect in rubidium vapor (United States)

    Azizbekyan, Hrayr; Shmavonyan, Svetlana; Khanbekyan, Aleksandr; Movsisyan, Marina; Papoyan, Aram


    The magnetic-field-compensation optical vector magnetometer based on the nonlinear Hanle effect in alkali metal vapor allowing two-axis measurement operation has been further elaborated for three-axis performance, along with significant reduction of measurement time. The upgrade was achieved by implementing a two-beam resonant excitation configuration and a fast maximum searching algorithm. Results of the proof-of-concept experiments, demonstrating 1 μT B-field resolution, are presented. The applied interest and capability of the proposed technique is analyzed.

  10. Design of analog-type high-speed SerDes using digital components for optical chip-to-chip link (United States)

    Sangirov, Jamshid; Nguyen, Nga T. H.; Ngo, Trong-Hieu; Im, Dong-min; Ukaegbu, Augustine I.; Lee, Tae-Woo; Cho, Mu Hee; Park, Hyo-Hoon


    An analog-type high-speed serializer/deserializer (SerDes) has been designed for optical links especially between CPU and memory. The circuit uses a system clock and its phases to multiplex data to the serial link which avoids the need for a PLL-based high frequency clock generation used in serializing parallel data as in conventional SerDes design. The multiplexed link combined with the de-serializing clock is used as a reference signal for de-serialization. The SerDes is being designed in a 0.13 μm Si-CMOS technology. The fabricated serializer has a core chip size of 360 x750 μm2. Power dissipation for the SerDes is 71.4 mW operating up to 6.5 Gbps.

  11. Optimal signal constellation design for ultra-high-speed optical transport in the presence of nonlinear phase noise. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In this paper, we first describe an optimal signal constellation design algorithm suitable for the coherent optical channels dominated by the linear phase noise. Then, we modify this algorithm to be suitable for the nonlinear phase noise dominated channels. In optimization procedure, the proposed algorithm uses the cumulative log-likelihood function instead of the Euclidian distance. Further, an LDPC coded modulation scheme is proposed to be used in combination with signal constellations obtained by proposed algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the LDPC-coded modulation schemes employing the new constellation sets, obtained by our new signal constellation design algorithm, outperform corresponding QAM constellations significantly in terms of transmission distance and have better nonlinearity tolerance.

  12. The ALMA high speed optical communication link is here: an essential component for reliable present and future operations (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, S.; Liello, F.; Ovando, N.; Astudillo, A.; Parra, J.; Saldias, Christian


    Announced in 2012, started in 2013 and completed in 2015, the ALMA high bandwidth communication system has become a key factor to achieve the operational and scientific goals of ALMA. This paper summarizes the technical, organizational, and operational goals of the ALMA Optical Link Project, focused in the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Operations Support Facility and Array Operations Site, both located in the Atacama Desert in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence of REUNA in Antofagasta, about 400km away, and from there to the Santiago Central Office in the Chilean capital through the optical infrastructure created by the EC-funded EVALSO project and now an integral part of the REUNA backbone. This new infrastructure completed in 2014 and now operated on behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, uses state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. The paper also reports on the results obtained during the first year and a half testing and operation period, where different operational set ups have been experienced for data transfer, remote collaboration, etc. Finally, the authors will present a forward look of the impact of it to both the future scientific development of the Chajnantor Plateau, where many installations area are (and will be) located, as well as the potential Chilean scientific backbone long term development.

  13. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.


    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  14. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun


    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  15. High-speed highly temperature stable 980 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gb/s at up to 85 °C for short reach optical interconnects (United States)

    Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey A.; Moser, Philip; Wolf, Philip; Hofmann, Werner; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Bimberg, Dieter


    The progressive penetration of optical communication links into traditional copper interconnect markets greatly expands the applications of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for the next-generation of board-to-board, moduleto- module, chip-to-chip, and on-chip optical interconnects. Stability of the VCSEL parameters at high temperatures is indispensable for such applications, since these lasers typically reside directly on or near integrated circuit chips. Here we present 980 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating error-free at bit rates up to 25 Gbit/s at temperatures as high as 85 °C without adjustment of the drive current and peak-to-peak modulation voltage. The driver design is therefore simplified and the power consumption of the driver electronics is lowered, reducing the production and operational costs. Small and large signal modulation experiments at various temperatures from 20 up to 85 °C for lasers with different oxide aperture diameters are presented in order to analyze the physical processes controlling the performance of the VCSELs. Temperature insensitive maximum -3 dB bandwidths of around 13-15 GHz for VCSELs with aperture diameters of 10 μm and corresponding parasitic cut-off frequencies exceeding 22 GHz are observed. Presented results demonstrate the suitability of our VCSELs for practical high speed and high temperature stable short-reach optical links.

  16. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target. (United States)

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T


    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  17. High speed network sampling


    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild


    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  18. High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. High-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators. (United States)

    Bullen, A; Patel, S S; Saggau, P


    The design and implementation of a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning fluorescence microscope configured to record fast physiological signals from small neuronal structures with high spatiotemporal resolution is presented. The laser-scanning capability of this nonimaging microscope is provided by two orthogonal acousto-optic deflectors under computer control. Each scanning point can be randomly accessed and has a positioning time of 3-5 microseconds. Sampling time is also computer-controlled and can be varied to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Acquisition rates up to 200k samples/s at 16-bit digitizing resolution are possible. The spatial resolution of this instrument is determined by the minimal spot size at the level of the preparation (i.e., 2-7 microns). Scanning points are selected interactively from a reference image collected with differential interference contrast optics and a video camera. Frame rates up to 5 kHz are easily attainable. Intrinsic variations in laser light intensity and scanning spot brightness are overcome by an on-line signal-processing scheme. Representative records obtained with this instrument by using voltage-sensitive dyes and calcium indicators demonstrate the ability to make fast, high-fidelity measurements of membrane potential and intracellular calcium at high spatial resolution (2 microns) without any temporal averaging.

  19. Effect of ranibizumab on high-speed indocyanine green angiography and minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography findings in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Nicholson, Benjamin P; Nigam, Divya; Toy, Brian; Stetson, Paul F; Agrón, Elvira; Jacobs-El, Naima; Cunningham, Denise; Cukras, Catherine; Wong, Wai; Wiley, Henry; Chew, Emily; Ferris, Frederick; Meyerle, Catherine B


    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to investigate how induction/pro re nata ranibizumab intravitreal treatment of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration affects the anatomy of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and the overlying outer retinal tissue. High-speed indocyanine green (HS-ICG) angiography measurements provided quantification of the CNV size in 60 patients followed for 1 year. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography (MinIP OCT), a novel algorithm assessing minimum optical intensity between the internal limiting membrane and retinal pigment epithelium, measured the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV. Fluorescein angiography was also assessed to evaluate late retinal leakage. After 1 year, the mean area of CNV measured with indocyanine green angiography decreased by 5.8%. The mean area of MinIP OCT of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV decreased by 4.2%. Mean area of fluorescein angiography leakage decreased by 6.3%. Both the area of outer retinal disruption measured with MinIP OCT and the area of leakage on fluorescein angiography typically exceeded the area of CNV on indocyanine green angiography at baseline and 1 year. Choroidal neovascularization treated with induction/pro re nata intravitreal ranibizumab for 1 year essentially remained static. Minimum intensity projection optical coherence tomography suggests that the area of outer retinal disruption overlying the CNV may be greater than the CNV itself and often correlates with the leakage area on fluorescein angiography. Additionally, there was minimal change in the area of outer retinal disruption on MinIP OCT even when fluid resolved. Measurements of the extent of CNV lesions based on indocyanine green angiography and MinIP OCT may provide useful outcome variables to help assess the CNV complex longitudinally and warrant further validation.

  20. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H


    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  1. Two-colour high-speed asynchronous optical sampling based on offset-stabilized Yb:KYW and Ti:sapphire oscillators. (United States)

    Krauß, N; Schäfer, G; Flock, J; Kliebisch, O; Li, C; Barros, H G; Heinecke, D C; Dekorsy, T


    We present a high-speed asynchronous optical sampling system, based on two different Kerr-lens mode-locked lasers with a GHz repetition rate: An Yb:KYW oscillator and a Ti:sapphire oscillator are synchronized in a master-slave configuration at a repetition rate offset of a few kHz. This system enables two-colour pump-probe measurements with resulting noise floors below 10⁻⁶ at a data aquisition time of 5 seconds. The measured temporal resolution within the 1 ns time window is below 350 fs, including a timing jitter of less than 50 fs. The system is applied to investigate zone-folded coherent acoustic phonons in two different semiconductor superlattices in transmission geometry at a probe wavelength far below the bandgap of the superlattice constituents. The lifetime of the phonon modes with a zero wave vector and frequencies in the range from 100 GHz to 500 GHz are measured at room temperature and compared with previous work.

  2. 25-Gbit/s burst-mode optical receiver using high-speed avalanche photodiode for 100-Gbit/s optical packet switching. (United States)

    Nada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Matsuzaki, Hideaki


    25-Gbit/s error-free operation of an optical receiver is successfully demonstrated against burst-mode optical input signals without preambles. The receiver, with a high-sensitivity avalanche photodiode and burst-mode transimpedance amplifier, exhibits sufficient receiver sensitivity and an extremely quick response suitable for burst-mode operation in 100-Gbit/s optical packet switching.

  3. Development of a Lower-SWaP, RAD-Tolerant, Thermally Stable High Speed Fiber Optics Network for Harsh Environment Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I objectives and work plan, carried through to completion, will result in the development of a RAD-tolerant, high-speed, multi-channel fiber...

  4. Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao


    We demonstrate conversion from 64 × 10 Gbit/s optical timedivision multiplexed (OTDM) data to dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) data with 25 GHz spacing. The conversion is achieved by time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a 3.6 mm long...

  5. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi


    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  6. High speed laser tomography system (United States)

    Samsonov, D.; Elsaesser, A.; Edwards, A.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.


    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120000slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  7. Optical diagnostics of a gliding arc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Z.W.; Zhu, J.J.; Li, Z.S.


    Dynamic processes in a gliding arc plasma generated between two diverging electrodes in ambient air driven by 31.25 kHz AC voltage were investigated using spatially and temporally resolved optical techniques. The life cycles of the gliding arc were tracked in fast movies using a high-speed camera...... triggered by Townsend breakdown between the two legs of the gliding arc. The emission from the plasma column is shown to pulsate at a frequency of 62.5 kHz, i.e., twice the frequency of the AC power supply. Optical emission spectra of the plasma radiation show the presence of excited N2, NO and OH radicals...... suggesting that ground-state OH is not formed in the plasma column but in its vicinity. ©2013 Optical Society of America...

  8. High Speed Wireless Signal Generation and Demodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko

    We present the experimental demonstration of high speed wireless generation, up to 40 Gb/s, in the 75-110 GHz wireless band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and single side-band modulation with digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  9. Optical diagnostics in gas turbine combustors (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven D.


    Deregulation of the power industry and increasingly tight emission controls are pushing gas turbine manufacturers to develop engines operating at high pressure for efficiency and lean fuel mixtures to control NOx. This combination also gives rise to combustion instabilities which threaten engine integrity through acoustic pressure oscillations and flashback. High speed imaging and OH emission sensors have been demonstrated to be invaluable tools in characterizing and monitoring unstable combustion processes. Asynchronous imaging technique permit detailed viewing of cyclic flame structure in an acoustic environment which may be modeled or utilized in burner design . The response of the flame front to the acoustic pressure cycle may be tracked with an OH emission monitor using a sapphire light pipe for optical access. The OH optical emission can be correlated to pressure sensor data for better understanding of the acoustical coupling of the flame. Active control f the combustion cycle can be implemented using an OH emission sensor for feedback.

  10. Development and Application of Advanced Optical Diagnostics for the Study of High Speed Flows in Micro Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lempert, Walter


    .... In particular, Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV) measurements have been performed, using acetone vapor as a molecular tracer, in the flow produced by a 1 mm diameter, pressure matched, sonic nozzle...

  11. Flow diagnostics using fibre optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hypersonic vehicle with a 2-component fibre-optic strain-gauge balance. ... ment suffers a fall in accuracy to uncomfortable levels (more than 5%) and the measurement .... 15 kW motor with an associated thyristor speed-control system.

  12. Optical diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, C O; Spence, T G; Kruger, C H; Zare, R N


    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium owing to fast interspecies collisional exchange at high pressure. This assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. This paper reviews diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy that we have found useful for making temperature and concentration measurements in atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium

  13. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.


    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  14. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method (United States)

    Markham, James R.


    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  15. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)], e-mail:


    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  16. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas


    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  17. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S


    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  18. High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization (United States)

    Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.


    Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.


    Skarstrom, C.W.


    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  20. High-Speed Thermal Characterization of Cryogenic Flows, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development on a high-speed fiber optic sensor and readout system for cryogenic temperature measurements in liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid...

  1. Modular initiator with integrated optical diagnostic (United States)

    Alam, M Kathleen [Cedar Crest, NM; Schmitt, Randal L [Tijeras, NM; Welle, Eric J [Niceville, FL; Madden, Sean P [Arlington, MA


    A slapper detonator which integrally incorporates an optical wavequide structure for determining whether there has been degradation of the explosive in the explosive device that is to be initiated by the detonator. Embodiments of this invention take advantage of the barrel-like character of a typical slapper detonator design. The barrel assembly, being in direct contact with the energetic material, incorporates an optical diagnostic device into the barrel assembly whereby one can monitor the state of the explosive material. Such monitoring can be beneficial because the chemical degradation of the explosive plays an important in achieving proper functioning of a detonator/initiator device.

  2. Data and Analysis from a Time-Resolved Tomographic Optical Beam Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas; Ekdahl, Carl


    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument developed for the acquisition of high-speed time-resolved images has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The instrument was developed for the creation of time histories of electron-beam cross section through the collection of Cerenkov light. Four optical lines of sight optically collapse an image and relay projections via an optical fiber relay to recording instruments; a tomographic reconstruction algorithm creates the time history. Because the instrument may be operated in an adverse environment, it may be operated, adjusted, and calibrated remotely. The instrument was operated over the course of various activities during and after DARHT commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported verifiable beam characteristics. Results from the collected data and reconstructions and analysis of the data are discussed.

  3. High speed data transmission at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.


    High speed data transmission using fiber optics in the data acquisition system of the Superconducting Super Collider has been investigated. Emphasis is placed on the high speed data transmission system overview, the local data network and on subassemblies, such as optical transmitters and receivers. Also, the performance of candidate subassemblies having a low power dissipation for the data acquisition system is discussed. 14 refs., 5 figs

  4. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  5. Compact system for high-speed velocimetry using heterodyne techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, O. T.; Goosman, D. R.; Martinez, C.; Whitworth, T. L.; Kuhlow, W. W.


    We have built a high-speed velocimeter that has proven to be compact, simple to operate, and fairly inexpensive. This diagnostic is assembled using off-the-shelf components developed for the telecommunications industry. The main components are fiber lasers, high-bandwidth high-sample-rate digitizers, and fiber optic circulators. The laser is a 2 W cw fiber laser operating at 1550 nm. The digitizers have 8 GHz bandwidth and can digitize four channels simultaneously at 20 GS/s. The maximum velocity of this system is ∼5000 m/s and is limited by the bandwidth of the electrical components. For most applications, the recorded beat frequency is analyzed using Fourier transform methods, which determine the time response of the final velocity time history. Using the Fourier transform method of analysis allows multiple velocities to be observed simultaneously. We have obtained high-quality data on many experiments such as explosively driven surfaces and gas gun assemblies

  6. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Colston, B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Armitage, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others


    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study of fundamental differences in the noise suppression of high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Suzuki, R.


    We identify a fundamental difference between the ASE noise filtering properties of different all-optical SOA-based switch configurations, and divide the switches into two classes. An in-band ASE suppression ratio quantifying the difference is derived theoretically and the impact of the ASE...

  8. Radiation-hard mid-power booster optical fiber amplifiers for high-speed digital and analogue satellite laser communication links (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Stevens, G.; Henwood-Moroney, L.; Hosking, P.; Robertson, A.


    Optical laser communications (OLC) has been identified as the technology to enable high-data rate, secure links between and within satellites, as well as between satellites and ground stations with decreased mass, size, and electrical power compared to traditional RF technology.

  9. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.


    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  10. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)


    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  11. A High Gain-Bandwidth Product Distributed Transimpedance Amplifier IC for High-Speed Optical Transmission Using Low-Cost GaAs Technology.


    Giannini, F.; Limiti, E.; Orengo, G.; Serino, A.; De Dominicis, M.


    This paper reports a distributed baseband transimpedance amplifier for optical links up to 10 Gb/s. The amplifier operates as a baseband amplifier with a transimpedance gain of 48 dB Ω and a DC-to-9 GHz bandwidth. Some innovative design techniques to improve gain-bandwidth performance at low and high frequency with an available low-cost GaAs MESFET technology have been developed.

  12. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.


    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  13. A high-speed, reconfigurable, channel- and time-tagged photon arrival recording system for intensity-interferometry and quantum optics experiments (United States)

    Girish, B. S.; Pandey, Deepak; Ramachandran, Hema


    We present a compact, inexpensive multichannel module, APODAS (Avalanche Photodiode Output Data Acquisition System), capable of detecting 0.8 billion photons per second and providing real-time recording on a computer hard-disk, of channel- and time-tagged information of the arrival of upto 0.4 billion photons per second. Built around a Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) unit, APODAS offers a temporal resolution of 5 nanoseconds with zero deadtime in data acquisition, utilising an efficient scheme for time and channel tagging and employing Gigabit ethernet for the transfer of data. Analysis tools have been developed on a Linux platform for multi-fold coincidence studies and time-delayed intensity interferometry. As illustrative examples, the second-order intensity correlation function ( g 2) of light from two commonly used sources in quantum optics —a coherent laser source and a dilute atomic vapour emitting spontaneously, constituting a thermal source— are presented. With easy reconfigurability and with no restriction on the total record length, APODAS can be readily used for studies over various time scales. This is demonstrated by using APODAS to reveal Rabi oscillations on nanosecond time scales in the emission of ultracold atoms, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to measure the second-order correlation function on the millisecond time scales from tailored light sources. The efficient and versatile performance of APODAS promises its utility in diverse fields, like quantum optics, quantum communication, nuclear physics, astrophysics and biology.

  14. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.


    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam

  15. High-speed cineradiographies acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Nourrissat, Yves; Viguier, Philippe

    A high-speed cineradiography installation provides dimensional informations recorded either on a film, or on a magnetic tape. In the event of the film, the imperfection of our visual sense leads us to look for a method of measurement which allows us to extract the information from a noisy image; the association of an optical flying spot scanner with a computer is adapted to this use and allows us, for instance, to determine the inside and outside diameters of a sphere during its implosion. On the other hand, the radiographic recording on magnetic tape is processed, after numerisation by the computer, in the same way as the numeric tape generated after the optical scanner. We compare the results achieved by the two recording methods [fr

  16. Investigating mechanically induced phase response of the tissue by using high-speed phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.


    Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT), a functional extension of OCT, provides depth-resolved phase information with extra contrast. In cardiology, changes in the mechanical properties have been associated with tissue remodeling and disease progression. Here we present the capability of profiling structural deformation of the sample in vivo by using a highly stable swept source OCT system The system, operating at 1300 nm, has an A-line acquisition rate of 200 kHz. We measured the phase noise floor to be 6.5 pm±3.2 pm by placing a cover slip in the sample arm, while blocking the reference arm. We then conducted a vibrational frequency test by measuring the phase response from a polymer membrane stimulated by a pure tone acoustic wave from 10 kHz to 80 kHz. The measured frequency response agreed with the known stimulation frequency with an error < 0.005%. We further measured the phase response of 7 fresh swine hearts obtained from Green Village Packing Company through a mechanical stretching test, within 24 hours of sacrifice. The heart tissue was cut into a 1 mm slices and fixed on two motorized stages. We acquired 100,000 consecutive M-scans, while the sample is stretched at a constant velocity of 10 um/s. The depth-resolved phase image presents linear phase response over time at each depth, but the slope varies among tissue types. Our future work includes refining our experiment protocol to quantitatively measured the elastic modulus of the tissue in vivo and building a tissue classifier based on depth-resolved phase information.

  17. A new generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer: technology, diagnostic accuracy, and future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.


    CONTEXT: New developments in optical diagnostics have a potential for less invasive and improved detection of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the technology and diagnostic yield of recently developed optical diagnostics for bladder cancer and to outline their potential future

  18. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells (United States)

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin


    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  19. High-speed data search (United States)

    Driscoll, James N.


    The high-speed data search system developed for KSC incorporates existing and emerging information retrieval technology to help a user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual databases. This technology includes: natural language input; statistical ranking of retrieved information; an artificial intelligence concept called semantics, where 'surface level' knowledge found in text is used to improve the ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, where user judgements about viewed information are used to automatically modify the search for further information. Semantics and relevance feedback are features of the system which are not available commercially. The system further demonstrates focus on paragraphs of information to decide relevance; and it can be used (without modification) to intelligently search all kinds of document collections, such as collections of legal documents medical documents, news stories, patents, and so forth. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of statistical ranking, our semantic improvement, and relevance feedback.

  20. High speed photography, videography, and photonics III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22, 23, 1985 (United States)

    Ponseggi, B. G. (Editor); Johnson, H. C. (Editor)


    Papers are presented on the picosecond electronic framing camera, photogrammetric techniques using high-speed cineradiography, picosecond semiconductor lasers for characterizing high-speed image shutters, the measurement of dynamic strain by high-speed moire photography, the fast framing camera with independent frame adjustments, design considerations for a data recording system, and nanosecond optical shutters. Consideration is given to boundary-layer transition detectors, holographic imaging, laser holographic interferometry in wind tunnels, heterodyne holographic interferometry, a multispectral video imaging and analysis system, a gated intensified camera, a charge-injection-device profile camera, a gated silicon-intensified-target streak tube and nanosecond-gated photoemissive shutter tubes. Topics discussed include high time-space resolved photography of lasers, time-resolved X-ray spectrographic instrumentation for laser studies, a time-resolving X-ray spectrometer, a femtosecond streak camera, streak tubes and cameras, and a short pulse X-ray diagnostic development facility.

  1. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M


    Full Text Available A method to optimise the geometry, explosive charge mass and volume of an argon bomb for specific lighting requirements has been proposed. The method is specifically aimed at applications that require photographic diagnostics with ultra-high speed...

  2. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches (United States)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay


    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  3. Application of high speed photography for high current vacuum arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, G.C.; Merck, W.F.H.; Vossen, J.W.G.L.; Janssen, M.F.P.; Bouwmeester, C.E.


    A high speed image detection system for 106 frames per second or 107 streaks per second has been developed for the testing of vacuum circuit breakers, using 10×16 optical fibres for light transfer to 160 fast photo diodes. The output of these diodes is multiplexed, AD converted in a 4 bit

  4. High-speed photography application to pulsed hot plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borov'etskij, M.; Koz'yarkevich, V.; Skrzhechanovskij, V.; Socha, R.


    Plasma focus is investigated using an electron-optical chamber for high-speed photography (KSK-1). Experimental devices for studying dynamics and structure of a plasma layer in the chosen interval, recording plasma spectra with time resolution as well as for studying the dynamics and structure of a plasma layer by Schlieren- and shadow methods are briefly described. Experimental results are presented

  5. A data-acquisition system for high speed linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiyan; Chen Xiangcai; Jiang Xiaoshan; Zhang Hongyu; Liang Zhongwang; Xiang Haisheng; Hu Jun


    A data-acquisition system for high speed linear CCD (Charge Coupled device) is mainly introduced. The optical fiber transmission technology is used. The data is sent to PC through USB or PCI interface. The construction of the system, the design of the PCI interface hardware, software design and the design of the control program running on host computer are also introduced. (authors)

  6. High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory, researchers characterize and model devices operating at terahertz (THz) and millimeter-wave frequencies. The...

  7. Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Majewski, Mark Steven

    The high temperature properties of ceramic materials make them suitable for the extreme environments of gas combustion powered turbines. They are instrumental in providing thermal insulation for the metallic turbine components from the combustion products. Also, the addition of specific rare earth elements to ceramics creates materials with temperature diagnostic applications. Laser based methods have been applied to these ceramic coatings to predict their remaining thermal insulation service life and to explore their high temperature diagnostic capabilities. A method for cleaning thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) contaminated during engine operation has been developed using laser ablation. Surface contamination on the turbine blades hinders nondestructive remaining life prediction using photo luminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS). Real time monitoring of the removed material is employed to prevent damage to the underlying coating. This method relies on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to compute the cross correlation coefficient between the spectral emissions of a sample TBC that is contaminated and a reference clean TBC. It is possible to remove targeted contaminants and cease ablation when the top surface of the TBC has been reached. In collaboration with this work, Kelley's thesis [1] presents microscopy images and PLPS measurements indicating the integrity of the TBC has been maintained during the removal of surface contaminants. Thermographic phosphors (TGP) have optical emission properties when excited by a laser that are temperature dependent. These spectral and temporal properties have been investigated and utilized for temperature measurement schemes by many previous researchers. The compounds presented in this dissertation consist of various rare earth (Lanthanide) elements doped into a host crystal lattice. As the temperature of the lattice changes, both the time scale for vibrational quenching and the distribution of energy among atomic energy

  8. Single-Photon Tracking for High-Speed Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Gyongy


    Full Text Available Quanta Imager Sensors provide photon detections at high frame rates, with negligible read-out noise, making them ideal for high-speed optical tracking. At the basic level of bit-planes or binary maps of photon detections, objects may present limited detail. However, through motion estimation and spatial reassignment of photon detections, the objects can be reconstructed with minimal motion artefacts. We here present the first demonstration of high-speed two-dimensional (2D tracking and reconstruction of rigid, planar objects with a Quanta Image Sensor, including a demonstration of depth-resolved tracking.

  9. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.


    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  10. International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, 17th, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, Sept. 1-5, 1986, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2 (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Hollingworth, D.


    The present conference discusses topics in mining applications of high speed photography, ballistic, shock wave and detonation studies employing high speed photography, laser and X-ray diagnostics, biomechanical photography, millisec-microsec-nanosec-picosec-femtosec photographic methods, holographic, schlieren, and interferometric techniques, and videography. Attention is given to such issues as the pulse-shaping of ultrashort optical pulses, the performance of soft X-ray streak cameras, multiple-frame image tube operation, moire-enlargement motion-raster photography, two-dimensional imaging with tomographic techniques, photochron TV streak cameras, and streak techniques in detonics.

  11. Experimental high-speed network (United States)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Klein, William P.; Vercillo, Richard; Alsafadi, Yasser H.; Parra, Miguel V.; Dallas, William J.


    Many existing local area networking protocols currently applied in medical imaging were originally designed for relatively low-speed, low-volume networking. These protocols utilize small packet sizes appropriate for text based communication. Local area networks of this type typically provide raw bandwidth under 125 MHz. These older network technologies are not optimized for the low delay, high data traffic environment of a totally digital radiology department. Some current implementations use point-to-point links when greater bandwidth is required. However, the use of point-to-point communications for a total digital radiology department network presents many disadvantages. This paper describes work on an experimental multi-access local area network called XFT. The work includes the protocol specification, and the design and implementation of network interface hardware and software. The protocol specifies the Physical and Data Link layers (OSI layers 1 & 2) for a fiber-optic based token ring providing a raw bandwidth of 500 MHz. The protocol design and implementation of the XFT interface hardware includes many features to optimize image transfer and provide flexibility for additional future enhancements which include: a modular hardware design supporting easy portability to a variety of host system buses, a versatile message buffer design providing 16 MB of memory, and the capability to extend the raw bandwidth of the network to 3.0 GHz.

  12. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook


    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  13. High-Speed RaPToRS (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir


    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  14. High speed movies of turbulence in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Bose, B.; Grulke, O.; Marmar, E.S.; Lowrance, J.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.


    A high speed (250 kHz), 300 frame charge coupled device camera has been used to image turbulence in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The camera system is described and some of its important characteristics are measured, including time response and uniformity over the field-of-view. The diagnostic has been used in two applications. One uses gas-puff imaging to illuminate the turbulence in the edge/scrape-off-layer region, where D 2 gas puffs localize the emission in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field when viewed by the camera system. The dynamics of the underlying turbulence around and outside the separatrix are detected in this manner. In a second diagnostic application, the light from an injected, ablating, high speed Li pellet is observed radially from the outer midplane, and fast poloidal motion of toroidal striations are seen in the Li + light well inside the separatrix

  15. Optical diagnostics in the advanced test accelerator (ATA) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Donnelly, D.


    The ATA is a 50-MeV, 10-kA, 70-ns pulsed electron beam accelerator that generates an extremely harsh environment for diagnostic measurements. Diagnostic targets placed in the beamline are subject to damage, frequently being destroyed by a single pulse. High radiation (x-ray, gamma, and neutron) and electromagnetic interference levels preclude placing components near the beamline that are susceptible to radiation damage. Examples of such components are integrated circuit elements, hydrocarbons such as Teflon insulation, and optical components that darken, resulting in transmission loss. Optical diagnostics play an important part in measuring experimental parameters such as the beam current density profile. A large number of optical lines of sight (LOS) are routinely deployed along the experimental beamlines that use the ATA beam. Gated TV cameras are located outside the accelerator tunnel, because the tunnel is inaccessible during operations. We will describe and discuss the difficulties, problems, and solutions encountered in making optical measurements in the ATA environment

  16. High - speed steel for precise cased tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwiarz, J.; Mazur, A.


    The test results of high-vanadium high - speed steel (SWV9) for precise casted tools are presented. The face -milling cutters of NFCa80A type have been tested in industrial operating conditions. An average life - time of SWV9 steel tools was 3-10 times longer compare to the conventional high - speed milling cutters. Metallography of SWB9 precise casted steel revealed beneficial for tool properties distribution of primary vanadium carbides in the steel matrix. Presented results should be a good argument for wide application of high - vanadium high - speed steel for precise casted tools. (author)

  17. DNA Diagnostics: Optical or by Electronics?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Knoll, Wolfgang


    In this paper, we very briefly review DNA biosensors based on optical and electrical detection principles, referring mainly to our past work applying both techniques but here using nearly identical sensor chip surface architectures, i.e., capture

  18. High-Speed Sealift Technology Development Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The purpose of the project was to define the technology investments required to enable development of the high-speed commercial and military ships needed to provide realistic future mission capabilities...

  19. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.


    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  20. High-speed imaging polarimetry using liquid crystal modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambs P.


    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic polarimetric imaging techniques. The basics of modern polarimetry have been known for one and a half century, but no practical high-speed implementation providing the full polarization information is currently available. Various methods are reviewed which prove to be a trade-off between the complexity of the optical set-up and the amount of polarimetric information they provide (ie the number of components of the Stokes vector. Techniques using liquid crystal devices, incepted in the late 1990's, are emphasized. Optical set-ups we implemented are presented. We particularly focus on high-speed techniques (i.e. faster than 200 Hz using ferroelectric liquid crystal devices.

  1. The high speed interconnect system architecture and operation (United States)

    Anderson, Steven C.

    The design and operation of a fiber-optic high-speed interconnect system (HSIS) being developed to meet the requirements of future avionics and flight-control hardware with distributed-system architectures are discussed. The HSIS is intended for 100-Mb/s operation of a local-area network with up to 256 stations. It comprises a bus transmission system (passive star couplers and linear media linked by active elements) and network interface units (NIUs). Each NIU is designed to perform the physical, data link, network, and transport functions defined by the ISO OSI Basic Reference Model (1982 and 1983) and incorporates a fiber-optic transceiver, a high-speed protocol based on the SAE AE-9B linear token-passing data bus (1986), and a specialized application interface unit. The operating modes and capabilities of HSIS are described in detail and illustrated with diagrams.

  2. Optical coherence tomography as a diagnostic tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A


    Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used in biomedical applications as a method to non-invasively detect changes occurring in tissue such as the detection of skin cancer. The effect of skin tone on detection of skin cancer has however...

  3. Application of Optical Measurement Techniques During Stages of Pregnancy: Use of Phantom High Speed Cameras for Digital Image Correlation (D.I.C.) During Baby Kicking and Abdomen Movements (United States)

    Gradl, Paul


    Paired images were collected using a projected pattern instead of standard painting of the speckle pattern on her abdomen. High Speed cameras were post triggered after movements felt. Data was collected at 120 fps -limited due to 60hz frequency of projector. To ensure that kicks and movement data was real a background test was conducted with no baby movement (to correct for breathing and body motion).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  5. DNA Diagnostics: Optical or by Electronics?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah


    In this paper, we very briefly review DNA biosensors based on optical and electrical detection principles, referring mainly to our past work applying both techniques but here using nearly identical sensor chip surface architectures, i.e., capture probe layers that were prepared based on a pulsed plasma deposition protocol for maleic anhydride and subsequent wet-chemical attachment of the amine-functionalized peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe oligonucleotides. 15 mer DNA target strands, labeled with Cy5-chromophores that were attached at the 5’ end were used for surface plasmon optical detection and the same target DNA but without label was used in OTFT sensor-based detection where the mere charge density of the bound (hybridized) DNA molecules modulate the source-drain current. The sensing mechanisms and the detection limits of the devices are described in some detail. Both techniques allow for the monitoring of surface hybridization reactions, and offer the capacity to quantitatively discriminate between targets with different degrees of mismatched sequences.

  6. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.; Elliott, A.


    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented

  7. Multi-Directional Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Chvála, František; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan


    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-6 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : thermal plasma jet * optical diagnostics * Radon transform Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.493, year: 2008

  8. Optical, x-ray and microwave diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudisco, S.; Mascali, D.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM-CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95100 Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)


    Laser-driven ion acceleration is a new approach for the particles acceleration, which allows obtaining ion beams with unique properties, such as short burst duration, large particle number, small size source size, low transverse emittance. Currently, two main acceleration mechanisms have been identified and investigated: target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and radiation pressure acceleration (RPA). Electrons dynamics and energies are strongly coupled to these acceleration mechanisms and they can be investigated with optical and X-ray techniques. The main aim of these studies are the identification of few physical observables that can be directly correlated to the proton emission obtained (in terms of reproducibility and intensity) in operations with different target material and structure and laser-target interaction parameters.

  9. TV-acquired optical diagnostics systems on ATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Jackson, C.H.; Fessenden, T.J.


    The purpose of this paper is to report on optical system developments on the ATA and their applications to ATA beam characterization. Television (TV)-acquired optical diagnostics data provide spatial and temporal properties of the ATA beam that complements recorded information from other types of sensors, such as, beam-wall current monitors, x-ray probes, and rf probes. The ATA beam operates: (1) in the normal mode at 50-MeV, 10-kA at a 1-Hz rate; and (2) in the 1-KHz burst mode (for 10-pulses) at a 0.5 Hz rate. The beam has a 70-ns pulse width in vacuum propagation; however, beam-head erosion will occur in atmospheric propagation, thus limiting the pulse width to less than 50-ns. Various optical systems are used for ATA diagnostics. Optical-imaging provides a convenient measurement in a single pulse of the 2-dimensional profile of the beam intensity. It can also provide multiple 2-D framing in a single pulse. In some studies it may be desirable to study optical events with temporal resolution less than 100-ps with 1-dimensional streak cameras. Spatially integrated data from phototube cameras can also be used for background measurement applications as well as for single pixel monitoring. The optical line-of-sight (LOS) configurations have been made versatile to accommodate a large number of options for the various optical systems

  10. An Analysis of an Ultra-High Speed Content-Addressable Database Retrieval System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costianes, Peter


    ...) and its implementation as a high speed optical chip. The paradigm uses polarization states to represent binary very words and EO modulators to represent database words to perform what is essentially XOR operations...

  11. OptoCeramic-Based High Speed Fiber Multiplexer for Multimode Fiber, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fiber-based fixed-array laser transmitter can be combined with a fiber-arrayed detector to create the next-generation NASA array LIDAR systems. High speed optical...

  12. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.M.


    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  13. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut


    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  14. The Time Lens Concept Applied to Ultra-High-Speed OTDM Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Palushani, Evarist; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    This survey paper presents some of the applications where the versatile time-lens concept successfully can be applied to ultra-high-speed serial systems by offering expected needed functionalities for future optical communication networks.......This survey paper presents some of the applications where the versatile time-lens concept successfully can be applied to ultra-high-speed serial systems by offering expected needed functionalities for future optical communication networks....

  15. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains (United States)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li


    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  16. High-Speed Videography Instrumentation And Procedures (United States)

    Miller, C. E.


    High-speed videography has been an electronic analog of low-speed film cameras, but having the advantages of instant-replay and simplicity of operation. Recent advances have pushed frame-rates into the realm of the rotating prism camera. Some characteristics of videography systems are discussed in conjunction with applications in sports analysis, and with sports equipment testing.

  17. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.


    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  18. High speed photography, videography, and photonics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-19, 1987 (United States)

    Johnson, Howard C. (Editor)


    Recent advances in high-speed optical and electrooptic devices are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include data quantification and related technologies, high-speed photographic applications and instruments, flash and cine radiography, and novel ultrafast methods. Also considered are optical streak technology, high-speed videographic and photographic equipment, and X-ray streak cameras. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  19. High speed photography, videography, and photonics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-19, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.C.


    Recent advances in high-speed optical and electrooptic devices are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include data quantification and related technologies, high-speed photographic applications and instruments, flash and cine radiography, and novel ultrafast methods. Also considered are optical streak technology, high-speed videographic and photographic equipment, and X-ray streak cameras. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided

  20. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing


    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  1. Intraoral fiber optic-based diagnostic for periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P W; Gutierrez, D M; Everett, M J; Brown, S B; Langry, K C; Colston, B W; Roe, J N


    The purpose of this initial study was to begin development of a new, objective diagnostic instrument that will allow simultaneous quantitation of multiple proteases within a single periodontal pocket using a chemical fiber optic sensor. This approach could potentially be adapted to use specific antibodies and chemiluminescence to detect and quantitate virtually any compound and compare concentrations of different compounds within the same periodontal pocket. The device could also be used to assay secretions in salivary ducts or from a variety of wounds. The applicability is, therefore, not solely limited to dentistry and the device would be important both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool.

  2. Intraoral fiber-optic-based diagnostic for periodontal disease (United States)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Gutierrez, Dora M.; Everett, Matthew J.; Brown, Steve B.; Langry, Kevin C.; Cox, Weldon R.; Johnson, Paul W.; Roe, Jeffrey N.


    The purpose of this initial study was to begin development of a new, objective diagnostic instrument that will allow simultaneous quantitation of multiple proteases within a single periodontal pocket using a chemical fiber optic senor. This approach could potentially be adapted to use specific antibodies and chemiluminescence to detect and quantitate virtually any compound and compare concentrations of different compounds within the same periodontal pocket. The device could also be used to assay secretions in salivary ducts or from a variety of wounds. The applicability is, therefore, not solely limited to dentistry and the device would be important both for clinical diagnostics and as a research too.

  3. Fibre-optic laser-assisted infrared tumour diagnostics (FLAIR) (United States)

    Bindig, U.; Müller, G.


    Laser based fibre-optic surgery procedures are commonly used in minimal invasive surgery. Despite the development of precise and efficient laser systems there are also innovative attempts in the field of bio-medical diagnostics. As a direct result of the tissue's optical properties most applications are focused on the visible wavelength range of the spectrum. The extension of the spectrum up to the mid-infrared (IR) region will offer a broad range of possibilities for novel strategies with a view to non-invasive diagnostics in medicine. We describe a method to detect differences between diseased and normal tissues, which involve Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy and fibre-optics methods. Regions of interest on 10 µm thin tissue sections were mapped using an IR microscope in transmission mode. After IR-mapping, the samples were analysed using standard pathological techniques. Quadratic discriminant and correlation analyses were applied to the IR maps obtained allowing differentiation between cancerous and normal tissue. The use of optical fibres, transparent in the mid-IR, allowed measurements to be made in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-mode at a remote location. The IR sensor is in contact with the sample that shows characteristic absorption lines. The total transmission of the fibre and the sample will decrease at these lines. This method can be used to determine the absorption of a sample in a non-destructive manner. In this paper we report on our efforts to develop an IR fibre-optic sensor for tissue identification as well as to differentiate between malignant and healthy tissue in vivo. We also describe the technical design of the laboratory set-up and the results of developments made. Silver halide fibres and a special sensor tip were used for the ATR measurements on tissue specimens. The results indicate that fibre-optic IR spectrometry will be a useful tool for bio-diagnostics.

  4. Fibre-optic laser-assisted infrared tumour diagnostics (FLAIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindig, U; Mueller, G


    Laser based fibre-optic surgery procedures are commonly used in minimal invasive surgery. Despite the development of precise and efficient laser systems there are also innovative attempts in the field of bio-medical diagnostics. As a direct result of the tissue's optical properties most applications are focused on the visible wavelength range of the spectrum. The extension of the spectrum up to the mid-infrared (IR) region will offer a broad range of possibilities for novel strategies with a view to non-invasive diagnostics in medicine. We describe a method to detect differences between diseased and normal tissues, which involve Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy and fibre-optics methods. Regions of interest on 10 μm thin tissue sections were mapped using an IR microscope in transmission mode. After IR-mapping, the samples were analysed using standard pathological techniques. Quadratic discriminant and correlation analyses were applied to the IR maps obtained allowing differentiation between cancerous and normal tissue. The use of optical fibres, transparent in the mid-IR, allowed measurements to be made in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-mode at a remote location. The IR sensor is in contact with the sample that shows characteristic absorption lines. The total transmission of the fibre and the sample will decrease at these lines. This method can be used to determine the absorption of a sample in a non-destructive manner. In this paper we report on our efforts to develop an IR fibre-optic sensor for tissue identification as well as to differentiate between malignant and healthy tissue in vivo. We also describe the technical design of the laboratory set-up and the results of developments made. Silver halide fibres and a special sensor tip were used for the ATR measurements on tissue specimens. The results indicate that fibre-optic IR spectrometry will be a useful tool for bio-diagnostics

  5. A high speed digital noise generator (United States)

    Obrien, J.; Gaffney, B.; Liu, B.

    In testing of digital signal processing hardware, a high speed pseudo-random noise generator is often required to simulate an input noise source to the hardware. This allows the hardware to be exercised in a manner analogous to actual operating conditions. In certain radar and communication environments, a noise generator operating at speeds in excess of 60 MHz may be required. In this paper, a method of generating high speed pseudo-random numbers from an arbitrarily specified distribution (Gaussian, Log-Normal, etc.) using a transformation from a uniform noise source is described. A noise generator operating at 80 MHz has been constructed. Different distributions can be readily obtained by simply changing the ROM set. The hardware and test results will be described. Using this approach, the generation of pseudo-random sequences with arbitrary distributions at word rates in excess of 200 MHz can be readily achieved.

  6. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B


    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...

  7. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.


    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  8. High speed printing with polygon scan heads (United States)

    Stutz, Glenn


    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  9. Data Capture Technique for High Speed Signaling (United States)

    Barrett, Wayne Melvin; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul William; Gara, Alan Gene; Jackson, Rory; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent; Nathanson, Ben Jesse; Vranas, Paylos Michael; Takken, Todd E.


    A data capture technique for high speed signaling to allow for optimal sampling of an asynchronous data stream. This technique allows for extremely high data rates and does not require that a clock be sent with the data as is done in source synchronous systems. The present invention also provides a hardware mechanism for automatically adjusting transmission delays for optimal two-bit simultaneous bi-directional (SiBiDi) signaling.

  10. Development of high-speed video cameras (United States)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk


    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  11. Design of a high speed rotating mechanical shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Merritt, B.T.; McFann, C.B.


    A high-speed rotating shutter was designed to operate in a 10 -6 Torr vacuum at the optical focus of a laser spatial filter. The shutter is basically a wheel, with a single 3 x 10-mm slot at the perimeter, which rotates with a peripheral speed of 1 km/s. The motor to drive the rotating wheel is magnetically suspended and synchronously wound. The wheel achieves a 4 μs opening time and a timing accuracy of better than 0.2 μs

  12. Design and engineering of optical diagnostics for COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Naydenkova, Diana; Stöckel, Jan; Ďuran, Ivan; Walsh, M.J.


    Roč. 84, 7-11 (2009), s. 1755-1758 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology(SOFT-25) /25th./. Rostock, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * tokamak * optical diagnostic * Thomson scattering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2009

  13. Correlation diagnostics of random spatially nonuniform optical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel'skii, O.V.


    This review examines some questions concerning the capabilities of interference and polarization-interference correlation diagnostics of the amplitude-phase characteristics of random optical fields for the purpose of identifying these fields and then studying the corresponding objects. The diagnostics of random phase objects is discussed separately in the case in which the phase dispersion of the inhomogeneities is less than and greater than one. The outlook is promising for the use of the correlation dimensionality of chaos in a field as a diagnostic parameter. It is also shown that the use of interference principles for a parallel processing of large data files can substantially increase the speed of processing systems. 32 refs., 8 figs

  14. Application of oblique plane microscopy to high speed live cell imaging (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Wilding, Dean; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris


    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. We present high speed 2D and 3D optically sectioned OPM imaging of live cells using a high NA water immersion lens.

  15. High-Speed Operation of Interband Cascade Lasers (United States)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Wright, Malcom W.; Farr, William H.; Yang, Rui Q.; Liu, H. C.


    Optical sources operating in the atmospheric window of 3-5 microns are of particular interest for the development of free-space optical communication link. It is more advantageous to operate the free-space optical communication link in 3-5-microns atmospheric transmission window than at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 m due to lower optical scattering, scintillation, and background radiation. However, the realization of optical communications at the longer wavelength has encountered significant difficulties due to lack of adequate optical sources and detectors operating in the desirable wavelength regions. Interband Cascade (IC) lasers are novel semiconductor lasers that have a great potential for the realization of high-power, room-temperature optical sources in the 3-5-microns wavelength region, yet no experimental work, until this one, was done on high-speed direct modulation of IC lasers. Here, highspeed interband cascade laser, operating at wavelength 3.0 m, has been developed and the first direct measurement of the laser modulation bandwidth has been performed using a unique, highspeed quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The developed laser has modulation bandwidth exceeding 3 GHz. This constitutes a significant increase of the IC laser modulation bandwidth over currently existing devices. This result has demonstrated suitability of IC lasers as a mid-IR light source for multi-GHz free-space optical communications links

  16. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, B.R.


    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  17. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, B.R.


    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  18. Combustion behaviors of GO2/GH2 swirl-coaxial injector using non-intrusive optical diagnostics (United States)

    GuoBiao, Cai; Jian, Dai; Yang, Zhang; NanJia, Yu


    This research evaluates the combustion behaviors of a single-element, swirl-coaxial injector in an atmospheric combustion chamber with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as the propellants. A brief simulated flow field schematic comparison between a shear-coaxial injector and the swirl-coaxial injector reveals the distribution characteristics of the temperature field and streamline patterns. Advanced optical diagnostics, i.e., OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and high-speed imaging, are simultaneously employed to determine the OH radical spatial distribution and flame fluctuations, respectively. The present study focuses on the flame structures under varying O/F mixing ratios and center oxygen swirl intensities. The combined use of several image-processing methods aimed at OH instantaneous images, including time-averaged, root-mean-square, and gradient transformation, provides detailed information regarding the distribution of the flow field. The results indicate that the shear layers anchored on the oxygen injector lip are the main zones of chemical heat release and that the O/F mixing ratio significantly affects the flame shape. Furthermore, with high-speed imaging, an intuitionistic ignition process and several consecutive steady-state images reveal that lean conditions make it easy to drive the combustion instabilities and that the center swirl intensity has a moderate influence on the flame oscillation strength. The results of this study provide a visualized analysis for future optimal swirl-coaxial injector designs.

  19. Real time data compactor (sparsifier) and 8 megabyte high speed FIFO for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.E.; Knickerbocker, K.L.; Wegner, C.R.; Baumbaugh, B.W.; Ruchti, R.


    A Video-Data-Acquisition-System (VDAS) has been developed to record image data from a scintillating glass fiber-optic target developed for High Energy Physics. The major components of the VDAS are a flash ADC, a ''real time'' high speed data compactor, and high speed 8 megabyte FIFO memory. The data rates through the system are in excess of 30 megabytes/second. The compactor is capable of reducing the amount of data needed to reconstruct typical images by as much as a factor of 20. The FIFO uses only standard NMOS DRAMS and TTL components to achieve its large size and high speed at relatively low power and cost

  20. High-speed cinematography of gas-tungsten arc welding: theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, L.D.; Key, J.F.


    High-speed photo-instrumentation theory and application are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-speed cinematography, for the engineer who has not acquired an extensive background in scientific photography. Camera systems, optics, timing system, lighting, photometric equipment, filters, and camera mounts are covered. Manufacturers and other resource material are listed in the Appendices. The properties and processing of photosensitive materials suitable for high-speed photography are reviewed, and selected film data are presented. Methods are described for both qualitative and quantitative film analysis. This technology is applied to the problem of analyzing plasma dynamics in a gas-tungsten welding arc.

  1. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huey, Bryan D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  2. High-speed photography. Technique and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Tembleque, R.


    It is intended to present some general considerations about ''Higg-speed photography'' as a tool of work common in mos research laboratories in the world. ''High-speed photography'' relies on the principles of photography of actions, that change rapidly with the time. The evolution of this technique goes along with the discovering of new phenomena in wich higher speeds are involved. At present is normal to deal with changing rates involving picoseconds times (10 -12 s) and new developments on the field of femtosecond (10 -15 s) theoretically are contemplated. (author)

  3. Continuous QKD and high speed data encryption (United States)

    Zbinden, Hugo; Walenta, Nino; Guinnard, Olivier; Houlmann, Raphael; Wen, Charles Lim Ci; Korzh, Boris; Lunghi, Tommaso; Gisin, Nicolas; Burg, Andreas; Constantin, Jeremy; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Caselunghe, Dario; Kulesza, Natalia; Trolliet, Gregory; Vannel, Fabien; Junod, Pascal; Auberson, Olivier; Graf, Yoan; Curchod, Gilles; Habegger, Gilles; Messerli, Etienne; Portmann, Christopher; Henzen, Luca; Keller, Christoph; Pendl, Christian; Mühlberghuber, Michael; Roth, Christoph; Felber, Norbert; Gürkaynak, Frank; Schöni, Daniel; Muheim, Beat


    We present the results of a Swiss project dedicated to the development of high speed quantum key distribution and data encryption. The QKD engine features fully automated key exchange, hardware key distillation based on finite key security analysis, efficient authentication and wavelength division multiplexing of the quantum and the classical channel and one-time pas encryption. The encryption device allows authenticated symmetric key encryption (e.g AES) at rates of up to 100 Gb/s. A new quantum key can uploaded up to 1000 times second from the QKD engine.

  4. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beele, W. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eschendorff, G. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eldim BV (Netherlands)


    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu


    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  6. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru


    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  7. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, P.


    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs

  8. High-speed reconstruction of compressed images (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.


    A compression scheme is described that allows high-definition radiological images with greater than 8-bit intensity resolution to be represented by 8-bit pixels. Reconstruction of the images with their original intensity resolution can be carried out by means of a pipeline architecture suitable for compact, high-speed implementation. A reconstruction system is described that can be fabricated according to this approach and placed between an 8-bit display buffer and the display's video system thereby allowing contrast control of images at video rates. Results for 50 CR chest images are described showing that error-free reconstruction of the original 10-bit CR images can be achieved.

  9. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.


    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  10. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beele, W.; Eschendorff, G.


    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Recent Developments In High Speed Lens Design At The NPRL (United States)

    Mcdowell, M. W.; Klee, H. W.


    Although the lens provides the link between the high speed camera and the outside world, there has over the years been little evidence of co-operation between the optical design and high speed photography communities. It is still only too common for a manufacturer to develop a camera of improved performance and resolution and then to combine this with a standard camera lens. These lenses were often designed for a completely different recording medium and, more often than not, their use results in avoidable degradation of the overall system performance. There is a tendency to assume that a specialized lens would be too expensive and that pushing the aperture automatically implies more complex optical systems. In the present paper some recent South African developments in the design of large aperture lenses are described. The application of a new design principle, based on the work earlier this century of Bernhard Schmidt, shows that ultra-fast lenses need not be overly complex and a basic four-element lens configuration can be adapted to a wide variety of applications.

  12. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  13. Application of polarization in high speed, high contrast inspection (United States)

    Novak, Matthew J.


    Industrial optical inspection often requires high speed and high throughput of materials. Engineers use a variety of techniques to handle these inspection needs. Some examples include line scan cameras, high speed multi-spectral and laser-based systems. High-volume manufacturing presents different challenges for inspection engineers. For example, manufacturers produce some components in quantities of millions per month, per week or even per day. Quality control of so many parts requires creativity to achieve the measurement needs. At times, traditional vision systems lack the contrast to provide the data required. In this paper, we show how dynamic polarization imaging captures high contrast images. These images are useful for engineers to perform inspection tasks in some cases where optical contrast is low. We will cover basic theory of polarization. We show how to exploit polarization as a contrast enhancement technique. We also show results of modeling for a polarization inspection application. Specifically, we explore polarization techniques for inspection of adhesives on glass.

  14. High-speed elevators controlled by inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi


    The super-high-speed elevator with superiority to 300m/min of speed, requires both the large capacity power and wide range speed controls. Therefore, in order to materialize the smooth and quiet operation characteristics, by applying the inverter control, the low torque ripple control in the low frequency range and high frequency large capacity inverting for lowering the motor in noise are necessary with their being assured of reliability. To satisfy the above necessary items, together with the development of a sine wave pulse width and frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) control system, to more precisely enable the sine wave electric current control, and 3kHz switching power converter, using a 800A power transistor module, a supervoltage control circuit under the extraordinary condition was designed. As a result of commercializing a 360m/min super-high speed inverter elevator, the power source unit, due to the effect of high power factor, could be reduced by 30% in capacity and also the higher harmonic wave including ratio could be considerably lowered to the inferiority to 5%. 2 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.


    Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. High-speed motion neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Barton, J.P.; Robinson, A.H.


    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames. Synchronization has provided high-speed motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycles of 7.62-mm munition rounds within a thick steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate its ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two-phase flow. The equipment includes a TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to a peak power of 3000 MW, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16-mm high-speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is about 4 X 10 11 n/cm 2 X s with a pulse, full-width at half-maximum, of 9 ms. Modulation transfer function techniques have been used to assist optimization of the system performance. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on information availability

  17. Optical beam diagnostics at the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Sven


    At the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA, a resonant excitation of the horizontal particle oscillations is used to extract the electrons to the experiments. This so-called resonance extraction influences the properties of the extracted beam. The emittance, as a number of the beam quality, was determined by using synchrotron light monitors. To enable broad investigations of the emittance a system of synchrotron light monitors was set up. This system was used to measure the influence of the extraction method on the emittance. Time resolved measurements were conducted to investigate the development of the emittance during an accelerator cycle. To improve the optical beam diagnostics a new beamline to an external laboratory was constructed. There, a new high resolution synchrotron light monitor was commissioned. In addition, a streak camera has been installed to enable longitudinal diagnostics of the beam profiles. First measurements of the longitudinal charge distribution with a time resolution in the range of a few picoseconds were conducted successfully.

  18. Diode Laser Diagnostics of High Speed Flows (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Skip; Barone, Dominic; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Lin, K. C; Masterson, Pat; Zhao, Qingchun; Sappey, Andrew D


    ... of 60,000-90,000 ft with an average Mach number of 7.5 over this range. The concept involves the direct measurement of oxygen concentration via absorption spectroscopy, and gas velocity via the Doppler shift of laser light transiting the flowpath...

  19. Optical diagnostics of streamer discharges in atmospheric gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan


    Roč. 47, č. 46 (2014), s. 463001-463001 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/1709 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * optical diagnostics * laser-induced fluorescence * LIF * TALIF * red-sprite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2014

  20. High-speed AFM for Studying Dynamic Biomolecular Processes (United States)

    Ando, Toshio


    Biological molecules show their vital activities only in aqueous solutions. It had been one of dreams in biological sciences to directly observe biological macromolecules (protein, DNA) at work under a physiological condition because such observation is straightforward to understanding their dynamic behaviors and functional mechanisms. Optical microscopy has no sufficient spatial resolution and electron microscopy is not applicable to in-liquid samples. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can visualize molecules in liquids at high resolution but its imaging rate was too low to capture dynamic biological processes. This slow imaging rate is because AFM employs mechanical probes (cantilevers) and mechanical scanners to detect the sample height at each pixel. It is quite difficult to quickly move a mechanical device of macroscopic size with sub-nanometer accuracy without producing unwanted vibrations. It is also difficult to maintain the delicate contact between a probe tip and fragile samples. Two key techniques are required to realize high-speed AFM for biological research; fast feedback control to maintain a weak tip-sample interaction force and a technique to suppress mechanical vibrations of the scanner. Various efforts have been carried out in the past decade to materialize high-speed AFM. The current high-speed AFM can capture images on video at 30-60 frames/s for a scan range of 250nm and 100 scan lines, without significantly disturbing week biomolecular interaction. Our recent studies demonstrated that this new microscope can reveal biomolecular processes such as myosin V walking along actin tracks and association/dissociation dynamics of chaperonin GroEL-GroES that occurs in a negatively cooperative manner. The capacity of nanometer-scale visualization of dynamic processes in liquids will innovate on biological research. In addition, it will open a new way to study dynamic chemical/physical processes of various phenomena that occur at the liquid-solid interfaces.

  1. High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Wang, S.L.


    Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)

  2. A large capacity, high-speed multiparameter multichannel analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.W.; Suehiro, S.; Seeger, P.A.; Scheer, J.W.


    A data acquisition system for recording multiparameter digital data into a large memory array at over 2.5 MHz is described. The system consists of a MOSTEK MK 8600 2048 K x 24-bit memory system, I/O ports to various external devices including the CAMAC dataway, a memory incrementer/adder and a daisy-chain of experiment-specific modules which calculate the memory address which is to be incremented. The design of the daisy-chain permits multiple modules and provides for easy modification as experimental needs change. The system has been designed for use in multiparameter, multichannel analysis of high-speed data gathered by position-sensitive detectors at conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources as well as for fixed energy and time-of-flight diffraction at continuous and pulsed neutron sources. Modules which have been developed to date include a buffer for two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, a mapper for high-speed coordinate transformations, a buffered time-of-flight clock, a time-correlator for synchronized diffraction experiments, and a display unit for data bus diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  5. High-speed Maglev studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.L.; Eastham, A.R.


    This paper reports on Canadian studies of superconducting magnetic levitation and variable-speed linear synchronous motor propulsion for high-speed inter-city guided ground transport. Levitation is obtained by the interaction of vehicle-mounted superconducting magnets and the eddy currents induced in aluminium strip conductors on the guideway. Non-contact propulsion by linear synchronous motor (LSM) is obtained by using vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and powered guideway coils. A suggested guidance scheme uses a flat guideway with 'null-flux' loops overlying the LSM windings. The propulsion magnets interact with the loops and the edges of the levitation strips to provide lateral stabilization. The test facility is a 7.6m wheel, rotating with a peripheral speed of 33m/s. (author)

  6. Inlet design for high-speed propfans (United States)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.


    A two-part study was performed to design inlets for high-speed propfan installation. The first part was a parametric study to select promising inlet concepts. A wide range of inlet geometries was examined and evaluated - primarily on the basis of cruise thrust and fuel burn performance. Two inlet concepts were than chosen for more detailed design studies - one apropriate to offset engine/gearbox arrangements and the other to in-line arrangements. In the second part of this study, inlet design points were chosen to optimize the net installed thrust, and detailed design of the two inlet configurations was performed. An analytical methodology was developed to account for propfan slipstream effects, transonic flow efects, and three-dimensional geometry effects. Using this methodology, low drag cowls were designed for the two inlets.

  7. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  8. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this proposal is to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight,...

  9. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations (United States)


    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  10. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy. (United States)


    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  11. Applications of optical fibers in nuclear test diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Hodson, E.K.; Looney, L.D.


    Two new plasma diagnostic experiments have been successfully fielded on nuclear device tests at NTS. Both systems rely on the unique advantages provided by optical fiber technology and both systems provide new diagnostic capabilities that previously were beyond the state-of-the-art in coaxial cable systems. One system addresses the need to record e wide bandwidth data on gamma-ray sources. Over the long (< 1 km) distances that characterize NTS testing, the bandwidth of coaxial cable systems is usually limited to < 200 to 400 MHz even with extensive equalization. The new system uses the Cerenkov process to generate light in a converter material. High bandwidth fibers and detectors are used to approach a 1-GHz bandwidth. In this case fibers provided the bandwidth capability. The second system provides time and space resolution of a neutron source on a fast (ns) time scale. Previous systems have utilized either an array of neutron detectors with individual coaxial cables or a fast scintillator viewed by a gated image intensifier. For a large number of channels, the coaxial system becomes very costly and is subject to potentially severe EMI concerns. The gated intensifier system requires complex electronics and accurate timing and can be affected by EMI. An alternative system is described which provides continuous time coverage with limited spatial resolution. Complete freedom from EMI is achieved through the use of optical data collection and transmission. The optical fibers offered a major (2 to 3 times) cost savings and a large weight savings relative to the coax system. Each system is discussed

  12. Fiber Optic Strain Sensor for Planetary Gear Diagnostics (United States)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Lewicki, David G.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; Ehinger, Ryan T.; Fetty, Jason


    This paper presents a new sensing approach for helicopter damage detection in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission based on a fiber optic strain sensor array. Complete helicopter transmission damage detection has proven itself a difficult task due to the complex geometry of the planetary reduction stage. The crowded and complex nature of the gearbox interior does not allow for attachment of sensors within the rotating frame. Hence, traditional vibration-based diagnostics are instead based on measurements from externally mounted sensors, typically accelerometers, fixed to the gearbox exterior. However, this type of sensor is susceptible to a number of external disturbances that can corrupt the data, leading to false positives or missed detection of potentially catastrophic faults. Fiber optic strain sensors represent an appealing alternative to the accelerometer. Their small size and multiplexibility allows for potentially greater sensing resolution and accuracy, as well as redundancy, when employed as an array of sensors. The work presented in this paper is focused on the detection of gear damage in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission using a fiber optic strain sensor band. The sensor band includes an array of 13 strain sensors, and is mounted on the ring gear of a Bell Helicopter OH-58C transmission. Data collected from the sensor array is compared to accelerometer data, and the damage detection results are presented

  13. Simultaneous two-phase flow measurement of spray mixing process by means of high-speed two-color PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Xu, Min; Hung, David L S


    In this article, a novel high-speed two-color PIV optical diagnostic technique has been developed and applied to simultaneously measure the velocity flow-fields of a multi-hole spark-ignition direct injection (SIDI) fuel injector spray and its ambient gas in a high-pressure constant volume chamber. To allow for the phase discrimination between the fuel droplets and ambient gas, a special tracer-filter system was designed. Fluorescent seeding particles with Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of 4.8 µm were used to trace the gas inside the chamber. With a single high-speed Nd:YLF laser sheet (527 nm) as the incident light source, the Mie-scattering signal marked the phase of the fuel spray, while the fluorescent signal generated from the seeding particles tracked the phase of ambient gas. A high-speed camera, with an image-doubler (mounted in front of the camera lens) that divided the camera pixels into two parts focusing on the same field of view, was used to collect the Mie-scattering signal and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) signal simultaneously with two carefully selected optical filters. To accommodate the large dynamic range of velocities in the two phases (1–2 orders of magnitude difference), two separation times (dt) were introduced. This technique was successfully applied to the liquid spray and ambient gas two-phase flow measurement. The measurement accuracy was compared with those from LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) measurement and good agreement was obtained. Ambient gas motion surrounding the fuel spray was investigated and characterized into three zones. The momentum transfer process between the fuel spray and ambient gas in each zone was analyzed. The two-phase flow interaction under various superheated conditions was investigated. A strengthened momentum transfer from the liquid spray to the ambient was observed with increased superheat degree. (paper)

  14. Florida intercity high speed rail passenger service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T.; Watford, S.; Moore, G.; Des, A. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Plans for a new high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system in Florida were reviewed. HSR is believed to be the least expensive, most energy-efficient and least environmentally harmful alternative to air and highway travel. The system in Florida will be used as a case study to determine its overall impact on the environment, people and economy. The 300-plus mile system will move travelers at speeds of over 200 mph between Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. The study will identify the impacts of a HSR system on existing transportation networks, environment, energy, growth and growth distribution, safety, economy, travel time, and tourism. Transportation problems and the innovative mechanisms needed to realize the joint public and private venture approach to planning, locating, permitting, managing, financing, constructing and maintaining an inter-regional HSR line for the state were studied. The all-electric train would greatly help the environment in two ways: (1) zero emissions from the train itself, and (2) the reduction of trips by automobile and aircraft would reduce the amount of fuel and energy being used. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Design of very high speed electric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labollita, Santiago


    This work approaches the design process of an electric generator suitable for running efficiently at high speed, driven by a turbo shaft.The axial flux concept was used.For the mechanical design of the prototype, cooling capacity and mounting method were considered, looking for simplicity of the parts evolved. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets were used as magnetic source.For the electrical design, a calculation tool was developed in order to predict the prototype electrical parameters and optimize its geometry.The goal was to obtain 1 kW of electric power at a speed of 100,000 rpm.The efficiency and electrical behaviour of the prototype were characterized at speeds between 2,000 rpm and 30,000 rpm and then the behaviour at the design condition was predicted by obtaining an equivalent electric circuit.The estimated load voltage was 237 V as well as an electrical efficiency of 95%.Eddy current effects were not recognized. Increase of the internal resistance and decree of inductance were observed while raising the electric frequency.Finally, an electronic system was developed in order to use the prototype as a c.c. motor. Global performance was measured according to different supply characteristic. An optimum supply voltage was found.A maximum efficiency of 63% was reached. [es

  16. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  17. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.


    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  18. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R


    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  19. Material constraints on high-speed design (United States)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae


    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  20. Tooling device design for vibration-assisted high speed shaping of PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam; Noh, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Ahn, J. H.; Kang, D. B.


    PMMA optical components that are used as one of the most important parts of high precision equipment and machines are increasingly replacing the glass due to the various advantages of PMMA. Especially in Light Guide Panels, the PMMA sheet that is used in Liquid Crystal Displays plays an important role in scattering the incident light and requires very fine machining as the sheet is directly related to the optical characteristics of the panels. The High Speed End milling and High Speed Shaping processes that are widely adopted and applied to the precise machining of Light Incident Plane still have quality problems, such as cracks, breakages, poor waviness, and straightness. This paper presents the tooling device design for machining a Light Incident Plane through vibration-assisted High Speed Shaping for increasing the optical quality by minimizing the above-mentioned problems. The cutting tool and the tool post presented in this paper are designed by the authors to increase the magnitude of the cutting stroke by adopting the resonant frequency without weakening the stiffness and to reduce vibrations during even high speed feeding. The dynamic characteristics of the cutting tool and the tool post are evaluated through simulation and experiment as well. The results reveal very appropriate dynamic characteristics for vibration-assisted High Speed Shaping

  1. PhC-4 new high-speed camera with mirror scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, A.O.; Belov, B.G.


    The description of the optical system and the construction of the high-speed PhC-4 photographic camera with mirror scanning of the continuously operating type is given. The optical system of the camera is based on the foursided rotating mirror, two optical inlets and two working sectors. The PhC-4 camera provides the framing rate up to 600 thousand frames per second. (author)

  2. The high speed civil transport and NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) program (United States)

    Shaw, Robert J.


    Ongoing studies being conducted not only in this country but in Europe and Asia suggest that a second generation supersonic transport, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could become an important part of the 21st century international air transportation system. However, major environmental compatibility and economic viability issues must be resolved if the HSCT is to become a reality. This talk will overview the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program which is aimed at providing the U.S. industry with a technology base to allow them to consider launching an HSCT program early in the next century. The talk will also discuss some of the comparable activities going on within Europe and Japan.

  3. Application of optical phase conjugation to plasma diagnostics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.; Anderson, B.T.; Forman, P.R.; Weber, P.G.


    Several possibilities for plasma diagnostics provided by optical phase conjugation and, in particular, self-pumped phase conjugation in barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) are discussed. These include placing a plasma within a dye laser cavity equipped with a phase conjugate mirror for intracavity absorption measurements, time differential refractometry with high spatial resolution, and simplified real-time holographic interferometry. The principles of phase conjugation with particular reference to photorefractive media and the special advantages of self-pumped phase conjugation are reviewed prior to the discussion of the applications. Distinctions are made in the applications between those for which photorefractive conjugators are essential and those for which they only offer experimental simplification relative to other types of phase conjugators

  4. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology


    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  5. The role of high speed photography in plasma instability research on the AEC tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Coster, D.P.; De Villiers, J.A.M.; Kotze, P.B.; Nothnagel, G.; O'Mahony, J.R.; Roberts, D.E.; Sherwell, D.


    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in fusion research devices like tokamaks. Such a system has been installed on the AEC tokamak. This paper reports some preliminary results obtained during typical plasma discharges

  6. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael


    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  7. Optical diagnostics on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) (United States)

    Boguski, J. C.; Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Dunn, J. P.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Gao, K. W.


    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory was built to investigate the physics of high Alfvén Mach number, supercritical, magnetized shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid against a magnetic mirror and/or plasma target. A suite of optical diagnostics has recently been fielded on MSX to characterize plasma conditions during the formation, acceleration, and stagnation phases of the experiment. CCD-backed streak and framing cameras, and a fiber-based visible light array, provide information regarding FRC shape, velocity, and instability growth. Time-resolved narrow and broadband spectroscopy provides information on pre-shock plasma temperature, impurity levels, shock location, and non-thermal ion distributions within the shock region. Details of the diagnostic design, configuration, and characterization will be presented along with initial results. This work is supported by the Center for Magnetic Self Organization, DoE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369. Approved for public release: LA-UR- 13-25190.

  8. Dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs (United States)

    Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.


    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, development and production (especially mass production) of LED lighting devices are impossible without a thorough analysis of its parameters and characteristics. There are many ways and devices for analysis the spatial, energy and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. The most methods are intended for definition only one parameter (for example, luminous flux) or one characteristic (for example, the angular distribution of energy or the spectral characteristics). Besides, devices used these methods are intended for measuring parameters in only one point or plane. This problem can be solved by using a dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs, developed by specialists of the department OEDS chair of ITMO University in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial (angular), energy and color parameters by using mentioned of diagnostics system. The article also presents the results of spatial), energy and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  9. Development of time-resolved optical measurement and diagnostic system for parameters of high current and pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaoguo; Wang Yuan; Yang Guojun; Xia Liansheng; Li Hong; Zhang Zhuo; Liao Shuqing; Shi Jinshui


    The beam parameters measurement is the most important work for the study of linear induction accelerator(LIA). The beam parameters are important to evaluate the character of the beam. The demands of beam parameters measurement are improving while the development of accelerator is improving. The measurement difficulty feature higher time-resolved ability, higher spatial resolution, larger dynamic range and higher intuitionistic view data. The measurement technology of beam spot, beam emittance, beam energy have been developed for the past several years. Some high performance equipment such as high speed framing camera are developed recently. Under this condition, the relative integrated optical measurement and diagnostic system for the beam parameters is developed based on several principles. The system features time-resolved ability of up to 2 ns, high sensitivity and large dynamic range. The processing program is compiled for the data process and the local real-time process is reached. The measurement and diagnostic system has provided full and accurate data for the debug work and has been put into applications. (authors)

  10. High Speed Dynamics in Brittle Materials (United States)

    Hiermaier, Stefan


    Brittle Materials under High Speed and Shock loading provide a continuous challenge in experimental physics, analysis and numerical modelling, and consequently for engineering design. The dependence of damage and fracture processes on material-inherent length and time scales, the influence of defects, rate-dependent material properties and inertia effects on different scales make their understanding a true multi-scale problem. In addition, it is not uncommon that materials show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior when the loading rate is increased. A particular case is spallation, a brittle tensile failure induced by the interaction of stress waves leading to a sudden change from compressive to tensile loading states that can be invoked in various materials. This contribution highlights typical phenomena occurring when brittle materials are exposed to high loading rates in applications such as blast and impact on protective structures, or meteorite impact on geological materials. A short review on experimental methods that are used for dynamic characterization of brittle materials will be given. A close interaction of experimental analysis and numerical simulation has turned out to be very helpful in analyzing experimental results. For this purpose, adequate numerical methods are required. Cohesive zone models are one possible method for the analysis of brittle failure as long as some degree of tension is present. Their recent successful application for meso-mechanical simulations of concrete in Hopkinson-type spallation tests provides new insight into the dynamic failure process. Failure under compressive loading is a particular challenge for numerical simulations as it involves crushing of material which in turn influences stress states in other parts of a structure. On a continuum scale, it can be modeled using more or less complex plasticity models combined with failure surfaces, as will be demonstrated for ceramics. Models which take microstructural

  11. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale


    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  12. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, T.; Odstrčil, Michal; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V.; Ďuran, Ivan; Mlynář, Jan


    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2012), 10E505-10E505 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/19./. Monterey, 06.05.2012-10.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostic * high speed camera * GOLEM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012

  13. Application of Fabry-Perot velocimeter to high-speed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw, H.H.; McMillan, C.F.; Osher, J.E.


    The Fabry-Perot (F-P) velocimeter is a useful instrument for measuring the velocity of objects at speeds ranging from fractions of a kilometer per second to a few tens of kilometers per second and up. Because of its immunity to electromagnetic interference and its velocity resolution, it has become the prime diagnostic tool in our electric-gun facility. Examples of its application to high speed experiments are discussed, including: electric-gun flyer studies, spallation of materials under high-speed impact, momentum-transfer studies, pressure pulse created by high-velocity impact, and detonation-wave studies in high-explosive experiments

  14. High speed operation of permanent magnet machines (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman M.

    This work proposes methods to extend the high-speed operating capabilities of both the interior PM (IPM) and surface PM (SPM) machines. For interior PM machines, this research has developed and presented the first thorough analysis of how a new bi-state magnetic material can be usefully applied to the design of IPM machines. Key elements of this contribution include identifying how the unique properties of the bi-state magnetic material can be applied most effectively in the rotor design of an IPM machine by "unmagnetizing" the magnet cavity center posts rather than the outer bridges. The importance of elevated rotor speed in making the best use of the bi-state magnetic material while recognizing its limitations has been identified. For surface PM machines, this research has provided, for the first time, a clear explanation of how fractional-slot concentrated windings can be applied to SPM machines in order to achieve the necessary conditions for optimal flux weakening. A closed-form analytical procedure for analyzing SPM machines designed with concentrated windings has been developed. Guidelines for designing SPM machines using concentrated windings in order to achieve optimum flux weakening are provided. Analytical and numerical finite element analysis (FEA) results have provided promising evidence of the scalability of the concentrated winding technique with respect to the number of poles, machine aspect ratio, and output power rating. Useful comparisons between the predicted performance characteristics of SPM machines equipped with concentrated windings and both SPM and IPM machines designed with distributed windings are included. Analytical techniques have been used to evaluate the impact of the high pole number on various converter performance metrics. Both analytical techniques and FEA have been used for evaluating the eddy-current losses in the surface magnets due to the stator winding subharmonics. Techniques for reducing these losses have been

  15. The development of high-speed 100 fps CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffberg, M.; Laird, R.; Lenkzsus, F.; Liu, C.; Rodricks, B.


    This paper describes the development of a high-speed CCD digital camera system. The system has been designed to use CCDs from various manufacturers with minimal modifications. The first camera built on this design utilizes a Thomson 512 x 512 pixel CCD as its sensor, which is read out from two parallel outputs at a speed of 15 MHz/pixel/output. The data undergo correlated double sampling after which it is digitized into 12 bits. The throughput of the system translates into 60 MB/second, which is either stored directly in a PC or transferred to a custom-designed VXI module. The PC data acquisition version of the camera can collect sustained data in real time that is limited to the memory installed in the PC. The VXI version of the camera, also controlled by a PC, stores 512 MB of real-time data before it must be read out to the PC disk storage. The uncooled CCD can be used either with lenses for visible light imaging or with a phosphor screen for X-ray imaging. This camera has been tested with a phosphor screen coupled to a fiber-optic face plate for high-resolution, high-speed X-ray imaging. The camera is controlled through a custom event-driven user-friendly Windows package. The pixel clock speed can be changed from 1 to 15 MHz. The noise was measured to be 1.05 bits at a 13.3 MHz pixel clock. This paper will describe the electronics, software, and characterizations that have been performed using both visible and X-ray photons. (orig.)

  16. High-speed ultra-wideband wireless signals over fiber systems: Photonic generation and DSP detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We firstly review the efforts in the literature on UWB over-fiber systems. Secondly, we present experimental results on photonic generation of high-speed UWB signals by both direct modulation and external optical injecting an uncooled semiconductor laser. Furthermore, we introduce the use of digi...

  17. Monitoring and data acquisition of the high speed hydrogen pellet in SPINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti, E-mail:; Mishra, Jyotishankar; Gangradey, Ranjana; Dutta, Pramit; Rastogi, Naveen; Panchal, Paresh; Nayak, Pratik; Agarwal, Jyoti; Bairagi, Pawan; Patel, Haresh; Sharma, Hardik


    Highlights: • Pellet INjector System with monitoring and data acquisition is described. • A high speed camera was used to view pellet size, and its flight trajectory. • PXI based high speed control system is used data acquisition. • Pellets of length 2–4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were obtained. - Abstract: Injection of solid hydrogen pellets is an efficient way of replenishing the spent fuel in high temperature plasmas. Aiming that, a Single Pellet INjector System (SPINS) is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, to initiate pellet injection related research in SST-1. The pellet injector is controlled by a PXI system based data acquisition and control (DAC) system for pellet formation, precise firing control, data collection and diagnostics. The velocity of high speed moving pellets is estimated by using two sets of light gate diagnostic. Apart from light gate, a fast framing camera is used to measure the pellet size and its speed. The pellet images are captured at a frame rate of ∼200,000 frames per second at (128 × 64) pixel resolution with an exposure time of 1 μs. Using these diagnostic, various cylindrical pellets of length ranging from 2 to 4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were successfully obtained. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system of SPINS, the techniques for measurement of pellet velocity and capturing images of high speed moving pellet.

  18. Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels. (United States)

    Lee, Sunki; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Song, Joon Woo; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Oh, Dong Joo; Park, Kyeongsoon; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won


    Lipid-rich inflamed coronary plaques are prone to rupture. The purpose of this study was to assess lipid-rich inflamed plaques in vivo using fully integrated high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging with a Food and Drug Administration-approved indocyanine green (ICG). An integrated high-speed intravascular OCT/NIRF imaging catheter and a dual-modal OCT/NIRF system were constructed based on a clinical OCT platform. For imaging lipid-rich inflamed plaques, the Food and Drug Administration-approved NIRF-emitting ICG (2.25 mg/kg) or saline was injected intravenously into rabbit models with experimental atheromata induced by balloon injury and 12- to 14-week high-cholesterol diets. Twenty minutes after injection, in vivo OCT/NIRF imaging of the infrarenal aorta and iliac arteries was acquired only under contrast flushing through catheter (pullback speed up to ≤20 mm/s). NIRF signals were strongly detected in the OCT-visualized atheromata of the ICG-injected rabbits. The in vivo NIRF target-to-background ratio was significantly larger in the ICG-injected rabbits than in the saline-injected controls (Pfluorescence reflectance imaging, which correlated well with the in vivo target-to-background ratios (Pfluorescence microscopy, and histopathology also corroborated the in vivo imaging findings. Integrated OCT/NIRF structural/molecular imaging with a Food and Drug Administration -approved ICG accurately identified lipid-rich inflamed atheromata in coronary-sized vessels. This highly translatable dual-modal imaging approach could enhance our capabilities to detect high-risk coronary plaques. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  20. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.


    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  1. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at a...

  2. A Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming


    Zittel, G.


    This paper will present a Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming beginning with the first thought of forming metal by using an electromagnetic impulse to today, whereby High Speed Metal Forming is an accepted production process. Although this paper will briefly cover the basic physics of the process, it will not dwell on it. It will rather show how the industrial acceptance of High Speed Metal Forming is tightly connected to the knowledge acquired from many applications studies. These ...

  3. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.


    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  4. Development and characterization of high-frequency resonance-enhanced microjet actuators for control of high-speed jets (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja; Gustavsson, Jonas P. R.; Alvi, Farrukh S.


    For flow control applications requiring high-frequency excitation, very few actuators have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in high-speed flows. Due to this reason, experiments involving high-frequency excitation, attempted in the past, have been limited to either low-frequency actuation with reasonable control authority or moderate-frequency actuation with limited control authority. The current work expands on the previous development of the resonance-enhanced microactuators to design actuators that are capable of producing high-amplitude pulses at much higher frequencies [{O} (10 kHz)]. Using lumped element modeling, two actuators have been designed with nominal frequencies of 20 and 50 kHz. Extensive benchtop characterization using acoustic measurements as well as optical diagnostics using a high-resolution micro-schlieren setup is employed to characterize the dynamic response of these actuators. The actuators performed at a range of frequencies, 20.3-27.8 and 54.8-78.2 kHz, respectively. In addition to providing information on the actuator flow physics and performance at various operating conditions, this study serves to develop easy-to-integrate high-frequency actuators for active control of high-speed jets. Preliminary testing of these actuators is performed by implementing the 20-kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 free jet flow field for noise reduction. Acoustic measurements in the jet near field demonstrate attenuation of radiated noise at all observation angles.

  5. A high-speed tunable beam splitter for feed-forward photonic quantum information processing. (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Tetik, Nuray; Qarry, Angie; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton


    We realize quantum gates for path qubits with a high-speed, polarization-independent and tunable beam splitter. Two electro-optical modulators act in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as high-speed phase shifters and rapidly tune its splitting ratio. We test its performance with heralded single photons, observing a polarization-independent interference contrast above 95%. The switching time is about 5.6 ns, and a maximal repetition rate is 2.5 MHz. We demonstrate tunable feed-forward operations of a single-qubit gate of path-encoded qubits and a two-qubit gate via measurement-induced interaction between two photons.

  6. Testing and Validation of Timing Properties for High Speed Digital Cameras - A Best Practices Guide (United States)


    range, and frame rate get all the press when it comes to high-speed video viewed in Range Control; however, most optical data is practically...introduction of hydraulic and electrically-driven mount servo systems  The replacement of fixed optics sites with remotely-controlled mobile systems  (e.g., VendorX Timing Tests with staggered 10-μs pulse sequence). (5) Select Press to Locate Board ID. The Define Board ID file should

  7. Evaluation of high-speed films for measuring decelerations in experimental collisions. Paper presented to the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineer's Seminar in Depth and Equipment Demonstration: Optical Instrumentation, A problem solving tool in automotive safety engineering and biomechanics, Dearborn, Michigan, November 20-21, 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.


    High-speed filming of collisions of vehicles with e.g. obstacles can be used to yield quantitative information. To get the deceleration history of the vehicle the series of positions read from the film should be different tinted twice. As the positions are corrupted with noise, the differentiating

  8. High-speed cell recognition algorithm for ultrafast flow cytometer imaging system (United States)

    Zhao, Wanyue; Wang, Chao; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang


    An optical time-stretch flow imaging system enables high-throughput examination of cells/particles with unprecedented high speed and resolution. A significant amount of raw image data is produced. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm is, therefore, highly demanded to analyze large amounts of data efficiently. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm consisting of two-stage cascaded detection and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classification is proposed. The first stage of detection extracts cell regions. The second stage integrates distance transform and the watershed algorithm to separate clustered cells. Finally, the cells detected are classified by GMM. We compared the performance of our algorithm with support vector machine. Results show that our algorithm increases the running speed by over 150% without sacrificing the recognition accuracy. This algorithm provides a promising solution for high-throughput and automated cell imaging and classification in the ultrafast flow cytometer imaging platform.

  9. High-speed photography and holography of laser induced breakdown in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterborn, W.


    Optical breakdown phenomena in liquids due to focused ruby laser light are investigated by high-speed photography and holography. Special attention is given the dynamics of the cavities produced in the liquid upon breakdown as they can be expected to become a powerful research tool in cavitation physics. To this end the production of three-dimensional breakdown configurations would be desirable as well as their investigation by high-speed holographic means. Both problems are presently under study. To achieve multiple breakdown at preselected points in the liquid a grating-lens assembly and digital holograms in photoresist are used. To film the motion of the cavities high-speed holocinematographic methods are developed. By now four to eight holograms can be taken at a rate of 10 to 20 kHz. (author)

  10. A high-speed interface for multi-channel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Zheng Zhong; Qiao Chong; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Ye Zhenyu


    This paper presents a high-speed computer interface for multi-channel analyzer based on DMA technique. Its essential principle and operating procedure are introduced. By the detecting of γ spectrum of 137 Cs with the interface, it's proved that the interface can meet the requirements of high-speed data acquisition

  11. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States. (United States)


    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  12. High-Speed Photo-Polarimetry of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Potter


    Full Text Available I review recent highlights of the SAAO High-speed Photo-POlarimeter (HIPPO on the study of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables. Its high-speed capabilities are demonstrated with example observations made of the intermediate polar NY Lup and the polar IGRJ14536-5522.

  13. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a) Operating...

  14. An ultra-high speed whole slide image viewing system. (United States)

    Yagi, Yukako; Yoshioka, Shigeatsu; Kyusojin, Hiroshi; Onozato, Maristela; Mizutani, Yoichi; Osato, Kiyoshi; Yada, Hiroaki; Mark, Eugene J; Frosch, Matthew P; Louis, David N


    One of the goals for a Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) system is implementation in the clinical practice of pathology. One of the unresolved problems in accomplishing this goal is the speed of the entire process, i.e., from viewing the slides through making the final diagnosis. Most users are not satisfied with the correct viewing speeds of available systems. We have evaluated a new WSI viewing station and tool that focuses on speed. A prototype WSI viewer based on PlayStation®3 with wireless controllers was evaluated at the Department of Pathology at MGH for the following reasons: 1. For the simulation of signing-out cases; 2. Enabling discussion at a consensus conference; and 3. Use at slide seminars during a Continuing Medical Education course. Pathologists were being able to use the system comfortably after 0-15 min training. There were no complaints regarding speed. Most pathologists were satisfied with the functionality, usability and speed of the system. The most difficult situation was simulating diagnostic sign-out. The preliminary results of adapting the Sony PlayStation®3 (PS3®) as an ultra-high speed WSI viewing system were promising. The achieved speed is consistent with what would be needed to use WSI in daily practice.

  15. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto


    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  16. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  17. High speed radiation tolerant data links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Forrest [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Incandela, Joseph [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    This project was slated to design and develop Rad-Hard IP components for 1Gb/s links and supporting hardware designs such as PLL, SER/DES, pad drivers and receivers and custom protocol hardware for the 1Gb/s channel. Also included in the proposal was a study of a hardened memory to be used as a packet buffer for channel and data concentrator components to meet the 1 Gb/s specification. Over the course of the proposal, technology change and innovation of hardware designs lead us away from the 1 Gb/s goal to contemplate much higher performance link IP which, we believed better met the goals of physics experiments. Note that CERN microelectronics had managed to create a 4.7 Gb/s link designed to drive optical fibers and containing infrastructure for connecting much lower bandwidth front-end devices. Our own work to that point had shown the possibility of constructing a link with much lower power, lower physical overhead but of equivalent performance that could be designed to integrate directly onto the front-end ASIC (ADC and data encoding) designs. Substantial overall power savings and experimental simplicity could be achieved by eliminating data transmission to data concentrators and data concentrators and related hardened buffering themselves, with conversion to optical media at a removed distance from the experiment core. We had already developed and tested Rad-Hard SER/DES components (1Gb in 130nm standard cells) and redundant Pad Drivers/Receivers (3+ Gb/s designed and measured performance), and had a viable 1Gb/s link design based on redundant a stuttered clock receiver and classical PLL, so the basic goals of the proposal had been achieved. Below, in chronological order, are the products and tools we constructed, as well as our tests and publications.

  18. High-Speed Scanning Interferometer Using CMOS Image Sensor and FPGA Based on Multifrequency Phase-Tracking Detection (United States)

    Ohara, Tetsuo


    A sub-aperture stitching optical interferometer can provide a cost-effective solution for an in situ metrology tool for large optics; however, the currently available technologies are not suitable for high-speed and real-time continuous scan. NanoWave s SPPE (Scanning Probe Position Encoder) has been proven to exhibit excellent stability and sub-nanometer precision with a large dynamic range. This same technology can transform many optical interferometers into real-time subnanometer precision tools with only minor modification. The proposed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) signal processing concept, coupled with a new-generation, high-speed, mega-pixel CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) image sensor, enables high speed (>1 m/s) and real-time continuous surface profiling that is insensitive to variation of pixel sensitivity and/or optical transmission/reflection. This is especially useful for large optics surface profiling.

  19. High speed photometry of AN UMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.; Durisen, R.H.


    As a class, the AM Her objects exhibit temporal variability on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Most of the variations can be adequately described by ''shot noise'' models (Cordova and Mason 1982). Exceptions to this are the strictly periodic features modulated on the orbital periods of the systems (typically several hours) and the one to two second features which show up as ''excesses'' of power in the time averaged power spectra of AN UMa (Middleditch 1982) and E1405-451 (Mason et al. 1983; Larsson 1985). It has been suggested that the short time scale features are due to an oscillatory ''instability'' of radiative accretion shocks discovered by Langer, Chanmugam, and Shaviv (1981, 1982). This is an interesting suggestion because, if true, it would allow the masses of the accreting white dwarfs to be inferred and would provide other significant constraints on the physics of the accretion flows (see Langer et al. 1981, 1982; Chevalier and Imamura 1982; Imamura, Wolff, and Durisen 1984; Imamura 1985). Unfortunately, a direct physical relationship between the one to two second optical variations and shock oscillations has not yet been demonstrated. Because of the potential importance of such a result further study of these systems is clearly warranted. In this work, we examine the short time scale behavior of AN UMa in more detail and improve on the work of Middleditch (1982) by resolving the feature in time

  20. Plastic straw: future of high-speed signaling (United States)

    Song, Ha Il; Jin, Huxian; Bae, Hyeon-Min


    The ever-increasing demand for bandwidth triggered by mobile and video Internet traffic requires advanced interconnect solutions satisfying functional and economic constraints. A new interconnect called E-TUBE is proposed as a cost-and-power-effective all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of performance in terms of bandwidth-per-carrier frequency, power, and density without requiring a precision manufacturing process unlike conventional optical/waveguide solutions. The E-TUBE exhibits a frequency-independent loss-profile of 4 dB/m and has nearly 20-GHz bandwidth over the V band. A single-sideband signal transmission enabled by the inherent frequency response of the E-TUBE renders two-times data throughput without any physical overhead compared to conventional radio frequency communication technologies. This new interconnect scheme would be attractive to parties interested in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps chip-to-chip communications.

  1. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics. (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P


    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  2. High speed fluorescence imaging with compressed ultrafast photography (United States)

    Thompson, J. V.; Mason, J. D.; Beier, H. T.; Bixler, J. N.


    Fluorescent lifetime imaging is an optical technique that facilitates imaging molecular interactions and cellular functions. Because the excited lifetime of a fluorophore is sensitive to its local microenvironment,1, 2 measurement of fluorescent lifetimes can be used to accurately detect regional changes in temperature, pH, and ion concentration. However, typical state of the art fluorescent lifetime methods are severely limited when it comes to acquisition time (on the order of seconds to minutes) and video rate imaging. Here we show that compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) can be used in conjunction with fluorescent lifetime imaging to overcome these acquisition rate limitations. Frame rates up to one hundred billion frames per second have been demonstrated with compressed ultrafast photography using a streak camera.3 These rates are achieved by encoding time in the spatial direction with a pseudo-random binary pattern. The time domain information is then reconstructed using a compressed sensing algorithm, resulting in a cube of data (x,y,t) for each readout image. Thus, application of compressed ultrafast photography will allow us to acquire an entire fluorescent lifetime image with a single laser pulse. Using a streak camera with a high-speed CMOS camera, acquisition rates of 100 frames per second can be achieved, which will significantly enhance our ability to quantitatively measure complex biological events with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, we will demonstrate the ability of this technique to do single-shot fluorescent lifetime imaging of cells and microspheres.

  3. High-speed autoverifying technology for printed wiring boards (United States)

    Ando, Moritoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Okada, Hideo; Sakashita, Yorihiro; Shibutani, Nobumi


    We have developed an automated pattern verification technique. The output of an automated optical inspection system contains many false alarms. Verification is needed to distinguish between minor irregularities and serious defects. In the past, this verification was usually done manually, which led to unsatisfactory product quality. The goal of our new automated verification system is to detect pattern features on surface mount technology boards. In our system, we employ a new illumination method, which uses multiple colors and multiple direction illumination. Images are captured with a CCD camera. We have developed a new algorithm that uses CAD data for both pattern matching and pattern structure determination. This helps to search for patterns around a defect and to examine defect definition rules. These are processed with a high speed workstation and a hard-wired circuits. The system can verify a defect within 1.5 seconds. The verification system was tested in a factory. It verified 1,500 defective samples and detected all significant defects with only a 0.1 percent of error rate (false alarm).

  4. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  5. Silver nanoparticles as optical clearing agent enhancers to improve caries diagnostic by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Souza, Alex F.; da Silva, Evair J.; da Silva, Andrea F.; Gerbi, Marleny E. M. M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.


    The use of silver nanoparticles as optical clearing agent (OCA) enhancers to improve caries diagnostic by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated here. Five molars with no evident cavitation were selected. The OCAs were based on aqueous solution of silver nanoparticles (AgNP, 1.18x 1014 particles/mL, ø ≈ 10nm) and its dilution at 10% in glycerol. Teeth were placed on a platform with a micrometric screw, and after applying the OCAs, they were scanned with a Callisto SD-OCT system operating ate 930nm central wavelength. The occlusal surfaces were scanned by OCT, capturing crosssectional images with 8 mm transversal scanning, generating numerical matrices (2000x512). The OCT images had their transverse dimension preserved. AgNP-OCAs promoted image stretching due to the modification in the light optical path caused by AgNP-OCAs refractive indices close to that of the enamel. AgNP-OCAs evidenced the enamel birefringence and highlighted initial demineralization areas, that presented defined margins with higher contrast between sound and demineralized regions, with higher OCT signal intensity in those areas.

  6. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.


    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  7. The use of high-speed imaging in education (United States)

    Kleine, H.; McNamara, G.; Rayner, J.


    Recent improvements in camera technology and the associated improved access to high-speed camera equipment have made it possible to use high-speed imaging not only in a research environment but also specifically for educational purposes. This includes high-speed sequences that are created both with and for a target audience of students in high schools and universities. The primary goal is to engage students in scientific exploration by providing them with a tool that allows them to see and measure otherwise inaccessible phenomena. High-speed imaging has the potential to stimulate students' curiosity as the results are often surprising or may contradict initial assumptions. "Live" demonstrations in class or student- run experiments are highly suitable to have a profound influence on student learning. Another aspect is the production of high-speed images for demonstration purposes. While some of the approaches known from the application of high speed imaging in a research environment can simply be transferred, additional techniques must often be developed to make the results more easily accessible for the targeted audience. This paper describes a range of student-centered activities that can be undertaken which demonstrate how student engagement and learning can be enhanced through the use of high speed imaging using readily available technologies.

  8. Quantitative optical diagnostics in pathology recognition and monitoring of tissue reaction to PDT (United States)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Shakhova, Maria; Meller, Alina; Sapunov, Dmitry; Agrba, Pavel; Khilov, Alexander; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Kondratieva, Olga; Chikalova, Ksenia; Motovilova, Tatiana; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Turchin, Ilya; Shakhova, Natalia


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently actively introduced into clinical practice. Besides diagnostics, it can be efficiently employed for treatment monitoring allowing for timely correction of the treatment procedure. In monitoring of photodynamic therapy (PDT) traditionally employed fluorescence imaging (FI) can benefit from complementary use of OCT. Additional diagnostic efficiency can be derived from numerical processing of optical diagnostics data providing more information compared to visual evaluation. In this paper we report on application of OCT together with numerical processing for clinical diagnostic in gynecology and otolaryngology, for monitoring of PDT in otolaryngology and on OCT and FI applications in clinical and aesthetic dermatology. Image numerical processing and quantification provides increase in diagnostic accuracy. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, photod

  9. A Review on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Low Temperature Combustion by Optical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jin


    Full Text Available Optical diagnostics is an effective method to understand the physical and chemical reaction processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI and low temperature combustion (LTC modes. Based on optical diagnostics, the true process on mixing, combustion, and emissions can be seen directly. In this paper, the mixing process by port-injection and direct-injection are reviewed firstly. Then, the combustion chemical reaction mechanism is reviewed based on chemiluminescence, natural-luminosity, and laser diagnostics. After, the evolution of pollutant emissions measured by different laser diagnostic methods is reviewed and the measured species including NO, soot, UHC, and CO. Finally, a summary and the future directions on HCCI and LTC used optical diagnostics are presented.

  10. On-line Vibration Diagnostics of the Optical Elements at BL-28 of the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Kubota, M.; Ono, K.


    We have analyzed the data of encoders attached to optical elements and developed an on-line vibration diagnostics system of the monochromator. After eliminating the vibration source we have been able to improve the performance of the monochromator

  11. Research on Aerodynamic Noise Reduction for High-Speed Trains


    Zhang, Yadong; Zhang, Jiye; Li, Tian; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Weihua


    A broadband noise source model based on Lighthill’s acoustic theory was used to perform numerical simulations of the aerodynamic noise sources for a high-speed train. The near-field unsteady flow around a high-speed train was analysed based on a delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) using the finite volume method with high-order difference schemes. The far-field aerodynamic noise from a high-speed train was predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H)...

  12. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)


    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  13. Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology (United States)

    Ogawa, Osamu

    High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

  14. High-speed AFM of human chromosomes in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picco, L M; Dunton, P G; Ulcinas, A; Engledew, D J; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory and IRC in Nanotechnology, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hoshi, O; Ushiki, T [Division of Microscopic Anatomy and Bio-Imaging, Department of Cellular Function, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Asahimachi-Dori 1, Niigata, 951-8150 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Further developments of the previously reported high-speed contact-mode AFM are described. The technique is applied to the imaging of human chromosomes at video rate both in air and in water. These are the largest structures to have been imaged with high-speed AFM and the first imaging in liquid to be reported. A possible mechanism that allows such high-speed contact-mode imaging without significant damage to the sample is discussed in the context of the velocity dependence of the measured lateral force on the AFM tip.

  15. High Speed Images of Edge Plasmas in NSTX and Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.J.; Grulke, O.; Terry, J.L.; Zweben, S.J.


    This talk will describe the high speed imaging diagnostics on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod and show movies of various edge phenomena, including turbulence during L-modes and H modes, L-H and H-L transitions, effects of MHD activity and ELMs of various types, and wide angle views of the toroidal vs. poloidal structure of these edge '' filaments ''. Issues concerning the interpretation of these images will be discussed. (author)

  16. High-speed rail turnout literature review : final report. (United States)


    High-speed rail (HSR) turnout design criteria generally address unbalanced lateral acceleration or cant deficiency (CD), cant deficiency change rate (CDCR), and entry and exit jerk. Various countries have adopted different design values for their HSR...

  17. Multicast Performance Analysis for High-Speed Torus Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oral, S; George, A


    ... for unicast-based and path-based multicast communication on high-speed torus networks. Software-based multicast performance results of selected algorithms on a 16-node Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) torus are given...

  18. Thermomechanical simulations and experimental validation for high speed incremental forming (United States)

    Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Gagliardi, Francesco; Filice, Luigino; Romero, Natalia


    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. The drawback of this process is its slowness. In this study, a high speed variant has been investigated from both numerical and experimental points of view. The aim has been the design of a FEM model able to perform the material behavior during the high speed process by defining a thermomechanical model. An experimental campaign has been performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility. The first results have shown how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed ISF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature increment. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process confirming substantially experimental evidence.

  19. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan


    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  20. Progress in the development of niobium alloyed high speed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.C.


    The development of economy-grades of niobium alloyed high speed steel is described. Both the metallurgical concepts behind the steel design and the results of performance tests are presented. (Author) [pt

  1. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States (United States)


    announced that it will expand the capacity on its aging high speed line between Tokyo and Osaka, the most heavily traveled intercity rail segment in the...United States, in most of these countries intercity rail travel (including both conventional and high speed rail) represents less than 10% of all...that is sometimes mentioned by its advocates. Intercity passenger rail transport is relatively safe, at least compared with highway travel . And HSR in

  2. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition


    Idris, Jamaliah; Christian, Chukwuekezie; Gaius, Eyu


    Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC) and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis par...

  3. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y


    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  4. Double Tunneling Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High Speed Operation (United States)


    Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...State University Title: Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation Report Term: 0-Other Email: Distribution

  5. Integrated computer network high-speed parallel interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.


    As the number and variety of computers within Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Central Computer Facility grows, the need for a standard, high-speed intercomputer interface has become more apparent. This report details the development of a High-Speed Parallel Interface from conceptual through implementation stages to meet current and future needs for large-scle network computing within the Integrated Computer Network. 4 figures

  6. California statewide model for high-speed rail


    Outwater, Maren; Tierney, Kevin; Bradley, Mark; Sall, Elizabeth; Kuppam, Arun; Modugala, Vamsee


    The California High Speed Rail Authority (CHSRA) and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) have developed a new statewide model to support evaluation of high-speed rail alternatives in the State of California. This statewide model will also support future planning activities of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The approach to this statewide model explicitly recognizes the unique characteristics of intraregional travel demand and interregional travel demand. A...

  7. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming


    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  8. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia


    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  9. Pose measurement method and experiments for high-speed rolling targets in a wind tunnel. (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Xin; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wenbo; Li, Xiao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Zhengqu; Cui, Xiaochun


    High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  10. High-speed ultra-wideband wireless signals over fiber systems: photonic generation and DSP detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    We firstly review the efforts in the literature on ultra-wideband (UWB)-over-fiber systems. Secondly, we present experimental results on photonic generation of high-speed UWB signals by both direct modulation and external optical injecting an uncooled semiconductor laser. Furthermore, we introduce...... the use of digital signal processing (DSP) technology to receive the generated UWB signal at 781.25 Mbit/s. Error-free transmission is achieved....

  11. Electro-optical frequency shifting of lasers for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, P.R.


    An electro-optical frequency shifting device is proposed as an aid for plasma physics heterodyne interferometry and heterodyne scattering experiments. The method has the advantage over other electro-optic shifters, that a pure separable frequency shifted beam can be obtained even when less than half wave voltage is applied. (orig.) [de

  12. High speed, locally controlled data acquisition system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.K.; Bradish, G.J.


    A high speed, locally controlled, data acquisition and transmission system has been developed by the CICADA (Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition) Group for extracting certain timecritical data during a TFTR pulse and passing it to the control room, 1000 feet distant, to satisfy realtime requirements of frequently sampled variables. The system is designed to utilize any or all of the standard CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) modules now employed on the CAMAC links for retrieval of the main body of data, but to operate them in a much faster manner than in a standard CAMAC system. To do this, a pre-programmable ROM sequencer is employed as a controller to transmit commands to the modules at intervals down to one microsecond, replacing the usual CAMAC dedicated computer, and increasing the command rate by an order of magnitude over what could be sent down a Branch Highway. Data coming from any number of channels originating within a single CAMAC ''crate'' is then time-multiplexed and transmitted over a single conductor pair in bi-phase at a 2.5 MHz bit rate using Manchester coding techniques. Benefits gained from this approach include: Reduction in the number of conductors required, elimination of line-to-line skew found in parallel transmission systems, and the capability of being transformer coupled or transmitted over a fiber optic cable to avoid safety hazards and ground loops. The main application for this system so far has been as the feedback path in this closed loop control of currents through the Tokamak's field coils. The paper will treat the system's various applications

  13. On the CT-diagnosis of optic nerve lesions. Differential diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsoeld, R.


    Computed tomograms of 166 optic nerve lesions were analyzed: 97 were mainly orbital and 69 mainly intracranial. The criteria were clinical course, size, density and delineation of the optic nerve shadow, orbital and cerebral soft tissue abnormalities, and bony changes in the optic canal. Characteristic CT features are described of individual disease entities such as optic gliomas, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, neoplastic and inflammatory infiltrations. The differential diagnostic importance of individual CT criteria is evaluated and discussed. Simultaneous visualization of orbital and intracranial soft tissue changes as well as bony changes in the optic canal allow the location and identification of the majority of optic nerve lesions based on the criteria mentioned above, and optic nerve tumors can be differentiated. In 9 patients with optic neuritis due to clinically proven encephalitis and in 17 patients with total optic atrophy, no changes in the size of the optic nerve could be found. CT evaluation of the intraorbital portion of the optic nerve requires special examination techniques. Oblique computer reformations through the optic canal provide excellent visualization of bony changes in the optic canal. The exclusion of intracranial causes of optic nerve lesions requires intravenous injection of contrast material. (orig.) [de

  14. Image quality enhancement for skin cancer optical diagnostics (United States)

    Bliznuks, Dmitrijs; Kuzmina, Ilona; Bolocko, Katrina; Lihachev, Alexey


    The research presents image quality analysis and enhancement proposals in biophotonic area. The sources of image problems are reviewed and analyzed. The problems with most impact in biophotonic area are analyzed in terms of specific biophotonic task - skin cancer diagnostics. The results point out that main problem for skin cancer analysis is the skin illumination problems. Since it is often not possible to prevent illumination problems, the paper proposes image post processing algorithm - low frequency filtering. Practical results show diagnostic results improvement after using proposed filter. Along that, filter do not reduces diagnostic results' quality for images without illumination defects. Current filtering algorithm requires empirical tuning of filter parameters. Further work needed to test the algorithm in other biophotonic applications and propose automatic filter parameter selection.

  15. Research on the tool holder mode in high speed machining (United States)

    Zhenyu, Zhao; Yongquan, Zhou; Houming, Zhou; Xiaomei, Xu; Haibin, Xiao


    High speed machining technology can improve the processing efficiency and precision, but also reduce the processing cost. Therefore, the technology is widely regarded in the industry. With the extensive application of high-speed machining technology, high-speed tool system has higher and higher requirements on the tool chuck. At present, in high speed precision machining, several new kinds of clip heads are as long as there are heat shrinkage tool-holder, high-precision spring chuck, hydraulic tool-holder, and the three-rib deformation chuck. Among them, the heat shrinkage tool-holder has the advantages of high precision, high clamping force, high bending rigidity and dynamic balance, etc., which are widely used. Therefore, it is of great significance to research the new requirements of the machining tool system. In order to adapt to the requirement of high speed machining precision machining technology, this paper expounds the common tool holder technology of high precision machining, and proposes how to select correctly tool clamping system in practice. The characteristics and existing problems are analyzed in the tool clamping system.

  16. Assessment of rural soundscapes with high-speed train noise. (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Jeon, Jin Yong


    In the present study, rural soundscapes with high-speed train noise were assessed through laboratory experiments. A total of ten sites with varying landscape metrics were chosen for audio-visual recording. The acoustical characteristics of the high-speed train noise were analyzed using various noise level indices. Landscape metrics such as the percentage of natural features (NF) and Shannon's diversity index (SHDI) were adopted to evaluate the landscape features of the ten sites. Laboratory experiments were then performed with 20 well-trained listeners to investigate the perception of high-speed train noise in rural areas. The experiments consisted of three parts: 1) visual-only condition, 2) audio-only condition, and 3) combined audio-visual condition. The results showed that subjects' preference for visual images was significantly related to NF, the number of land types, and the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq). In addition, the visual images significantly influenced the noise annoyance, and LAeq and NF were the dominant factors affecting the annoyance from high-speed train noise in the combined audio-visual condition. In addition, Zwicker's loudness (N) was highly correlated with the annoyance from high-speed train noise in both the audio-only and audio-visual conditions. © 2013.

  17. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea


    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  18. Modern trends in designing high-speed trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Snežana D.


    Full Text Available Increased advantages of railway transportation systems over other types of transportation systems in the past sixty years have been a result of an intensive development of the new generations of high-speed trains. Not only do these types of trains comply with the need for increased speed of transportation and make the duration of the journey shorter, but they also meet the demands for increased reliability, safety and direct application of energy efficiency to the transportation system itself. Along with increased train speed, the motion resistance is increased as well, whereby at speeds over 200 km/h the proportion of air resistance becomes the most dominant member. One of the most efficient measures for reducing air resistance, as well as other negative consequences of high-speed motion, is the development of the aerodynamic shape of the train. This paper presents some construction solutions that affect the aerodynamic properties of high-speed trains, first and foremost, the nose shape, as well as the similarities and differences of individual subsystems necessary for the functioning of modern high-speed rail systems. We analysed two approaches to solving the problem of the aerodynamic shape of the train and the appropriate infrastructure using the examples of Japan and France. Two models of high-speed trains, Shinkansen (Japan and TGV, i.e. AGV (France, have been discussed.

  19. High-speed solar wind flow parameters at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.


    To develop a set of constraints for theories of solar wind high-speed streams, a detailed study was made of the fastest streams observed at 1 AU during the time period spanning March 1971 through July 1974. Streams were accepted for study only if (1) the maximum speed exceeded 650 km s -1 ; (2) effects of stream-stream dynamical interaction on the flow parameters could be safely separated from the intrinsic characteristics of the high-speed regions; (3) the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the stream when mapped back to 20 solar radii by using a constant speed approximation was greater than 45degree in Carrington longitude; and (4) there were no obvious solar-activity-induced contaminating effects. Nineteen streams during this time interval satisfied these criteria. Average parameters at 1 AU for those portions of these streams above V=650 km s -1 are given.Not only is it not presently known why electrons are significantly cooler than the protons within high-speed regions, but also observed particle fluxes and convected energy fluxes for speed greater than 650 km s -1 are substantially larger than those values predicted by any of the existing theories of solar wind high-speed streams. More work is therefore needed in refining present solar wind models to see whether suitable modifications and/or combinations of existing theories based on reasonable coronal conditions can accommodate the above high-speed flow parameters

  20. Proposed high speed pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Kanno, M.; Kaneko, H.; Saka, S.; Shirai, T.; Baba, T.


    From the results of the simulation study including pellet ablation and 1-D transport code, it is found that a high speed pellet injector with pellet velocity of more than 3 km/s is necessary for the penetration of the pellet with diameter of 3 mm into the core region under the expected plasma condition of Large Helical Device (LHD) of heliotron/stellarator type with superconducting coils at NIFS in Japan. Therefore, a two stage pellet injector was constructed and tested successfully in order to obtain the pellet velocity range of 3 km/s. Based upon the above results, a high speed flexible multiple-pellet injection system 'HIPEL' for LHD is proposed. HIPEL consists of independent (1) 10 two-stage gun barrels and (2) 10 single-stage gun barrels. It has multi purposes such as refueling and flexible density profile control, diagnostics and the other functions. (author)

  1. Versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system using high-speed digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, D.S.; Willett, G.W.


    This paper describes the basic design and philosophy of a versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system to be used on the 2XIIB and TMX magnetic-fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This diagnostics system is a satellite to a host computer and uses high-speed emitter-coupled logic techniques to derive data on real-time phase relationships. The system's input signals can be derived from interferometer outputs over a wide range of reference frequencies. An LSI-11 microcomputer is the interface between the high-speed phase-detection logic, buffer memory, human interaction, and host computer. Phase data on a storage CRT is immediately displayed after each experimental fusion shot. An operator can interrogate this phase data more closely from an interactive control panel, and the host computer can be simultaneously examining the system's buffer memory or arming the system for the next shot

  2. High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system (United States)

    Wu, Nan


    High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system comprehensively applies TDI (time delay integration), high-speed and highly responsive CMOS architecture, low illumination photosensitive technique, image data compression technique, machine vision technique and so on, installed on high-speed railway inspection train, and achieves the collection, management and analysis of the images of signal trackside equipment appearance while the train is running. The system will automatically filter out the signal trackside equipment images from a large number of the background image, and identify of the equipment changes by comparing the original image data. Combining with ledger data and train location information, the system accurately locate the trackside equipment, conscientiously guiding maintenance.

  3. Nickel/Diamond Composite Coating Prepared by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yan


    Full Text Available Nickel/diamond composite coatings were prepared on the basis of a new high speed electroplating bath. The influence of additives, plating parameters and diamond concentration on internal stress was investigated in order to find the solution to decrease the stress introduced by high current density; the micro morphology of the coatings were observed by SEM. The bath and depositing parameters were optimized that thick nickel/diamond composite coatings with low internal stress can be high speed electroplated with a high cathode current density of 30A/dm2. The results show that when plated with bath composition and parameters as follows: sodium dodecyl sulfate 0.5g/L, ammonium acetate 3g/L, sodium citrate 1.5g/L, diamond particles 30g/L; pH value 3-4, temperature 50℃, the composite coatings prepared in high speed have the lowest internal stress.

  4. Material requirements for the High Speed Civil Transport (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.; Hecht, Ralph J.; Johnson, Andrew M.


    Under NASA-sponsored High Speed Research (HSR) programs, the materials and processing requirements have been identified for overcoming the environmental and economic barriers of the next generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) propulsion system. The long (2 to 5 hours) supersonic cruise portion of the HSCT cycle will place additional durability requirements on all hot section engine components. Low emissions combustor designs will require high temperature ceramic matrix composite liners to meet an emission goal of less than 5g NO(x) per Kg fuel burned. Large axisymmetric and two-dimensional exhaust nozzle designs are now under development to meet or exceed FAR 36 Stage III noise requirements, and will require lightweight, high temperature metallic, intermetallic, and ceramic matrix composites to reduce nozzle weight and meet structural and acoustic component performance goals. This paper describes and discusses the turbomachinery, combustor, and exhaust nozzle requirements of the High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system.

  5. High-speed LWR transients simulation for optimizing emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.


    The purpose of computer-assisted emergency response in nuclear power plants, and the requirements for achieving such a response, are presented. An important requirement is the attainment of realistic high-speed plant simulations at the reactor site. Currently pursued development programs for plant simulations are reviewed. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is presented for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computer hardware to achieve high-speed simulations. A newly developed technology for high-speed power plant simulation is described and results are presented. It is shown that simulation speeds ten times greater than real-time process-speeds are possible, and that plant instrumentation can be made part of the computational loop in a small, on-site minicomputer. Additional technical issues are presented which must still be resolved before the newly developed technology can be implemented in a nuclear power plant

  6. Neutron degradation of UV enhanced optical fibers for fusion installation plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporea, D.; Vata, I.; Dudu, D.; Danis, Ana


    The remote diagnostics of plasmas in fusion installations requires adequate connection links to transfer the measured signals in media subjected to high electromagnetic disturbances. We evaluated the neutron irradiation induced optical absorption in several commercially available optical fibers, as they were assessed for their possible use in fusion installations. Optical fiber samples were subjected to subsequent irradiation with fluences from 6 x 10 11 to 6 x 10 13 n/cm 2 . Significant radiation induced absorption was observed in the 220-260 nm spectral band, mainly for small core diameter optical fibers (200/220 μm), independent of the cladding material used

  7. Diagnostics of gas behind shock waves by refractive optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    In a brief outline of optical methods for measuring neutral gas and plasma parameters, techniques are specifically dealt with based on the interferometric measurement of the refractive index. The investigation is shown of gas density changes in a shock tube using the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. While in a neutral gas the refractive index is determined by gas density, in a plasma the effects of all components, ie., electrons, ions and atoms are additive. The contributions to refraction from the various components may, in view of the different character and frequencies of the components, be resolved by measurement on more than one wavelength. (J.U.)

  8. Electron-Beam Produced Air Plasma: Optical and Electrical Diagnostics (United States)

    Vidmar, Robert; Stalder, Kenneth; Seeley, Megan


    High energy electron impact excitation is used to stimulate optical emissions that quantify the measurement of electron beam current. A 100 keV 10-ma electron beam source is used to produce air plasma in a test cell at a pressure between 1 mTorr and 760 Torr. Optical emissions originating from the N2 2^nd positive line at 337.1 nm and the N2^+ 1^st negative line at 391.4 nm are observed. Details on calibration using signals from an isolated transmission window and a Faraday plate are discussed. Results using this technique and other electrical signal are presented.

  9. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves


    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy


    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  10. High-speed centrifugation induces aggregation of extracellular vesicles. (United States)

    Linares, Romain; Tan, Sisareuth; Gounou, Céline; Arraud, Nicolas; Brisson, Alain R


    Plasma and other body fluids contain cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which participate in physiopathological processes and have potential biomedical applications. In order to isolate, concentrate and purify EVs, high-speed centrifugation is often used. We show here, using electron microscopy, receptor-specific gold labelling and flow cytometry, that high-speed centrifugation induces the formation of EV aggregates composed of a mixture of EVs of various phenotypes and morphologies. The presence of aggregates made of EVs of different phenotypes may lead to erroneous interpretation concerning the existence of EVs harbouring surface antigens from different cell origins.

  11. High-speed centrifugation induces aggregation of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Linares


    Full Text Available Plasma and other body fluids contain cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs, which participate in physiopathological processes and have potential biomedical applications. In order to isolate, concentrate and purify EVs, high-speed centrifugation is often used. We show here, using electron microscopy, receptor-specific gold labelling and flow cytometry, that high-speed centrifugation induces the formation of EV aggregates composed of a mixture of EVs of various phenotypes and morphologies. The presence of aggregates made of EVs of different phenotypes may lead to erroneous interpretation concerning the existence of EVs harbouring surface antigens from different cell origins.

  12. Application of high-speed photography to hydrodynamic instability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Lihua; Li Zuoyou; Xiao Zhengfei; Zou Liyong; Liu Jinhong; Xiong Xueshi


    High-speed photography is used to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of air-water interface driven by high- pressure exploding gas. Clear images illustrating the instability are obtained, along with the air bubble peak speed and turbulent mixing speed. The RM (Richtmyer-Meshkov) instability of air/SF 6 interface driven by shock wave is also researched by using high-speed Schlieren technique on the horizontal shock tube and primary experimental results are obtained, which show the change of the turbulent mixing region clearly. (authors)

  13. Plasma-Assisted Chemistry in High-Speed Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, Sergey B.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Kochetov, Igor V.


    Fundamental problems related to the high-speed combustion are analyzed. The result of plasma-chemical modeling is presented as a motivation of experimental activity. Numerical simulations of the effect of uniform non-equilibrium discharge on the premixed hydrogen and ethylene-air mixture in supersonic flow demonstrate an advantage of such a technique over a heating. Experimental results on multi-electrode non-uniform discharge maintenance behind wallstep and in cavity of supersonic flow are presented. The model test on hydrogen and ethylene ignition is demonstrated at direct fuel injection to low-temperature high-speed airflow

  14. High speed motion neutron radiography of dynamic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Barton, J.P.


    The development of a technique that permits neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic processes over a period lasting from one to ten milliseconds is described. The key to the technique is the use of a neutron pulse broad enough to span the duration of a brief event and intense enough to allow recording of the results on a high-speed movie film at frame rates of 10,000 frames/sec. Some typical application results in ballistic studies and two-phase flow are shown and discussed. The use of scintillator screens in the high-speed motion neutron radiography system is summarized and the statistical limitations of the technique are discussed

  15. Optical design of the TMX Thomson Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.


    The Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on TMX was built to measure the electron temperature in the plug. The design was based on the 2XII system built by Tom Simonen. Substantial improvements were realized over the original design, these include: (1) improved sensitivity, (2) simultaneous multiple position sampling, (3) multiple pulse capability, (4) achromatic imaging, (5) vacuum alignment capability, (6) high reliability, and (7) built in calibration and performance monitoring

  16. Lymph Node Metastases Optical Molecular Diagnostic and Radiation Therapy (United States)


    Pogue CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Trustees of Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 REPORT DATE: March 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE March 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Mar 2016 - 28 Feb 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lymph...Gamma imaging of sentinel nodes is not a disease diagnostic, but rather just used to find the node and remove it for pathological inspection. As a result

  17. Fibre-Optic IR-Spectroscopy for Biomedical Diagnostics


    Bindig, Uwe; Gersonde, Ingo; Meinke, Martina; Becker, Yukiyo; Müller, Gerhard


    The use of microscopy is a valuable means of gaining vital information for medical diagnostics. Due to a number of recent technological developments advances have been made in IR microscopy and in particular, rapid detection methods. Microscopic examination methods usually involve sampling followed by a method of sample purification or preparation. The advantages of the IR analytical method are that it is based on a direct, non‒destructive measurement of sample material and that the resulting...

  18. Peroperative optical autofluorescence biopsy-verification of its diagnostic potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducháč, V.; Zavadil, Jiří; Vránová, J.; Jirásek, T.; Štukavec, J.; Horák, L.


    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2011), s. 325-333 ISSN 0268-8921 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Autofluorescence spectroscopy * Colorectal cancer * Optical fibres Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2011

  19. Chromatic-free spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics for microplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liguo; Chen Wencong; Zhu Ximing; Pu Yikang; Li Zeren


    A chromatic-free spatially resolved diagnostic system for microplasma measurement is proposed and demonstrated, which consists of an optical chromatic-free microscope mirror system, an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD), and bandpass filters. The diagnostic system free of chromatic aberrations with a spatial resolution of about 6 μm is achieved. The factors that limit the resolution of this diagnostic system have been analyzed, which are optical diffraction, the pixel size of the EMCCD, and the thickness of the microplasma. In this paper, the optimal condition for achieving a maximum resolution power has been analyzed. With this diagnostic system, we revealed the spatial nonuniformity of a microwave atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the time-averaged effective electron temperature has been estimated from the intensity distributions of 750.4 and 415.8 nm emissions.

  20. High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass. (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A


    A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated.

  1. High-speed schlieren videography of vortex-ring impact on a wall (United States)

    Kissner, Benjamin; Hargather, Michael; Settles, Gary


    Ring vortices of approximately 20 cm diameter are generated through the use of an Airzooka toy. To make the vortex visible, it is seeded with difluoroethane gas, producing a refractive-index difference with the air. A 1-meter-diameter, single-mirror, double-pass schlieren system is used to visualize the ring-vortex motion, and also to provide the wall with which the vortex collides. High-speed imaging is provided by a Photron SA-1 digital video camera. The Airzooka is fired toward the mirror almost along the optical axis of the schlieren system, so that the view of the vortex-mirror collision is normal to the path of vortex motion. Vortex-wall interactions similar to those first observed by Walker et al. (JFM 181, 1987) are recorded at high speed. The presentation will consist of a screening and discussion of these video results.

  2. A reference Pelton turbine - High speed visualization in the rotating frame (United States)

    Solemslie, Bjørn W.; Dahlhaug, Ole G.


    To enable a detailed study the flow mechanisms effecting the flow within the reference Pelton runner designed at the Waterpower Laboratory (NTNLT) a flow visualization system has been developed. The system enables high speed filming of the hydraulic surface of a single bucket in the rotating frame of reference. It is built with an angular borescopes adapter entering the turbine along the rotational axis and a borescope embedded within a bucket. A stationary high speed camera located outside the turbine housing has been connected to the optical arrangement by a non-contact coupling. The view point of the system includes the whole hydraulic surface of one half of a bucket. The system has been designed to minimize the amount of vibrations and to ensure that the vibrations felt by the borescope are the same as those affecting the camera. The preliminary results captured with the system are promising and enable a detailed study of the flow within the turbine.

  3. Experimental and numerical study of plastic shear instability under high-speed loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokovikov, Mikhail; Chudinov, Vasiliy; Bilalov, Dmitry; Oborin, Vladimir; Uvarov, Sergey; Plekhov, Oleg; Terekhina, Alena; Naimark, Oleg


    The behavior of specimens dynamically loaded during the split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions was studied. The lateral surface of the specimens was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was examined using a high-speed infra-red camera and a VISAR velocity measurement system. The microstructure of tested specimens was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The development of plastic shear instability regions has been simulated numerically

  4. A new high-speed X-ray beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, A.; Wang, J.; Lee, P. L.; Mills, D. M.


    A new high-speed x-ray beam chopper using laser scanner technology has been developed and tested on the SRI-CAT sector 1 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (1). As illustrated in figure 1, it is compact in size and has two sets of transmission windows: BK-7 glass for visible light transmission and 0.23-mm-thick Be for the transmission of x-rays. The rotor is made of aluminum and has a diameter of 50.8 mm. A 0.5-mm-wide and 2.29-mm-tall slit is cut through the center of the rotor. The circumference of the rotor has a coating of 1-mm-thick Ni, which gives an attenuation of 10 8 at 30 keV. Turning at nearly 80000 RPM, this beam chopper has an opening time window of 2450 ns, corresponding to 67% of the revolution time of the APS storage ring. The primary feature in selecting laser scanner technology to develop into an x-ray beam chopper was the high level of rotational speed control of the rotor that makes up the beam chopper element (2). By using an optical feedback circuit to sample the rotational speed four times each revolution, the jitter in the position of the transmission open time window is only 3 ns at the 3 standard deviation level. The APS storage ring orbital frequency, supplied by the control room, is divided down to provide the appropriate drive frequency for the beam chopper motor controller. By this means, both the storage ring and the beam chopper are operating off the same master clock. After a turn-on time of about 15 to 20 seconds, the rotational precision of the motor results in immediate phase locking to the temporal structure of the APS storage ring. By inserting a Stanford delay generator between the frequency divider and the beam chopper motor controller, the phase between the storage ring temporal structure and the beam chopper rotation can be adjusted to position the transmission time window of the beam chopper on any desired part of the storage ring fill pattern. If an asymmetric fill pattern is used in the APS storage

  5. A global standardization trend for high-speed client and line side transceivers (United States)

    Isono, Hideki


    Seeing the recent vast data increase in information industry, IT society will move into the new era of Zettabyte in a few years. Under these circumstances, high-speed and high-capacity optical communication systems have been deployed in the industry. Especially high speed optical transceivers are key devices to realize high-speed systems, and the practical development is accelerated. In order to develop these leading edge products timely, the global standard criteria are strongly required in the industry. Based on these backgrounds, the forum standardization bodies such as OIF PLLWG/ IEEE802.3 are energetically creating the de-fact standards. With regard to 100G/400G standardization activities, IEEE802.3 leads the client side, and OIF PLL-WG leads the line side, and both of them play important roles in the industry. In the previous Photonics West conferences, the activities of these standardization bodies till 2013 were reported. In 2014, the discussions of 400G client side transceiver projects have made some progress in IEEE802.3, whose baseline technologies are about to be fixed. Also 100G transceiver projects for metro applications in the line side, whose target profile is CFP2 form factor, have been discussed in OIF PLL-WG. In this paper, these high-end standardization topics are introduced and the future products direction is also discussed from the technical point of view. In order to realize these small form factor and cost effective transceivers, the device integration technologies, the low power device/electrical circuit technologies, and the development of high speed electrical interface such as 25G/50G are key factors.

  6. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas


    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  7. Intel Legend and CERN would build up high speed Internet

    CERN Multimedia


    Intel, Legend and China Education and Research Network jointly announced on the 25th of April that they will be cooperating with each other to build up the new generation high speed internet, over the next three years (1/2 page).

  8. Visualization of Projectile Flying at High Speed in Dusty Atmosphere (United States)

    Masaki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kojiro


    Considering a spacecraft that encounters particle-laden environment, such as dust particles flying up over the regolith by the jet of the landing thruster, high-speed flight of a projectile in such environment was experimentally simulated by using the ballistic range. At high-speed collision of particles on the projectile surface, they may be reflected with cracking into smaller pieces. On the other hand, the projectile surface will be damaged by the collision. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of such complicated phenomena, a projectile was launched at the velocity up to 400 m/s and the collective behaviour of particles around projectile was observed by the high-speed camera. To eliminate the effect of the gas-particle interaction and to focus on only the effect of the interaction between the particles and the projectile's surface, the test chamber pressure was evacuated down to 30 Pa. The particles about 400μm diameter were scattered and formed a sheet of particles in the test chamber by using two-dimensional funnel with a narrow slit. The projectile was launched into the particle sheet in the tangential direction, and the high-speed camera captured both projectile and particle motions. From the movie, the interaction between the projectile and particle sheet was clarified.

  9. The impact of high speed rail on airport competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, I.; Lijesen, M.G.


    We study the effects of introducing a high speed train connection on competition between airports, focusing on the new HST-link between Amsterdam and Brussels. We conduct a detailed analysis regarding the airport choice of passengers living in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Northern France

  10. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui


    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beznak


    Full Text Available The influence of disulphide molybdenum additives on antifriction characteristics of powder high-speed steel produced by means of hot hydrostatic pressing is investigated. It is shown that disulphide molybdenum additives promote the decrease of coefficient of friction and temperature in hearth of friction as a result the increase of wear resistance of steel.

  12. Towards a high-speed quantum random number generator (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Burri, Samuel; Charbon, Edoardo; Chunnilall, Christopher; Meneghetti, Alessio; Regazzoni, Francesco


    Randomness is of fundamental importance in various fields, such as cryptography, numerical simulations, or the gaming industry. Quantum physics, which is fundamentally probabilistic, is the best option for a physical random number generator. In this article, we will present the work carried out in various projects in the context of the development of a commercial and certified high speed random number generator.

  13. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.


    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  14. Comprehensive surface treatment of high-speed steel tool (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey V.; Aleshin, Sergey V.; Swe, Min Htet; Abdirova, Raushan D.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Sergey B.


    One of the promising directions of hardening of high-speed steel tool is the creation on their surface of the layered structures with the gradient of physic-chemical properties between the wear-resistant coatings to the base material. Among the methods of such surface modification, a special process takes place based on the use of pulsed high-intensity charged particle beams. The high speed of heating and cooling allows structural-phase transformations in the surface layer, which cannot be realized in a stationary mode. The treatment was conducted in a RITM-SP unit, which constitutes a combination of a source of low-energy high-current electron beams "RITM" and two magnetron spraying systems on a single vacuum chamber. The unit enables deposition of films on the surface of the desired product and subsequent liquid-phase mixing of materials of the film and the substrate by an intense pulse electron beam. The article discusses features of the structure of the subsurface layer of high-speed steel M2, modified by surface alloying of a low-energy high-current electron beam, and its effect on the wear resistance of the tool when dry cutting hard to machine Nickel alloy. A significant decrease of intensity of wear of high-speed steel with combined treatment happens due to the displacement of the zone of wear and decrease the radius of rounding of the cutting edge because of changes in conditions of interaction with the material being treated.

  15. High speed VLSI neural network for high energy physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masa, P.; Masa, P.; Hoen, K.; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans


    A CMOS neural network IC is discussed which was designed for very high speed applications. The parallel architecture, analog computing and digital weight storage provides unprecedented computing speed combined with ease of use. The circuit classifies up to 70 dimensional vectors within 20

  16. Incorporating YBCO Coated Conductors in High-speed Superconducting Generators (United States)


    4.0 kW/lb (8.82 kW/kg). The machine configuration chosen by GE for design was a homopolar inductor alternator (HIA) which locates the...extremely severe ac loss environment. Even if this is ultimately impossible for high speed generators, it may not preclude lower speed motors and

  17. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup


    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...

  18. Radiation response of high speed CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, H.; Davison, D.; Jennings, R.F.; Lothongkam, P.; Rinerson, D.; Wyland, D.


    This paper studies the total dose and dose rate radiation response of the FCT family of high speed CMOS integrated circuits. Data taken on the devices is used to establish the dominant failure modes, and this data is further analyzed using one-sided tolerance factors for normal distribution statistical analysis

  19. A high current, high speed pulser using avalanche transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi


    A high current, high speed pulser for the beam pulsing of a linear accelerator is described. It uses seven avalanche transistors in cascade. Design of a trigger circuit to obtain fast rise time is discussed. The characteristics of the pulser are : (a) Rise time = 0.9 ns (FWHM) and (d) Life time asymptotically equals 2000 -- 3000 hr (at 50 Hz). (author)

  20. High-Speed Railways and Urban Networks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haoran


    Worldwide, High-Speed Railway (HSR) networks have been developed intensely over the last few decades, such as Tokyo-Osaka, the first HSR corridor in Japan, the TGV in France and the ICE in Germany. HSR has also experienced exponential growth in China so that currently China’s HSR networks are the

  1. Time-interleaved high-speed D/A converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, E.


    This thesis is on power efficient very high-speed digital-to-analog converters (DACs) in CMOS technology, intended to generate signals from DC to RF. Components in RF signal chains are nowadays often moved from the analog domain to the digital domain. This allows for more flexibility and better

  2. 14 CFR 25.253 - High-speed characteristics. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-speed characteristics. 25.253 Section...-speed characteristics. (a) Speed increase and recovery characteristics. The following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (1) Operating conditions and characteristics likely to cause...

  3. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.


    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  4. Cutting force model for high speed machining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, R. E.; Jimenez, J. E.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez-Coronado, J.


    This paper presents cutting force-based models able to describe a high speed machining process. The model considers the cutting force as output variable, essential for the physical processes that are taking place in high speed machining. Moreover, this paper shows the mathematical development to derive the integral-differential equations, and the algorithms implemented in MATLAB to predict the cutting force in real time MATLAB is a software tool for doing numerical computations with matrices and vectors. It can also display information graphically and includes many toolboxes for several research and applications areas. Two end mill shapes are considered (i. e. cylindrical and ball end mill) for real-time implementation of the developed algorithms. the developed models are validated in slot milling operations. The results corroborate the importance of the cutting force variable for predicting tool wear in high speed machining operations. The developed models are the starting point for future work related with vibration analysis, process stability and dimensional surface finish in high speed machining processes. (Author) 19 refs

  5. Optimum Design of High Speed Prop-Rotors (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi


    The objective of this research is to develop optimization procedures to provide design trends in high speed prop-rotors. The necessary disciplinary couplings are all considered within a closed loop optimization process. The procedures involve the consideration of blade aeroelastic, aerodynamic performance, structural and dynamic design requirements. Further, since the design involves consideration of several different objectives, multiobjective function formulation techniques are developed.

  6. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.


    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10 -4 mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10 10 cm -3 . In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm -1 ) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10 10 cm -3 with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author)

  7. Refractive index gradient diagnostics: analysis of different optical systems and application to COBRA ion diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, B A; Greenly, J B; Hammer, D A; Krastelev, E G [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies; Cuneo, M E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Different optical system variations for refractive index gradient diagnostics with a laser beam probe have been analyzed. A `three-telescope` optical system which permits simultaneous measurement of both the laser beam centroid deflection by a bi-cell photodiode and the spatial Fourier spectrum of the deflected beam by a streak camera has been implemented on the COBRA ion diode. The dynamics of the anode plasma layer was studied with these techniques. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs.

  8. High-Speed Interrogation for Large-Scale Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing. (United States)

    Hu, Chenyuan; Bai, Wei


    A high-speed interrogation scheme for large-scale fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing arrays is presented. This technique employs parallel computing and pipeline control to modulate incident light and demodulate the reflected sensing signal. One Electro-optic modulator (EOM) and one semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) were used to generate a phase delay to filter reflected spectrum form multiple candidate FBGs with the same optical path difference (OPD). Experimental results showed that the fastest interrogation delay time for the proposed method was only about 27.2 us for a single FBG interrogation, and the system scanning period was only limited by the optical transmission delay in the sensing fiber owing to the multiple simultaneous central wavelength calculations. Furthermore, the proposed FPGA-based technique had a verified FBG wavelength demodulation stability of ±1 pm without average processing.

  9. Plasma Perturbations in High-Speed Probing of Hall Thruster Discharge Chambers: Quantification and Mitigation (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.


    An experimental investigation is presented to quantify the effect of high-speed probing on the plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a 6-kW Hall thruster. Understanding the nature of these perturbations is of significant interest given the importance of accurate plasma measurements for characterizing thruster operation. An array of diagnostics including a high-speed camera and embedded wall probes is employed to examine in real time the changes in electron temperature and plasma potential induced by inserting a high-speed reciprocating Langmuir probe into the discharge chamber. It is found that the perturbations onset when the scanning probe is downstream of the electron temperature peak, and that along channel centerline, the perturbations are best characterized as a downstream shift of plasma parameters by 15-20% the length of the discharge chamber. A parametric study is performed to investigate techniques to mitigate the observed probe perturbations including varying probe speed, probe location, and operating conditions. It is found that the perturbations largely disappear when the thruster is operated at low power and low discharge voltage. The results of this mitigation study are discussed in the context of recommended methods for generating unperturbed measurements of the discharge chamber plasma.

  10. Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation (United States)

    Karl JR., Robert R.


    Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

  11. Effects of Injection Timing on Fluid Flow Characteristics of Partially Premixed Combustion Based on High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry

    KAUST Repository

    Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Tanov, Slavey; Wang, Hua; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt; Dam, Nico


    behavior. The scope of the present study is to investigate the fluid flow characteristics of PPC at different injection timings. To this end, high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is implemented in a light-duty optical engine to measure fluid flow

  12. Optically pumped FIR lasers and their application in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.


    The pysics and the construction of the far infrared lasers (FIRL) and of the infrared lasers pumping them are reviewed. The details of the construction, resonating and pumping systems, spectral and power characteristics of the FIRLs are discussed. Recently more than 1000 laser lines are known and used in the 27-80 mm wavelength range, but in many cases the laser kinetics are not fully understood, and some instability phenomena cannot be prevented. New nonlinear processes were found: two-photon pumping, hyper Raman laser tuning and relaxation phenomena. A broad application field, the plasma diagnostics by far infrared lasers is described. Scattering of infrared laser radiation can give new interesting information on the not understood effect of the anomalous transport in the high temperature plasma. (D.Gy.)

  13. Survey Talk--New Laser and Optical Radiation Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.


    New techniques am reported for electron beam monitoring, that rely either on the analysis of the properties of wiggler radiation (from static magnetic fields as well as from laser ''undulators'', also referred to as Thomson scattering) or on the non-linear mixing of laser radiation with electron beam radiation. The different techniques reviewed are capable of providing information on femtosecond time scales and micron or even sub-micron spatial scales. The laser undulator is also proposed as a useful tool for non- destructive measurement of high power electron beams. An example is given of measuring electron beam energy and energy spread through spectral filtering of spontaneous wiggler radiation [1]. A novel technique based on fluctuational characteristics of radiation is described, for single shot, nondestructive measurement of the electron beam bunch length [2,3]. Thomson scattering based beam monitoring techniques are discussed which, through analysis of the radiated beam properties, allow non-destructive detailed measurement of transverse and longitudinal distributions of relativistic electron beams [4]. Two new techniques are discussed which rely on non-linear optical mixing of laser radiation with electron bunch emission: differential optical gating (DOG) [5] and electron bunch length measurement in a storage ring based on sum-frequency generation [6

  14. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.


    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs. (orig.)

  15. High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions: applications and perspectives (United States)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Gaudin, Damien; Capponi, Antonio; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel-Angel; Moroni, Monica


    Explosive eruptions, being by definition highly dynamic over short time scales, necessarily call for observational systems capable of relatively high sampling rates. "Traditional" tools, like as seismic and acoustic networks, have recently been joined by Doppler radar and electric sensors. Recent developments in high-speed camera systems now allow direct visual information of eruptions to be obtained with a spatial and temporal resolution suitable for the analysis of several key eruption processes. Here we summarize the methods employed to gather and process high-speed videos of explosive eruptions, and provide an overview of the several applications of these new type of data in understanding different aspects of explosive volcanism. Our most recent set up for high-speed imaging of explosive eruptions (FAMoUS - FAst, MUltiparametric Set-up,) includes: 1) a monochrome high speed camera, capable of 500 frames per second (fps) at high-definition (1280x1024 pixel) resolution and up to 200000 fps at reduced resolution; 2) a thermal camera capable of 50-200 fps at 480-120x640 pixel resolution; and 3) two acoustic to infrasonic sensors. All instruments are time-synchronized via a data logging system, a hand- or software-operated trigger, and via GPS, allowing signals from other instruments or networks to be directly recorded by the same logging unit or to be readily synchronized for comparison. FAMoUS weights less than 20 kg, easily fits into four, hand-luggage-sized backpacks, and can be deployed in less than 20' (and removed in less than 2', if needed). So far, explosive eruptions have been recorded in high-speed at several active volcanoes, including Fuego and Santiaguito (Guatemala), Stromboli (Italy), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Eyjafiallajokull (Iceland). Image processing and analysis from these eruptions helped illuminate several eruptive processes, including: 1) Pyroclasts ejection. High-speed videos reveal multiple, discrete ejection pulses within a single Strombolian

  16. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  17. Novel Readout Method for Molecular Diagnostic Assays Based on Optical Measurements of Magnetic Nanobead Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Bejhed, Rebecca S.


    behavior. We prove that the optical transmission spectra are highly sensitive to the formation of permanent MNB clusters and, thereby to the target analyte concentration. As a specific clinically relevant diagnostic case, we detect DNA coils formed via padlock probe recognition and isothermal rolling...

  18. Elevation angle alignment of quasi optical receiver mirrors of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic by sawtooth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseev, D.; Meo, Fernando; Korsholm, Søren Bang


    require a good alignment of the optical path in the transmission line. Monitoring the alignment during the experiment greatly benefits the confidence in the CTS measurements. An in situ technique for the assessment of the elevation angle alignment of the receiver is developed. Using the CTS diagnostic...

  19. A High-Speed Spectroscopy System for Observing Lightning and Transient Luminous Events (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Austin, M.; Aguirre, F.; Tilles, J.; Nag, A.; Lazarus, S. M.; Rassoul, H.


    Here we present a high-speed spectroscopy system that can be used to record atmospheric electrical discharges, including lightning and transient luminous events. The system consists of a Phantom V1210 high-speed camera, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grism, an optional optical slit, and lenses. The spectrograph has the capability to record videos at speeds of 200,000 frames per second and has an effective wavelength band of 550-775 nm for the first order spectra. When the slit is used, the system has a spectral resolution of about 0.25 nm per pixel. We have constructed a durable enclosure made of heavy duty aluminum to house the high-speed spectrograph. It has two fans for continuous air flow and a removable tray to mount the spectrograph components. In addition, a Watec video camera (30 frames per second) is attached to the top of the enclosure to provide a scene view. A heavy duty Pelco pan/tilt motor is used to position the enclosure and can be controlled remotely through a Rasperry Pi computer. An observation campaign has been conducted during the summer and fall of 2017 at the Florida Institute of Technology. Several close cloud-to-ground discharges were recorded at 57,000 frames per second. The spectrum of a downward stepped negative leader and a positive cloud-to-ground return stroke will be reported on.

  20. Proceedings of the 17th international congress on high speed photography and photonics. v. 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Hollingworth, D.


    One of the unique features of this Congress, is that it provides a forum for practitioners from the host country to describe local and unique applications of high speed photography, fifty percent of the papers were presented by local scientists and engineers. The high proportion of contributions relating to the mining industry emphasises South Africa's leading role in this field. One of the objectives of this congress was to introduce the techniques and applications of high speed photography. Topics covered include: mining applications; ballistics, shockwave and detonation studies; laser studies; x-ray applications; image intensifiers; biomechanics; high and ultra high speed applications; holography; schlieren and interferometry; plasma studies; data analysis techniques and diagnostics; and videography

  1. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio


    -fluid interactions in these high-speed flows special high performance techniques are required. The present work is an investigation into the applicability of magnified digital in-line holography with ultra-high-speed recording for the study of three-dimensional supersonic particle-laden flows. An optical setup...... × 10mm calibration grid and 120 μm particles on a glass plate. In the case with the calibration grid it is found that accurate determination of the depthwise position is possible. However, when applying the same technique to the particle target, significant problems are encountered. © 2012...

  2. Acoustic grating fringe projector for high-speed and high-precision three-dimensional shape measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuebing; Zhao Huijie; Zeng Junyu; Qu Yufu


    A new acoustic grating fringe projector (AGFP) was developed for high-speed and high-precision 3D measurement. A new acoustic grating fringe projection theory is also proposed to describe the optical system. The AGFP instrument can adjust the spatial phase and period of fringes with unprecedented speed and accuracy. Using rf power proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and CCD synchronous control, we obtain fringes with fine sinusoidal characteristics and realize high-speed acquisition of image data. Using the device, we obtained a precise phase map for a 3D profile. In addition, the AGFP can work in running fringe mode, which could be applied in other measurement fields

  3. Visualization of high speed liquid jet impaction on a moving surface. (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Green, Sheldon


    Two apparatuses for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device (for examining surface speeds between 0 and 25 m/sec) and a spinning disk device (for examining surface speeds between 15 and 100 m/sec). The air cannon linear traverse is a pneumatic energy-powered system that is designed to accelerate a metal rail surface mounted on top of a wooden projectile. A pressurized cylinder fitted with a solenoid valve rapidly releases pressurized air into the barrel, forcing the projectile down the cannon barrel. The projectile travels beneath a spray nozzle, which impinges a liquid jet onto its metal upper surface, and the projectile then hits a stopping mechanism. A camera records the jet impingement, and a pressure transducer records the spray nozzle backpressure. The spinning disk set-up consists of a steel disk that reaches speeds of 500 to 3,000 rpm via a variable frequency drive (VFD) motor. A spray system similar to that of the air cannon generates a liquid jet that impinges onto the spinning disc, and cameras placed at several optical access points record the jet impingement. Video recordings of jet impingement processes are recorded and examined to determine whether the outcome of impingement is splash, splatter, or deposition. The apparatuses are the first that involve the high speed impingement of low-Reynolds-number liquid jets on high speed moving surfaces. In addition to its rail industry applications, the described technique may be used for technical and industrial purposes such as steelmaking and may be relevant to high-speed 3D printing.

  4. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Idris


    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis parameters, such as cathodic current density and temperature at constant pH, on electrodeposition and microstructure of Ni-Co alloys were examined. A homogeneous surface morphology was obtained at all current densities of the plated samples, and it was evident that the current density and temperature affect the coating thickness of Ni-Co alloy coatings.

  5. Feature Tracking for High Speed AFM Imaging of Biopolymers. (United States)

    Hartman, Brett; Andersson, Sean B


    The scanning speed of atomic force microscopes continues to advance with some current commercial microscopes achieving on the order of one frame per second and at least one reaching 10 frames per second. Despite the success of these instruments, even higher frame rates are needed with scan ranges larger than are currently achievable. Moreover, there is a significant installed base of slower instruments that would benefit from algorithmic approaches to increasing their frame rate without requiring significant hardware modifications. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of high speed scanning on an existing, non-high speed instrument, through the use of a feedback-based, feature-tracking algorithm that reduces imaging time by focusing on features of interest to reduce the total imaging area. Experiments on both circular and square gratings, as well as silicon steps and DNA strands show a reduction in imaging time by a factor of 3-12 over raster scanning, depending on the parameters chosen.

  6. High-speed packet filtering utilizing stream processors (United States)

    Hummel, Richard J.; Fulp, Errin W.


    Parallel firewalls offer a scalable architecture for the next generation of high-speed networks. While these parallel systems can be implemented using multiple firewalls, the latest generation of stream processors can provide similar benefits with a significantly reduced latency due to locality. This paper describes how the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE), a popular stream processor, can be used as a high-speed packet filter. Results show the CBE can potentially process packets arriving at a rate of 1 Gbps with a latency less than 82 μ-seconds. Performance depends on how well the packet filtering process is translated to the unique stream processor architecture. For example the method used for transmitting data and control messages among the pseudo-independent processor cores has a significant impact on performance. Experimental results will also show the current limitations of a CBE operating system when used to process packets. Possible solutions to these issues will be discussed.

  7. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi


    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  8. Development of Industrial High-Speed Transfer Parallel Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung In; Kyung, Jin Ho; Do, Hyun Min; Jo, Sang Hyun


    Parallel robots used in industry require high stiffness or high speed because of their structural characteristics. Nowadays, the importance of rapid transportation has increased in the distribution industry. In this light, an industrial parallel robot has been developed for high-speed transfer. The developed parallel robot can handle a maximum payload of 3 kg. For a payload of 0.1 kg, the trajectory cycle time is 0.3 s (come and go), and the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s (pick amp, place work, adept cycle). In this motion, its maximum acceleration is very high and reaches approximately 13g. In this paper, the design, analysis, and performance test results of the developed parallel robot system are introduced

  9. High Speed White Dwarf Asteroseismology with the Herty Hall Cluster (United States)

    Gray, Aaron; Kim, A.


    Asteroseismology is the process of using observed oscillations of stars to infer their interior structure. In high speed asteroseismology, we complete that by quickly computing hundreds of thousands of models to match the observed period spectra. Each model on a single processor takes five to ten seconds to run. Therefore, we use a cluster of sixteen Dell Workstations with dual-core processors. The computers use the Ubuntu operating system and Apache Hadoop software to manage workloads.

  10. Aero-Mechanical Coupling in a High-Speed Compressor (United States)


    freedom mass-spring- damper system as χ = ς 2 √ κµ . (51) ς represents the viscous damping, κ is the system stiffness and µ the system mass. χ expresses...between the fluid and structures which are common in modern, high-speed axial compressors. There were two major areas of focus. The first was the...development of measurement technique specifically for the study of these phenomena, termed Blade Image Velocimetry (BIV). The technique can measure fluid and

  11. Modeling and simulation of high-speed milling centers dynamics


    Msaddek , El Bechir; Bouaziz , Zoubeir; Baili , Maher; Dessein , Gilles


    International audience; High-speed machining is a milling operation in industrial production of aeronautic parts, molds, and dies. The parts production is being reduced because of the slowing down of the machining resulting from the tool path discontinuity machining strategy. In this article, we propose a simulation tool of the machine dynamic behavior, in complex parts machining. For doing this, analytic models have been developed expressing the cutting tool feed rate. Afterwards, a simulati...

  12. High speed motion-picture photography. Instrumentation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin-Maghit, G.; Delli, C.; Falgayrettes, M.


    Filming technology at 5,000 frames/second is presented in this paper for the determination of the volume and the expension speed of a gas bubble in water. The high speed 16 mm movie camera, fitted with ultra-wide angle lenses, is placed in front of a side light facing the bubble. Ten 60 ms fast flashes, released in succession, illuminate the bubble [fr

  13. The economic effects of high speed rail investment


    de Rus, Ginés


    The allocation of traffic between different transport modes follows transport user decisions which depend on the generalized cost of travel in the available alternatives. High Speed Rail (HSR) investment is a government decision with significant effects on the generalized cost of rail transport; and therefore on the modal split in corridors where private operators compete for traffic and charge prices close to total producer costs (infrastructure included). The rationale for HSR investment is...

  14. Kinematic and Kinetic Evaluation of High Speed Backward Running (United States)


    Designed using Perform Pro , WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 KINEMATIC AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH SPEED BACKWARD RUNNING by ALAN WAYNE ARATA A DISSERTATION...Project Manager, Engineering Division, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, 1983-86 AWARDS AND HONORS: All-American, 50yd Freestyle , 1979 Winner, Rocky...redirection #include <stdlib.h> // for exit #include <iomanip.h> // for set precision #include <string.h> // for string copy const int NUMPOINTS

  15. Study on Electromagnetic Interference of high-speed railway EMU


    CHENG Qiang; LIU Jin-jiang; CHENG Ning


    Electromagnetic radiation generated by pantograph-catenaries detachment is one of the inevitable problems with the development of high-speed railway this paper is focusing on the generating mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic noise caused by pantograph-catenaries system. Based on previous research, we build an integrated model of catenaries and locomotive system, and study the electromagnetic disturbance characteristics using software FEKO. The simulation experiment results in th...

  16. High speed trains Velaro for Russia; Hochgeschwindigkeitszuege Velaro fuer Russland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Andreas; John, David [Siemens AG, I MO TR HI RUS, Erlangen (Germany); Mangler, Ruediger [Siemens AG, I MO TR DH, Krefeld (Germany); Nazarov, Aleksander S. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Technical Policy; Nazarov, Oleg N. [VNIIZhT Moscow (Russian Federation); Shilkin, Vitali P. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    From December 2008 on, eight ten-piece high-speed trains from the Velaro family from Siemens will be delivered to Russia. The two electrical multiple unit versions - single and double system trains equipped with distributed traction - will be put into service on the existing Moscow - St. Petersburg and Moscow - Nizhni Novgorod lines. The technical design and the special features for deployment in Russia are described. (orig.)

  17. High Speed Trimaran (HST) Seatrain Experiments, Model 5714 (United States)


    wave absorbing beach at the other. The carriage has electro-hydraulic drive and a regenerative braking system with a maximum carriage speed of 20...Carderock Division To: Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command (PMS3 85) Subj FORWARDING OF REPORT Encl: (1) NSWCCD-80-TR-2013/015, "High Speed Trimaran...and verify the system processes and capability. Your comments will be reviewed and are appreciated. JUDE F. BROWN By direction Copy to: NAVSEA

  18. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.


    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  19. Open tube guideway for high speed air cushioned vehicles (United States)

    Goering, R. S. (Inventor)


    This invention is a tubular shaped guideway for high-speed air-cushioned supported vehicles. The tubular guideway is split and separated such that the sides of the guideway are open. The upper portion of the tubular guideway is supported above the lower portion by truss-like structural members. The lower portion of the tubular guideway may be supported by the terrain over which the vehicle travels, on pedestals or some similar structure.

  20. Noise factor of a high-speed cinematography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secroun, A.


    Inertial confinement fusion simulates in a laboratory the thermodynamic state of the center of stars, thus leading to the determination of stellar parameters. In order to reach that aim, high-speed cinematography brings up instruments specifically adapted to picosecond measurement, for which it is necessary to know the final precision. A model of the noise factor of the instruments under study is introduced and confronted to the experimental results obtained. (authors)