WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-speed atomic force

  1. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed. (topical review)

  2. High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is now materialized. It allows direct visualization of dynamic structural changes and dynamic processes of functioning biological molecules in physiological solutions, at high spatiotemporal resolution. Dynamic molecular events unselectively appear in detail in an AFM movie, facilitating our understanding of how biological molecules operate to function. This review describes a historical overview of technical development towards HS-AFM, summarizes elementary devices and techniques used in the current HS-AFM, and then highlights recent imaging studies. Finally, future challenges of HS-AFM studies are briefly discussed.

  3. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-01-01

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed

  4. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  5. High-speed atomic force microscope imaging: Adaptive multiloop mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze; Li, Bo; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an imaging mode (called the adaptive multiloop mode) of atomic force microscope (AFM) is proposed to substantially increase the speed of tapping mode (TM) imaging while preserving the advantages of TM imaging over contact mode (CM) imaging. Due to its superior image quality and less sample disturbances over CM imaging, particularly for soft materials such as polymers, TM imaging is currently the most widely used imaging technique. The speed of TM imaging, however, is substantially (over an order of magnitude) lower than that of CM imaging, becoming the major bottleneck of this technique. Increasing the speed of TM imaging is challenging as a stable probe tapping on the sample surface must be maintained to preserve the image quality, whereas the probe tapping is rather sensitive to the sample topography variation. As a result, the increase of imaging speed can quickly lead to loss of the probe-sample contact and/or annihilation of the probe tapping, resulting in image distortion and/or sample deformation. The proposed adaptive multiloop mode (AMLM) imaging overcomes these limitations of TM imaging through the following three efforts integrated together: First, it is proposed to account for the variation of the TM deflection when quantifying the sample topography; second, an inner-outer feedback control loop to regulate the TM deflection is added on top of the tapping-feedback control loop to improve the sample topography tracking; and, third, an online iterative feedforward controller is augmented to the whole control system to further enhance the topography tracking, where the next-line sample topography is predicted and utilized to reduce the tracking error. The added feedback regulation of the TM deflection ensures the probe-sample interaction force remains near the minimum for maintaining a stable probe-sample interaction. The proposed AMLM imaging is tested and demonstrated by imaging a poly(tert-butyl acrylate) sample in experiments. The

  6. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  7. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optic...

  8. Imaging stability in force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung I.; Boehm, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the stability of force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy (HSAFM) by imaging soft, hard, and biological sample surfaces at various applied forces. The HSAFM images showed sudden topographic variations of streaky fringes with a negative applied force when collected on a soft hydrocarbon film grown on a grating sample, whereas they showed stable topographic features with positive applied forces. The instability of HSAFM images with the negative applied force was explained by the transition between contact and noncontact regimes in the force–distance curve. When the grating surface was cleaned, and thus hydrophilic by removing the hydrocarbon film, enhanced imaging stability was observed at both positive and negative applied forces. The higher adhesive interaction between the tip and the surface explains the improved imaging stability. The effects of imaging rate on the imaging stability were tested on an even softer adhesive Escherichia coli biofilm deposited onto the grating structure. The biofilm and planktonic cell structures in HSAFM images were reproducible within the force deviation less than ∼0.5 nN at the imaging rate up to 0.2 s per frame, suggesting that the force-feedback HSAFM was stable for various imaging speeds in imaging softer adhesive biological samples. - Highlights: ► We investigated the imaging stability of force-feedback HSAFM. ► Stable–unstable imaging transitions rely on applied force and sample hydrophilicity. ► The stable–unstable transitions are found to be independent of imaging rate

  9. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, ...

  10. High-speed atomic force microscopy combined with inverted optical microscopy for studying cellular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Sakai, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Aiko; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Yagi, Akira; Imaoka, Yuka; Ito, Shuichi; Karaki, Koichi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an optical/fluorescence detection device have been a long-standing wish. Here we describe the implementation of high-speed AFM coupled with an optical fluorescence microscope. This was accomplished by developing a tip-scanning system, instead of a sample-scanning system, which operates on an inverted optical microscope. This novel device enabled the acquisition of high-speed AFM images of morphological changes in individual cells. Using this instrument, we conducted structural studies of living HeLa and 3T3 fibroblast cell surfaces. The improved time resolution allowed us to image dynamic cellular events.

  11. Development of nanomanipulator using a high-speed atomic force microscope coupled with a haptic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, F.; Ohashi, Y.; Ishisaki, I.; Picco, L.M.; Ushiki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely used for surface fabrication and manipulation. However, nanomanipulation using a conventional AFM is inefficient because of the sequential nature of the scan-manipulation scan cycle, which makes it difficult for the operator to observe the region of interest and perform the manipulation simultaneously. In this paper, a nanomanipulation technique using a high-speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) is described. During manipulation using the AFM probe, the operation is periodically interrupted for a fraction of a second for high-speed imaging that allows the topographical image of the manipulated surface to be periodically updated. With the use of high-speed imaging, the interrupting time for imaging can be greatly reduced, and as a result, the operator almost does not notice the blink time of the interruption for imaging during the manipulation. This creates a more intuitive interface with greater feedback and finesse to the operator. Nanofabrication under real-time monitoring was performed to demonstrate the utility of this arrangement for real-time nanomanipulation of sample surfaces under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the HS-AFM is coupled with a haptic device for the human interface, enabling the operator to move the HS-AFM probe to any position on the surface while feeling the response from the surface during the manipulation. - Highlights: • A nanomanipulater based on a high-speed atomic force microscope was developped. • High-speed imaging provides a valuable feedback during the manipulation operation. • Operator can feel the response from the surface via a haptic device during manipulation. • Nanofabrications under real-time monitoring were successfully performed

  12. Real-time nanofabrication with high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicary, J A; Miles, M J

    2009-01-01

    The ability to follow nanoscale processes in real-time has obvious benefits for the future of material science. In particular, the ability to evaluate the success of fabrication processes in situ would be an advantage for many in the semiconductor industry. We report on the application of a previously described high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM) for nanofabrication. The specific fabrication method presented here concerns the modification of a silicon surface by locally oxidizing the region in the vicinity of the AFM tip. Oxide features were fabricated during imaging, with relative tip-sample velocities of up to 10 cm s -1 , and with a data capture rate of 15 fps.

  13. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality

  14. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze, E-mail: qzzou@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Rd, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality.

  15. A serial-kinematic nanopositioner for high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadikhaye, Sachin P., E-mail: sachin.wadikhaye@uon.edu.au; Yong, Yuen Kuan; Reza Moheimani, S. O. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A flexure-guided serial-kinematic XYZ nanopositioner for high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy is presented in this paper. Two aspects influencing the performance of serial-kinematic nanopositioners are studied in this work. First, mass reduction by using tapered flexures is proposed to increased the natural frequency of the nanopositioner. 25% increase in the natural frequency is achieved due to reduced mass with tapered flexures. Second, a study of possible sensor positioning in a serial-kinematic nanopositioner is presented. An arrangement of sensors for exact estimation of cross-coupling is incorporated in the proposed design. A feedforward control strategy based on phaser approach is presented to mitigate the dynamics and nonlinearity in the system. Limitations in design approach and control strategy are discussed in the Conclusion.

  16. High-speed imaging upgrade for a standard sample scanning atomic force microscope using small cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Nievergelt, Adrian; Erickson, Blake W.; Yang, Chen; Dukic, Maja; Fantner, Georg E., E-mail: georg.fantner@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    We present an atomic force microscope (AFM) head for optical beam deflection on small cantilevers. Our AFM head is designed to be small in size, easily integrated into a commercial AFM system, and has a modular architecture facilitating exchange of the optical and electronic assemblies. We present two different designs for both the optical beam deflection and the electronic readout systems, and evaluate their performance. Using small cantilevers with our AFM head on an otherwise unmodified commercial AFM system, we are able to take tapping mode images approximately 5–10 times faster compared to the same AFM system using large cantilevers. By using additional scanner turnaround resonance compensation and a controller designed for high-speed AFM imaging, we show tapping mode imaging of lipid bilayers at line scan rates of 100–500 Hz for scan areas of several micrometers in size.

  17. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential to encapsulate and selectively release therapeutic drugs. Observations of real-time performance of 3D DNA origami structures in physiological environment will contribute much to its further applications. Here, we investigate the degradation kinetics of 3D...... DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...... is a combination of a rapid collapse phase and a slow degradation phase. The damages of box origami mainly happen in the collapse phase. Thus, the structure stability of 3D DNA box origami should be further improved, especially in the collapse phase, before clinical applications...

  18. A serial-kinematic nanopositioner for high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadikhaye, Sachin P.; Yong, Yuen Kuan; Reza Moheimani, S. O.

    2014-01-01

    A flexure-guided serial-kinematic XYZ nanopositioner for high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy is presented in this paper. Two aspects influencing the performance of serial-kinematic nanopositioners are studied in this work. First, mass reduction by using tapered flexures is proposed to increased the natural frequency of the nanopositioner. 25% increase in the natural frequency is achieved due to reduced mass with tapered flexures. Second, a study of possible sensor positioning in a serial-kinematic nanopositioner is presented. An arrangement of sensors for exact estimation of cross-coupling is incorporated in the proposed design. A feedforward control strategy based on phaser approach is presented to mitigate the dynamics and nonlinearity in the system. Limitations in design approach and control strategy are discussed in the Conclusion

  19. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I S; Youcef-Toumi, K; Burns, D J; Fantner, G E

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozchalooi, I. S.; Youcef-Toumi, K.; Burns, D. J.; Fantner, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy can provide the possibility of many new scientific observations and applications ranging from nano-manufacturing to the study of biological processes. However, the limited imaging speed has been an imperative drawback of the atomic force microscopes. One of the main reasons behind this limitation is the excitation of the AFM dynamics at high scan speeds, severely undermining the reliability of the acquired images. In this research, we propose a piezo based, feedforward controlled, counter actuation mechanism to compensate for the excited out-of-plane scanner dynamics. For this purpose, the AFM controller output is properly filtered via a linear compensator and then applied to a counter actuating piezo. An effective algorithm for estimating the compensator parameters is developed. The information required for compensator design is extracted from the cantilever deflection signal, hence eliminating the need for any additional sensors. The proposed approach is implemented and experimentally evaluated on the dynamic response of a custom made AFM. It is further assessed by comparing the imaging performance of the AFM with and without the application of the proposed technique and in comparison with the conventional counterbalancing methodology. The experimental results substantiate the effectiveness of the method in significantly improving the imaging performance of AFM at high scan speeds.

  1. Quantification of the resist dissolution process: an in situ analysis using high speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Julius Joseph; Shichiri, Motoharu; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    This work focuses on the application of a high speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) for the in situ visualization / quantification of the resist dissolution process. This technique, as reported in the past, has provided useful pointers on the formation of resist patterns during dissolution. This paper discusses about an investigation made on the quantification of what we refer to as "dissolution unit size" or the basic units of patterning material dissolution. This was done through the establishment of an originally developed analysis method which extracts the difference between two succeeding temporal states of the material film surface (images) to indicate the amount of change occurring in the material film at a specific span of time. Preliminary experiments with actual patterning materials were done using a positive-tone EUV model resist composed only of polyhydroxystyrene (PHS)-based polymer with a molecular weight of 2,500 and a polydispersity index of 1.2. In the absence of a protecting group, the material was utilized at a 50nm film thickness with post application bake of 90°C/60s. The resulting film is soluble in the alkali-based developer even without exposure. Results have shown that the dissolution components (dissolution unit size) of the PHS-based material are not of fixed size. Instead, it was found that aside from one constantly dissolving unit size, another, much larger dissolution unit size trend also occurs during material dissolution. The presence of this larger dissolution unit size suggests an occurrence of "polymer clustering". Such polymer clustering was not significantly present during the initial stages of dissolution (near the original film surface) but becomes more persistently obvious after the dissolution process reaches a certain film thickness below the initial surface.

  2. Investigation of polymer derived ceramics cantilevers for application of high speed atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yun

    High speed Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a wide variety of applications ranging from nanomanufacturing to biophysics. In order to have higher scanning speed of certain AFM modes, high resonant frequency cantilevers are needed; therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate using polymer derived ceramics for possible applications in making high resonant frequency AFM cantilevers using complex cross sections. The polymer derived ceramic that will be studied, is silicon carbide. Polymer derived ceramics offer a potentially more economic fabrication approach for MEMS due to their relatively low processing temperatures and ease of complex shape design. Photolithography was used to make the desired cantilever shapes with micron scale size followed by a wet etching process to release the cantilevers from the substrates. The whole manufacturing process we use borrow well-developed techniques from the semiconducting industry, and as such this project also could offer the opportunity to reduce the fabrication cost of AFM cantilevers and MEMS in general. The characteristics of silicon carbide made from the precursor polymer, SMP-10 (Starfire Systems), were studied. In order to produce high qualities of silicon carbide cantilevers, where the major concern is defects, proper process parameters needed to be determined. Films of polymer derived ceramics often have defects due to shrinkage during the conversion process. Thus control of defects was a central issue in this study. A second, related concern was preventing oxidation; the polymer derived ceramics we chose is easily oxidized during processing. Establishing an environment without oxygen in the whole process was a significant challenge in the project. The optimization of the parameters for using photolithography and wet etching process was the final and central goal of the project; well established techniques used in microfabrication were modified for use in making the cantilever in the project. The techniques

  3. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I., E-mail: isoltani@mit.edu; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-11-15

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube.

  4. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube

  5. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Careaga Houck, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); AlGhamdi, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Dammam, Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Youcef-Toumi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X–Y–Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6 μm out-of-plane and 120 μm lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5 μm suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20 MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. - Highlights: • High-speed AFM imaging is extended to large lateral and vertical scan ranges. • A general multi-actuation approach to atomic force microscopy is presented. • A high-speed AFM is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. • Multi-actuator control is designed auxiliary to a PID unit to maintain flexibility. • Influence of calcite crystal structure on dissolution is visualized in video form.

  6. High-speed dynamic atomic force microscopy by using a Q-controlled cantilever eigenmode as an actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balantekin, M., E-mail: mujdatbalantekin@iyte.edu.tr

    2015-02-15

    We present a high-speed operating method with feedback to be used in dynamic atomic force microscope (AFM) systems. In this method we do not use an actuator that has to be employed to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM setups. Instead, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of an AFM cantilever to perform the function of the actuator. Simulations show that even with an ordinary tapping-mode cantilever, imaging speed can be increased by about 2 orders of magnitude compared to conventional dynamic AFM imaging. - Highlights: • A high-speed imaging method is developed for dynamic-AFM systems. • An eigenmode of an AFM cantilever is utilized to perform fast actuation. • Simulations show 2 orders of magnitude increase in scan speed. • The time spent for dynamic-AFM imaging experiments will be minimized.

  7. High-speed atomic force microscopy reveals structural dynamics of α -synuclein monomers and dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuliang; Hashemi, Mohtadin; Lv, Zhengjian; Williams, Benfeard; Popov, Konstantin I.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2018-03-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is the major component of the intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease. α-Syn is capable of self-assembly into many different species, such as soluble oligomers and fibrils. Even though attempts to resolve the structures of the protein have been made, detailed understanding about the structures and their relationship with the different aggregation steps is lacking, which is of interest to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of Parkinson's disease. Here we report the structural flexibility of α-syn monomers and dimers in an aqueous solution environment as probed by single-molecule time-lapse high-speed AFM. In addition, we present the molecular basis for the structural transitions using discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations. α-Syn monomers assume a globular conformation, which is capable of forming tail-like protrusions over dozens of seconds. Importantly, a globular monomer can adopt fully extended conformations. Dimers, on the other hand, are less dynamic and show a dumbbell conformation that experiences morphological changes over time. DMD simulations revealed that the α-syn monomer consists of several tightly packed small helices. The tail-like protrusions are also helical with a small β-sheet, acting as a "hinge". Monomers within dimers have a large interfacial interaction area and are stabilized by interactions in the non-amyloid central (NAC) regions. Furthermore, the dimer NAC-region of each α-syn monomer forms a β-rich segment. Moreover, NAC-regions are located in the hydrophobic core of the dimer.

  8. A miniaturized, high frequency mechanical scanner for high speed atomic force microscope using suspension on dynamically determined points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfst, Rodolf; Dekker, Bert; Witvoet, Gert; Crowcombe, Will; Lange, Dorus de [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Sadeghian, Hamed, E-mail: hamed.sadeghianmarnani@tno.nl, E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    One of the major limitations in the speed of the atomic force microscope (AFM) is the bandwidth of the mechanical scanning stage, especially in the vertical (z) direction. According to the design principles of “light and stiff” and “static determinacy,” the bandwidth of the mechanical scanner is limited by the first eigenfrequency of the AFM head in case of tip scanning and by the sample stage in terms of sample scanning. Due to stringent requirements of the system, simply pushing the first eigenfrequency to an ever higher value has reached its limitation. We have developed a miniaturized, high speed AFM scanner in which the dynamics of the z-scanning stage are made insensitive to its surrounding dynamics via suspension of it on specific dynamically determined points. This resulted in a mechanical bandwidth as high as that of the z-actuator (50 kHz) while remaining insensitive to the dynamics of its base and surroundings. The scanner allows a practical z scan range of 2.1 μm. We have demonstrated the applicability of the scanner to the high speed scanning of nanostructures.

  9. High-speed broadband nanomechanical property quantification and imaging of life science materials using atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juan

    Nanoscale morphological characterization and mechanical properties quantification of soft and biological materials play an important role in areas ranging from nano-composite material synthesis and characterization, cellular mechanics to drug design. Frontier studies in these areas demand the coordination between nanoscale morphological evolution and mechanical behavior variations through simultaneous measurement of these two aspects of properties. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is very promising in achieving such simultaneous measurements at high-speed and broadband owing to its unique capability in applying force stimuli and then, measuring the response at specific locations in a physiologically friendly environment with pico-newton force and nanometer spatial resolution. Challenges, however, arise as current AFM systems are unable to account for the complex and coupled dynamics of the measurement system and probe-sample interaction during high-speed imaging and broadband measurements. In this dissertation, the creation of a set of dynamics and control tools to probe-based high-speed imaging and rapid broadband nanomechanical spectroscopy of soft and biological materials are presented. Firstly, advanced control-based approaches are presented to improve the imaging performance of AFM imaging both in air and in liquid. An adaptive contact mode (ACM) imaging scheme is proposed to replace the traditional contact mode (CM) imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. In this work, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification and the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining a stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next

  10. Method of mechanical holding of cantilever chip for tip-scan high-speed atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Shingo [Department of Physics, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Uchihashi, Takayuki; Ando, Toshio [Department of Physics, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology of the Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7 Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    In tip-scan atomic force microscopy (AFM) that scans a cantilever chip in the three dimensions, the chip body is held on the Z-scanner with a holder. However, this holding is not easy for high-speed (HS) AFM because the holder that should have a small mass has to be able to clamp the cantilever chip firmly without deteriorating the Z-scanner’s fast performance, and because repeated exchange of cantilever chips should not damage the Z-scanner. This is one of the reasons that tip-scan HS-AFM has not been established, despite its advantages over sample stage-scan HS-AFM. Here, we present a novel method of cantilever chip holding which meets all conditions required for tip-scan HS-AFM. The superior performance of this novel chip holding mechanism is demonstrated by imaging of the α{sub 3}β{sub 3} subcomplex of F{sub 1}-ATPase in dynamic action at ∼7 frames/s.

  11. High-speed tapping-mode atomic force microscopy using a Q-controlled regular cantilever acting as the actuator: Proof-of-principle experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balantekin, M., E-mail: mujdatbalantekin@iyte.edu.tr [Electrical and Electronics Engineering, İzmir Institute of Technology, Urla, İzmir 35430 (Turkey); Satır, S.; Torello, D.; Değertekin, F. L. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We present the proof-of-principle experiments of a high-speed actuation method to be used in tapping-mode atomic force microscopes (AFM). In this method, we do not employ a piezotube actuator to move the tip or the sample as in conventional AFM systems, but, we utilize a Q-controlled eigenmode of a cantilever to perform the fast actuation. We show that the actuation speed can be increased even with a regular cantilever.

  12. Model-free iterative control of repetitive dynamics for high-speed scanning in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bechhoefer, John

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for calculating, offline or in real time and with no explicit system characterization, the feedforward input required for repetitive motions of a system. The algorithm is based on the secant method of numerical analysis and gives accurate motion at frequencies limited only by the signal-to-noise ratio and the actuator power and range. We illustrate the secant-solver algorithm on a stage used for atomic force microscopy.

  13. Dissolution Processes at Step Edges of Calcite in Water Investigated by High-Speed Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kazuki; Tracey, John; Miyazawa, Keisuke; Haapasilta, Ville; Spijker, Peter; Kawagoe, Yuta; Foster, Adam S; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2017-07-12

    The microscopic understanding of the crystal growth and dissolution processes have been greatly advanced by the direct imaging of nanoscale step flows by atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical interferometry, and X-ray microscopy. However, one of the most fundamental events that govern their kinetics, namely, atomistic events at the step edges, have not been well understood. In this study, we have developed high-speed frequency modulation AFM (FM-AFM) and enabled true atomic-resolution imaging in liquid at ∼1 s/frame, which is ∼50 times faster than the conventional FM-AFM. With the developed AFM, we have directly imaged subnanometer-scale surface structures around the moving step edges of calcite during its dissolution in water. The obtained images reveal that the transition region with typical width of a few nanometers is formed along the step edges. Building upon insight in previous studies, our simulations suggest that the transition region is most likely to be a Ca(OH) 2 monolayer formed as an intermediate state in the dissolution process. On the basis of this finding, we improve our understanding of the atomistic dissolution model of calcite in water. These results open up a wide range of future applications of the high-speed FM-AFM to the studies on various dynamic processes at solid-liquid interfaces with true atomic resolution.

  14. Real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 visualized by high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Kodera, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seiichi; Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-11-10

    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 binds to a guide RNA and cleaves double-stranded DNA with a sequence complementary to the RNA guide. The Cas9-RNA system has been harnessed for numerous applications, such as genome editing. Here we use high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to visualize the real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 in action. HS-AFM movies indicate that, whereas apo-Cas9 adopts unexpected flexible conformations, Cas9-RNA forms a stable bilobed structure and interrogates target sites on the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion. These movies also provide real-time visualization of the Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage process. Notably, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain fluctuates upon DNA binding, and subsequently adopts an active conformation, where the HNH active site is docked at the cleavage site in the target DNA. Collectively, our HS-AFM data extend our understanding of the action mechanism of CRISPR-Cas9.

  15. Anisotropic diffusion of point defects in a two-dimensional crystal of streptavidin observed by high-speed atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ando, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of individual point defects in a two-dimensional streptavidin crystal formed on biotin-containing supported lipid bilayers was observed by high-speed atomic force microscopy. The two-dimensional diffusion of monovacancy defects exhibited anisotropy correlated with the two crystallographic axes in the orthorhombic C 222 crystal; in the 2D plane, one axis (the a-axis) is comprised of contiguous biotin-bound subunit pairs whereas the other axis (the b-axis) is comprised of contiguous biotin-unbound subunit pairs. The diffusivity along the b-axis is approximately 2.4 times larger than that along the a-axis. This anisotropy is ascribed to the difference in the association free energy between the biotin-bound subunit-subunit interaction and the biotin-unbound subunit-subunit interaction. The preferred intermolecular contact occurs between the biotin-unbound subunits. The difference in the intermolecular binding energy between the two types of subunit pair is estimated to be approximately 0.52 kcal mol -1 . Another observed dynamic behavior of point defects was fusion of two point defects into a larger defect, which occurred much more frequently than the fission of a point defect into smaller defects. The diffusivity of point defects increased with increasing defect size. The fusion and the higher diffusivity of larger defects are suggested to be involved in the mechanism for the formation of defect-free crystals

  16. Systematics of atom-atom collision strengths at high speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Inokuti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The collision strengths for atom-atom collisions at high speeds are calculated in the first Born approximation. We studied four classes of collisions, distinguished depending upon whether each of the collision partners becomes excited or not. The results of numerical calculations of the collision strengths are presented for all neutral atoms with Z< or =18. The calculations are based on atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions found in the literature. The relative contribution of each class of collision processes to the total collision cross section is examined in detail. In general, inelastic processes dominate for low-Z atoms, while elastic scattering is more important for large Z. Other systematics of the collision strengths are comprehensively discussed. The relevant experimental literature has been surveyed and the results of this work for the three collision systems H-He, He-He, and H-Ar are compared with the data for electron-loss processes. Finally, suggestions are made for future work in measurements of atom-atom and ion-atom collision cross sections

  17. High-resolution high-speed dynamic mechanical spectroscopy of cells and other soft materials with the help of atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, M; Sokolov, I

    2015-07-28

    Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS), which allows measuring frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties, is important to study soft materials, tissues, biomaterials, polymers. However, the existing DMS techniques (nanoindentation) have limited resolution when used on soft materials, preventing them from being used to study mechanics at the nanoscale. The nanoindenters are not capable of measuring cells, nanointerfaces of composite materials. Here we present a highly accurate DMS modality, which is a combination of three different methods: quantitative nanoindentation (nanoDMA), gentle force and fast response of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy. This new spectroscopy (which we suggest to call FT-nanoDMA) is fast and sensitive enough to allow DMS imaging of nanointerfaces, single cells, while attaining about 100x improvements on polymers in both spatial (to 10-70 nm) and temporal resolution (to 0.7 s/pixel) compared to the current art. Multiple frequencies are measured simultaneously. The use of 10 frequencies are demonstrated here (up to 300 Hz which is a rather relevant range for biological materials and polymers, in both ambient conditions and liquid). The method is quantitatively verified on known polymers and demonstrated on cells and polymers blends. Analysis shows that FT-nanoDMA is highly quantitative. The FT-nanoDMA spectroscopy can easily be implemented in the existing AFMs.

  18. Cutting force model for high speed machining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, R. E.; Jimenez, J. E.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez-Coronado, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents cutting force-based models able to describe a high speed machining process. The model considers the cutting force as output variable, essential for the physical processes that are taking place in high speed machining. Moreover, this paper shows the mathematical development to derive the integral-differential equations, and the algorithms implemented in MATLAB to predict the cutting force in real time MATLAB is a software tool for doing numerical computations with matrices and vectors. It can also display information graphically and includes many toolboxes for several research and applications areas. Two end mill shapes are considered (i. e. cylindrical and ball end mill) for real-time implementation of the developed algorithms. the developed models are validated in slot milling operations. The results corroborate the importance of the cutting force variable for predicting tool wear in high speed machining operations. The developed models are the starting point for future work related with vibration analysis, process stability and dimensional surface finish in high speed machining processes. (Author) 19 refs

  19. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [ALCOA Specialty Metals Division, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.ting@alcoa.com; Connor, Jeffery [Material Science Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ridder, Stephen [Metallurgical Processing Group, NIST, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8556, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2005-01-15

    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images.

  20. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Jason; Connor, Jeffery; Ridder, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images

  1. Compactibility of atomized high-speed steel and steel 3 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, L.D.; Gavrilenko, A.P.; Pikozh, A.P.; Kuz'menko, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    Spherical powders and powders of lammellar-scaly shape of high-speed R6M5K5 steel and steel 3 produced by the method of centrifugal atomization of a rotating billet under conditions of cold pressing in steel moulds are studied for thier compactability. Compacting pressure dependnences are establsihed for density of cold-pressed compacts of spherical and scaly powders. The powders of lammellar-scaly shape both of high-speed steel and steel 3 are found to possess better compactibility within a wide range of pressures as compared to powders of spherical shape. Compacts of the lammellar-scaly powders possess also higher mechanical strength

  2. Spring meeting of the scientific associations for atomic physics, high speed physics, mass spectrometry, molecular physics, plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting in Rostock with aspects of atomic physics, molecular physics, high speed physics, plasma physics and mass spectrometry. (MM)

  3. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel. (paper)

  4. Analysis of Electromagnetics Forces on Magnetically Suspended High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed superexpresses (HSST developed by Japanese airlines (JAL are based on the electrodynamics principle of magnetic suspension. The track contains short-circuited coils and interaction between them and superconductive coils in the vehicle produces its suspension. The paper includes a mathematical model for traction electrodynamics suspension device HSST represented by a system of linear differential equations with coefficients varying in time. Numerical analysis of this model fields the velocity-dependent lift and drag forces acting on the system. The time distribution of the lift force exhibits certain oscillations that may be suppressed by suitable placement of several superconductive levitation wings in the vehicle. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the knowledge found by various authors on prototype vehicles.

  5. Three-dimensional Force and Kinematic Interactions in V1 Skating at High Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-06-01

    To describe the detailed kinetics and kinematics associated with use of the V1 skating technique at high skiing speeds and to identify factors that predict performance. Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers performed an incremental roller-skiing speed test (Vpeak) on a treadmill using the V1 skating technique. Pole and plantar forces and whole-body kinematics were monitored at four submaximal speeds. The propulsive force of the "strong side" pole was greater than that of the "weak side" (P skating at high speeds. The faster skiers exhibit more symmetric leg motion on the "strong" and "weak" sides, as well as more synchronized poling. With respect to methods, the pressure insoles and three-dimensional kinematics in combination with the leg push-off model described here can easily be applied to all skating techniques, aiding in the evaluation of skiing techniques and comparison of effectiveness.

  6. End effect braking force reduction in high-speed single-sided linear induction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiri, Abbas; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new analytical equation to model the end effect braking force of SLIM is derived. ► Equations for efficiency, power factor and output thrust are analytically derived. ► The effect of design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. ► An optimization method is employed to minimize the end effect braking force (EEBF). ► The results show that EEBF is minimized by appropriate selection of motor parameters. - Abstract: Linear induction motors have been widely employed in industry because of their simple structure and low construction cost. However, they suffer from low efficiency and power factor. In addition, existence of so called end effect influences their performance especially in high speeds. The end effect deteriorates the performance of the motor by producing braking force. So, in this paper, by using Duncan equivalent circuit model, a new analytical equation is proposed to model end effect braking force. Employing the proposed equation and considering all phenomena involved in the single-sided linear induction motor, a simple design procedure is presented and the effect of different design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. A multi-objective optimization method based on genetic algorithm is introduced to maximize efficiency and power factor, as well as to minimize the end effect braking force, simultaneously. Finally, to validate the optimization results, 2D finite element method is employed.

  7. Evaluation of cutting force and surface roughness in high-speed milling of compacted graphite iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Suhaimi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted Graphite Iron, (CGI is known to have outstanding mechanical strength and weight-to-strength ratio as compared to conventional grey cast iron, (CI. The outstanding characteristics of CGI is due to its graphite particle shape, which is presented as compacted vermicular particle. The graphite is interconnected with random orientation and round edges, which results in higher mechanical strength. Whereas, graphite in the CI consists of a smooth-surfaced flakes that easily propagates cracks which results in weaker and brittle properties as compared to CGI. Owing to its improved properties, CGI is considered as the best candidate material in substituting grey cast iron that has been used in engine block applications for years. However, the smooth implementation of replacing CI with CGI has been hindered due to the poor machinability of CGI especially at high cutting speed. The tool life is decreased by 20 times when comparing CGI with CI under the same cutting condition. This study investigates the effect of using cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL during high-speed milling of CGI (grade 450. Results showed that, the combination of internal cryogenic cooling and enhanced MQL improved the tool life, cutting force and surface quality as compared to the conventional flood coolant strategy during high-speed milling of CGI.

  8. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  9. The Use Of High Speed Photography In Reactor Safety Studies At The Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, R. J.

    1985-02-01

    The investigation of certain areas of nuclear reactor safety involves the study of high speed phenomena with timescales ranging from microseconds to a few hundreds of milliseconds. Examples which have been extensively studied at Winfrith are firstly, the thermal interaction of molten fuel and reactor coolant which can generate high pressures on the 100 msec timescale, and which involves phenomena such as vapour film collapse which takes place on the microsecond timescale. Secondly, there is the response of reactor structures to such pressures, and finally there is the response of structural materials such as metals and concrete to the impulsive loading arising from the impact of heavy, high velocity missiles. A wide range of experimental techniques is used in these studies, many of which have been developed specially for this type of work which ranges from small laboratory scale to large field scale experiments. There are two important features which characterise many of these experiments:- i) a long period of meticulous preparation of very heavily instrumented, short duration experiments and; ii) the destructive nature of the experiments. Various forms of High Speed photography are included in the inventory of experimental techniques. These include the use of single and double exposure, short duration, spark photography; the use of an Image Convertor Camera (IMACON 790); and a number of rotating prism cine cameras. High Speed Photography is used both in a primary experimental role in the studies, and in a supportive role for other instrumentation. Because of the sometimes violent nature of these experiments, cameras are often heavily protected and operated remotely; lighting systems are sometimes destroyed. This has led to the development of unconventional techniques for camera operation and subject lighting. This paper will describe some of the experiments and the way in which High Speed Photography has been applied as an essential experimental tool. It will be

  10. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  11. High Speed Blanking: An Experimental Method to Measure Induced Cutting Forces

    OpenAIRE

    GAUDILLIERE , Camille; Ranc , Nicolas; LARUE , Arnaud; MAILLARD , A; Lorong , Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Lien vers la version éditeur: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11340-013-9738-1; International audience; A new blanking process that involves punch speed up to 10 ms −1 has obvious advantages in increased productivity. However, the inherent dynamics of such a process makes it difficult to develop a practical high speed punch press. The fracture phenomenon governing the blanking process has to be well understood to correctly design the machine support and the tooling. To observe this ...

  12. Impact of Cutting Forces and Chip Microstructure in High Speed Machining of Carbon Fiber – Epoxy Composite Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Y. Allwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced polymeric (CFRP composite materials are widely used in aerospace, automobile and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and durability. High speed machining (HSM of CFRP material is needed to study the impact of cutting parameters on cutting forces and chip microstructure which offer vital inputs to the machinability and deformation characteristics of the material. In this work, the orthogonal machining of CFRP was conducted by varying the cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate at high cutting speed/feed rate ranges up to 346 m/min/ 0.446 mm/rev. The impact of the cutting parameters on cutting forces (principal cutting, feed and thrust forces and chip microstructure were analyzed. A significant impact on thrust forces and chip segmentation pattern was seen at higher feed rates and low cutting speeds.

  13. Review on the applications of the very high speed computing technique to atomic energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsutomu

    1981-01-01

    The demand of calculation in atomic energy field is enormous, and the physical and technological knowledge obtained by experiments are summarized into mathematical models, and accumulated as the computer programs for design, safety analysis of operational management. These calculation code systems are classified into reactor physics, reactor technology, operational management and nuclear fusion. In this paper, the demand of calculation speed in the diffusion and transport of neutrons, shielding, technological safety, core control and particle simulation is explained as the typical calculation. These calculations are divided into two models, the one is fluid model which regards physical systems as continuum, and the other is particle model which regards physical systems as composed of finite number of particles. The speed of computers in present state is too slow, and the capability 1000 to 10000 times as much as the present general purpose machines is desirable. The calculation techniques of pipeline system and parallel processor system are described. As an example of the practical system, the computer network OCTOPUS in the Lorence Livermore Laboratory is shown. Also, the CHI system in UCLA is introduced. (Kako, I.)

  14. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  15. Receptivity and Forced Response to Acoustic Disturbances in High-Speed Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.

  16. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  17. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  18. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Nievergelt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples.

  19. Contact wire positions and contact forces. Measurements at high-speed lines in China; Fahrdrahtlage und Kontaktkraefte. Messungen an Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, Joerg; Rick, Frank; Sarnes, Bernhard [DB Systemtechnik GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Puschmann, Rainer [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Infrastructure and Cities

    2012-07-15

    The reliable energy transmission from overhead contact line to pantograph of traction units without interruption decides on the successful operation of high-speed railway lines. Measurements of contact wire position and contact forces are suited to assess interaction of overhead contact line and pantograph. Chinese Railways actually implement the biggest electrification program for high-speed lines worldwide. For these projects contact wire position and contact forces are monitored by procedures developed in Germany. The experience confirms that keeping the contact wire position within the specified limits lead to a superior energy transmission up to 350 km/h. (orig.)

  20. Real-time deflection and friction force imaging by bimorph-based resonance-type high-speed scanning force microscopy in the contact mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Fan, Haiyun; Zhao, Jianyong; Shang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    We report herein an alternative high-speed scanning force microscopy method in the contact mode based on a resonance-type piezoelectric bimorph scanner. The experimental setup, the modified optical beam deflection scheme suitable for smaller cantilevers, and a high-speed control program for simultaneous data capture are described in detail. The feature of the method is that the deflection and friction force images of the sample surface can be obtained simultaneously in real time. Images of various samples (e.g., a test grating, a thin gold film, and fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass slides) are acquired successfully. The imaging rate is 25 frames per second, and the average scan speed reaches a value of approximately 2.5 cm/s. The method combines the advantages of both observing the dynamic processes of the sample surface and monitoring the frictional properties on the nanometer scale. 07.79.Lh; 07.79.Sp; 68.37.Ps.

  1. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  2. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  3. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, S; Roshan, A; Ariffin, M K A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes

  4. Investigating bioconjugation by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnological applications increasingly exploit the selectivity and processivity of biological molecules. Integration of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA into nano-systems typically requires their conjugation to surfaces, for example of carbon-nanotubes or fluorescent quantum dots. The bioconjugated nanostructures exploit the unique strengths of both their biological and nanoparticle components and are used in diverse, future oriented research areas ranging from nanoelectronics to biosensing and nanomedicine. Atomic force microscopy imaging provides valuable, direct insight for the evaluation of different conjugation approaches at the level of the individual molecules. Recent technical advances have enabled high speed imaging by AFM supporting time resolutions sufficient to follow conformational changes of intricately assembled nanostructures in solution. In addition, integration of AFM with different spectroscopic and imaging approaches provides an enhanced level of information on the investigated sample. Furthermore, the AFM itself can serve as an active tool for the assembly of nanostructures based on bioconjugation. AFM is hence a major workhorse in nanotechnology; it is a powerful tool for the structural investigation of bioconjugation and bioconjugation-induced effects as well as the simultaneous active assembly and analysis of bioconjugation-based nanostructures. PMID:23855448

  5. Countermeasures for Reducing Unsteady Aerodynamic Force Acting on High-Speed Train in Tunnel by Use of Modifications of Train Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji; Ido, Atsushi

    As the maximum speed of high-speed trains increases, flow-induced vibration of trains in tunnels has become a subject of discussion in Japan. In this paper, we report the result of a study on use of modifications of train shapes as a countermeasure for reducing an unsteady aerodynamic force by on-track tests and a wind tunnel test. First, we conduct a statistical analysis of on-track test data to identify exterior parts of a train which cause the unsteady aerodynamic force. Next, we carry out a wind tunnel test to measure the unsteady aerodynamic force acting on a train in a tunnel and examined train shapes with a particular emphasis on the exterior parts identified by the statistical analysis. The wind tunnel test shows that fins under the car body are effective in reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. Finally, we test the fins by an on-track test and confirmed its effectiveness.

  6. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  7. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-01-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh

  8. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  9. Study of Near-Cup Droplet Breakup of an Automotive Electrostatic Rotary Bell (ESRB Atomizer Using High-Speed Shadowgraph Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E. Wilson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Rotary bell (ESRB atomizers are used as the dominant means of paint application by the automotive industry. They utilize the high rotational speed of a cup to induce primary atomization of a liquid along with shaping air to provide secondary atomization and transport. In order to better understand the fluid breakup mechanisms involved in this process, high-speed shadowgraph imaging was used to visualize the edge of a serrated rotary bell at speeds varying between 5000 and 12,000 RPM and with a water flow rate of 250 ccm. A multi-step image processing algorithm was developed to differentiate between ligaments and droplets during the primary atomization process. The results from this experiment showed that higher bell speeds resulted in a 26.8% reduction in ligament and 22.3% reduction in droplet Sauter Mean Diameters (SMD. Additionally, the ligament (ranging from 40 to 400 μm diameters formed bimodal distributions, while the droplet (ranging from 40 to 300 μm diameters formed a normal distribution. Velocities were also measured using particle tracking velocimetry, in which size-dependent velocities could then be computed. Droplet velocities were affected more by rotational speed than droplet SMD, while ligaments were affected by other factors than the rotational speed and ligament SMD.

  10. Performance of Cableless Magnetic In-Piping Actuator Capable of High-Speed Movement by Means of Inertial Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yaguchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a novel cableless magnetic actuator with a new propulsion module that exhibits a very high thrusting force. This actuator contains an electrical inverter that directly transforms DC from button batteries into AC. The electrical DC-AC inverter incorporates a mass-spring system, a reed switch, and a curved permanent magnet that switches under an electromagnetic force. The actuator is moved by the inertial force of the mass-spring system due to mechanical resonance energy. The experimental results show that the actuator is able to move upward at a speed of 19.7 mm/s when using 10 button batteries when pulling a 20 g load mass. This cableless magnetic actuator has several possible applications, including narrow pipe inspection and maintenance.

  11. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  12. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  13. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  14. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  15. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  16. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  17. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  18. Multi-atom resonant photoemission and the development of next-generation software and high-speed detectors for electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Alexander William

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation has involved the exploration of a new effect in photoelectron emission, multi-atom resonant photoemission (MARPE), as well as the development of new software, data analysis techniques, and detectors of general use in such research. We present experimental and theoretical results related to MARPE, in which the photoelectron intensity from a core level on one atom is influenced by a core-level absorption resonance on another. We point out that some of our and others prior experimental data has been strongly influenced by detector non-linearity and that the effects seen in new corrected data are smaller and of different form. Corrected data for the MnO(001) system with resonance between the O 1s and Mn 2p energy levels are found to be well described by an extension of well-known intraatomic resonant photoemission theory to the interatomic case, provided that interactions beyond the usual second-order Kramers-Heisenberg treatment are included. This theory is also found to simplify under certain conditions so as to yield results equivalent to a classical x-ray optical approach, with the latter providing an accurate and alternative, although less detailed and general, physical picture of these effects. Possible future applications of MARPE as a new probe of near-neighbor identities and bonding and its relationship to other known effects are also discussed. We also consider in detail specially written data acquisition software that has been used for most of the measurements reported here. This software has been used with an existing experimental system to develop the method of detector characterization and then data correction required for the work described above. The development of a next generation one-dimensional, high-speed, electron detector is also discussed. Our goal has been to design, build and test a prototype high-performance, one-dimensional pulse-counting detector that represents a significant advancement in detector technology and is well

  19. Multi-atom resonant photoemission and the development of next-generation software and high-speed detectors for electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Alexander William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This dissertation has involved the exploration of a new effect in photoelectron emission, multi-atom resonant photoemission (MARPE), as well as the development of new software, data analysis techniques, and detectors of general use in such research. We present experimental and theoretical results related to MARPE, in which the photoelectron intensity from a core level on one atom is influenced by a core-level absorption resonance on another. We point out that some of our and others prior experimental data has been strongly influenced by detector non-linearity and that the effects seen in new corrected data are smaller and of different form. Corrected data for the MnO(001) system with resonance between the O 1s and Mn 2p energy levels are found to be well described by an extension of well-known intraatomic resonant photoemission theory to the interatomic case, provided that interactions beyond the usual second-order Kramers-Heisenberg treatment are included. This theory is also found to simplify under certain conditions so as to yield results equivalent to a classical x-ray optical approach, with the latter providing an accurate and alternative, although less detailed and general, physical picture of these effects. Possible future applications of MARPE as a new probe of near-neighbor identities and bonding and its relationship to other known effects are also discussed. We also consider in detail specially written data acquisition software that has been used for most of the measurements reported here. This software has been used with an existing experimental system to develop the method of detector characterization and then data correction required for the work described above. The development of a next generation one-dimensional, high-speed, electron detector is also discussed. Our goal has been to design, build and test a prototype high-performance, one-dimensional pulse-counting detector that represents a significant advancement in detector technology and is well

  20. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  1. Calcite biomineralization in coccoliths: Evidence from atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Karen; Stipp, S.L.S.

    2002-01-01

    geochemistry, crystal orientation, coccolith function, biomineralization, biological calcite, atomic force microscopy......geochemistry, crystal orientation, coccolith function, biomineralization, biological calcite, atomic force microscopy...

  2. Space-Time Equalization for High-Speed Wireless Digital Communications Based on Multipath-Incorporating Matched Filtering, Zero Forcing Equalization, and MMSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoltowski, Michael D

    2003-01-01

    The project has successfully demonstrated reduced-rank, space-time equalization for high-speed wireless digital communications capable of reliably transmitting multimedia data in support of military...

  3. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Sayan, E-mail: ghos0087@umn.edu; Salapaka, Murti, E-mail: murtis@umn.edu [Nanodynamics Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  4. High speed network sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  5. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  6. Microparticle adhesion studies by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, L.H.G.J.; Siebum, B.; Karssenberg, F.G.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Vancso, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most flexible and simple techniques for probing surface interactions. This article reviews AFM studies on particle adhesion. Special attention is paid to the characterization of roughness and its effect on adhesion. This is of importance when comparing the

  7. Capillary forces in tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitzler, L.; Herminghaus, S.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the relative humidity on amplitude and phase of the cantilever oscillation while operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) in the tapping mode. If the free oscillation amplitude A0 exceeds a certain critical amplitude Ac, the amplitude- and phase-distance curves

  8. High Speed Photomicrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1983-03-01

    One of the most challenging areas in applying high-speed photography and videography in the plant and laboratory is in the recording of rapid events at macro and microscopic scales. Depth of field, exposure efficiency, working distance, and required exposure time are all reduced as optical magnification is increased, which severely taxes the skill and ingenuity of workers interested in recording any fast moving phenomena through the microscope or with magnifying lenses. This paper defines the problems inherent in photographing within macro and microscopic ranges and offers a systematic approach to optimizing the selection of equipment and choice of applicable techniques.

  9. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  10. Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetard, L; Passian, A; Farahi, R H; Kalluri, U C; Davison, B H; Thundat, T

    2010-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass and Populus. These features may be attributable to the lignocellulosic cell wall composition, as the collected images exhibit the characteristic macromolecular globule structures attributable to the lignocellulosic systems. Using both AFM and a single case of mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) to characterize Populus, we obtained images that clearly show the cell wall structure. The results are of importance in providing a better understanding of the characteristic features of both mature cells as well as developing plant cells. In addition, we present spectroscopic investigation of the same samples.

  11. Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.

  12. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  13. Feature Tracking for High Speed AFM Imaging of Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brett; Andersson, Sean B

    2018-03-31

    The scanning speed of atomic force microscopes continues to advance with some current commercial microscopes achieving on the order of one frame per second and at least one reaching 10 frames per second. Despite the success of these instruments, even higher frame rates are needed with scan ranges larger than are currently achievable. Moreover, there is a significant installed base of slower instruments that would benefit from algorithmic approaches to increasing their frame rate without requiring significant hardware modifications. In this paper, we present an experimental demonstration of high speed scanning on an existing, non-high speed instrument, through the use of a feedback-based, feature-tracking algorithm that reduces imaging time by focusing on features of interest to reduce the total imaging area. Experiments on both circular and square gratings, as well as silicon steps and DNA strands show a reduction in imaging time by a factor of 3-12 over raster scanning, depending on the parameters chosen.

  14. Actuation of atomic force microscopy microcantilevers using contact acoustic nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. Levent, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A new method of actuating atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers is proposed in which a high frequency (>5 MHz) wave modulated by a lower frequency (∼300 kHz) wave passes through a contact acoustic nonlinearity at the contact interface between the actuator and the cantilever chip. The nonlinearity converts the high frequency, modulated signal to a low frequency drive signal suitable for actuation of tapping-mode AFM probes. The higher harmonic content of this signal is filtered out mechanically by the cantilever transfer function, providing for clean output. A custom probe holder was designed and constructed using rapid prototyping technologies and off-the-shelf components and was interfaced with an Asylum Research MFP-3D AFM, which was then used to evaluate the performance characteristics with respect to standard hardware and linear actuation techniques. Using a carrier frequency of 14.19 MHz, it was observed that the cantilever output was cleaner with this actuation technique and added no significant noise to the system. This setup, without any optimization, was determined to have an actuation bandwidth on the order of 10 MHz, suitable for high speed imaging applications. Using this method, an image was taken that demonstrates the viability of the technique and is compared favorably to images taken with a standard AFM setup.

  15. Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Arildsen, Thomas; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most advanced tools for high-resolution imaging and manipulation of nanoscale matter. Unfortunately, standard AFM imaging requires a timescale on the order of seconds to minutes to acquire an image which makes it complicated to observe dynamic processes....... Moreover, it is often required to take several images before a relevant observation region is identified. In this paper we show how to significantly reduce the image acquisition time by undersampling. The reconstruction of an undersampled AFM image can be viewed as an inpainting, interpolating problem...... should be reconstructed using interpolation....

  16. Atomic force microscopy of starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-09-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) generates information on topography, adhesion, and elasticity of sample surface by touching with a tip. Under suitable experimental settings, AFM can image biopolymers of few nanometers. Starch is a major food and industrial component. AFM has been used to probe the morphology, properties, modifications, and interactions of starches from diverse botanical origins at both micro- and nano-structural levels. The structural information obtained by AFM supports the blocklet structure of the granules, and provides qualitative and quantitative basis for some physicochemical properties of diverse starch systems. It becomes evident that AFM can complement other microscopic techniques to provide novel structural insights for starch systems.

  17. Error mapping of high-speed AFM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, Petr; Picco, Loren; Payton, Oliver; Yacoot, Andrew; Miles, Mervyn

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, there have been several advances in the development of high-speed atomic force microscopes (HSAFMs) to obtain images with nanometre vertical and lateral resolution at frame rates in excess of 1 fps. To date, these instruments are lacking in metrology for their lateral scan axes; however, by imaging a series of two-dimensional lateral calibration standards, it has been possible to obtain information about the errors associated with these HSAFM scan axes. Results from initial measurements are presented in this paper and show that the scan speed needs to be taken into account when performing a calibration as it can lead to positioning errors of up to 3%.

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy for Soil Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    gazze, andrea; doerr, stefan; dudley, ed; hallin, ingrid; matthews, peter; quinn, gerry; van keulen, geertje; francis, lewis

    2016-04-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a high-resolution surface-sensitive technique, which provides 3-dimensional topographical information and material properties of both stiff and soft samples in their natural environments. Traditionally AFM has been applied to samples with low roughness: hence its use for soil analysis has been very limited so far. Here we report the optimization settings required for a standardization of high-resolution and artefact-free analysis of natural soil with AFM: soil immobilization, AFM probe selection, artefact recognition and minimization. Beyond topography, AFM can be used in a spectroscopic mode to evaluate nanomechanical properties, such as soil viscosity, stiffness, and deformation. In this regards, Bruker PeakForce-Quantitative NanoMechanical (QNM) AFM provides a fast and convenient way to extract physical properties from AFM force curves in real-time to obtain soil nanomechanical properties. Here we show for the first time the ability of AFM to describe the topography of natural soil at nanometre resolution, with observation of micro-components, such as clays, and of nano-structures, possibly of biotic origin, the visualization of which would prove difficult with other instrumentations. Finally, nanomechanical profiling has been applied to different wettability states in soil and the respective physical patterns are discussed.

  19. Characterization of nanoparticles using Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A; Schoenenberger, M; Gnecco, E; Glatzel, Th; Meyer, E; Braendlin, D; Scandella, L

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming increasingly important in many areas, including catalysis, biomedical applications, and information storage. Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior. Using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), individual particles and groups of particles can be resolved and unlike other microscopy techniques, the AFM offers visualization and analysis in three dimensions. We prepared titanium oxide, zirconium oxide and alumina nanoparticles and/or agglomerates on different surfaces and characterized them by AFM in the dynamic mode. The goal was to determine the shape, size and/or size distribution of nanoparticles. Different dilutions of nanoparticles were applied on various substrates e.g. clean silicon, mica and chemically treated silicon and imaged at ambient conditions. Nanoparticles deposited on mica appeared to be coagulated as compared to those on silicon. Whereas, on a chemically treated surface the density of the nanoparticles was very low because of the increased hydrophobicity of the surface

  20. Dissipation and oscillatory solvation forces in confined liquids studied by small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We determine conservative and dissipative tip–sample interaction forces from the amplitude and phase response of acoustically driven atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers using a non-polar model fluid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, which displays strong molecular layering) and atomically flat

  1. Single molecule atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Grandbois, Michel; Cuccia, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based force spectroscopy was used to study the desorption of individual chitosan polymer chains from substrates with varying chemical composition. AFM images of chitosan adsorbed onto a flat mica substrate show elongated single strands or aggregated bundles. The aggregated state of the polymer is consistent with the high level of flexibility and mobility expected for a highly positively charged polymer strand. Conversely, the visualization of elongated strands indicated the presence of stabilizing interactions with the substrate. Surfaces with varying chemical composition (glass, self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoundecanoic acid/decanethiol and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) were probed with chitosan modified AFM tips and the corresponding desorption energies, calculated from plateau-like features, were attributed to the desorption of individual polymer strands. Desorption energies of 2.0±0.3×10(-20)J, 1.8±0.3×10(-20)J and 3.5±0.3×10(-20)J were obtained for glass, SAM of mercaptoundecanoic/dodecanethiol and PTFE, respectively. These single molecule level results can be used as a basis for investigating chitosan and chitosan-based materials for biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

  3. Corrected direct force balance method for atomic force microscopy lateral force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, David B.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports corrections and improvements of the previously reported direct force balance method (DFBM) developed for lateral calibration of atomic force microscopy. The DFBM method employs the lateral force signal obtained during a force-distance measurement on a sloped surface and relates this signal to the applied load and the slope of the surface to determine the lateral calibration factor. In the original publication [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043903 (2006)], the tip-substrate contact was assumed to be pinned at the point of contact, i.e., no slip along the slope. In control experiments, the tip was found to slide along the slope during force-distance curve measurement. This paper presents the correct force balance for lateral force calibration.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  5. Atomic Force Microscopy and Real Atomic Resolution. Simple Computer Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsos, V.; Manias, E.; Brinke, G. ten; Hadziioannou, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple computer simulation for AFM imaging in the contact mode, pictures with true and false atomic resolution are demonstrated. The surface probed consists of two f.c.c. (111) planes and an atomic vacancy is introduced in the upper layer. Changing the size of the effective tip and its

  6. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Hansma, Paul K.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect

  7. Indirect identification and compensation of lateral scanner resonances in atomic force microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D J; Youcef-Toumi, K; Fantner, G E

    2011-01-01

    Improving the imaging speed of atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires accurate nanopositioning at high speeds. However, high speed operation excites resonances in the AFM's mechanical scanner that can distort the image, and therefore typical users of commercial AFMs elect to operate microscopes at speeds below which scanner resonances are observed. Although traditional robust feedforward controllers and input shaping have proven effective at minimizing the influence of scanner distortions, the lack of direct measurement and use of model-based controllers have required disassembling the microscope to access lateral scanner motion with external sensors in order to perform a full system identification experiment, which places excessive demands on routine microscope operators. Further, since the lightly damped instrument dynamics often change from experiment to experiment, model-based controllers designed from offline system identification experiments must trade off high speed performance for robustness to modeling errors. This work represents a new way to automatically characterize the lateral scanner dynamics without addition of lateral sensors, and shape the commanded input signals in such a way that disturbing dynamics are not excited. Scanner coupling between the lateral and out-of-plane directions is exploited and used to build a minimal model of the scanner that is also sufficient to describe the nature of the distorting resonances. This model informs the design of an online input shaper used to suppress spectral components of the high speed command signals. The method presented is distinct from alternative approaches in that neither an information-complete system identification experiment nor microscope modification are required. Because the system identification is performed online immediately before imaging, no tradeoff of performance is required. This approach has enabled an increase in the scan rates of unmodified commercial AFMs from 1-4 lines s -1 to over

  8. Advanced atomic force microscopy: Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Deron A.

    Over the decade since atomic force microscopy (AFM) was invented, development of new microscopes has been closely intertwined with application of AFM to problems of interest in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. New techniques such as tapping mode AFM move quickly in our lab from the designer's bench to the user's table-since this is often the same piece of furniture. In return, designers get ample feedback as to what problems are limiting current instruments, and thus need most urgent attention. Tip sharpness and characterization are such a problem. Chapter 1 describes an AFM designed to operate in a scanning electron microscope, whose electron beam is used to deposit sharp carbonaceous tips. These tips can be tested and used in situ. Another limitation is addressed in Chapter 2: the difficulty of extracting more than just topographic information from a sample. A combined AFM/confocal optical microscope was built to provide simultaneous, independent images of the topography and fluorescence of a sample. In combination with staining or antibody labelling, this could provide submicron information about the composition of a sample. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss two generations of small cantilevers developed for lower-noise, higher-speed AFM of biological samples. In Chapter 4, a 26 mum cantilever is used to image the process of calcite growth from solution at a rate of 1.6 sec/frame. Finally, Chapter 5 explores in detail a biophysics problem that motivates us to develop fast, quiet, and gentle microscopes; namely, the control of crystal growth in seashells by the action of soluble proteins on a growing calcite surface.

  9. Using magnetic coils to produce periodically applied forces to maintain the high speed movement of bodies and vehicles, particularly in tubes evacuated of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    An arrangement is described in which a body is accelerated or maintained in motion along a track that passes through a number of annular electromagnet coils, the length of the body being substantially less than the distance between two adjacent coils. A series if electronmagnetically produced force pulses is applied to the body as it passes through successive coils, by the use of an automatic switch operated by the body. Control is provided so that each coil is de-energized at or before maximum magnetic flux linkage is attained between coil and body, the arrangement being such that the body is accelerated into the coil, but leaves it at a much reduced flux linkage. The possible uses of such an arrangement are mentioned: these include the acceleration of bullets, incorporating D and T in pellet form in their concave noses, to obtain a nuclear fusion reaction. (U.K.)

  10. High-speed AFM for Studying Dynamic Biomolecular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Biological molecules show their vital activities only in aqueous solutions. It had been one of dreams in biological sciences to directly observe biological macromolecules (protein, DNA) at work under a physiological condition because such observation is straightforward to understanding their dynamic behaviors and functional mechanisms. Optical microscopy has no sufficient spatial resolution and electron microscopy is not applicable to in-liquid samples. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can visualize molecules in liquids at high resolution but its imaging rate was too low to capture dynamic biological processes. This slow imaging rate is because AFM employs mechanical probes (cantilevers) and mechanical scanners to detect the sample height at each pixel. It is quite difficult to quickly move a mechanical device of macroscopic size with sub-nanometer accuracy without producing unwanted vibrations. It is also difficult to maintain the delicate contact between a probe tip and fragile samples. Two key techniques are required to realize high-speed AFM for biological research; fast feedback control to maintain a weak tip-sample interaction force and a technique to suppress mechanical vibrations of the scanner. Various efforts have been carried out in the past decade to materialize high-speed AFM. The current high-speed AFM can capture images on video at 30-60 frames/s for a scan range of 250nm and 100 scan lines, without significantly disturbing week biomolecular interaction. Our recent studies demonstrated that this new microscope can reveal biomolecular processes such as myosin V walking along actin tracks and association/dissociation dynamics of chaperonin GroEL-GroES that occurs in a negatively cooperative manner. The capacity of nanometer-scale visualization of dynamic processes in liquids will innovate on biological research. In addition, it will open a new way to study dynamic chemical/physical processes of various phenomena that occur at the liquid-solid interfaces.

  11. Light forces on an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied

  12. Radical Chemistry and Charge Manipulation with an Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Leo

    The fuctionalization of tips by atomic manipulation dramatically increased the resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination of high-resolution AFM with atomic manipulation now offers the unprecedented possibility to custom-design individual molecules by making and breaking bonds with the tip of the microscope and directly characterizing the products on the atomic scale. We recently applied this technique to generate and study reaction intermediates and to investigate chemical reactions trigged by atomic manipulation. We formed diradicals by dissociating halogen atoms and then reversibly triggered ring-opening and -closing reactions via atomic manipulation, allowing us to switch and control the molecule's reactivity, magnetic and optical properties. Additional information about charge states and charge distributions can be obtained by Kelvin probe force spectroscopy. On multilayer insulating films we investigated single-electron attachment, detachment and transfer between individual molecules. EU ERC AMSEL (682144), EU project PAMS (610446).

  13. Nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy measurements on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Considerable improvement in the hardness was observed when negative bias voltage ... ment considerably affects the microstructure of the coatings. Atomic ... coated with TiN show increase in the tool-life by several ... Also, it is well known.

  14. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  15. Atomic force microscopy. A new method for atom identification and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Morita, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a scanning probe technique that detects the interaction forces between the outermost atom of a sharp tip and the atoms at a surface to image the sample surface. It is expected that the FM-AFM can cover the research field which scanning tunneling microscopy does not provide. In this article, we would introduce FM-AFM experiments applied to site-specific force measurements and atom manipulation, including how to solve the problems to achieve precise FM-AFM measurements. (author)

  16. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  17. Surface forces studied with colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.

    2001-01-01

    Forces between surfaces are a determining factor for the performance of natural as well as synthetic colloidal systems, and play a crucial role in industrial production processes. Measuring these forces is a scientific and experimental challenge and over the years several techniques have

  18. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  19. Depletion interaction measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Knoben, W.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the depletion interaction between stearylated silica surfaces in cyclohexane in the presence of dissolved polydimethylsiloxane by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. We found that the range of the depletion interaction decreases with increasing concentration.

  20. Nonequilibrium forces between neutral atoms mediated by a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2010-01-01

    We study forces between two neutral atoms, modeled as three-dimensional harmonic oscillators, arising from mutual influences mediated by an electromagnetic field but not from their direct interactions. We allow as dynamical variables the center-of-mass motion of the atom, its internal degrees of freedom, and the quantum field treated relativistically. We adopt the method of nonequilibrium quantum field theory which can provide a first-principles, systematic, and unified description including the intrinsic and induced dipole fluctuations. The inclusion of self-consistent back-actions makes possible a fully dynamical description of these forces valid for general atom motion. In thermal equilibrium we recover the known forces--London, van der Waals, and Casimir-Polder--between neutral atoms in the long-time limit. We also reproduce a recently reported force between atoms when the system is out of thermal equilibrium at late times. More noteworthy is the discovery of the existence of a type of (or identification of the source of some known) interatomic force which we call the ''entanglement force,'' originating from the quantum correlations of the internal degrees of freedom of entangled atoms.

  1. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Martinek, J; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Miles, M; Yacoot, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm 2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. (paper)

  2. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  3. Imaging modes of atomic force microscopy for application in molecular and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrêne, Yves F; Ando, Toshio; Garcia, Ricardo; Alsteens, David; Martinez-Martin, David; Engel, Andreas; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J

    2017-04-06

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful, multifunctional imaging platform that allows biological samples, from single molecules to living cells, to be visualized and manipulated. Soon after the instrument was invented, it was recognized that in order to maximize the opportunities of AFM imaging in biology, various technological developments would be required to address certain limitations of the method. This has led to the creation of a range of new imaging modes, which continue to push the capabilities of the technique today. Here, we review the basic principles, advantages and limitations of the most common AFM bioimaging modes, including the popular contact and dynamic modes, as well as recently developed modes such as multiparametric, molecular recognition, multifrequency and high-speed imaging. For each of these modes, we discuss recent experiments that highlight their unique capabilities.

  4. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  5. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  6. Long Range Forces between Atomic Impurities in Liquid Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Roc, J.

    2002-01-01

    Van der Waals or Casimir interaction between neutral quantum objects in their ground state is known to be universally attractive. This is not necessarily so when these objects are embedded in a polarizable medium. We show that atomic impurities in liquid helium may indeed realize repulsive forces, and even Van der Waals and Casimir forces with different signs. (author)

  7. The contribution of the electrostatic proximity force to atomic force microscopy with insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley Czarnecki, W.; Schein, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements, using atomic force microscopy, of the force and force derivative on a charged insulating micron sized sphere as a function of gap between the sphere and a conductive plane have revealed attractive forces at finite gaps that are larger than predicted by either van der Waals or conventional electrostatic forces. We suggest that these observations may be due to an electrostatic force that we have identified theoretically and call the proximity force. This proximity force is due to the discrete charges on the surface of the sphere in close proximity to the plane

  8. The contribution of the electrostatic proximity force to atomic force microscopy with insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Czarnecki, W. [Aetas Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 53398, Irvine, CA 92619-3398 (United States); IBM Corporation, 5600 Cottle Rd., Building 13, San Jose, CA 95193 (United States); Schein, L.B. [Aetas Technology Corporation, P.O. Box 53398, Irvine, CA 92619-3398 (United States)]. E-mail: schein@prodigy.net

    2005-05-16

    Measurements, using atomic force microscopy, of the force and force derivative on a charged insulating micron sized sphere as a function of gap between the sphere and a conductive plane have revealed attractive forces at finite gaps that are larger than predicted by either van der Waals or conventional electrostatic forces. We suggest that these observations may be due to an electrostatic force that we have identified theoretically and call the proximity force. This proximity force is due to the discrete charges on the surface of the sphere in close proximity to the plane.

  9. Quantitative measurements of shear displacement using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to quantitatively measure local shear deformation with high sensitivity using atomic force microscopy. The key point is to simultaneously detect both torsional and buckling motions of atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers induced by the lateral piezoelectric response of the sample. This requires the quantitative calibration of torsional and buckling response of AFM. This method is validated by measuring the angular dependence of the in-plane piezoelectric response of a piece of piezoelectric α-quartz. The accurate determination of the amplitude and orientation of the in-plane piezoelectric response, without rotation, would greatly enhance the efficiency of lateral piezoelectric force microscopy.

  10. Atomic Force Microscope Image Contrast Mechanisms on Supported Lipid Bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, James; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Barger Jr., William R.; Lee, Gil U.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to measure and quantitatively interpret force curves on supported lipid bilayers in water. We then use this method to correlate topographic imaging contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of phase-separated Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers with imaging load. Force curves collected on pure monolayers of both distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and monogalactosylethanolamine (MGDG) and dioleoylethanolamine (DOPE) deposited at similar surface pressures o...

  11. Cooling and trapping neutral atoms with radiative forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Castro, J.C.; Li, M.S.; Zilio, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques to slow and trap neutral atoms at high densities with radiative forces are discussed in this review articles. Among several methods of laser cooling, it is emphasized Zeeman Tuning of the electronic levels and frequency-sweeping techniques. Trapping of neutral atoms and recent results obtained in light and magnetic traps are discussed. Techniques to further cool atoms inside traps are presented and the future of laser cooling of neutral atoms by means of radiation pressure is discussed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  12. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  13. Lorentz force actuation of a heated atomic force microscope cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Prater, Craig B; King, William P

    2012-02-10

    We report Lorentz force-induced actuation of a silicon microcantilever having an integrated resistive heater. Oscillating current through the cantilever interacts with the magnetic field around a NdFeB permanent magnet and induces a Lorentz force that deflects the cantilever. The same current induces cantilever heating. With AC currents as low as 0.2 mA, the cantilever can be oscillated as much as 80 nm at resonance with a DC temperature rise of less than 5 °C. By comparison, the AC temperature variation leads to a thermomechanical oscillation that is about 1000 times smaller than the Lorentz deflection at the cantilever resonance. The cantilever position in the nonuniform magnetic field affects the Lorentz force-induced deflection, with the magnetic field parallel to the cantilever having the largest effect on cantilever actuation. We demonstrate how the cantilever actuation can be used for imaging, and for measuring the local material softening temperature by sensing the contact resonance shift.

  14. Adhesion force imaging in air and liquid by adhesion mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Kees; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A new imaging mode for the atomic force microscope(AFM), yielding images mapping the adhesion force between tip and sample, is introduced. The adhesion mode AFM takes a force curve at each pixel by ramping a piezoactuator, moving the silicon‐nitride tip up and down towards the sample. During the

  15. High-speed AFM of human chromosomes in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picco, L M; Dunton, P G; Ulcinas, A; Engledew, D J; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory and IRC in Nanotechnology, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hoshi, O; Ushiki, T [Division of Microscopic Anatomy and Bio-Imaging, Department of Cellular Function, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Asahimachi-Dori 1, Niigata, 951-8150 (Japan)], E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-09-24

    Further developments of the previously reported high-speed contact-mode AFM are described. The technique is applied to the imaging of human chromosomes at video rate both in air and in water. These are the largest structures to have been imaged with high-speed AFM and the first imaging in liquid to be reported. A possible mechanism that allows such high-speed contact-mode imaging without significant damage to the sample is discussed in the context of the velocity dependence of the measured lateral force on the AFM tip.

  16. High speed computer assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydan, D.; Shepp, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray generation and detection apparatus for use in a computer assisted tomography system which permits relatively high speed scanning. A large x-ray tube having a circular anode (3) surrounds the patient area. A movable electron gun (8) orbits adjacent to the anode. The anode directs into the patient area xrays which are delimited into a fan beam by a pair of collimating rings (21). After passing through the patient, x-rays are detected by an array (22) of movable detectors. Detector subarrays (23) are synchronously movable out of the x-ray plane to permit the passage of the fan beam

  17. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y

    1973-07-01

    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  18. Optimizing 1-μs-Resolution Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy on a Commercial Atomic Force Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Devin T; Faulk, Jaevyn K; Sanders, Aric W; Bull, Matthew S; Walder, Robert; LeBlanc, Marc-Andre; Sousa, Marcelo C; Perkins, Thomas T

    2015-10-14

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is widely used to mechanically measure the folding and unfolding of proteins. However, the temporal resolution of a standard commercial cantilever is 50-1000 μs, masking rapid transitions and short-lived intermediates. Recently, SMFS with 0.7-μs temporal resolution was achieved using an ultrashort (L = 9 μm) cantilever on a custom-built, high-speed AFM. By micromachining such cantilevers with a focused ion beam, we optimized them for SMFS rather than tapping-mode imaging. To enhance usability and throughput, we detected the modified cantilevers on a commercial AFM retrofitted with a detection laser system featuring a 3-μm circular spot size. Moreover, individual cantilevers were reused over multiple days. The improved capabilities of the modified cantilevers for SMFS were showcased by unfolding a polyprotein, a popular biophysical assay. Specifically, these cantilevers maintained a 1-μs response time while eliminating cantilever ringing (Q ≅ 0.5). We therefore expect such cantilevers, along with the instrumentational improvements to detect them on a commercial AFM, to accelerate high-precision AFM-based SMFS studies.

  19. MATCH: An Atom- Typing Toolset for Molecular Mechanics Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesselman, Joseph D.; Price, Daniel J.; Knight, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a toolset of program libraries collectively titled MATCH (Multipurpose Atom-Typer for CHARMM) for the automated assignment of atom types and force field parameters for molecular mechanics simulation of organic molecules. The toolset includes utilities for the conversion from multiple chemical structure file formats into a molecular graph. A general chemical pattern-matching engine using this graph has been implemented whereby assignment of molecular mechanics atom types, charges and force field parameters is achieved by comparison against a customizable list of chemical fragments. While initially designed to complement the CHARMM simulation package and force fields by generating the necessary input topology and atom-type data files, MATCH can be expanded to any force field and program, and has core functionality that makes it extendable to other applications such as fragment-based property prediction. In the present work, we demonstrate the accurate construction of atomic parameters of molecules within each force field included in CHARMM36 through exhaustive cross validation studies illustrating that bond increment rules derived from one force field can be transferred to another. In addition, using leave-one-out substitution it is shown that it is also possible to substitute missing intra and intermolecular parameters with ones included in a force field to complete the parameterization of novel molecules. Finally, to demonstrate the robustness of MATCH and the coverage of chemical space offered by the recent CHARMM CGENFF force field (Vanommeslaeghe, et al., JCC., 2010, 31, 671–690), one million molecules from the PubChem database of small molecules are typed, parameterized and minimized. PMID:22042689

  20. Intermittent contact atomic force microscopy in electrochemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, P; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In situ measurements with Atomic Force Microscopy may cause surface modifications due to the tip-surface interactions. As an alternative and less destructive method, Intermittent Contact Atomic Force Microscopy (ICAFM) has been tested in an electrolytic environment. In the ICAFM mode the tip is not constantly in contact with the surface under investigation but is tapping onto the surface with a certain frequency. A commercial Park Scientific Instruments Microscopy has been modified to enable in situ experiment with ICAFM. It was possible to image iridium oxide films with ICAFM in the electrolytic environment without any noticeable surface modifications. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Unverdi, Ozhan; Ozer, H. Ozguer; Oral, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  2. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10 2 and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 (micro)m to 1km.

  3. Using atom interferometry to search for new forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10 2 and near-future advances may be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 1 mm to 100 m.

  4. Magnetic moment measurement of magnetic nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J-W; Lee, E-C; Ju, H; Yoo, I S; Chang, W-S; Chung, B H; Kim, B S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic moment per unit mass of magnetic nanoparticles was found by using the atomic force microscope (AFM). The mass of the nanoparticles was acquired from the resonance frequency shift of the particle-attached AFM probe and magnetic force measurement was also carried out with the AFM. Combining with magnetic field strength, the magnetic moment per unit mass of the nanoparticles was determined as a function of magnetic field strength. (technical design note)

  5. High-speed data search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James N.

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed data search system developed for KSC incorporates existing and emerging information retrieval technology to help a user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual databases. This technology includes: natural language input; statistical ranking of retrieved information; an artificial intelligence concept called semantics, where 'surface level' knowledge found in text is used to improve the ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, where user judgements about viewed information are used to automatically modify the search for further information. Semantics and relevance feedback are features of the system which are not available commercially. The system further demonstrates focus on paragraphs of information to decide relevance; and it can be used (without modification) to intelligently search all kinds of document collections, such as collections of legal documents medical documents, news stories, patents, and so forth. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of statistical ranking, our semantic improvement, and relevance feedback.

  6. High speed laser tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, D.; Elsaesser, A.; Edwards, A.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120000slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  7. Atomic imaging of an InSe single-crystal surface with atomic force microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Uosaki, Kohei; Koinuma, Michio

    1993-01-01

    The atomic force microscope was employed to observed in air the surface atomic structure of InSe, one of III-VI compound semiconductors with layered structures. Atomic arrangements were observed in both n-type and p-type materials. The observed structures are in good agreement with those expected from bulk crystal structures. The atomic images became less clear by repeating the imaging process. Wide area imaging after the imaging of small area clearly showed that a mound was created at the sp...

  8. Taking Nanomedicine Teaching into Practice with Atomic Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic…

  9. Survey on result promotion of the atomic force technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Masato; Okuno, Yumiko [Nikkei Research Inst. of Industry and Markets, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    By change of environment around research and development of atomic force, investigation has been recently executed not only on a theme directing a specific aim, but also on technical development considering some applications to the other field reflected by social needs. Therefore, an effective procedure and program capable of reflecting and promoting results of the atomic fore development to other industrial field were necessary. In this study, methods of evaluation and industrialization on study results of the atomic force were investigated. As a result, in order to promote the study results to other field, it was found to be important that some free reasons and concept engineering to mediate between developing and applying sides were to be present. In addition, it was suggested by some searches that a new atomic industry has a probability to be created by using potential energies such as heat, radiation, pulse, and so on. In this paper, evaluation on industrialization of the atomic force technical resources, and establishment of the industrialization program were described. (G.K.)

  10. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a

  11. Chromosome structure investigated with the atomic force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, B.G.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; van der Werf, Kees; van Hulst, N.F.; van Oort, G.; van Oort, Geeske; Greve, Jan; Manne, Srinivas

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an atomic force microscope (AFM) with an integrated optical microscope. The optical microscope consists of an inverted epi-illumination system that yields images in reflection or fluorescence of the sample. With this system it is possible to quickly locate an object of interest. A

  12. Imaging and manipulation of single viruses by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, M.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Roos, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    The recent developments in virus research and the application of functional viral particles in nanotechnology and medicine rely on sophisticated imaging and manipulation techniques at nanometre resolution in liquid, air and vacuum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a tool that combines these

  13. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  14. Contrast artifacts in tapping tip atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Zandbergen, Julie Bjerring

    1998-01-01

    When recording images with an atomic force microscope using the resonant vibrating cantilever mode, surprising strange results are often achieved. Typical artifacts are strange contours, unexpected height shifts, and sudden changes of the apparent resolution in the acquired images. Such artifacts...

  15. Imaging of RNA in situ hybridization by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalle, W.H.J.; Macville, M.V.E.; van de Corput, M.P.C.; de Grooth, B.G.; Tanke, H.J.; Raap, A.K.

    In this study we investigated the possibility of imaging internal cellular molecules after cytochemical detection with atomic force microscopy (AFM). To this end, rat 9G and HeLa cells were hybridized with haptenized probes for 28S ribosomal RNA, human elongation factor mRNA and cytomegalovirus

  16. Atomic force microscope characterization of a resonating nanocantilever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abadal, G.; Davis, Zachary James; Borrise, X.

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used as a nanometer-scale resolution tool for the characterization of the electromechanical behaviour of a resonant cantilever-based mass sensor. The cantilever is actuated electrostatically by applying DC and AC voltages from a driver electrode placed closely...

  17. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  18. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Wagner; Robert Moon; Jon Pratt; Gordon Shaw; Arvind Raman

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale...

  19. FEATURES OF MEASURING IN LIQUID MEDIA BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Zhukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper presents results of experimental study of measurement features in liquids by atomic force microscope to identify the best modes and buffered media as well as to find possible image artifacts and ways of their elimination. Method. The atomic force microscope Ntegra Aura (NT-MDT, Russia with standard prism probe holder and liquid cell was used to carry out measurements in liquids. The calibration lattice TGQ1 (NT-MDT, Russia was chosen as investigated structure with a fixed shape and height. Main Results. The research of probe functioning in specific pH liquids (distilled water, PBS - sodium phosphate buffer, Na2HPO4 - borate buffer, NaOH 0.1 M, NaOH 0.5 M was carried out in contact and semi-contact modes. The optimal operating conditions and the best media for the liquid measurements were found. Comparison of atomic force microscopy data with the results of lattice study by scanning electron microscopy was performed. The features of the feedback system response in the «probe-surface» interaction were considered by the approach/retraction curves in the different environments. An artifact of image inversion was analyzed and recommendation for its elimination was provided. Practical Relevance. These studies reveal the possibility of fine alignment of research method for objects of organic and inorganic nature by atomic force microscopy in liquid media.

  20. Atomic force microscopy on domains in biological model membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinia, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the preparation and imaging of supported lipid bilayers, which can be regarded as biological modelmembranes, in the light of the formation of domains. The bilayers were prepared with either the Langmuir-Blodgett method, or with vesicle fusion. They were imaged with Atomic Force

  1. Stitching Grid-wise Atomic Force Microscope Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mathias Zacho; Bengtson, Stefan Hein; Pedersen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are able to capture images with a resolution in the nano metre scale. Due to this high resolution, the covered area per image is relatively small, which can be problematic when surveying a sample. A system able to stitch AFM images has been developed to solve this p...

  2. An Atomic Force Microscopical Study of the Synaptonemal Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Dietrich, A.J.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Marle, J.; Heyting, C.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The chromosomal structure which is specific for meiosis, the synaptonemal complex (SC), plays a major role in chromosome pairing and the recombination of genetic material. The SC was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results of this study confirm the results of light and electron

  3. On the role of coulomb forces in atomic radiative emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1988-10-01

    It is shown how the generalized Coulomb interaction (electric and magnetic fields of force) competes with the radiative interaction causing overall inhibition of the radiative capability of atoms and ions in a gaseous sample of matter. Basic quantum mechanical aspects of the electromagnetic interaction are discussed in a heuristic introduction followed by a more precise treatment in the formalism of relativistic quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  4. Manipulation and soldering of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwase, Yuta; Ikeda, Takayuki; Oya, Takahide; Ogino, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and soldering of CNTs using Fe oxide nanoparticles are described. We succeeded to separate a CNT bundle into two CNTs or CNT bundles, to move the separated CNT to a desirable position, and to bind it to another bundle. For the accurate manipulation, load of the AFM cantilever and frequency of the scan were carefully selected. We soldered two CNTs using an Fe oxide nanoparticle prepared from a ferritin molecule. The adhesion forces between the soldered CNTs were examined by an AFM and it was found that the CNTs were bound, though the binding force was not strong

  5. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Burson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO2 as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid. The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  6. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  7. Mapping Electrostatic Forces Using Higher Harmonics Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; Willemsen, O.H.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A simple model of a damped, harmonic oscillator is used to describe the motion of an atomic force microscope cantilever tapping in fluid. By use of experimentally obtained parameters, excellent agreement is found between theory and experimental results. From the model we estimate that the force

  8. Atomic force microscope image contrast mechanisms on supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Dufrêne, Y F; Barger, W R; Lee, G U

    2000-08-01

    This work presents a methodology to measure and quantitatively interpret force curves on supported lipid bilayers in water. We then use this method to correlate topographic imaging contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of phase-separated Langmuir-Blodgett bilayers with imaging load. Force curves collected on pure monolayers of both distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and monogalactosylethanolamine (MGDG) and dioleoylethanolamine (DOPE) deposited at similar surface pressures onto a monolayer of DSPE show an abrupt breakthrough event at a repeatable, material-dependent force. The breakthrough force for DSPE and MGDG is sizable, whereas the breakthrough force for DOPE is too small to measure accurately. Contact-mode AFM images on 1:1 mixed monolayers of DSPE/DOPE and MGDG/DOPE have a high topographic contrast at loads between the breakthrough force of each phase, and a low topographic contrast at loads above the breakthrough force of both phases. Frictional contrast is inverted and magnified at loads above the breakthrough force of both phases. These results emphasize the important role that surface forces and mechanics can play in imaging multicomponent biomembranes with AFM.

  9. Study of Adhesion Interaction Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybos, J.; Pyka-Fosciak, G.; Lebed, K.; Lekka, M.; Stachura, Z.; Styczeñ, J.

    2003-05-01

    An atomic force microscope is a useful tool to study the interaction forces at molecular level. In particular the atomic force microscope can measure an unbinding force needed to separate the two single molecule complexes. Recent studies have shown that such unbinding force depends linearly on the logarithm of the applied loading rate, defined as a product of scanning velocity and the spring constant characterizing the investigated system (cantilever vs. surface). This dependence can be used to study the energy landscape shape of a molecular complex by the estimation of energy barrier locations and the related dissociation rates. In the present work the complex consisting of ethylene(di)aminetetraacetic acid and the bovine serum albumin was measured. The dependence between the unbinding force and the logarithm of the loading rate was linear. Using the Bell model describing the dissociation of the above molecules caused by the action of the external bond breaking force, two parameters were estimated: the dissociation rate and the position of the energy barrier needed to overcome during a transition from a bound to unbound state. The obtained results are similar to those obtained for a typical ligand--receptor interaction.

  10. Probing new intra-atomic force with isotope shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Minoru [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Yonsei University, Department of Physics and IPAP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    In the development of atomic clocks, some atomic transition frequencies are measured with remarkable precision. These measured spectra may include the effects of a new force mediated by a weakly interacting boson. Such effects might be distilled out from possible violation of a linear relation in isotope shifts between two transitions, as known as King's linearity, with relatively suppressed theoretical uncertainties. We discuss the experimental sensitivity to a new force in the test of the linearity as well as the linearity violation owing to higher-order effects within the Standard Model. The sensitivity to new physics is limited by such effects. We have found that, for Yb{sup +}, the higher-order effect is in the reach of future experiments. The sensitivity to a heavy mediator is also discussed. It is analytically clarified that the sensitivity becomes weaker than that in the literature. Our numerical results of the sensitivity are compared with other weak force search experiments. (orig.)

  11. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  12. Interactive forces between lignin and cellulase as determined by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Chengrong; Clarke, Kimberley; Li, Kecheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignin is a complex polymer which inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose in lignocellulose biomass for biofuel production. Cellulase enzymes irreversibly bind to lignin, deactivating the enzyme and lowering the overall activity of the hydrolyzing reaction solution. Within this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to compare the adhesion forces between cellulase and lignin with the forces between cellulase and cellulose, and to study the moiety groups invo...

  13. Minimizing tip-sample forces in jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Esteban, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Horcas, I. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Hernando-Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ares, P. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Berna, A.J.; San Martin, C.; Carrascosa, J.L. [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pablo, P.J. de [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, J., E-mail: julio.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Control and minimization of tip-sample interaction forces are imperative tasks to maximize the performance of atomic force microscopy. In particular, when imaging soft biological matter in liquids, the cantilever dragging force prevents identification of the tip-sample mechanical contact, resulting in deleterious interaction with the specimen. In this work we present an improved jumping mode procedure that allows detecting the tip-sample contact with high accuracy, thus minimizing the scanning forces ({approx}100 pN) during the approach cycles. To illustrate this method we report images of human adenovirus and T7 bacteriophage particles which are prone to uncontrolled modifications when using conventional jumping mode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in atomic force microscopy in buffer solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak force detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subtracting the cantilever dragging force. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forces in the 100 pN range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging of delicate viruses with atomic force microscopy.

  14. The effects of atomic force microscopy upon nominated living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hagan, Barry Michael Gerard [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bmg.ohagan@ulstser.ac.uk; Doyle, Peter [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight, The Wirral, Merseyside (United Kingdom); Allen, James M. [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Sutton, Kerry [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); McKerr, George [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-15

    This work describes a system for precise re-location of cells within a monolayer after atomic force imaging. As we know little about probe interaction with soft biological surfaces any corroborative evidence is of great importance. For example, it is of paramount importance in living cell force microscopy that interrogated cells can be re-located and imaged by other corroborative technologies. Methodologies expressed here have shown that non-invasive force parameters can be established for specific cell types. Additionally, we show that the same sample can be transferred reliably to an SEM. Results here indicate that further work with live cells should initially establish appropriate prevailing force parameters and that cell damage should be checked for before and after an imaging experiment.

  15. The effects of atomic force microscopy upon nominated living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, Barry Michael Gerard; Doyle, Peter; Allen, James M.; Sutton, Kerry; McKerr, George

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a system for precise re-location of cells within a monolayer after atomic force imaging. As we know little about probe interaction with soft biological surfaces any corroborative evidence is of great importance. For example, it is of paramount importance in living cell force microscopy that interrogated cells can be re-located and imaged by other corroborative technologies. Methodologies expressed here have shown that non-invasive force parameters can be established for specific cell types. Additionally, we show that the same sample can be transferred reliably to an SEM. Results here indicate that further work with live cells should initially establish appropriate prevailing force parameters and that cell damage should be checked for before and after an imaging experiment

  16. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimizing pulling geometry errors in atomic force microscope single molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Monica; Lee, Whasil; Ke, Changhong; Marszalek, Piotr E; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2008-10-01

    In atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), it is assumed that the pulling angle is negligible and that the force applied to the molecule is equivalent to the force measured by the instrument. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the pulling geometry errors can drastically alter the measured force-extension relationship of molecules. Here we describe a software-based alignment method that repositions the cantilever such that it is located directly above the molecule's substrate attachment site. By aligning the applied force with the measurement axis, the molecule is no longer undergoing combined loading, and the full force can be measured by the cantilever. Simulations and experimental results verify the ability of the alignment program to minimize pulling geometry errors in AFM-SMFS studies.

  18. Athermalization in atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy using matched microstructure coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, H; Finkler, O; Degertekin, F L

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe a method for athermalization in atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy applications using microstructures that thermomechanically match the AFM probes. The method uses a setup where the AFM probe is coupled with the matched structure and the displacements of both structures are read out simultaneously. The matched structure displaces with the AFM probe as temperature changes, thus the force applied to the sample can be kept constant without the need for a separate feedback loop for thermal drift compensation, and the differential signal can be used to cancel the shift in zero-force level of the AFM.

  19. [Atomic force microscopy: a tool to analyze the viral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaud, Julien; Castelnovo, Martin; Muriaux, Delphine; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2015-05-01

    Each step of the HIV-1 life cycle frequently involves a change in the morphology and/or mechanical properties of the viral particle or core. The atomic force microscope (AFM) constitutes a powerful tool for characterizing these physical changes at the scale of a single virus. Indeed, AFM enables the visualization of viral capsids in a controlled physiological environment and to probe their mechanical properties by nano-indentation. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy allows to characterize the affinities between viral envelope proteins and cell receptors at the single molecule level. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  20. Interplay between Switching Driven by the Tunneling Current and Atomic Force of a Bistable Four-Atom Si Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shiro; Maeda, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Zobač, Vladimír; Pou, Pablo; Rodrigo, Lucia; Mutombo, Pingo; Pérez, Ruben; Jelínek, Pavel; Morita, Seizo

    2015-07-08

    We assemble bistable silicon quantum dots consisting of four buckled atoms (Si4-QD) using atom manipulation. We demonstrate two competing atom switching mechanisms, downward switching induced by tunneling current of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and opposite upward switching induced by atomic force of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Simultaneous application of competing current and force allows us to tune switching direction continuously. Assembly of the few-atom Si-QDs and controlling their states using versatile combined AFM/STM will contribute to further miniaturization of nanodevices.

  1. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  2. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  3. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  5. Hierarchical atom type definitions and extensible all-atom force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Yang, Chunwei; Cao, Fenglei; Li, Feng; Jing, Zhifeng; Chen, Long; Shen, Zhe; Xin, Liang; Tong, Sijia; Sun, Huai

    2016-03-15

    The extensibility of force field is a key to solve the missing parameter problem commonly found in force field applications. The extensibility of conventional force fields is traditionally managed in the parameterization procedure, which becomes impractical as the coverage of the force field increases above a threshold. A hierarchical atom-type definition (HAD) scheme is proposed to make extensible atom type definitions, which ensures that the force field developed based on the definitions are extensible. To demonstrate how HAD works and to prepare a foundation for future developments, two general force fields based on AMBER and DFF functional forms are parameterized for common organic molecules. The force field parameters are derived from the same set of quantum mechanical data and experimental liquid data using an automated parameterization tool, and validated by calculating molecular and liquid properties. The hydration free energies are calculated successfully by introducing a polarization scaling factor to the dispersion term between the solvent and solute molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of contact stiffness on wedge calibration of lateral force in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative friction measurement of nanomaterials in atomic force microscope requires accurate calibration method for lateral force. The effect of contact stiffness on lateral force calibration of atomic force microscope is discussed in detail and an improved calibration method is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. The improved method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate the method in this article

  7. Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Bradac, Carlo; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool to manipulate small particles, from micrometre-size beads in liquid environments to single atoms in vacuum. The trapping mechanism relies on the interaction between a dipole and the electric field of laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution to the associated force typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the polarizability of the bulk material. Here, we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing a large number of artificial atoms, nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, the contributions from both the nanodiamond and the colour centres to the optical trapping strength can be simultaneously observed in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths around the zero-phonon line transition of the colour centres, we observe a 10% increase of overall trapping strength. The magnitude of this effect suggests that due to the large density of centres, cooperative effects between the artificial atoms contribute to the observed modification of the trapping strength. Our approach may enable the study of cooperativity in nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation.

  8. High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory, researchers characterize and model devices operating at terahertz (THz) and millimeter-wave frequencies. The...

  9. Capillary force between wetted nanometric contacts and its application to atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Ciccotti, Matteo; Charlaix, Elisabeth

    2011-04-05

    We extend to the case of perfect wetting the exact calculation of Orr et al. (J. Fluid. Mech. 1975, 67, 723) for a pendular ring connecting two dry surfaces. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the capillary force between two highly curved surfaces covered by a wetting liquid film. The domain of validity of this expression is assessed and extended by a custom-made numerical simulation based on the full exact mathematical description. In the case of attractive liquid-solid van der Waals interactions, the capillary force increases monotonically with decreasing vapor pressure up to several times its saturation value. This accurate description of the capillary force makes it possible to estimate the adhesion force between wet nanoparticles; it can also be used to quantitatively interpret pull-off forces measured by atomic force microscopy.

  10. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity

  11. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J. E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J. P.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  12. Uncertainties in forces extracted from non-contact atomic force microscopy measurements by fitting of long-range background forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sweetman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In principle, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM now readily allows for the measurement of forces with sub-nanonewton precision on the atomic scale. In practice, however, the extraction of the often desired ‘short-range’ force from the experimental observable (frequency shift is often far from trivial. In most cases there is a significant contribution to the total tip–sample force due to non-site-specific van der Waals and electrostatic forces. Typically, the contribution from these forces must be removed before the results of the experiment can be successfully interpreted, often by comparison to density functional theory calculations. In this paper we compare the ‘on-minus-off’ method for extracting site-specific forces to a commonly used extrapolation method modelling the long-range forces using a simple power law. By examining the behaviour of the fitting method in the case of two radically different interaction potentials we show that significant uncertainties in the final extracted forces may result from use of the extrapolation method.

  13. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  14. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  15. An atomic force microscope nanoscalpel for nanolithography and biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Burbridge, D J; Moskalenko, A V; Dudko, O; Gordeev, S N [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Yarova, P L; Smirnov, S V, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.u [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-04

    We present the fabrication of specialized nanotools, termed nanoscalpels, and their application for nanolithography and nanomechanical manipulation of biological objects. Fabricated nanoscalpels have the shape of a thin blade with the controlled thickness of 20-30 nm and width of 100-200 nm. They were fabricated using electron beam induced deposition at the apex of atomic force microscope probes and are hard enough for a single cut to penetrate a {approx}45 nm thick gold layer; and thus can be used for making narrow electrode gaps required for fabrication of nanoelectronic devices. As an atomic force microscope-based technique the nanoscalpel provides simultaneous control of the applied cutting force and the depth of the cut. Using mammalian cells as an example, we demonstrated their ability to make narrow incisions and measurements of local elastic and inelastic characteristics of a cell, making nanoscalpels also useful as a nanosurgical tool in cell biology. Therefore, we believe that the nanoscalpel could serve as an important tool for nanofabrication and nanosurgery on biological objects.

  16. Electrical characterization of InAs/GaAs (110) nanostructures by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinik, Igor; Teichert, Christian [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Diez-Merino, Laura; Tejedor, Paloma [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (Spain). CSIC

    2009-07-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots and wires have been studied over many years and still they are of great interest for application in nanoelectronics, high-speed spintronic devices, etc. Samples for our investigation were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on misoriented (110) GaAs substrates. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) technique was used to study the surface topography and conductivity simultaneously. Comparison of the corresponding cross-section profiles indicated that InAs nucleation takes place on the[1-10]-oriented step bunches, forming 3 nm-high and up to 70 nm-wide wires of variable length. On the other hand,[1-12]-type steps very rarely appeared to be decorated by InAs, also in agreement with previous TEM studies. The presented results prove that C-AFM technique might be successfully applied as a tool for investigation of electrical properties in III-V quantum dots and wires on the nanometer scale.

  17. Research on the tool holder mode in high speed machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu, Zhao; Yongquan, Zhou; Houming, Zhou; Xiaomei, Xu; Haibin, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    High speed machining technology can improve the processing efficiency and precision, but also reduce the processing cost. Therefore, the technology is widely regarded in the industry. With the extensive application of high-speed machining technology, high-speed tool system has higher and higher requirements on the tool chuck. At present, in high speed precision machining, several new kinds of clip heads are as long as there are heat shrinkage tool-holder, high-precision spring chuck, hydraulic tool-holder, and the three-rib deformation chuck. Among them, the heat shrinkage tool-holder has the advantages of high precision, high clamping force, high bending rigidity and dynamic balance, etc., which are widely used. Therefore, it is of great significance to research the new requirements of the machining tool system. In order to adapt to the requirement of high speed machining precision machining technology, this paper expounds the common tool holder technology of high precision machining, and proposes how to select correctly tool clamping system in practice. The characteristics and existing problems are analyzed in the tool clamping system.

  18. Surface structure investigations using noncontact atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, J.J.; Such, B.; Goryl, M.; Krok, F.; Piatkowski, P.; Szymonski, M.

    2006-01-01

    Surfaces of several A III B V compound semiconductors (InSb, GaAs, InP, InAs) of the (0 0 1) orientation have been studied with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Obtained atomically resolved patterns have been compared with structural models available in the literature. It is shown that NC-AFM is an efficient tool for imaging complex surface structures in real space. It is also demonstrated that the recent structural models of III-V compound surfaces provide a sound base for interpretation of majority of features present in recorded patterns. However, there are also many new findings revealed by the NC-AFM method that is still new experimental technique in the context of surface structure determination

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Martini, Ashlie; Egberts, Philip; Dong, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to model amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). In this novel simulation, the model AFM tip responds to both tip–substrate interactions and to a sinusoidal excitation signal. The amplitude and phase shift of the tip oscillation observed in the simulation and their variation with tip–sample distance were found to be consistent with previously reported trends from experiments and theory. These simulation results were also fit to an expression enabling estimation of the energy dissipation, which was found to be smaller than that in a corresponding experiment. The difference was analyzed in terms of the effects of tip size and substrate thickness. Development of this model is the first step toward using MD to gain insight into the atomic-scale phenomena that occur during an AM-AFM measurement. (paper)

  20. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippes, Christian A.; Janovjak, Harald; Kedrov, Alexej; Muller, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand-receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA.

  1. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bippes, Christian A; Janovjak, Harald; Kedrov, Alexej; Muller, Daniel J

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand-receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA

  2. Nanoindentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Xu, Zhe; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Gandee, Leah; Zimmern, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a source of many chronic infections. Biofilms and their inherent resistance to antibiotics are attributable to a range of health issues including affecting prosthetic implants, hospital-acquired infections, and wound infection. Mechanical properties of biofilm, in particular, at micro- and nano-scales, are governed by microstructures and porosity of the biofilm, which in turn may contribute to their inherent antibiotic resistance. We utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation and finite element simulation to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm. This biofilm was derived from human samples and represents a medically relevant model. (paper)

  3. CO tip functionalization in subatomic resolution atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) employing a CO-functionalized tip displays dramatically enhanced resolution wherein covalent bonds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon can be imaged. Employing real-space pseudopotential first-principles calculations, we examine the role of CO in functionalizing the nc-AFM tip. Our calculations allow us to simulate full AFM images and ascertain the enhancement mechanism of the CO molecule. We consider two approaches: one with an explicit inclusion of the CO molecule and one without. By comparing our simulations to existing experimental images, we ascribe the enhanced resolution of the CO functionalized tip to the special orbital characteristics of the CO molecule

  4. Atomic force microscopy on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the achievements and progress that has been made in the use of atomic force microscopy in DNA related research in the last 25 years. For this review DNA related research is split up in chromosomal-, chromatin- and DNA focused research to achieve a logical flow from large- to smaller structures. The focus of this review is not only on the AFM as imaging tool but also on the AFM as measuring tool using force spectroscopy, as therein lays its greatest advantage and future. The amazing technological and experimental progress that has been made during the last 25 years is too extensive to fully cover in this review but some key developments and experiments have been described to give an overview of the evolution of AFM use from 'imaging tool' to 'measurement tool' on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscope study on graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, K.A.; Sato, Tomohiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on graphite electrodes has increased recently in the quest to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Topographic and frictional changes on the surface of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1 M LiCiO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1) electrolyte were examined during charge and discharge by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy simultaneously in real-time. Solid electrolyte interphase film formation commenced at approximately 2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and stable film formation with an island-like morphology was observed below approximately 0.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Further experiments on a KS-44 graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride binder composite electrode showed similar phenomena.

  6. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  7. Taking nanomedicine teaching into practice with atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C

    2015-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic force microscope by performing AFM scanning images of human blood cells and force spectroscopy measurements of the fibrinogen-platelet interaction. Since the beginning of this course, in 2008, the overall rating by the students was 4.7 (out of 5), meaning a good to excellent evaluation. Students were very enthusiastic and produced high-quality AFM images and force spectroscopy data. The implementation of the hands-on AFM course was a success, giving to the students the opportunity of contact with a technique that has a wide variety of applications on the nanomedicine field. In the near future, nanomedicine will have remarkable implications in medicine regarding the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases. AFM enables students to observe single molecule interactions, enabling the understanding of molecular mechanisms of different physiological and pathological processes at the nanoscale level. Therefore, the introduction of nanomedicine courses in bioscience and medical school curricula is essential. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. Atomic force microscopy for university students: applications in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontomaris, S V; Stylianou, A

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful tool used in the investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials including biomaterials. It provides the ability to acquire high resolution images of biomaterials at the nanoscale. It also provides information about the response of specific areas under controlled applied force, which leads to the mechanical characterization of the sample at the nanoscale. The wide range of information provided by AFM has established it as a powerful research tool. In this paper, we present a general overview of the basic operation and functions of AFM applications in biomaterials. The basic operation of AFM is explained in detail with a focus on the real interactions that take place at the nanoscale level during imaging. AFM’s ability to provide the mechanical characterization (force curves) of specific areas at the nanoscale is also explained. The basic models of applied mechanics that are used for processing the data obtained by the force curves are presented. The aim of this paper is to provide university students and young scientists in the fields of biophysics and nanotechnology with a better understanding of AFM. (review)

  9. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Localization of single virus particle. ► Force measurements. ► Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  10. High - speed steel for precise cased tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwiarz, J.; Mazur, A.

    2001-01-01

    The test results of high-vanadium high - speed steel (SWV9) for precise casted tools are presented. The face -milling cutters of NFCa80A type have been tested in industrial operating conditions. An average life - time of SWV9 steel tools was 3-10 times longer compare to the conventional high - speed milling cutters. Metallography of SWB9 precise casted steel revealed beneficial for tool properties distribution of primary vanadium carbides in the steel matrix. Presented results should be a good argument for wide application of high - vanadium high - speed steel for precise casted tools. (author)

  11. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mark Stephen; Arends, Herman; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of tip geometries.

  13. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  14. High-Speed Sealift Technology Development Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of the project was to define the technology investments required to enable development of the high-speed commercial and military ships needed to provide realistic future mission capabilities...

  15. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  16. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen, E-mail: abderrahmen_merghni@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Kammoun, Dorra [Laboratoire de Biomatériaux et Biotechnologie, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, Monastir (Tunisia); Hentati, Hajer [Laboratoire de Recherche en Santé Orale et Réhabilitation Bucco-Faciale (LR12ES11), Faculté de Médecine Dentaire de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Janel, Sébastien [BioImaging Center Lille-FR3642, Lille (France); Popoff, Michka [Cellular Microbiology and Physics of Infection-CNRS UMR8204, INSERM U1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille University (France); Lafont, Frank [BioImaging Center Lille-FR3642, Lille (France); Cellular Microbiology and Physics of Infection-CNRS UMR8204, INSERM U1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille University (France); Aouni, Mahjoub [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Mastouri, Maha [Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances biologiquement actives (LR99ES27) Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Microbiologie, CHU Fattouma Bourguiba de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • 4 dental restorative materials were characterized for roughness, angle contact water and surface free energy. • AFM adhesion forces of S. aureus to tested materials were achieved in presence and absence of salivary conditioning film. • S. aureus initial adhesion is dependent on the surface free energy and roughness. - Abstract: In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  17. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Kammoun, Dorra; Hentati, Hajer; Janel, Sébastien; Popoff, Michka; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 4 dental restorative materials were characterized for roughness, angle contact water and surface free energy. • AFM adhesion forces of S. aureus to tested materials were achieved in presence and absence of salivary conditioning film. • S. aureus initial adhesion is dependent on the surface free energy and roughness. - Abstract: In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  18. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  19. Subharmonic Oscillations and Chaos in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of dynamic atomic force microscopy (d-AFM) for nanoscale materials characterization calls for a deeper understanding of the cantilever dynamics influencing scan stability, predictability, and image quality. Model development is critical to such understanding. Renormalization of the equations governing d- AFM provides a simple interpretation of cantilever dynamics as a single spring and mass system with frequency dependent cantilever stiffness and damping parameters. The renormalized model is sufficiently robust to predict the experimentally observed splitting of the free-space cantilever resonance into multiple resonances upon cantilever-sample contact. Central to the model is the representation of the cantilever sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients F(sub ij) (i,j = 0, 1, 2) that account for the effective interaction stiffness parameter, the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation is shown to predict a homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos and loss of image quality. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude necessary to initiate subharmonic generation depends on the acoustic drive frequency, the effective damping coefficient, and the nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force. For parameter values leading to displacement amplitudes below threshold for homoclinic bifurcation other bifurcation scenarios can occur, some of which lead to chaos.

  20. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  1. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  2. Force and Compliance Measurements on Living Cells Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcikiewicz Ewa P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM in studies of cell adhesion and cell compliance. Our studies use the interaction between leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 as a model system. The forces required to unbind a single LFA-1/ICAM-1 bond were measured at different loading rates. This data was used to determine the dynamic strength of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex and characterize the activation potential that this complex overcomes during its breakage. Force measurements acquired at the multiple- bond level provided insight about the mechanism of cell adhesion. In addition, the AFM was used as a microindenter to determine the mechanical properties of cells. The applications of these methods are described using data from a previous study.

  3. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    be considered. We have therefore developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion with atomic force microscopy (AFM).[1] A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface using a tipless AFM cantilever coated...... random immobilization is obtained by submerging the cantilever in a bacterial suspension. The reported method provides a general platform for investigating single cell interactions of bacteria with different surfaces and other cells by AFM force spectroscopy, thus improving our understanding....... The strain-dependent susceptibility to bacterial colonization on conventional PLL-g-PEG illustrates how bacterial diversity challenges development of “universal” antifouling coatings, and AFM single-cell force spectroscopy was proven to be a powerful tool to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms...

  4. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Ampere A., E-mail: ampere.tseng@asu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2011-09-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  5. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Ampere A.; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay; Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  6. Cantilever contribution to the total electrostatic force measured with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guriyanova, Svetlana; Golovko, Dmytro S; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for surface imaging at the nanometer scale and surface force measurements in the piconewton range. Among long-range surface forces, the electrostatic forces play a predominant role. They originate if the electric potentials of the substrate and of the tip of the AFM cantilever are different. A quantitative interpretation of the AFM signal is often difficult because it depends in a complicated fashion on the cantilever–tip–surface geometry. Since the electrostatic interaction is a long-range interaction, the cantilever, which is many microns from the surface, contributes to the total electrostatic force along with the tip. Here we present results of the electrostatic interaction between a conducting flat surface and horizontal or tilted cantilevers, with and without tips, at various distances from the surface. As addressed in a previous work, we show that the contribution of the cantilever to the overall force cannot be neglected. Based on a predictive model and on 3D confocal measurements, we discuss the influence of the tilting angle of the cantilever

  7. Atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy on the assessment of protein folding and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Martins, Ivo C; Santos, Nuno C

    2013-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) applied to biological systems can, besides generating high-quality and well-resolved images, be employed to study protein folding via AFM-based force spectroscopy. This approach allowed remarkable advances in the measurement of inter- and intramolecular interaction forces with piconewton resolution. The detection of specific interaction forces between molecules based on the AFM sensitivity and the manipulation of individual molecules greatly advanced the understanding of intra-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Apart from the academic interest in the resolution of basic scientific questions, this technique has also key importance on the clarification of several biological questions of immediate biomedical relevance. Force spectroscopy is an especially appropriate technique for "mechanical proteins" that can provide crucial information on single protein molecules and/or domains. Importantly, it also has the potential of combining in a single experiment spatial and kinetic measurements. Here, the main principles of this methodology are described, after which the ability to measure interactions at the single-molecule level is discussed, in the context of relevant protein-folding examples. We intend to demonstrate the potential of AFM-based force spectroscopy in the study of protein folding, especially since this technique is able to circumvent some of the difficulties typically encountered in classical thermal/chemical denaturation studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinematic and Kinetic Evaluation of High Speed Backward Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-30

    Designed using Perform Pro , WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 KINEMATIC AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH SPEED BACKWARD RUNNING by ALAN WAYNE ARATA A DISSERTATION...Project Manager, Engineering Division, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, 1983-86 AWARDS AND HONORS: All-American, 50yd Freestyle , 1979 Winner, Rocky...redirection #include <stdlib.h> // for exit #include <iomanip.h> // for set precision #include <string.h> // for string copy const int NUMPOINTS

  9. Digital phase-shifting atomic force microscope Moire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chiaming; Chen Lienwen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the digital atomic force microscope (AFM) Moire method with phase-shifting technology is established to measure the in-plane displacement and strain fields. The Moire pattern is generated by the interference between the specimen grating and the virtual reference grating formed by digital image processes. The overlapped image is filtered by two-dimensional wavelet transformation to obtain the clear interference Moire patterns. The four-step phase-shifting method is realized by translating the phase of the virtual reference grating from 0 to 2π. The principle of the digital AFM Moire method and the phase-shifting technology are described in detail. Experimental results show that this method is convenient to use and efficient in realizing the microscale measurement

  10. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiest, G. J., E-mail: Verbiest@physik.rwth-aachen.de [JARA-FIT and II. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J., E-mail: Rost@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  11. Measuring the elasticity of plant cells with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braybrook, Siobhan A

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of biological materials impact their functions. This is most evident in plants where the cell wall contains each cell's contents and connects each cell to its neighbors irreversibly. Examining the physical properties of the plant cell wall is key to understanding how plant cells, tissues, and organs grow and gain the shapes important for their respective functions. Here, we present an atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation method for examining the elasticity of plant cells at the subcellular, cellular, and tissue level. We describe the important areas of experimental design to be considered when planning and executing these types of experiments and provide example data as illustration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Atomic Force Microscope with Multi-Mode Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chun; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Rui; Han, Xu; Wang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    A new type of atomic force microscope (AFM) with multi-mode scanner is proposed. The AFM system provides more than four scanning modes using a specially designed scanner with three tube piezoelectric ceramics and three stack piezoelectric ceramics. Sample scanning of small range with high resolution can be realized by using tube piezos, meanwhile, large range scanning can be achieved by stack piezos. Furthermore, the combination with tube piezos and stack piezos not only realizes high-resolution scanning of small samples with large- scale fluctuation structure, but also achieves small range area-selecting scanning. Corresponding experiments are carried out in terms of four different scanning modes showing that the AFM is of reliable stability, high resolution and can be widely applied in the fields of micro/nano-technology. (paper)

  13. Nanodot deposition and its application with atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zenglei, E-mail: liuzenglei@sia.cn; Jiao Niandong, E-mail: ndjiao@sia.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China); Xu Ke [Shenyang Jianzhu University (China); Wang, Zhidong [Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan); Dong Zaili; Liu Lianqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation (China)

    2013-06-15

    Nanodot deposition using atomic force microscope (AFM) is investigated. To realize repeatable and precise deposition of nanodots, the detailed control method is discussed. The electric field between AFM tip and substrate is analyzed, and a convenient method to control tip-substrate separation is proposed. In experiments, two nanodot matrixes are fabricated and the heights of the nanodots are analyzed. Experimental results testify that the control method can lead to repeatable and precise fabrication of deposited nanodots. As an application of deposited nanodots, a carbon nanotube (CNT) is soldered on gold electrodes with deposited Au nanodots. After soldering, the contact resistances between the CNT and the electrodes decrease greatly. AFM-based nanodot deposition can be used to fabricate special nanopatterns; also it can be used to solder nanomaterials on substrates to improve the electrical connection, which has a promising future for nanodevice fabrication.

  14. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity.

  15. Progress in the Correlative Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed. To overcome the technical limitations, it is necessary to combine AFM with other complementary techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy. The combination of several complementary techniques in one instrument has increasingly become a vital approach to investigate the details of the interactions among molecules and molecular dynamics. In this review, we reported the principles of AFM and optical microscopy, such as confocal microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy, and focused on the development and use of correlative AFM and optical microscopy.

  16. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  17. Stacking it up: Exploring the limits of ultra-high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique wherein an atomically sharp needle raster scans across a surface, detecting forces between it and the sample. In state-of-the-art AFM experiments the measured forces are typically on the order of pico-Newtons, and the lateral resolution is on the order of

  18. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  19. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  20. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  1. Atomic force microscopy studies of native photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, James N; Tucker, Jaimey D; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil; Niederman, Robert A

    2009-05-05

    In addition to providing the earliest surface images of a native photosynthetic membrane at submolecular resolution, examination of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of purple bacteria by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed a wide diversity of species-dependent arrangements of closely packed light-harvesting (LH) antennae, capable of fulfilling the basic requirements for efficient collection, transmission, and trapping of radiant energy. A highly organized architecture was observed with fused preparations of the pseudocrystalline ICM of Blastochloris viridis, consiting of hexagonally packed monomeric reaction center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes. Among strains which also form a peripheral LH2 antenna, images of ICM patches from Rhodobacter sphaeroides exhibited well-ordered, interconnected networks of dimeric RC-LH1 core complexes intercalated by rows of LH2, coexisting with LH2-only domains. Other peripheral antenna-containing species, notably Rhodospirillum photometricum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, showed a less regular organization, with mixed regions of LH2 and RC-LH1 cores, intermingled with large, paracrystalline domains. The ATP synthase and cytochrome bc(1) complex were not observed in any of these topographs and are thought to be localized in the adjacent cytoplasmic membrane or in inaccessible ICM regions separated from the flat regions imaged by AFM. The AFM images have served as a basis for atomic-resolution modeling of the ICM vesicle surface, as well as forces driving segregation of photosynthetic complexes into distinct domains. Docking of atomic-resolution molecular structures into AFM topographs of Rsp. photometricum membranes generated precise in situ structural models of the core complex surrounded by LH2 rings and a region of tightly packed LH2 complexes. A similar approach has generated a model of the highly curved LH2-only membranes of Rba. sphaeroides which predicts that sufficient space exists between LH2 complexes

  2. The atomic force microscope as a mechano–electrochemical pen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Obermair

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method that allows the controlled writing of metallic patterns on the nanometer scale using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM as a “mechano–electrochemical pen”. In contrast to previous experiments, no voltage is applied between the AFM tip and the sample surface. Instead, a passivated sample surface is activated locally due to lateral forces between the AFM tip and the sample surface. In this way, the area of tip–sample interaction is narrowly limited by the mechanical contact between tip and sample, and well-defined metallic patterns can be written reproducibly. Nanoscale structures and lines of copper were deposited, and the line widths ranged between 5 nm and 80 nm, depending on the deposition parameters. A procedure for the sequential writing of metallic nanostructures is introduced, based on the understanding of the passivation process. The mechanism of this mechano–electrochemical writing technique is investigated, and the processes of site-selective surface depassivation, deposition, dissolution and repassivation of electrochemically deposited nanoscale metallic islands are studied in detail.

  3. Probing the stiffness of isolated nucleoli by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvet, Emilie; Yoshida, Aiko; Kumeta, Masahiro; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2014-04-01

    In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis occurs in the nucleolus, a membraneless nuclear compartment. Noticeably, the nucleolus is also involved in several nuclear functions, such as cell cycle regulation, non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, aggresome formation and some virus assembly. The most intriguing question about the nucleolus is how such dynamics processes can occur in such a compact compartment. We hypothesized that its structure may be rather flexible. To investigate this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) on isolated nucleoli. Surface topography imaging revealed the beaded structure of the nucleolar surface. With the AFM's ability to measure forces, we were able to determine the stiffness of isolated nucleoli. We could establish that the nucleolar stiffness varies upon drastic morphological changes induced by transcription and proteasome inhibition. Furthermore, upon ribosomal proteins and LaminB1 knockdowns, the nucleolar stiffness was increased. This led us to propose a model where the nucleolus has steady-state stiffness dependent on ribosome biogenesis activity and requires LaminB1 for its flexibility.

  4. Attachment of carbon nanotubes to atomic force microscope probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Christopher T.; Carnally, Stewart; Roberts, Clive J.

    2007-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM) the accuracy of data is often limited by the tip geometry and the effect on this geometry of wear. One way to improve the tip geometry is to attach carbon nanotubes (CNT) to AFM tips. CNTs are ideal because they have a small diameter (typically between 1 and 20 nm), high aspect ratio, high strength, good conductivity, and almost no wear. A number of methods for CNT attachment have been proposed and explored including chemical vapour deposition (CVD), dielectrophoresis, arc discharge and mechanical attachment. In this work we will use CVD to deposit nanotubes onto a silicon surface and then investigate improved methods to pick-up and attach CNTs to tapping mode probes. Conventional pick-up methods involve using standard tapping mode or non-contact mode so as to attach only those CNTs that are aligned vertically on the surface. We have developed improved methods to attach CNTs using contact mode and reduced set-point tapping mode imaging. Using these techniques the AFM tip is in contact with a greater number of CNTs and the rate and stability of CNT pick-up is improved. The presence of CNTs on the modified AFM tips was confirmed by high-resolution AFM imaging, analysis of the tips dynamic force curves and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  5. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  6. Nanomechanical cutting of boron nitride nanotubes by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meng; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C; Pugno, Nicola M

    2013-01-01

    The length of nanotubes is a critical structural parameter for the design and manufacture of nanotube-based material systems and devices. High-precision length control of nanotubes by means of mechanical cutting using a scriber has not materialized due to the lack of the knowledge of the appropriate cutting conditions and the tube failure mechanism. In this paper, we present a quantitative nanomechanical study of the cutting of individual boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes. In our nanotube cutting measurements, a nanotube standing still on a flat substrate was laterally scribed by an AFM tip. The tip–tube collision force deformed the tube, and eventually fractured the tube at the collision site by increasing the cutting load. The mechanical response of nanotubes during the tip–tube collision process and the roles of the scribing velocity and the frictional interaction on the tip–tube collision contact in cutting nanotubes were quantitatively investigated by cutting double-walled BNNTs of 2.26–4.28 nm in outer diameter. The fracture strength of BNNTs was also quantified based on the measured collision forces and their structural configurations using contact mechanics theories. Our analysis reports fracture strengths of 9.1–15.5 GPa for the tested BNNTs. The nanomechanical study presented in this paper demonstrates that the AFM-based nanomechanical cutting technique not only enables effective control of the length of nanotubes with high precision, but is also promising as a new nanomechanical testing technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of tubular nanostructures. (paper)

  7. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnaes, J

    2011-01-01

    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA

  8. Capillary force on a tilted cylinder: Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sébastien; Laurent, Justine; Steinberger, Audrey

    2017-11-01

    The capillary force in situations where the liquid meniscus is asymmetric, such as the one around a tilted object, has been hitherto barely investigated even though these situations are very common in practice. In particular, the capillary force exerted on a tilted object may depend on the dipping angle i. We investigate experimentally the capillary force that applies on a tilted cylinder as a function of its dipping angle i, using a home-built tilting Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) with custom made probes. A micrometric-size rod is glued at the end of an AFM cantilever of known stiffness, whose deflection is measured when the cylindrical probe is dipped in and retracted from reference liquids. We show that a torque correction is necessary to understand the measured deflection. We give the explicit expression of this correction as a function of the probes' geometrical parameters, so that its magnitude can be readily evaluated. The results are compatible with a vertical capillary force varying as 1/cosi, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. Finally, we discuss the accuracy of the method for measuring the surface tension times the cosine of the contact angle of the liquid on the probe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling atomic scale manipulation with the non-contact atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevethan, T; Watkins, M; Kantorovich, L N; Shluger, A L; Polesel-Maris, J; Gauthier, S

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of calculations performed to model the process of lateral manipulation of an oxygen vacancy in the MgO(001) surface using the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM). The potential energy surfaces for the manipulation as a function of tip position are determined from atomistic modelling of the MgO(001) surface interacting with a Mg terminated MgO tip. These energies are then used to model the dynamical evolution of the system as the tip oscillates and at a finite temperature using a kinetic Monte Carlo method. The manipulation process is strongly dependent on the lateral position of the tip and the system temperature. It is also found that the expectation value of the point at which the vacancy jumps depends on the trajectory of the oscillating cantilever as the surface is approached. The effect of the manipulation on the operation of the NC-AFM is modelled with a virtual dynamic AFM, which explicitly simulates the entire experimental instrumentation and control loops. We show how measurable experimental signals can result from a single controlled atomic scale event and suggest the most favourable conditions for achieving successful atomic scale manipulation experimentally

  10. Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0965 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for... Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling by Satwik Bisoi Science and...REPORT TYPE Memorandum Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2017 July 05–2017 August 18 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Easy Atomic Force

  11. z calibration of the atomic force microscope by means of a pyramidal tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    A new method for imaging the probe tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever by the atomic force microscope itself (self-imaging) is presented. The self-imaging is accomplished by scanning the probe tip across a sharper tip on the surface. By using a pyramidal probe tip with a very well......-defined aspect ratio, this technique provides an excellent z-calibration standard for the atomic force microscope....

  12. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  13. Functionalization of gold and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscope tips for single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael E.

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has fueled interest in nanotechnology because of its ability to image surfaces at the nanometer level and act as a molecular force sensor. Functionalization of the surface of an AFM tip surface in a stable, controlled manner expands the capabilities of the AFM and enables additional applications in the fields of single molecule force spectroscopy and nanolithography. Two AFM tip functionalizations are described: the assembly of tripodal molecular tips onto gold AFM tips and the photochemical attachment of terminal alkenes to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) AFM tips. Two separate tripodal molecules with different linker lengths and a monopodal molecule terminated with biotin were synthesized to attach to a gold AFM tip for single molecule force spectroscopy. The immobilization of these molecules was examined by contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. All three molecules displayed rupture forces that agreed with previously reported values for the biotin--avidin rupture. The tripodal molecular tip displayed narrower distribution in their force histograms than the monopodal molecular tip. The performance of the tripodal molecular tip was compared to the monopodal molecular tip in single molecule force spectroscopy studies. Over repeated measurements, the distribution of forces for the monopodal molecular tip shifted to lower forces, whereas the distribution for the tripodal molecular tip remained constant throughout. Loading rate dependence and control experiments further indicated that the rupture forces of the tripod molecular tips were specific to the biotin--NeutrAvidin interaction. The second functionalization method used the photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to NCD AFM tips. The photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to hydrogen-terminated NCD wafer surfaces was investigated by contact angle measurements, x

  14. Development of Tuning Fork Based Probes for Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Romaneh; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M.; Torrez, Neil; Alizadeh, Amirali; Askari, Davood

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the development of tuning fork-based AFM/STM probes in NaugaNeedles LLC for use in atomic force microscopy. These probes can be mounted on different carriers per customers' request. (e.g., RHK carrier, Omicron carrier, and tuning fork on a Sapphire disk). We are able to design and engineer tuning forks on any type of carrier used in the market. We can attach three types of tips on the edge of a tuning fork prong (i.e., growing Ag2Ga nanoneedles at any arbitrary angle, cantilever of AFM tip, and tungsten wire) with lengths from 100-500 μm. The nanoneedle is located vertical to the fork. Using a suitable insulation and metallic coating, we can make QPlus sensors that can detect tunneling current during the AFM scan. To make Qplus sensors, the entire quartz fork will be coated with an insulating material, before attaching the nanoneedle. Then, the top edge of one prong is coated with a thin layer of conductive metal and the nanoneedle is attached to the fork end of the metal coated prong. The metal coating provides electrical connection to the tip for tunneling current readout and to the electrodes and used to read the QPlus current. Since the amount of mass added to the fork is minimal, the resonance frequency spectrum does not change and still remains around 32.6 KHz and the Q factor is around 1,200 in ambient condition. These probes can enhance the performance of tuning fork based atomic microscopy.

  15. Novel parallel plate condenser for single particle electrostatic force measurements in atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Kwek, Jin Wang

    2011-07-01

    A combination of small parallel plate condenser with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass slides as electrodes and an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize the electrostatic behavior of single glass bead microparticles (105-150 μm) glued to the AFM cantilever. This novel setup allows measurements of the electrostatic forces acting on a particle in an applied electrical field to be performed in ambient air conditions. By varying the position of the microparticle between the electrodes and the strength of the applied electric field, the relative contributions of the particle net charge, induced and image charges were investigated. When the microparticle is positioned in the middle of the electrodes, the force acting on the microparticle was linear with the applied electric field and proportional to the microparticle net charge. At distances close to the bottom electrode, the force follows a parabolic relationship with the applied electric field reflecting the contributions of induced and image charges. The method can be used for the rapid evaluation of the charging and polarizability properties of the microparticle as well as an alternative to the conventional Faraday\\'s pail technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quantitative comparison of two independent lateral force calibration techniques for the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkley, Sarice S.; Cannara, Rachel J.; Deng Zhao; Gates, Richard S.; Reitsma, Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Two independent lateral-force calibration methods for the atomic force microscope (AFM)--the hammerhead (HH) technique and the diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC)--are systematically compared and found to agree to within 5% or less, but with precision limited to about 15%, using four different tee-shaped HH reference probes. The limitations of each method, both of which offer independent yet feasible paths toward traceable accuracy, are discussed and investigated. We find that stiff cantilevers may produce inconsistent D-LFC values through the application of excessively high normal loads. In addition, D-LFC results vary when the method is implemented using different modes of AFM feedback control, constant height and constant force modes, where the latter is more consistent with the HH method and closer to typical experimental conditions. Specifically, for the D-LFC apparatus used here, calibration in constant height mode introduced errors up to 14 %. In constant force mode using a relatively stiff cantilever, we observed an ≅ 4 % systematic error per μN of applied load for loads ≤ 1 μN. The issue of excessive load typically emerges for cantilevers whose flexural spring constant is large compared with the normal spring constant of the D-LFC setup (such that relatively small cantilever flexural displacements produce relatively large loads). Overall, the HH method carries a larger uncertainty, which is dominated by uncertainty in measurement of the flexural spring constant of the HH cantilever as well as in the effective length dimension of the cantilever probe. The D-LFC method relies on fewer parameters and thus has fewer uncertainties associated with it. We thus show that it is the preferred method of the two, as long as care is taken to perform the calibration in constant force mode with low applied loads.

  17. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector

  18. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  19. High-Speed Videography Instrumentation And Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. E.

    1982-02-01

    High-speed videography has been an electronic analog of low-speed film cameras, but having the advantages of instant-replay and simplicity of operation. Recent advances have pushed frame-rates into the realm of the rotating prism camera. Some characteristics of videography systems are discussed in conjunction with applications in sports analysis, and with sports equipment testing.

  20. High Speed Wireless Signal Generation and Demodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko

    We present the experimental demonstration of high speed wireless generation, up to 40 Gb/s, in the 75-110 GHz wireless band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and single side-band modulation with digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  1. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  2. Cross section measurements of the processes occurring in the fragmentation of Hn+ (3 ≤ n ≤ 35) hydrogen clusters induced by high speed (60 keV/u) collisions on helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louc, Sandrine

    1997-01-01

    Different processes involved in the fragmentation of ionised hydrogen clusters H 3 + (H 2 ) (n-3)/2 (n = 5-35) have been studied in the same experiment: the fragmentation of the cluster is induced by the collision with an helium atom at high velocity (≅ c/100). The collision is realised in reversed kinematic - clusters are accelerated - which allows the detection of neutral and charged fragments. The different channels of fragmentation are identified by using coincidence techniques. For all the cluster sizes studied the capture cross sections of one electron of the target by the cluster is equal to the capture cross section of the H 3 + ion. In the same way, the dissociation cross section of the H 3 + core of the cluster does not depend on cluster size. These fragmentation processes are due to the interaction of H 3 + core of the cluster and the helium atom without ionization of another component of the cluster. On the contrary, the cross sections of loss of one, two and three molecules by the cluster and the dissociation cross section of the cluster in all its molecular components depends strongly on the cluster size. This dependence is different from the one measured for the metastable decay of the cluster. Thus, the process of loss of molecules induced by a collision should correspond to a different dissociation mechanism. In regard of the singularities observed for the size dependence, the H 9 + , H 15 + , H 19 + and H 29 + clusters could be the 'core' of the biggest clusters. These observation are in agreement with the size effects of smaller magnitude observed for the dissociation cross section (all the processes). The values of the cross section for the process of at least one ionization of the cluster indicate that about 80% of the fragmentation events result from this process. (author)

  3. Theoretical study of the effect of probe shape on adhesion force between probe and substrate in atomic force microscope experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Li; Hu, Junhui; Kong, Lingjiang

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative description of adhesion force dependence on the probe shapes are of importance in many scientific and industrial fields. In order to elucidate how the adhesion force varied with the probe shape in atomic force microscope manipulation experiment, we performed a theoretical study of the influences of the probe shape (the sphere and parabolic probe) on the adhesion force at different humidity. We found that the combined action of the triple point and the Kelvin radius guiding th...

  4. A more comprehensive modeling of atomic force microscope cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.H.; Farshidianfar, A.; Tahani, M.; Mahdavi, S.; Dalir, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a complete model of an atomic force microscope (AFM) micro-cantilever beam, based on considering the effects of four major factors in modeling the cantilever. They are: rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam and mass and rotary inertia of the tip. A method based on distributed-parameter modeling approach is proposed to solve the governing equations. The comparisons generally show a very good agreement between the present results and the results of other investigators. As expected, rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam decrease resonance frequency especially at high ratio of cantilever thickness to its length, and it is relatively more pronounced for higher-order frequencies, than lower ones. Mass and rotary inertia of the tip have similar effects when the mass-ratio of the tip to the cantilever is high. Moreover, the influence of each of these four factors, thickness of the cantilever, density of the tip and inclination of the cantilever on the resonance frequencies has been investigated, separately. It is felt that this work might help the engineers in reducing AFM micro-cantilever design time, by providing insight into the effects of various parameters with the micro-cantilever.

  5. Atomic force microscopy investigation of the giant mimivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yuri G.; Xiao Chuan; Sun Siyang; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael; McPherson, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Mimivirus was investigated by atomic force microscopy in its native state following serial degradation by lysozyme and bromelain. The 750-nm diameter virus is coated with a forest of glycosylated protein fibers of lengths about 140 nm with diameters 1.4 nm. Fibers are capped with distinctive ellipsoidal protein heads of estimated Mr = 25 kDa. The surface fibers are attached to the particle through a layer of protein covering the capsid, which is in turn composed of the major capsid protein (MCP). The latter is organized as an open network of hexagonal rings with central depressions separated by 14 nm. The virion exhibits an elaborate apparatus at a unique vertex, visible as a star shaped depression on native particles, but on defibered virions as five arms of 50 nm width and 250 nm length rising above the capsid by 20 nm. The apparatus is integrated into the capsid and not applied atop the icosahedral lattice. Prior to DNA release, the arms of the star disengage from the virion and it opens by folding back five adjacent triangular faces. A membrane sac containing the DNA emerges from the capsid in preparation for fusion with a membrane of the host cell. Also observed from disrupted virions were masses of distinctive fibers of diameter about 1 nm, and having a 7-nm periodicity. These are probably contained within the capsid along with the DNA bearing sac. The fibers were occasionally observed associated with toroidal protein clusters interpreted as processive enzymes modifying the fibers.

  6. Visualization of cytoskeletal elements by the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyyeva, T.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquid visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total 'volume' of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true 3D technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to electron microscopy

  7. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7–20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force–distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials.

  8. Towards nano-physiology of insects with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Sokolov, I

    2011-02-01

    Little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done so far. Here we use one of such tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study surface oscillations of the ladybird beetles (Hippodamia convergens) measured in different parts of the insect at picometer level. This allows us to record a much broader spectral range of possible surface vibrations (up to several kHz) than the previously studied oscillations due to breathing, heartbeat cycles, coelopulses, etc. (up to 5-10Hz). Here we demonstrate three different ways with which one can identify the origins of the observed peaks - by physical positioning the probe near a specific organ, and by using biological or chemical stimuli. We report on identification of high frequency peaks associated with H. convergens heart, spiracular closer muscles, and oscillations associated with muscles activated while drinking. The method, being a relatively non-invasive technique providing a new type of information, may be useful in developing "nanophysiology" of insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  10. Going Vertical To Improve the Accuracy of Atomic Force Microscopy Based Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Robert; Van Patten, William J; Adhikari, Ayush; Perkins, Thomas T

    2018-01-23

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) is a powerful technique to characterize the energy landscape of individual proteins, the mechanical properties of nucleic acids, and the strength of receptor-ligand interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based SMFS benefits from ongoing progress in improving the precision and stability of cantilevers and the AFM itself. Underappreciated is that the accuracy of such AFM studies remains hindered by inadvertently stretching molecules at an angle while measuring only the vertical component of the force and extension, degrading both measurements. This inaccuracy is particularly problematic in AFM studies using double-stranded DNA and RNA due to their large persistence length (p ≈ 50 nm), often limiting such studies to other SMFS platforms (e.g., custom-built optical and magnetic tweezers). Here, we developed an automated algorithm that aligns the AFM tip above the DNA's attachment point to a coverslip. Importantly, this algorithm was performed at low force (10-20 pN) and relatively fast (15-25 s), preserving the connection between the tip and the target molecule. Our data revealed large uncorrected lateral offsets for 100 and 650 nm DNA molecules [24 ± 18 nm (mean ± standard deviation) and 180 ± 110 nm, respectively]. Correcting this offset yielded a 3-fold improvement in accuracy and precision when characterizing DNA's overstretching transition. We also demonstrated high throughput by acquiring 88 geometrically corrected force-extension curves of a single individual 100 nm DNA molecule in ∼40 min and versatility by aligning polyprotein- and PEG-based protein-ligand assays. Importantly, our software-based algorithm was implemented on a commercial AFM, so it can be broadly adopted. More generally, this work illustrates how to enhance AFM-based SMFS by developing more sophisticated data-acquisition protocols.

  11. Study of performance of high speed turning using the volumetric dimension coefficient of resultant cutting force; Estudio del rendimiento del torneado de alta velocidad utilizando el coeficiente de dimension volumetrica de la fuerza de corte resultante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. W.; Perez-Rodriguez, R.; Zambrano-Robledo, P. C.; Siller-Carrillo, H. R.; Toscano-Reyes, H.

    2013-07-01

    This work deals with the experimental study of the resultant cutting force evolution of two coating carbide and a cermet inserts, during the dry turning of AISI 1045 steel with 400, 500 and 600 m/min cutting speeds. A new criterion for machinability study, the coefficient of volumetric dimension of cutting force, it is introduced. The investigation showed a better performance of cermet for moderate and intermediate cutting speeds, while at high cutting speed and final machining time, the three layers coated carbide achieved the best result. The factorial analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of machining time on the coefficient of volumetric dimension of resultant cutting force, while the material insert factor and their interaction, for intermediate cutting speed was just significant. (Author)

  12. Algorithms for Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images Supplementary Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Two Jupyter Notebooks showcasing reconstructions of undersampled atomic force microscopy images. The reconstructions were obtained using a variety of interpolation and reconstruction methods.......Two Jupyter Notebooks showcasing reconstructions of undersampled atomic force microscopy images. The reconstructions were obtained using a variety of interpolation and reconstruction methods....

  13. Structure and stability of semiconductor tip apexes for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, P; Perez, R; Ghasemi, S A; Goedecker, S; Jelinek, P; Lenosky, T

    2009-01-01

    The short range force between the tip and the surface atoms, that is responsible for atomic-scale contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM), is mainly controlled by the tip apex. Thus, the ability to image, manipulate and chemically identify single atoms in semiconductor surfaces is ultimately determined by the apex structure and its composition. Here we present a detailed and systematic study of the most common structures that can be expected at the apex of the Si tips used in experiments. We tackle the determination of the structure and stability of Si tips with three different approaches: (i) first principles simulations of small tip apexes; (ii) simulated annealing of a Si cluster; and (iii) a minima hopping study of large Si tips. We have probed the tip apexes by making atomic contacts between the tips and then compared force-distance curves with the experimental short range forces obtained with dynamic force spectroscopy. The main conclusion is that although there are multiple stable solutions for the atomically sharp tip apexes, they can be grouped into a few types with characteristic atomic structures and properties. We also show that the structure of the last atomic layers in a tip apex can be both crystalline and amorphous. We corroborate that the atomically sharp tips are thermodynamically stable and that the tip-surface interaction helps to produce the atomic protrusion needed to get atomic resolution.

  14. Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Diganta

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed due to defective costal cartilage. However, costal cartilage is less studied compared to load bearing cartilage. Results show that there is a difference between chemical fixation and non-chemical fixation treatments. Our findings imply that the patients' chest wall is mechanically weak and protein deposition is abnormal. This may impact the nanostraws' ability to facilitate fluid flow between the ribs and the sternum. At present, AFM is the only tool for imaging cells' ultra-structure at the nanometer scale because cells are not homogeneous. The first layer of the cell is called the cell membrane, and the layer under it is made of the cytoskeleton. Cancerous cells are different from normal cells in term of cell growth, mechanical properties, and ultra-structure. Here, force is measured with very high sensitivity and this is accomplished with highly sensitive probes such as a nano-probe. We performed experiments to determine ultra-structural differences that emerge when such cancerous cells are subject to treatments such as with drugs and electric pulses. Jurkat cells are cancerous cells. These cells were pulsed at different conditions. Pulsed and non-pulsed Jurkat cell ultra-structures were investigated at the nano meter scale using AFM. Jurkat cell mechanical properties were measured under

  15. Casimir Forces and Quantum Friction from Ginzburg Radiation in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jamir; Recati, Alessio; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-01-27

    We theoretically propose an experimentally viable scheme to use an impurity atom in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to realize condensed-matter analogs of quantum vacuum effects. In a suitable atomic level configuration, the collisional interaction between the impurity atom and the density fluctuations in the condensate can be tailored to closely reproduce the electric-dipole coupling of quantum electrodynamics. By virtue of this analogy, we recover and extend the paradigm of electromagnetic vacuum forces to the domain of cold atoms, showing in particular the emergence, at supersonic atomic speeds, of a novel power-law scaling of the Casimir force felt by the atomic impurity, as well as the occurrence of a quantum frictional force, accompanied by the Ginzburg emission of Bogoliubov quanta. Observable consequences of these quantum vacuum effects in realistic spectroscopic experiments are discussed.

  16. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in a uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation are discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  17. A high speed digital noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, J.; Gaffney, B.; Liu, B.

    In testing of digital signal processing hardware, a high speed pseudo-random noise generator is often required to simulate an input noise source to the hardware. This allows the hardware to be exercised in a manner analogous to actual operating conditions. In certain radar and communication environments, a noise generator operating at speeds in excess of 60 MHz may be required. In this paper, a method of generating high speed pseudo-random numbers from an arbitrarily specified distribution (Gaussian, Log-Normal, etc.) using a transformation from a uniform noise source is described. A noise generator operating at 80 MHz has been constructed. Different distributions can be readily obtained by simply changing the ROM set. The hardware and test results will be described. Using this approach, the generation of pseudo-random sequences with arbitrary distributions at word rates in excess of 200 MHz can be readily achieved.

  18. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...

  19. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  20. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  1. High speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays has been designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front-end rapid-scan solid-state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a ''snapshot'' of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to the LLL computational facility (NADS). The impetus for such a system as well as its operation is discussed. Also discussed are new systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution

  2. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri, E-mail: phsivan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics and the Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  3. Controlled evaluation of silver nanoparticle dissolution using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ronald D; Vikesland, Peter J

    2012-07-03

    Incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into an increasing number of consumer products has led to concern over the potential ecological impacts of their unintended release to the environment. Dissolution is an important environmental transformation that affects the form and concentration of AgNPs in natural waters; however, studies on AgNP dissolution kinetics are complicated by nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, nanosphere lithography (NSL) was used to fabricate uniform arrays of AgNPs immobilized on glass substrates. Nanoparticle immobilization enabled controlled evaluation of AgNP dissolution in an air-saturated phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 25 °C) under variable NaCl concentrations in the absence of aggregation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor changes in particle morphology and dissolution. Over the first day of exposure to ≥10 mM NaCl, the in-plane AgNP shape changed from triangular to circular, the sidewalls steepened, the in-plane radius decreased by 5-11 nm, and the height increased by 6-12 nm. Subsequently, particle height and in-plane radius decreased at a constant rate over a 2-week period. Dissolution rates varied linearly from 0.4 to 2.2 nm/d over the 10-550 mM NaCl concentration range tested. NaCl-catalyzed dissolution of AgNPs may play an important role in AgNP fate in saline waters and biological media. This study demonstrates the utility of NSL and AFM for the direct investigation of unaggregated AgNP dissolution.

  4. Nanoscans of piezoelectric activity using an atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.; Guy, I.L.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Tansley, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Any crystal which lacks a centre of symmetry is piezoelectric. This includes all of the ferroelectric crystals used in photonics and virtually all compound semiconductors. Such crystals, when grown in thin film form invariably exist in a strained state and thus possess internal piezoelectric fields which can affect their electronic properties. A knowledge of the piezoelectric properties of such crystals is thus important in understanding how they behave in practical devices. It also provides a tool for analysing the crystal structure of such materials. Using an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a probe of piezoelectric activity allows the study of variations in crystal structure on a nanoscale. The AFM piezoelectric technique has been used by several groups to study structures of ceramic materials with large piezoelectric coefficients, intended for applications in piezoelectric actuators. In the AFM method, a driving signal of a few volts at a frequency well below the AFM tip resonance, is applied to a sample of the material mounted in the AFM. This voltage causes the sample dimensions to change in ways determined by the piezoelectric properties of the sample. The AFM signal thus contains the normal surface profile information and an additional component generated by the piezoelectric vibrations of the sample. A lockin amplifier is used to separate the piezoelectric signal from the normal AFM surface profile signal. The result is the simultaneous acquisition of the surface profile and a piezoelectric map of the surface of the material under study. We will present results showing the results of such measurements in materials such as lithium niobate and gallium nitride. These materials have piezoelectric coefficients which are much lower than those of materials to which the technique has normally been applied

  5. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2015-10-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  6. Dimensional characterization of extracellular vesicles using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebaihi, N; De Boeck, B; Pétry, J; Yuana, Y; Nieuwland, R

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small biological entities released from cells into body fluids. EV are recognized as mediators in intercellular communication and influence important physiological processes. It has been shown that the concentration and composition of EV in body fluids may differ from healthy subjects to patients suffering from particular disease. So, EV have gained a strong scientific and clinical interest as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Due to their small size, accurate detection and characterization of EV remain challenging. The aim of the presented work is to propose a characterization method of erythrocyte-derived EV using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The vesicles are immobilized on anti-CD235a-modified mica and analyzed by AFM under buffer liquid and dry conditions. EV detected under both conditions show very similar sizes namely ∼30 nm high and ∼90 nm wide. The size of these vesicles remains stable over drying time as long as 7 d at room temperature. Since the detected vesicles are not spherical, EV are characterized by their height and diameter, and not only by the height as is usually done for spherical nanoparticles. In order to obtain an accurate measurement of EV diameters, the geometry of the AFM tip was evaluated to account for the lateral broadening artifact inherent to AFM measurements. To do so, spherical polystyrene (PS) nanobeads and EV were concomitantly deposited on the same mica substrate and simultaneously measured by AFM under dry conditions. By applying this procedure, direct calibration of the AFM tip could be performed together with EV characterization under identical experimental conditions minimizing external sources of uncertainty on the shape and size of the tip, thus allowing standardization of EV measurement. (paper)

  7. Data Capture Technique for High Speed Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Wayne Melvin; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul William; Gara, Alan Gene; Jackson, Rory; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent; Nathanson, Ben Jesse; Vranas, Paylos Michael; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-08-26

    A data capture technique for high speed signaling to allow for optimal sampling of an asynchronous data stream. This technique allows for extremely high data rates and does not require that a clock be sent with the data as is done in source synchronous systems. The present invention also provides a hardware mechanism for automatically adjusting transmission delays for optimal two-bit simultaneous bi-directional (SiBiDi) signaling.

  8. Development of high-speed video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk

    2001-04-01

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  9. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM) phase images

    OpenAIRE

    G. Helas; M. O. Andreae

    2008-01-01

    We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly...

  10. Investigation of graphite composite anodes surfaces by atomic force microscopy and related techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, Karen Akemi; Nishioka, Keiko; Sato, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The surface of a synthetic graphite (KS-44) and polyvinylidene difluoride binder (PVDF) anode for lithium-ion secondary batteries is imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several related scanning probe microscope (SPM) instruments including: dynamic force microscopy (DFM), friction force microscopy (FFM), laterally-modulated friction force microscopy (LM-FFM), visco-elasticity atomic force microscopy (VE-AFM), and AFM/simultaneous current measurement mode (SCM). DFM is found to be an exceptional mode for topographic imaging while FFM results in the clearest contrast distinction between PVDF binder and KS-44 graphite regions. (orig.)

  11. Force, current and field effects in single atom manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, K.-F.; Hla, S.; Pertaya, N.; Soe, W.H.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Rieder, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the manipulation of Ag and Au atoms with a STM tip on the Ag(111) surface at 5K. The interpretation of the feed-back loop signal gives a precise picture of the movement of the atom during manipulation. The threshold tunnelling resistance and tip-height to move

  12. A new united atom force field for adsorption of alkenes in zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Smit, B.; Rey, F.; Valencia, S.; Calero, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new united atom force field was developed that accurately describes the adsorption properties of linear alkenes in zeolites. The force field was specifically designed for use in the inhomogeneous system and therefore a truncated and shifted potential was used. With the determined force field, we

  13. Low temperature corneal laser welding investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the stromal matrix induced by low-temperature corneal laser welding were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This procedure consists of staining the wound with Indocyanine Green (ICG), followed by irradiation with a near-infrared laser operated at low-power densities. This induces a local heating in the 55-65 °C range. In welded tissue, extracellular components undergo heat-induced structural modifications, resulting in a joining effect between the cut edges. However, the exact mechanism generating the welding, to date, is not completely understood. Full-thickness cuts, 3.5 mm in length, were made in fresh porcine cornea samples, and these were then subjected to laser welding operated at 16.7 W/cm2 power density. AFM imaging was performed on resin-embedded semi-thin slices once they had been cleared by chemical etching, in order to expose the stromal bulk of the tissue within the section. We then carried out a morphological analysis of characteristic fibrillar features in the laser-treated and control samples. AFM images of control stromal regions highlighted well-organized collagen fibrils (36.2 +/- 8.7 nm in size) running parallel to each other as in a typical lamellar domain. The fibrils exhibited a beaded pattern with a 22-39 nm axial periodicity. Laser-treated corneal regions were characterized by a significant disorganization of the intralamellar architecture. At the weld site, groups of interwoven fibrils joined the cut edges, showing structural properties that were fully comparable with those of control regions. This suggested that fibrillar collagen is not denatured by low-temperature laser welding, confirming previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and thus it is probably not involved in the closure mechanism of corneal cuts. The loss of fibrillar organization may be related to some structural modifications in some interfibrillar substance as proteoglycans or collagen VI. Furthermore, AFM

  14. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  15. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  16. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huey, Bryan D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  17. High-speed photography. Technique and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Tembleque, R.

    1981-01-01

    It is intended to present some general considerations about ''Higg-speed photography'' as a tool of work common in mos research laboratories in the world. ''High-speed photography'' relies on the principles of photography of actions, that change rapidly with the time. The evolution of this technique goes along with the discovering of new phenomena in wich higher speeds are involved. At present is normal to deal with changing rates involving picoseconds times (10 -12 s) and new developments on the field of femtosecond (10 -15 s) theoretically are contemplated. (author)

  18. Continuous QKD and high speed data encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Hugo; Walenta, Nino; Guinnard, Olivier; Houlmann, Raphael; Wen, Charles Lim Ci; Korzh, Boris; Lunghi, Tommaso; Gisin, Nicolas; Burg, Andreas; Constantin, Jeremy; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Caselunghe, Dario; Kulesza, Natalia; Trolliet, Gregory; Vannel, Fabien; Junod, Pascal; Auberson, Olivier; Graf, Yoan; Curchod, Gilles; Habegger, Gilles; Messerli, Etienne; Portmann, Christopher; Henzen, Luca; Keller, Christoph; Pendl, Christian; Mühlberghuber, Michael; Roth, Christoph; Felber, Norbert; Gürkaynak, Frank; Schöni, Daniel; Muheim, Beat

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a Swiss project dedicated to the development of high speed quantum key distribution and data encryption. The QKD engine features fully automated key exchange, hardware key distillation based on finite key security analysis, efficient authentication and wavelength division multiplexing of the quantum and the classical channel and one-time pas encryption. The encryption device allows authenticated symmetric key encryption (e.g AES) at rates of up to 100 Gb/s. A new quantum key can uploaded up to 1000 times second from the QKD engine.

  19. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beele, W. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eschendorff, G. [Sulzer Metco Coatings BV (Netherlands); Eldim BV (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  1. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  2. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, P.

    1987-01-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs

  3. High-speed reconstruction of compressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.

    1990-07-01

    A compression scheme is described that allows high-definition radiological images with greater than 8-bit intensity resolution to be represented by 8-bit pixels. Reconstruction of the images with their original intensity resolution can be carried out by means of a pipeline architecture suitable for compact, high-speed implementation. A reconstruction system is described that can be fabricated according to this approach and placed between an 8-bit display buffer and the display's video system thereby allowing contrast control of images at video rates. Results for 50 CR chest images are described showing that error-free reconstruction of the original 10-bit CR images can be achieved.

  4. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  5. High speed PVD thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beele, W.; Eschendorff, G.

    2006-01-01

    The high speed PVD process (HS-PVD) combines gas phase coating synthesis with high deposition rates. The process has been demonstrated for high purity YSZ deposited as a chemically bonded top thermal barrier with columnar structure of EB-PVD features. The process can manufacture EB-PVD like coatings that match in regards to their TGO-formation and columnar structure. Coatings with a columnar structure formed by individual columns of 1/4 of the diameter of a classical EB-PVD type TBC have been deposited. These coatings have the potential to prove a significant reduction in thermal conductivity and in erosion performance. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Study on the machinability characteristics of superalloy Inconel 718 during high speed turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, D.G.; Ramamoorthy, B.; Vijayaraghavan, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt of an experimental investigation on the machinability of superalloy, Inconel 718 during high speed turning using tungsten carbide insert (K20) tool. The effect of machining parameters on the cutting force, specific cutting pressure, cutting temperature, tool wear and surface finish criteria were investigated during the experimentation. The machining parameters have been optimized by measuring forces. The effect of machining parameters on the tool wear was examined through SEM micrographs. During high speed turning acoustic emission signal were collected and analyzed to understand the effect of cutting parameters during online. The research work findings will also provide useful economic machining solution by utilizing economical tungsten carbide tooling during high speed processing of Inconel 718, which is otherwise usually machined by costly PCD or CBN tools. The present approach and results will be helpful for understanding the machinability of Inconel 718 during high speed turning for the manufacturing engineers

  7. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  8. High-speed elevators controlled by inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    1988-10-25

    The super-high-speed elevator with superiority to 300m/min of speed, requires both the large capacity power and wide range speed controls. Therefore, in order to materialize the smooth and quiet operation characteristics, by applying the inverter control, the low torque ripple control in the low frequency range and high frequency large capacity inverting for lowering the motor in noise are necessary with their being assured of reliability. To satisfy the above necessary items, together with the development of a sine wave pulse width and frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) control system, to more precisely enable the sine wave electric current control, and 3kHz switching power converter, using a 800A power transistor module, a supervoltage control circuit under the extraordinary condition was designed. As a result of commercializing a 360m/min super-high speed inverter elevator, the power source unit, due to the effect of high power factor, could be reduced by 30% in capacity and also the higher harmonic wave including ratio could be considerably lowered to the inferiority to 5%. 2 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  9. Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.

    1982-01-01

    Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. High-speed motion neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Barton, J.P.; Robinson, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames. Synchronization has provided high-speed motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycles of 7.62-mm munition rounds within a thick steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate its ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two-phase flow. The equipment includes a TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to a peak power of 3000 MW, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16-mm high-speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is about 4 X 10 11 n/cm 2 X s with a pulse, full-width at half-maximum, of 9 ms. Modulation transfer function techniques have been used to assist optimization of the system performance. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on information availability

  11. Dynamic response of high speed centrifuge for reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Gaurav; Satish Kumar, V.; Selvaraj, T.; Ananda Rao, S.M.; Ravisankar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The standard for balancing the rotating bowl describes only the details about the selection of balance quality grade and the permissible residual unbalance for different operating speeds. This paper presents the effects of unbalance on the rotating bowl of high speed centrifuge used in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In this study, the residual unbalance is evaluated for different recommended balancing grades in accordance with the ISO 1940. This unbalance mass generates dynamic force which acts on the rotor. The dynamic response of the rotor like displacements and stresses under this dynamic force are studied by numerical simulation. Finally, the effect of residual unbalance on the rotating bowl performance for different balancing grades is discussed. The experimental measurements are also carried out for the case of G 1.0 grade balanced rotating bowl to validate the resonance frequency as well as vibration amplitudes. (author)

  12. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  13. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, S Y

    2007-07-05

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  14. Microstructural and micromechanical characterisation of TiAl alloys using atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, S.; Pyczak, F.; Goeken, M.

    2009-01-01

    Different microstructures were generated in the Ti-45Al-4.6Nb-0.2B-0.2C and Ti-45Al-1Cr alloys (at.%) by heat treatment. The microstructures were investigated using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy which was compared with transmission electron microscopy. Topographic contrast is usually used for phase identification in the atomic force microscope. However, it was found that the topographic order of the phases changes with different microstructures and specimen preparations. Nanoindentation measurements provided local hardness values not obtainable by other methods and enabled clear distinction of the phases. The hardness values can give information on surrounding microstructure and solid solution hardening. The mean lamellar spacing of the colonies was measured using both atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy was found to be suitable to determine the spacing between α 2 /γ-interfaces offering the advantages of easier sample preparation and fewer specimens compared to evaluation by TEM analysis.

  15. Chromatin Structure in Bands and Interbands of Polytene Chromosomes Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; Avogadro, A.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; van der Werf, Kees; Otto, Cornelis; Kraan, Yvonne M.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Polytene chromosomes from Drosophila melanogaster, observed from squash preparations, and chromosomes from Chironomus thummi thummi, investigated under physiological conditions, are imaged using an Atomic Force Microscope. Various chromatin fiber structures can be observed with high detail in fixed

  16. Energy dissipation unveils atomic displacement in the noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of Si(111 )-(7 ×7 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toyoko; Inamura, Ryo; Kura, Daiki; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2018-03-01

    The kinetic energy of the oscillating cantilever of noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) at room temperature was considerably dissipated over regions between a Si adatom and its neighboring rest atom for Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) in close proximity to a Si tip on the cantilever. However, nc-AFM topographic images showed no atomic features over those regions, which were the hollow sites of the (7 ×7 ). This energy dissipation likely originated from displacement of Si adatoms with respect to the tip over the hollow sites, leading to a lateral shift of the adatoms toward the rest atom. This interaction led to hysteresis over each cantilever oscillation cycle; when the tip was retracted, the Si adatom likely returned to its original position. To confirm the atomic processes involved in the force interactions through Si dangling bonds, the Si(111 )-(7 ×7 ) surface was partly terminated with atomic hydrogen (H) and examined by nc-AFM. When the Si adatoms and/or the rest atoms were terminated with H, the hollow sites were not bright (less dissipation) in images of the energy dissipation channels by nc-AFM. The hollow sites acted as metastable sites for Si adatoms in surface diffusion and atom manipulation; thus, the dissipation energy which is saturated on the tip likely corresponds to the difference in the potential energy between the hollow site and the Si adatom site. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of dissipation channels of nc-AFM to enable visualization of the dynamics of atoms and molecules on surfaces, which cannot be revealed by nc-AFM topographic images alone.

  17. Automation of the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) I: bond perception and atom typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanommeslaeghe, K; MacKerell, A D

    2012-12-21

    Molecular mechanics force fields are widely used in computer-aided drug design for the study of drug-like molecules alone or interacting with biological systems. In simulations involving biological macromolecules, the biological part is typically represented by a specialized biomolecular force field, while the drug is represented by a matching general (organic) force field. In order to apply these general force fields to an arbitrary drug-like molecule, functionality for assignment of atom types, parameters, and charges is required. In the present article, which is part I of a series of two, we present the algorithms for bond perception and atom typing for the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF). The CGenFF atom typer first associates attributes to the atoms and bonds in a molecule, such as valence, bond order, and ring membership among others. Of note are a number of features that are specifically required for CGenFF. This information is then used by the atom typing routine to assign CGenFF atom types based on a programmable decision tree. This allows for straightforward implementation of CGenFF's complicated atom typing rules and for equally straightforward updating of the atom typing scheme as the force field grows. The presented atom typer was validated by assigning correct atom types on 477 model compounds including in the training set as well as 126 test-set molecules that were constructed to specifically verify its different components. The program may be utilized via an online implementation at https://www.paramchem.org/ .

  18. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES OF Eucalyptus DISSOLVING PULPS USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY V. Chunilall1, J.Wesley-Smith2, T. Bush1 1CSIR, Forestry and Forest Product Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013, South Africa. 2Electron Microscope Unit, University of Kwa... pulp using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have reported increased cellulose fibril aggregation during processing, and a concomitant decrease in surface area available for chemical reaction1,2. These findings were subsequently confirmed...

  19. Protein crystals as scanned probes for recognition atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremasinghe, Nissanka S; Hafner, Jason H

    2005-12-01

    Lysozyme crystal growth has been localized at the tip of a conventional silicon nitride cantilever through seeded nucleation. After cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, lysozyme protein crystal tips image gold nanoparticles and grating standards with a resolution comparable to that of conventional tips. Force spectra between the lysozyme crystal tips and surfaces covered with antilysozyme reveal an adhesion force that drops significantly upon blocking with free lysozyme, thus confirming that lysozyme crystal tips can detect molecular recognition interactions.

  20. Nonequilibrium forces between atoms and dielectrics mediated by a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-graining to the physical variables--the medium, the quantum field, and the atom's internal degrees of freedom, in that order--to extract their averaged effects from the lowest tier progressively to the top tier. The first tier of coarse-graining provides the averaged effect of the medium upon the field, quantified by a complex permittivity (in the frequency domain) describing the response of the dielectric to the field in addition to its back action on the field through a stochastic forcing term. The last tier of coarse-graining over the atom's internal degrees of freedom results in an equation of motion for the atom's center of mass from which we can derive the force on the atom. Our nonequilibrium formulation provides a fully dynamical description of the atom's motion including back-action effects from all other relevant variables concerned. In the long-time limit we recover the known results for the atom-dielectric force when the combined system is in equilibrium or in a nonequilibrium stationary state.

  1. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  2. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  3. High-speed cineradiographies acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Nourrissat, Yves; Viguier, Philippe

    A high-speed cineradiography installation provides dimensional informations recorded either on a film, or on a magnetic tape. In the event of the film, the imperfection of our visual sense leads us to look for a method of measurement which allows us to extract the information from a noisy image; the association of an optical flying spot scanner with a computer is adapted to this use and allows us, for instance, to determine the inside and outside diameters of a sphere during its implosion. On the other hand, the radiographic recording on magnetic tape is processed, after numerisation by the computer, in the same way as the numeric tape generated after the optical scanner. We compare the results achieved by the two recording methods [fr

  4. High-speed Maglev studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.L.; Eastham, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports on Canadian studies of superconducting magnetic levitation and variable-speed linear synchronous motor propulsion for high-speed inter-city guided ground transport. Levitation is obtained by the interaction of vehicle-mounted superconducting magnets and the eddy currents induced in aluminium strip conductors on the guideway. Non-contact propulsion by linear synchronous motor (LSM) is obtained by using vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and powered guideway coils. A suggested guidance scheme uses a flat guideway with 'null-flux' loops overlying the LSM windings. The propulsion magnets interact with the loops and the edges of the levitation strips to provide lateral stabilization. The test facility is a 7.6m wheel, rotating with a peripheral speed of 33m/s. (author)

  5. Inlet design for high-speed propfans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, B. H., Jr.; Hinson, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    A two-part study was performed to design inlets for high-speed propfan installation. The first part was a parametric study to select promising inlet concepts. A wide range of inlet geometries was examined and evaluated - primarily on the basis of cruise thrust and fuel burn performance. Two inlet concepts were than chosen for more detailed design studies - one apropriate to offset engine/gearbox arrangements and the other to in-line arrangements. In the second part of this study, inlet design points were chosen to optimize the net installed thrust, and detailed design of the two inlet configurations was performed. An analytical methodology was developed to account for propfan slipstream effects, transonic flow efects, and three-dimensional geometry effects. Using this methodology, low drag cowls were designed for the two inlets.

  6. Dipole and quadrupole forces exerted on atoms in laser fields: The nonperturbative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2006-01-01

    Manipulation of cold atoms by lasers has so far been studied solely within the framework of the conventional dipole approximation, and the atom-light interaction has been treated using low order perturbation theory. Laser control of atomic motions has been ascribed exclusively to the corresponding light-induced dipole forces. In this work, we present a general theory to derive the potential experienced by an atom in a monochromatic laser field in a context analogous to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecules in the field-free case. The formulation goes beyond the dipole approximation and gives rise to the field-atom coupling potential terms which so far have not been taken into consideration in theoretical or experimental studies. Contrary to conventional approaches, our method is based upon the many electron Floquet theory and remains valid also for high intensity laser fields (i.e., for a strongly nonperturbative atom-light interaction). As an illustration of the developed theory, we investigate the trapping of cold atoms in optical lattices. We find that for some atoms for specific laser parameters, despite the absence of the dipole force, the laser trapping is still possible due to the electric quadrupole forces. Namely, we show that by using realistic laser parameters one can form a quadrupole optical lattice which is sufficiently strong to trap Ca and Na atoms

  7. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this proposal is to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight,...

  8. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  9. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  10. Harmonic and power balance tools for tapping-mode atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, A.; Salapaka, M. V.; Chen, D. J.; Cleveland, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for investigating surfaces at atomic scales. Harmonic balance and power balance techniques are introduced to analyze the tapping-mode dynamics of the atomic force microscope. The harmonic balance perspective explains observations hitherto unexplained in the AFM literature. A nonconservative model for the cantilever - sample interaction is developed. The energy dissipation in the sample is studied and the resulting power balance equations combined with the harmonic balance equations are used to estimate the model parameters. Experimental results confirm that the harmonic and power balance tools can be used effectively to predict the behavior of the tapping cantilever. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. Technology of high-speed combined machining with brush electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Yukhnevich, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The new method was proposed for high-precision dimensional machining with a brush electrode when the true position of bundles of metal wire is adjusted by means of creating controlled centrifugal forces appeared due to the increased frequency of rotation of a tool. There are the ultimate values of circumferential velocity at which the bundles are pressed against a machined area of a workpiece in a stable manner despite the profile of the machined surface and variable stock of the workpiece. The special aspects of design of processing procedures for finishing standard parts, including components of products with low rigidity, are disclosed. The methodology of calculation and selection of processing modes which allow one to produce high-precision details and to provide corresponding surface roughness required to perform finishing operations (including the preparation of a surface for metal deposition) is presented. The production experience concerned with the use of high-speed combined machining with an unshaped tool electrode in knowledge-intensive branches of the machine-building industry for different types of production is analyzed. It is shown that the implementation of high-speed dimensional machining with an unshaped brush electrode allows one to expand the field of use of the considered process due to the application of a multipurpose tool in the form of a metal brush, as well as to obtain stable results of finishing and to provide the opportunities for long-term operation of the equipment without its changeover and readjustment.

  12. Frequency modulation detection atomic force microscopy in the liquid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. P.; Ishida, T.; Uchihashi, T.; Nakayama, Y.; Tokumoto, H.

    True atomic resolution imaging using frequency modulation detection is already well established in ultra-high vacuum. In this paper we demonstrate that it also has great potential in the liquid environment. Using a combination of magnetic activation and high-aspect-ratio carbon nanotube probes, we show that imaging can be readily combined with point spectroscopy, revealing both the tip-sample interaction and the structure of the intermediate liquid.

  13. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  14. Imaging three-dimensional surface objects with submolecular resolution by atomic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno, C.; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Shimizu, T.K.; Custance, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 2257-2262 ISSN 1530-6984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC- AFM ) * submolecular resolution * three-dimensional dynamic force spectroscopy * high-resolution imaging Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  15. Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kageshima, M.; Jensenius, Henriette; Dienwiebel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due to t...

  16. Surface adhesion properties of graphene and graphene oxide studied by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanhuai; Zhang Ping; Ren Huming; Zhuo Qin; Yang Zhongmei; Jiang Xu; Jiang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Surface adhesion properties are important to various applications of graphene-based materials. Atomic force microscopy is powerful to study the adhesion properties of samples by measuring the forces on the colloidal sphere tip as it approaches and retracts from the surface. In this paper we have measured the adhesion force between the colloid probe and the surface of graphene (graphene oxide) nanosheet. The results revealed that the adhesion force on graphene and graphene oxide surface were 66.3 and 170.6 nN, respectively. It was found the adhesion force was mainly determined by the water meniscus, which was related to the surface contact angle of samples.

  17. Role of tip chemical reactivity on atom manipulation process in dynamic force microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugimoto, Y.; Yurtsever, A.; Abe, M.; Morita, S.; Ondráček, Martin; Pou, P.; Perez, R.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2013), s. 7370-7376 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : noncontact atomic force microscopy * atomic manipulation * force spectroscopy * chemical interaction force * DFT simulations * nudged elastic band Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn403097p

  18. Bimodal atomic force microscopy imaging of isolated antibodies in air and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, N F; Lozano, J R; Herruzo, E T; Garcia, F; Garcia, R; Richter, C; Sulzbach, T

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method based on the simultaneous excitation of the first two flexural modes of the cantilever. The instrument, called a bimodal atomic force microscope, allows us to resolve the structural components of antibodies in both monomer and pentameric forms. The instrument operates in both high and low quality factor environments, i.e., air and liquids. We show that under the same experimental conditions, bimodal AFM is more sensitive to compositional changes than amplitude modulation AFM. By using theoretical and numerical methods, we study the material contrast sensitivity as well as the forces applied on the sample during bimodal AFM operation

  19. Concept for room temperature single-spin tunneling force microscopy with atomic spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adam

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy (AFM) system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated defect states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  20. Atomic-resolution single-spin magnetic resonance detection concept based on tunneling force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.; Williams, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single-electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated qubit states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  1. High-speed instrumentation complex for car crash testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. V.; Gorin, I. M.; Drozhbin, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Ponomaryov, A. M.; Semyonov, V. B.; Udalov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important car checking problems consists in safety testing which includes trials for different types of collision, e.g., frontal and lateral. This allows us to study deformations of the automobile and its parts during the impact. To obtain reliable data on overloading, acceleration, deformation, force load on the car's body as well as on the anthropomorphic dummies inside it, use is made of rather a great number of different techniques. Highly informative among them is high-speed cine recording which allows us to register variations that occur during a fraction of a second, and then to reproduce with variable rate the frame images obtained. This makes it possible to study the impact parameters variations much more accurately.

  2. Combustion in a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation conducted to determine the factors which control the combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine is presented. Indicator cards were taken with the Farnboro indicator and analyzed according to the tangent method devised by Schweitzer. The analysis show that in a quiescent combustion chamber increasing the time lag of auto-ignition increases the maximum rate of combustion. Increasing the maximum rate of combustion increases the tendency for detonation to occur. The results show that by increasing the air temperature during injection the start of combustion can be forced to take place during injection and so prevent detonation from occurring. It is shown that the rate of fuel injection does not in itself control the rate of combustion.

  3. Fast and accurate: high-speed metrological large-range AFM for surface and nanometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Koenders, Ludger; Fluegge, Jens; Hemmleb, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Low measurement speed remains a major shortcoming of the scanning probe microscopic technique. It not only leads to a low measurement throughput, but a significant measurement drift over the long measurement time needed (up to hours or even days). To overcome this challenge, PTB, the national metrology institute of Germany, has developed a high-speed metrological large-range atomic force microscope (HS Met. LR-AFM) capable of measuring speeds up to 1 mm s‑1. This paper has introduced the design concept in detail. After modelling scanning probe microscopic measurements, our results suggest that the signal spectrum of the surface to be measured is the spatial spectrum of the surface scaled by the scanning speed. The higher the scanning speed , the broader the spectrum to be measured. To realise an accurate HS Met. LR-AFM, our solution is to combine different stages/sensors synchronously in measurements, which provide a much larger spectrum area for high-speed measurement capability. Two application examples have been demonstrated. The first is a new concept called reference areal surface metrology. Using the developed HS Met. LR-AFM, surfaces are measured accurately and traceably at a speed of 500 µm s‑1 and the results are applied as a reference 3D data map of the surfaces. By correlating the reference 3D data sets and 3D data sets of tools under calibration, which are measured at the same surface, it has the potential to comprehensively characterise the tools, for instance, the spectrum properties of the tools. The investigation results of two commercial confocal microscopes are demonstrated, indicating very promising results. The second example is the calibration of a kind of 3D nano standard, which has spatially distributed landmarks, i.e. special unique features defined by 3D-coordinates. Experimental investigations confirmed that the calibration accuracy is maintained at a measurement speed of 100 µm s‑1, which improves the calibration efficiency by a

  4. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghian, Hamed, E-mail: hamed.sadeghianmarnani@tno.nl, E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; Dool, Teun van den; Es, Maarten H. van [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm{sup 3}. It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz{sup 1/2}. A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm{sup 2} to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  5. Florida intercity high speed rail passenger service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T.; Watford, S.; Moore, G.; Des, A. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Plans for a new high-speed rail (HSR) transportation system in Florida were reviewed. HSR is believed to be the least expensive, most energy-efficient and least environmentally harmful alternative to air and highway travel. The system in Florida will be used as a case study to determine its overall impact on the environment, people and economy. The 300-plus mile system will move travelers at speeds of over 200 mph between Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. The study will identify the impacts of a HSR system on existing transportation networks, environment, energy, growth and growth distribution, safety, economy, travel time, and tourism. Transportation problems and the innovative mechanisms needed to realize the joint public and private venture approach to planning, locating, permitting, managing, financing, constructing and maintaining an inter-regional HSR line for the state were studied. The all-electric train would greatly help the environment in two ways: (1) zero emissions from the train itself, and (2) the reduction of trips by automobile and aircraft would reduce the amount of fuel and energy being used. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Design of very high speed electric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labollita, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    This work approaches the design process of an electric generator suitable for running efficiently at high speed, driven by a turbo shaft.The axial flux concept was used.For the mechanical design of the prototype, cooling capacity and mounting method were considered, looking for simplicity of the parts evolved. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets were used as magnetic source.For the electrical design, a calculation tool was developed in order to predict the prototype electrical parameters and optimize its geometry.The goal was to obtain 1 kW of electric power at a speed of 100,000 rpm.The efficiency and electrical behaviour of the prototype were characterized at speeds between 2,000 rpm and 30,000 rpm and then the behaviour at the design condition was predicted by obtaining an equivalent electric circuit.The estimated load voltage was 237 V as well as an electrical efficiency of 95%.Eddy current effects were not recognized. Increase of the internal resistance and decree of inductance were observed while raising the electric frequency.Finally, an electronic system was developed in order to use the prototype as a c.c. motor. Global performance was measured according to different supply characteristic. An optimum supply voltage was found.A maximum efficiency of 63% was reached. [es

  7. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  8. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.

    2017-08-31

    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  9. Canadian high speed magnetically levitated vehicle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ont.; Belanger, P R; Burke, P E; Dawson, G E; Eastham, A R; Hayes, W F; Ooi, B T; Silvester, P; Slemon, G R

    1978-04-01

    A technically feasible high speed (400 to 480 km/h) guided ground transportation system, based on the use of the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets for electrodynamic suspension and guidance and for linear synchronous motor propulsion was defined as a future modal option for Canadian application. Analysis and design proposals were validated by large-scale tests on a rotating wheel facility and by modelling system components and their interactions. Thirty ton vehicles carrying 100 passengers operate over a flat-topped elevated guideway, which minimizes system down-time due to ice and snow accumulation and facilitates the design of turn-outs. A clearance of up to 15 cm is produced by the electrodynamic interaction between the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and aluminum guideway strips. Propulsion and automatic system control is provided by the superconducting linear synchronous motor which operates at good efficiency (0.74) and high power factor (0.95). The vehicle is guided primarily by the interaction between the LSM field magnet array and flat null-flux loops overlying the stator windings in the guideway. The linear synchronous motor, electrodynamic suspension as well as levitation strip joints, parasitic LSM winding losses and limitations to the use of ferromagnetic guideway reinforcement were investigated experimentally on the test wheel facility. The use of a secondary suspension assures adequate dynamic stability, and good ride quality is achieved by optimized passive components with respect to lateral modes and by an actively controlled secondary suspension with respect to vertical motion.

  10. Material constraints on high-speed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  11. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  12. High-Speed RaPToRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  13. High speed all-silicon optical modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marris-Morini, Delphine; Le Roux, Xavier; Pascal, Daniel; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Damlencourt, Jean Francois; Bouville, David; Palomo, Jose; Laval, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Electrorefractive effect is experimentally demonstrated in an all-silicon optical structure. A highly doped Si P + layer is embedded in the intrinsic region of a PIN diode integrated in a SOI waveguide. Holes are confined at equilibrium around the P + layer. By applying a reverse bias to the diode, electrical field sweeps the carriers out of the active region. Free carrier concentration variations are responsible for local refractive index variations leading to an effective index variation of the waveguide optical mode and to an optical absorption variation. As a figure of merit, the product V π L π , determined from the measured effective index variation, is equal to 3.1 V cm. Furthermore, the device performances have theoretically been investigated. Estimations show that V π L π as small as 1 V cm are feasible using optimized structures. Response times lower than 2 ps are predicted, which gives the possibility to achieve very high-speed modulation. Furthermore, a temperature increases from 300 to 400 K does not change the index variation amplitude, and despite the carrier mobility reduction, response times are still lower than 2 ps

  14. Atomic force microscopy as a tool for the investigation of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė, Inga; Ramanavičienė, Almira; Ramanavičius, Arūnas

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is a valuable and useful tool for the imaging and investigation of living cells in their natural environment at high resolution. Procedures applied to living cell preparation before measurements should be adapted individually for different kinds of cells and for the desired measurement technique. Different ways of cell immobilization, such as chemical fixation on the surface, entrapment in the pores of a membrane, or growing them directly on glass cover slips or on plastic substrates, result in the distortion or appearance of artifacts in atomic force microscopy images. Cell fixation allows the multiple use of samples and storage for a prolonged period; it also increases the resolution of imaging. Different atomic force microscopy modes are used for the imaging and analysis of living cells. The contact mode is the best for cell imaging because of high resolution, but it is usually based on the following: (i) image formation at low interaction force, (ii) low scanning speed, and (iii) usage of "soft," low resolution cantilevers. The tapping mode allows a cell to behave like a very solid material, and destructive shear forces are minimized, but imaging in liquid is difficult. The force spectroscopy mode is used for measuring the mechanical properties of cells; however, obtained results strongly depend on the cell fixation method. In this paper, the application of 3 atomic force microscopy modes including (i) contact, (ii) tapping, and (iii) force spectroscopy for the investigation of cells is described. The possibilities of cell preparation for the measurements, imaging, and determination of mechanical properties of cells are provided. The applicability of atomic force microscopy to diagnostics and other biomedical purposes is discussed.

  15. The high speed civil transport and NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing studies being conducted not only in this country but in Europe and Asia suggest that a second generation supersonic transport, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could become an important part of the 21st century international air transportation system. However, major environmental compatibility and economic viability issues must be resolved if the HSCT is to become a reality. This talk will overview the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program which is aimed at providing the U.S. industry with a technology base to allow them to consider launching an HSCT program early in the next century. The talk will also discuss some of the comparable activities going on within Europe and Japan.

  16. Identification and ultrastructural imaging of photodynamic therapy-induced microfilaments by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Yoo, Je-Ok; Shin, Incheol; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an emerging technique for imaging biological samples at subnanometer resolution; however, the method is not widely used for cell imaging because it is limited to analysis of surface topology. In this study, we demonstrate identification and ultrastructural imaging of microfilaments using new approaches based on AFM. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a new chlorin-based photosensitizer DH-II-24 induced cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and reorganization of cytoskeletons in bladder cancer J82 cells. We investigated cytoskeletal changes using confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Extracellular filaments formed by PDT were analyzed with a tandem imaging approach based on confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ultrathin filaments that were not visible by confocal microscopy were identified as microfilaments by on-stage labeling/imaging using atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging revealed that these microfilaments had a stranded helical structure. Thus, these new approaches were useful for ultrastructural imaging of microfilaments at the molecular level, and, moreover, they may help to overcome the current limitations of fluorescence-based microscopy and atomic force microscopy in cell imaging.

  17. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  18. Length-extension resonator as a force sensor for high-resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hannes; Wagner, Tino; Stemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy has turned into a well-established method to obtain atomic resolution on flat surfaces, but is often limited to ultra-high vacuum conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Measurements under ambient conditions are influenced by variations of the dew point and thin water layers present on practically every surface, complicating stable imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging in air using a length-extension resonator operating at small amplitudes. An additional slow feedback compensates for changes in the free resonance frequency, allowing stable imaging over a long period of time with changing environmental conditions.

  19. High Speed Dynamics in Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermaier, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Brittle Materials under High Speed and Shock loading provide a continuous challenge in experimental physics, analysis and numerical modelling, and consequently for engineering design. The dependence of damage and fracture processes on material-inherent length and time scales, the influence of defects, rate-dependent material properties and inertia effects on different scales make their understanding a true multi-scale problem. In addition, it is not uncommon that materials show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior when the loading rate is increased. A particular case is spallation, a brittle tensile failure induced by the interaction of stress waves leading to a sudden change from compressive to tensile loading states that can be invoked in various materials. This contribution highlights typical phenomena occurring when brittle materials are exposed to high loading rates in applications such as blast and impact on protective structures, or meteorite impact on geological materials. A short review on experimental methods that are used for dynamic characterization of brittle materials will be given. A close interaction of experimental analysis and numerical simulation has turned out to be very helpful in analyzing experimental results. For this purpose, adequate numerical methods are required. Cohesive zone models are one possible method for the analysis of brittle failure as long as some degree of tension is present. Their recent successful application for meso-mechanical simulations of concrete in Hopkinson-type spallation tests provides new insight into the dynamic failure process. Failure under compressive loading is a particular challenge for numerical simulations as it involves crushing of material which in turn influences stress states in other parts of a structure. On a continuum scale, it can be modeled using more or less complex plasticity models combined with failure surfaces, as will be demonstrated for ceramics. Models which take microstructural

  20. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  1. Nanostructure and force spectroscopy analysis of human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingqian; Wang Jiongkun; Cai Jiye; Wu Yangzhe; Wang Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    To date, nanoscale imaging of the morphological changes and adhesion force of CD4 + T cells during in vitro activation remains largely unreported. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the morphological changes and specific binding forces in resting and activated human peripheral blood CD4 + T cells. The AFM images revealed that the volume of activated CD4 + T cells increased and the ultrastructure of these cells also became complex. Using a functionalized AFM tip, the strength of the specific binding force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction was found to be approximately three times that of the unspecific force. The adhesion forces were not randomly distributed over the surface of a single activated CD4 + T cell, indicated that the CD4 molecules concentrated into nanodomains. The magnitude of the adhesion force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction did not change markedly with the activation time. Multiple bonds involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction were measured at different activation times. These results suggest that the adhesion force involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction is highly selective and of high affinity

  2. Nanostructure and force spectroscopy analysis of human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingqian; Wang, Jiongkun; Cai, Jiye; Wu, Yangzhe; Wang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-12

    To date, nanoscale imaging of the morphological changes and adhesion force of CD4(+) T cells during in vitro activation remains largely unreported. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the morphological changes and specific binding forces in resting and activated human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells. The AFM images revealed that the volume of activated CD4(+) T cells increased and the ultrastructure of these cells also became complex. Using a functionalized AFM tip, the strength of the specific binding force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction was found to be approximately three times that of the unspecific force. The adhesion forces were not randomly distributed over the surface of a single activated CD4(+) T cell, indicated that the CD4 molecules concentrated into nanodomains. The magnitude of the adhesion force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction did not change markedly with the activation time. Multiple bonds involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction were measured at different activation times. These results suggest that the adhesion force involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction is highly selective and of high affinity.

  3. A new image correction method for live cell atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Sun, J L; Zhang, A; Hu, J; Xu, L X

    2007-01-01

    During live cell imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM), the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane yield distorted cell images. In this work, an image correction method was developed based on the force-distance curve and the modified Hertzian model. The normal loading and lateral forces exerted on the cell membrane by the AFM tip were both accounted for during the scanning. Two assumptions were made in modelling based on the experimental measurements: (1) the lateral force on the endothelial cells was linear to the height; (2) the cell membrane Young's modulus could be derived from the displacement measurement of a normal force curve. Results have shown that the model could be used to recover up to 30% of the actual cell height depending on the loading force. The accuracy of the model was also investigated with respect to the loading force and mechanical property of the cell membrane

  4. A new image correction method for live cell atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y; Sun, J L; Zhang, A; Hu, J; Xu, L X [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2007-04-21

    During live cell imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM), the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane yield distorted cell images. In this work, an image correction method was developed based on the force-distance curve and the modified Hertzian model. The normal loading and lateral forces exerted on the cell membrane by the AFM tip were both accounted for during the scanning. Two assumptions were made in modelling based on the experimental measurements: (1) the lateral force on the endothelial cells was linear to the height; (2) the cell membrane Young's modulus could be derived from the displacement measurement of a normal force curve. Results have shown that the model could be used to recover up to 30% of the actual cell height depending on the loading force. The accuracy of the model was also investigated with respect to the loading force and mechanical property of the cell membrane.

  5. From Atoms to Animals: The Vital Force in Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornberg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant event in intellectual history has occurred over the past several decades, a convergence of the sciences, a blurring of the distinctions between disciplines, from physics to chemistry to biology. Fundamental questions about human existence have been answered in chemical terms. What brings matter to life? What are our origins? What is the basis of cognitive activity? These and related questions have been a fertile area for philosophy and nonscientific analysis. The long history of such alternative approaches persists to this day. Life chemistry is explained by protein catalysts, in their simplest form known as enzymes, and in their full complexity, referred to as molecular machines. An example of great significance is the so-called transcription machinery, which reads out the genetic code, to direct the formation and function of all living things. The atomic structure of the transcription machinery was determined at Stanford, with the use of intense X-ray beams and facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The result is an image of this complex machinery in action, bringing genetic information to life.

  6. From Atoms to Animals: The Vital Force in Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornberg, Roger (Stanford University)

    2008-02-26

    Perhaps the most significant event in intellectual history has occurred over the past several decades, a convergence of the sciences, a blurring of the distinctions between disciplines, from physics to chemistry to biology. Fundamental questions about human existence have been answered in chemical terms. What brings matter to life? What are our origins? What is the basis of cognitive activity? These and related questions have been a fertile area for philosophy and nonscientific analysis. The long history of such alternative approaches persists to this day. Life chemistry is explained by protein catalysts, in their simplest form known as enzymes, and in their full complexity, referred to as molecular machines. An example of great significance is the so-called transcription machinery, which reads out the genetic code, to direct the formation and function of all living things. The atomic structure of the transcription machinery was determined at Stanford, with the use of intense X-ray beams and facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The result is an image of this complex machinery in action, bringing genetic information to life.

  7. Chemical bond imaging using higher eigenmodes of tuning fork sensors in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Zhong, Qigang; Ahles, Sebastian; Chi, Lifeng; Wegner, Hermann A.; Schirmeisen, André

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the ability of resolving the chemical structure of single organic molecules using non-contact atomic force microscopy with higher normal eigenmodes of quartz tuning fork sensors. In order to achieve submolecular resolution, CO-functionalized tips at low temperatures are used. The tuning fork sensors are operated in ultrahigh vacuum in the frequency modulation mode by exciting either their first or second eigenmode. Despite the high effective spring constant of the second eigenmode (on the order of several tens of kN/m), the force sensitivity is sufficiently high to achieve atomic resolution above the organic molecules. This is observed for two different tuning fork sensors with different tip geometries (small tip vs. large tip). These results represent an important step towards resolving the chemical structure of single molecules with multifrequency atomic force microscopy techniques where two or more eigenmodes are driven simultaneously.

  8. Structural analysis of γ radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations observed by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Shuang; Chen Ying; Ge Shili; Liu Xiulin; Zhou Pingkun; Zhang Sa; Zhang Detian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To find a new method for the measurement of radiation-induced damage, the structures of normal chromosomes and 60 Co γ-ray-induced chromosomal aberration were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Methods: Normal and irradiated chromosomes of human peripheral blood lymphocytes were prepared, then three-dimensional structure and height of chromosomes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Results: Three-dimensional structures of normal chromosomes and dicentric aberration in irradiated chromosomes were observed clearly. The data of chromosome height were helpful to recognizing the dicentric aberrations. Conclusion: Atomic force microscopy providing three-dimension image and linear measurement is a new and valuable tool for structural analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

  9. Measurement of the force on microparticles in a beam of energetic ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottenberg, Thomas; Schneider, Viktor; Kersten, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The force on microparticles in an energetic ion beam is investigated experimentally. Hollow glass microspheres are injected into the vertically upward directed beam and their trajectories are recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. The net force on the particles is determined by means of the measured vertical acceleration. The resulting beam pressures are compared with Faraday cup measurements of the ion current density and calorimetric measurements of the beam power density. Due to the neutral gas background, the beam consists, besides the ions, of energetic neutral atoms produced by charge-exchange collisions. It is found that the measured composition of the drag force by an ion and a neutral atom component agrees with a beam model that takes charge-exchange collisions into account. Special attention is paid to the momentum contribution from sputtered atoms, which is shown to be negligible in this experiment, but should become measurable in case of materials with high sputtering yields.

  10. Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: an atomic force microscope study.

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, D A; Smith, B L; Belcher, A M; Paloczi, G T; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    1997-01-01

    A family of soluble proteins from the shell of Haliotis rufescens was introduced over a growing calcite crystal being scanned in situ by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Atomic step edges on the crystal surface were altered in shape and speed of growth by the proteins. Proteins attached nonuniformly to the surface, indicating different interactions with crystallographically different step edges. The observed changes were consistent with the habit modification induced by this family of protei...

  11. Detection of magnetic-labeled antibody specific recognition events by combined atomic force and magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Xia; Liu Yanmei; Li Jun; Guo Wei; Bai Yubai

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were developed to detect biomolecular specific interaction. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) was covalently attached onto gold substrate modified by a self-assembly monolayer of thioctic acid via 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide (EDC) activation. Magnetic-labeled IgG then specifically adsorbed onto anti-IgG surface. The morphological variation was identified by AFM. MFM was proved to be a fine assistant tool to distinguish the immunorecognized nanocomposites from the impurities by detection of the magnetic signal from magnetic-labeled IgG. It would enhance the understanding of biomolecular recognition process.

  12. Detection of magnetic-labeled antibody specific recognition events by combined atomic force and magnetic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Xia [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)], E-mail: xiahong@nenu.edu.cn; Liu Yanmei; Li Jun; Guo Wei; Bai Yubai [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Atomic force (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were developed to detect biomolecular specific interaction. Goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (anti-IgG) was covalently attached onto gold substrate modified by a self-assembly monolayer of thioctic acid via 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] carbodiimide (EDC) activation. Magnetic-labeled IgG then specifically adsorbed onto anti-IgG surface. The morphological variation was identified by AFM. MFM was proved to be a fine assistant tool to distinguish the immunorecognized nanocomposites from the impurities by detection of the magnetic signal from magnetic-labeled IgG. It would enhance the understanding of biomolecular recognition process.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  14. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Thompson, Hugh P. G.; Day, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    An empirically parameterized intermolecular force field is developed for crystal structure modelling and prediction. The model is optimized for use with an atomic multipole description of electrostatic interactions. We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%

  15. Structure of ordered polyelectrolyte films from atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.V.; Tolstikhina, A.L.; Stepina, N.D.; Kayushina, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The possible application of atomic-force microscopy and X-ray reflectometry methods to structural studies of polyelectrolyte films obtained due to alternating adsorption of oppositely charged polyanion [sodium polysterenesulfonate (PSS)] and polycation [poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAA)] layers on solid substrates has been considered. The atomic-force microscopy study has revealed the characteristic features of the surface topography of samples consisting of different numbers of polyelectrolyte layers deposited from solutions characterized by different ionic strength values. It is shown that the shape of the reflectivity curves obtained from thin polyelectrolyte films depends on their surface structure

  16. Midinfrared absorption measured at a lambda/400 resolution with an atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houel, Julien; Homeyer, Estelle; Sauvage, Sébastien; Boucaud, Philippe; Dazzi, Alexandre; Prazeres, Rui; Ortéga, Jean-Michel

    2009-06-22

    Midinfrared absorption can be locally measured using a detection combining an atomic force microscope and a pulsed excitation. This is illustrated for the midinfrared bulk GaAs phonon absorption and for the midinfrared absorption of thin SiO(2) microdisks. We show that the signal given by the cantilever oscillation amplitude of the atomic force microscope follows the spectral dependence of the bulk material absorption. The absorption spatial resolution achieved with microdisks is around 50 nanometer for an optical excitation around 22 micrometer wavelength.

  17. Fabrication of wear-resistant silicon microprobe tips for high-speed surface roughness scanning devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Yu, Feng; Doering, Lutz; Völlmeke, Stefan; Brand, Uwe; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microprobe tips are fabricated and integrated with piezoresistive cantilever sensors for high-speed surface roughness scanning systems. The fabrication steps of the high-aspect-ratio silicon microprobe tips were started with photolithography and wet etching of potassium hydroxide (KOH) resulting in crystal-dependent micropyramids. Subsequently, thin conformal wear-resistant layer coating of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was demonstrated on the backside of the piezoresistive cantilever free end using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method in a binary reaction sequence with a low thermal process and precursors of trimethyl aluminum and water. The deposited Al2O3 layer had a thickness of 14 nm. The captured atomic force microscopy (AFM) image exhibits a root mean square deviation of 0.65 nm confirming the deposited Al2O3 surface quality. Furthermore, vacuum-evaporated 30-nm/200-nm-thick Au/Cr layers were patterned by lift-off and served as an etch mask for Al2O3 wet etching and in ICP cryogenic dry etching. By using SF6/O2 plasma during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, micropillar tips were obtained. From the preliminary friction and wear data, the developed silicon cantilever sensor has been successfully used in 100 fast measurements of 5- mm-long standard artifact surface with a speed of 15 mm/s and forces of 60-100 μN. Moreover, the results yielded by the fabricated silicon cantilever sensor are in very good agreement with those of calibrated profilometer. These tactile sensors are targeted for use in high-aspect-ratio microform metrology.

  18. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High speed operation of permanent magnet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman M.

    This work proposes methods to extend the high-speed operating capabilities of both the interior PM (IPM) and surface PM (SPM) machines. For interior PM machines, this research has developed and presented the first thorough analysis of how a new bi-state magnetic material can be usefully applied to the design of IPM machines. Key elements of this contribution include identifying how the unique properties of the bi-state magnetic material can be applied most effectively in the rotor design of an IPM machine by "unmagnetizing" the magnet cavity center posts rather than the outer bridges. The importance of elevated rotor speed in making the best use of the bi-state magnetic material while recognizing its limitations has been identified. For surface PM machines, this research has provided, for the first time, a clear explanation of how fractional-slot concentrated windings can be applied to SPM machines in order to achieve the necessary conditions for optimal flux weakening. A closed-form analytical procedure for analyzing SPM machines designed with concentrated windings has been developed. Guidelines for designing SPM machines using concentrated windings in order to achieve optimum flux weakening are provided. Analytical and numerical finite element analysis (FEA) results have provided promising evidence of the scalability of the concentrated winding technique with respect to the number of poles, machine aspect ratio, and output power rating. Useful comparisons between the predicted performance characteristics of SPM machines equipped with concentrated windings and both SPM and IPM machines designed with distributed windings are included. Analytical techniques have been used to evaluate the impact of the high pole number on various converter performance metrics. Both analytical techniques and FEA have been used for evaluating the eddy-current losses in the surface magnets due to the stator winding subharmonics. Techniques for reducing these losses have been

  20. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  1. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Melcher, John; Carrasco, Carolina; Xu, Xianfan; Carrascosa, Jose L; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Jose de Pablo, Pedro; Raman, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    We study the physical origins of phase contrast in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) in liquids where low-stiffness microcantilever probes are often used for nanoscale imaging of soft biological samples with gentle forces. Under these conditions, we show that the phase contrast derives primarily from a unique energy flow channel that opens up in liquids due to the momentary excitation of higher eigenmodes. Contrary to the common assumption, phase-contrast images in liquids using soft mic...

  2. Fluctuation-induced forces on an atom near a photonic topological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G.; Gangaraj, S. Ali Hassani; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study the Casimir-Polder force on an atom in an arbitrary initial state in a rather general electromagnetic environment wherein the materials may have a nonreciprocal bianisotropic dispersive response. It is shown that under the Markov approximation the force has resonant and nonresonant contributions. We obtain explicit expressions for the optical force both in terms of the system Green function and of the electromagnetic modes. We apply the theory to the particular case wherein a two-level system interacts with a topological gyrotropic material, showing that the nonreciprocity enables exotic light-matter interactions and the opportunity to sculpt and tune the Casimir-Polder forces on the nanoscale. With a quasistatic approximation, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the optical force and unveil the crucial role of surface plasmons in fluctuation-induced forces. Finally, we derive the Green function for a gyrotropic material half-space in terms of a Sommerfeld integral.

  3. A control approach to cross-coupling compensation of piezotube scanners in tapping-mode atomic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Shi, Jian; Su, Chanmin; Zou, Qingze

    2009-04-01

    In this article, an approach based on the recently developed inversion-based iterative control (IIC) to cancel the cross-axis coupling effect of piezoelectric tube scanners (piezoscanners) in tapping-mode atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging is proposed. Cross-axis coupling effect generally exists in piezoscanners used for three-dimensional (x-y-z axes) nanopositioning in applications such as AFM, where the vertical z-axis movement can be generated by the lateral x-y axes scanning. Such x/y-to-z cross-coupling becomes pronounced when the scanning is at large range and/or at high speed. In AFM applications, the coupling-caused position errors, when large, can generate various adverse effects, including large imaging and topography distortions, and damage of the cantilever probe and/or the sample. This paper utilizes the IIC technique to obtain the control input to precisely track the coupling-caused x/y-to-z displacement (with sign-flipped). Then the obtained input is augmented as a feedforward control to the existing feedback control in tapping-mode imaging, resulting in the cancellation of the coupling effect. The proposed approach is illustrated through two exemplary applications in industry, the pole-tip recession examination, and the nanoasperity measurement on hard-disk drive. Experimental results show that the x/y-to-z coupling effect in large-range (20 and 45 microm) tapping-mode imaging at both low to high scan rates (2, 12.2 to 24.4 Hz) can be effectively removed.

  4. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  5. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at a...

  6. A Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming

    OpenAIRE

    Zittel, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Historical Review of High Speed Metal Forming beginning with the first thought of forming metal by using an electromagnetic impulse to today, whereby High Speed Metal Forming is an accepted production process. Although this paper will briefly cover the basic physics of the process, it will not dwell on it. It will rather show how the industrial acceptance of High Speed Metal Forming is tightly connected to the knowledge acquired from many applications studies. These ...

  7. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  8. Robust state estimation for double pantographs with random missing measurements in high-speed railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaobing; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-01-01

    Active control of pantograph could be performed to decrease the fluctuation in pantograph-catenary contact force (PCCF) in high-speed railway. However, it is difficult to obtain the states of the pantograph when state feedback control is implemented. And the measurements may randomly miss due...

  9. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    Although atomic force microscopy (AFM) was rapidly adopted as a routine surface imaging apparatus after its introduction in 1986, it has not been widely used in catalysis research. The reason is that common AFM operating modes do not provide the atomic resolution required to follow catalytic processes; rather the more complex noncontact (NC) mode is needed. Thus, scanning tunneling microscopy has been the principal tool for atomic scale catalysis research. In this Account, recent developments in NC-AFM will be presented that offer significant advantages for gaining a complete atomic level view of catalysis. The main advantage of NC-AFM is that the image contrast is due to the very short-range chemical forces that are of interest in catalysis. This motivated our development of 3D-AFM, a method that yields quantitative atomic resolution images of the potential energy surfaces that govern how molecules approach, stick, diffuse, and rebound from surfaces. A variation of 3D-AFM allows the determination of forces required to push atoms and molecules on surfaces, from which diffusion barriers and variations in adsorption strength may be obtained. Pushing molecules towards each other provides access to intermolecular interaction between reaction partners. Following reaction, NC-AFM with CO-terminated tips yields textbook images of intramolecular structure that can be used to identify reaction intermediates and products. Because NC-AFM and STM contrast mechanisms are distinct, combining the two methods can produce unique insight. It is demonstrated for surface-oxidized Cu(100) that simultaneous 3D-AFM/STM yields resolution of both the Cu and O atoms. Moreover, atomic defects in the Cu sublattice lead to variations in the reactivity of the neighboring O atoms. It is shown that NC-AFM also allows a straightforward imaging of work function variations which has been used to identify defect charge states on catalytic surfaces and to map charge transfer within an individual

  10. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoof, Sebastian; Nand Gosvami, Nitya; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here, we show that a high-quality resonance (Q >20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity—as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient—is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Through the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up that includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and that can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  11. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  12. Determination of electrostatic force and its characteristics based on phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Cheng, Jia; Yao, Shiji; Lu, Yijia; Ji, Linhong; Xu, Dengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Electrostatic force measurement at the micro/nano scale is of great significance in science and engineering. In this paper, a reasonable way of applying voltage is put forward by taking an electrostatic chuck in a real integrated circuit manufacturing process as a sample, applying voltage in the probe and the sample electrode, respectively, and comparing the measurement effect of the probe oscillation phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. Based on the phase difference obtained from the experiment, the quantitative dependence of the absolute magnitude of the electrostatic force on the tip-sample distance and applied voltage is established by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that the varying characteristics of the electrostatic force with the distance and voltage at the micro/nano scale are similar to those at the macroscopic scale. Electrostatic force gradually decays with increasing distance. Electrostatic force is basically proportional to the square of applied voltage. Meanwhile, the applicable conditions of the above laws are discussed. In addition, a comparison of the results in this paper with the results of the energy dissipation method shows the two are consistent in general. The error decreases with increasing distance, and the effect of voltage on the error is small.

  13. Direct visualization of glutamate transporter elevator mechanism by high-speed AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yi; Miyagi, Atsushi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chami, Mohamed; Boudker, Olga; Scheuring, Simon

    2017-02-14

    Glutamate transporters are essential for recovery of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Crystal structures in the outward- and inward-facing conformations of a glutamate transporter homolog from archaebacterium Pyrococcus horikoshii , sodium/aspartate symporter Glt Ph , suggested the molecular basis of the transporter cycle. However, dynamic studies of the transport mechanism have been sparse and indirect. Here we present high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) observations of membrane-reconstituted Glt Ph at work. HS-AFM movies provide unprecedented real-space and real-time visualization of the transport dynamics. Our results show transport mediated by large amplitude 1.85-nm "elevator" movements of the transport domains consistent with previous crystallographic and spectroscopic studies. Elevator dynamics occur in the absence and presence of sodium ions and aspartate, but stall in sodium alone, providing a direct visualization of the ion and substrate symport mechanism. We show unambiguously that individual protomers within the trimeric transporter function fully independently.

  14. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  15. Mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials studied by contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Wagner; Robert J. Moon; Arvind Raman

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of cellulose nanomaterials is key to the development of new cellulose nanomaterial based products. Using contact resonance atomic force microscopy we measured and mapped the transverse elastic modulus of three types of cellulosic nanoparticles: tunicate cellulose nanocrystals, wood cellulose nanocrystals, and wood cellulose...

  16. Polarization contrast in photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Propstra, K.; Propstra, K.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Photon scanning tunnelling microscopy combined with atomic force microscopy allows simultaneous acquisition and direct comparison of optical and topographical images, both with a lateral resolution of about 30 nm, far beyond the optical diffraction limit. The probe consists of a modified

  17. Magni: A Python Package for Compressive Sampling and Reconstruction of Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Christian Schou; Pedersen, Patrick Steffen; Arildsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Magni is an open source Python package that embraces compressed sensing and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging techniques. It provides AFM-specific functionality for undersampling and reconstructing images from AFM equipment and thereby accelerating the acquisition of AFM images. Magni also pr...... as a convenient platform for researchers in compressed sensing aiming at obtaining a high degree of reproducibility of their research....

  18. Atomic force and scanning near-field optical microscopy study of carbocyanine dye J-aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokhorov, V.V.; Petrova, M.G.; Kovaleva, Natalia; Demikhov, E.I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2014), s. 700-704 ISSN 1573-4137 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbocyanine dye * elementary fibri * high-resolution atomic force microscopy * J-aggregate * probe microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.096, year: 2014

  19. Elastic-properties measurement at high temperatures through contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Carmignato, Simone

    2015-01-01

    fast direct and non-destructive measurement of Young's modulus and related surface parameters.In this work an instrument set up for Contact Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy is proposed, where the sample with is coupled to a heating stage and a piezoelectric transducer directly vibrate the cantilever...

  20. Langmuir- Blodgett layers of amphiphilic molecules investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdravkova, Aneliya Nikolova

    2007-01-01

    Langmuir - Blodgett technique and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to study the phase behaviour of organic molecules (fatty alcohols and monoacid saturated triglycerides) at air-water and air-solid interfaces. The structure of binary mixed LB monolayers of fatty alcohols was reported. The

  1. Presentation to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Air Force, June 14, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1962-10-01

    This volume contains the charts and backup material presented to the Atomic Energy Commission and Air Force on June 14, 1962 concerning General Electric's Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation (formerly the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department), during its work on the development of a nuclear power plant for manned aircraft.

  2. Probing Field Distributions on Waveguide Structures with an Atomic Force/Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonjen, E.G.; Borgonjen, E.G.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    A 'stand-alone' Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope combined with an Atomic force Microscope, using a micro-fabricated silicon-nitride probe, is applied to the imaging of field distribution in integrated optical ridge waveguides. The electric field on the waveguide is locally probed by coupling to

  3. Interaction potential and repulsive force between atoms whose internuclear separations are small

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, Jacques

    1971-01-01

    The Thomas-Fermi equation is solved for the homonuclear diatomic molecule. The electronic density and electrostatic potential at each point are used to calculate energies and interaction potentials for very small internuclear separation distances. The repulsive force between atoms is derived by means of the virial theorem. (author) [fr

  4. Characterization of polyethersulfone-polyimide hollow fiber membranes by atomic force microscopy and contact angle goniometery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khulbe, K.C.; Feng, C.; Matsuura, T.; Kapantaidakis, G.; Wessling, Matthias; Koops, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    Asymmetric blend polyethersulfone-polyimide (PES-PI) hollow fiber membranes prepared at different air gap and used for gas separation are characterized by atomic force microscopy (inside and out side surfaces) and by measuring the contact angle of out side surface. The outer surface was entirely

  5. Photolithographic Polymerization of Diacetylene-Containing Phospholipid Bilayers Studied by Multimode Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Schönherr, Holger; Frank, Curtis W.; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Photopolymerization of the diacetylene-containing phospholipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) in substrate-supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) has been studied by using multimode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayers and bilayers of 1 have been transferred onto

  6. A Cost-Effective Atomic Force Microscope for Undergraduate Control Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Goncalves, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, cost-effective and robust atomic force microscope (AFM), which has been purposely designed and built for use as a teaching aid in undergraduate controls labs. The guiding design principle is to have all components be open and visible to the students, so the inner functioning of the microscope has been made clear to…

  7. „New approaches to atomic force microscope lithography on silicon"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Rasmussen, Jan Pihl

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated new approaches to the formation of conducting nanowires on crystalline silicon surfaces using atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography. To increase processing speed and reduce wear of the AFM tip, large-scale structures are formed with a direct laser write setup, while the AFM...

  8. Molecular structure of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by atomic force microscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, X.; Kleijn, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on the air-water interface have been transferred at various surface pressures onto quartz substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The topography of these layers, on a molecular scale, has been examined by atomic force microscopy

  9. The use of atomic force microscopy to evaluate warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to examine the moisture susceptibility : and healing characteristics of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) and compare it with those of conventional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). To : this en...

  10. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological Systems ... Transcription and Disease Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 ...

  11. Convergent Inquiry in Science & Engineering: The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy in a Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a teaching method suitable for science high school students using atomic force microscopy. During their scientific inquiry procedure, high school students observed a micro-nanostructure of a biological sample, which is unobservable via an optical microscope. The developed teaching method enhanced students'…

  12. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  13. Nanocluster formation by spin coating : quantitative atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partridge, A.; Toussaint, S.L.G.; Flipse, C.F.J.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Oetelaar, van den L.C.A.

    1996-01-01

    A recently developed spin coating method has been employed to produce a homogeneous distribution of nanometer-sized metal clusters onto a flat oxidic support. The particle size and distribution, and the total amount of material deposited has been studied by comparing the results of atomic force

  14. Imaging modes of atomic force microscopy for application in molecular and cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufrêne, Yves F.; Ando, Toshio; Garcia, Ricardo; Alsteens, David; Martinez-Martin, David; Engel, A.H.; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful, multifunctional imaging platform that allows biological samples, from single molecules to living cells, to be visualized and manipulated. Soon after the instrument was invented, it was recognized that in order to maximize the opportunities of AFM

  15. Local detection of X-ray spectroscopies with an in-situ Atomic Force Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M S; Dhez, O; Denmat, S Le; Felici, R; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2008-01-01

    The in situ combination of Scanning Probe Microscopies with X-ray microbeams adds a variety of new possibilities to the panoply of synchrotron radiation techniques. This paper describes an optics-free Atomic Force Microscope that can be directly installed on most of the synchrotron radiation end-stations for combined X-ray and atomic force microscopy experiments. The instrument can be used for atomic force imaging of the investigated sample or to locally measure the X-ray absorption or diffraction, or it can also be used to mechanically interact with the sample while simultaneously taking spectroscopy or diffraction measurements. The local character of these measurements is intrinsically linked with the use of the Atomic Force Microscope tip. It is the sharp tip that gives the opportunity to measure the photons flux impinging on it, or to locally measure the absorption coefficient or the shape of the diffraction pattern. At the end an estimation of the limits of the various techniques presented is also discussed.

  16. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  17. Influence of atomic force microscope tip-sample interaction on the study of scaling behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aue, J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Images acquired with atomic force microscopy are based on tip-sample interaction. It is shown that using scanning probe techniques for determining scaling parameters of a surface leads to an underestimate of the actual scaling dimension, due to the dilation of tip and surface. How much we

  18. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Samuel D [Aiken, SC; Fondeur, Fernando F [North Augusta, SC

    2011-10-18

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  19. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale--reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use…

  20. Atomic force microscopy-based repeated machining theory for nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.Q., E-mail: wangzhiqian@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiao, N.D. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tung, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Dong, Z.L. [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based repeated nanomachining of nanochannels on silicon oxide surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The relationships of the initial nanochannel depth vs. final nanochannel depth at a normal force are systematically studied. Using the derived theory and simulation results, the final nanochannel depth can be predicted easily. Meanwhile, if a nanochannel with an expected depth needs to be machined, a right normal force can be selected simply and easily in order to decrease the wear of the AFM tip. The theoretical analysis and simulation results can be effectively used for AFM-based fabrication of nanochannels.

  1. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  2. Chaotic Dynamics of Cage Behavior in a High-Speed Cylindrical Roller Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to investigate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of cage in high-speed cylindrical bearing. Variations of cage behavior due to varying cage eccentricity and cage guidance gap are observed. Hydrodynamic behavior in cage contacts is taken into consideration for a more realistic calculation of acting forces owing to high working speed. Analysis of real-time cage dynamic behavior on radial plane is carried out using chaos theory based on the theoretical and mathematical model established in the paper. The analytical results of this paper provide a solid foundation for designing and manufacturing of high-speed cylindrical roller bearing.

  3. Sphinx, the high speed flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Sphinx (Nanosecond Pulse X-Photon Source) is the most compact (0.1 m 3 ) existing system which can generates short pulses (10 to 30 nanoseconds) of 5 to 180 keV X-photon radiation with a repeating cadence of 100 pulses per second and doses which can reach 2 mR at 1 m. This system was developed by the Research Group on Energetics of Ionized Media (GREMI) from the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) and the University of Orleans (France). Sphinx is the smallest device from a series of compact X-ray sources ranging from 5 to 400 keV. These devices can have several possible applications such as the study of ultra-fast phenomena, the high cadence flash radiography in medicine, biology, materials studies, pre-ionizing of gas lasers, self-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms, molecules or aggregates. (J.S.)

  4. Studying the Adhesion Force and Glass Transition of Thin Polystyrene Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Hua; Qian, Xiaoqin; Guan, Li

    2018-01-01

    microscopy (AFM)-based forcedistance curve to study the relaxation dynamics and the film thickness dependence of glass transition temperature (T-g) for normal thin polystyrene (PS) films supported on silicon substrate. The adhesion force (F-ad) between AFM tip and normal thin PS film surfaces...

  5. Novel operation mode for eliminating influence of inclination angle and friction in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yueyu; Zhou, Faquan; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of topography imaging in contact force mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) depends on the one-to-one corresponding relationship between the cantilever deflection and the tip-sample distance, whereas such a relationship cannot be always achieved in the presence of friction and incline angle of sample surface. Recently, we have developed a novel operation mode in which we keep the van der Waals force as constant instead of the applied normal force, to eliminate the effect of inclination angle and friction on topography imaging in the contact force mode. We have improved our AFM to enable the new operation mode for validation. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results have shown that the effect of friction and inclination angle on topography imaging in contact mode of AFM can be eliminated or at least decreased effectively by working in the new operation mode we present.

  6. Nanoscale investigation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formed on porous silicon using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ashwin; Karumanchi, Subbalakshmi Latha; Krishna, Vinatha; Thiruvengadam, Kothai; Ramalingam, Subramaniam; Gautam, Pennathur

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of surfaces by bacterial cells results in the formation of biofilms. There is a need to study the factors that are important for formation of biofilms since biofilms have been implicated in the failure of semiconductor devices and implants. In the present study, the adhesion force of biofilms (formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa) on porous silicon substrates of varying surface roughness was quantified using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experiments were carried out to quantify the effect of surface roughness on the adhesion force of biofilm. The results show that the adhesion force increased from 1.5 ± 0.5 to 13.2 ± 0.9 nN with increase in the surface roughness of silicon substrate. The results suggest that the adhesion force of biofilm is affected by surface roughness of substrate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  8. VEDA: a web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  9. Invited Article: VEDA: A web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  10. Theoretical atomic-force-microscopy study of a stepped surface: Nonlocal effects in the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, C.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction force between a metallic tip and a nonplanar dielectric surface is derived from a nonlocal formalism. A general formulation is given for the case of a spherical tip of nanometer size and for surfaces of arbitrary shapes (stepped surfaces and single crystals adsorbed on a planar surface). The dispersion part of the attractive force is obtained from a nonlocal theory expressed in terms of generalized electric susceptibilities of the two constituents. Implications for atomic force microscopy in attractive modes are discussed. In this context, the present model indicates two different forms of corrugation: those due to the protuberance present on the tip leading to atomic corrugations; nanometer-sized corrugations detected in the attractive region by the spherical part of the tip

  11. Quantitative measurement of solvation shells using frequency modulated atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, T.; Higgins, M.; Nakayama, Y.; Sader, J. E.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2005-03-01

    The nanoscale specificity of interaction measurements and additional imaging capability of the atomic force microscope make it an ideal technique for measuring solvation shells in a variety of liquids next to a range of materials. Unfortunately, the widespread use of atomic force microscopy for the measurement of solvation shells has been limited by uncertainties over the dimensions, composition and durability of the tip during the measurements, and problems associated with quantitative force calibration of the most sensitive dynamic measurement techniques. We address both these issues by the combined use of carbon nanotube high aspect ratio probes and quantifying the highly sensitive frequency modulation (FM) detection technique using a recently developed analytical method. Due to the excellent reproducibility of the measurement technique, additional information regarding solvation shell size as a function of proximity to the surface has been obtained for two very different liquids. Further, it has been possible to identify differences between chemical and geometrical effects in the chosen systems.

  12. Simulations of High Speed Fragment Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Attaway, Stephen; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Fisher, Travis

    2017-11-01

    Flying shrapnel from an explosion are capable of traveling at supersonic speeds and distances much farther than expected due to aerodynamic interactions. Predicting the trajectories and stable tumbling modes of arbitrary shaped fragments is a fundamental problem applicable to range safety calculations, damage assessment, and military technology. Traditional approaches rely on characterizing fragment flight using a single drag coefficient, which may be inaccurate for fragments with large aspect ratios. In our work we develop a procedure to simulate trajectories of arbitrary shaped fragments with higher fidelity using high performance computing. We employ a two-step approach in which the force and moment coefficients are first computed as a function of orientation using compressible computational fluid dynamics. The force and moment data are then input into a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body dynamics solver to integrate trajectories in time. Results of these high fidelity simulations allow us to further understand the flight dynamics and tumbling modes of a single fragment. Furthermore, we use these results to determine the validity and uncertainty of inexpensive methods such as the single drag coefficient model.

  13. Observer Based Traction/Braking Control Design for High Speed Trains Considering Adhesion Nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Wenchuan; Liao, Wenhao; Li, Danyong; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    Train traction/braking control, one of the key enabling technologies for automatic train operation, literally takes its action through adhesion force. However, adhesion coefficient of high speed train (HST) is uncertain in general because it varies with wheel-rail surface condition and running speed; thus, it is extremely difficult to be measured, which makes traction/braking control design and implementation of HSTs greatly challenging. In this work, force observers are applied to estimate t...

  14. High-speed noise-free optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, K. T.; Ledingham, P. M.; Brecht, B.; Thomas, S. E.; Thekkadath, G. S.; Lazo-Arjona, O.; Munns, J. H. D.; Poem, E.; Feizpour, A.; Saunders, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    Optical quantum memories are devices that store and recall quantum light and are vital to the realization of future photonic quantum networks. To date, much effort has been put into improving storage times and efficiencies of such devices to enable long-distance communications. However, less attention has been devoted to building quantum memories which add zero noise to the output. Even small additional noise can render the memory classical by destroying the fragile quantum signatures of the stored light. Therefore, noise performance is a critical parameter for all quantum memories. Here we introduce an intrinsically noise-free quantum memory protocol based on two-photon off-resonant cascaded absorption (ORCA). We demonstrate successful storage of GHz-bandwidth heralded single photons in a warm atomic vapor with no added noise, confirmed by the unaltered photon-number statistics upon recall. Our ORCA memory meets the stringent noise requirements for quantum memories while combining high-speed and room-temperature operation with technical simplicity, and therefore is immediately applicable to low-latency quantum networks.

  15. A high-speed interface for multi-channel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Zheng Zhong; Qiao Chong; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Ye Zhenyu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a high-speed computer interface for multi-channel analyzer based on DMA technique. Its essential principle and operating procedure are introduced. By the detecting of γ spectrum of 137 Cs with the interface, it's proved that the interface can meet the requirements of high-speed data acquisition

  16. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  17. High-Speed Photo-Polarimetry of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Potter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I review recent highlights of the SAAO High-speed Photo-POlarimeter (HIPPO on the study of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables. Its high-speed capabilities are demonstrated with example observations made of the intermediate polar NY Lup and the polar IGRJ14536-5522.

  18. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a) Operating...

  19. Exact expressions for colloidal plane-particle interaction forces and energies with applications to atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zypman, F R

    2006-01-01

    We begin by deriving a general useful theoretical relationship between the plane-particle interaction forces in solution, and the corresponding plane-plane interaction energies. This is the main result of the paper. It provides a simple tool to obtain closed-form particle-plane forces from knowledge of plane-plane interaction energies. To illustrate the simplicity of use of this general formalism, we apply it to find particle-plane interactions within the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) framework. Specifically, we obtain analytical expressions for forces and interaction energies in the van der Waals and the electrical double layer cases. The van der Waals expression is calculated here for benchmarking purposes and is compared with well-established expressions from Hamaker theory. The interactions for the electric double layer situation are computed in two cases: the linear superposition approximation and the constant surface potential. In both cases, our closed-form expressions were compared with existent numerical results. We also use the main result of this paper to generate an analytical force-separation expression based on atomic force microscope experiments for a tip and surface immersed in an aqueous solution, and compare it with the corresponding numerical results. Finally, based on our main result, we generalize the Derjaguin approximation by calculating the next order of approximation, thus obtaining a formula valuable for colloidal interaction estimations

  20. The effect of drive frequency and set point amplitude on tapping forces in atomic force microscopy: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legleiter, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), a sharp probe tip attached to an oscillating cantilever is allowed to intermittently strike a surface. By raster scanning the probe while monitoring the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever via a feedback loop, topographical maps of surfaces with nanoscale resolution can be acquired. While numerous studies have employed numerical simulations to elucidate the time-resolved tapping force between the probe tip and surface, until recent technique developments, specific read-outs from such models could not be experimentally verified. In this study, we explore, via numerical simulation, the impact of imaging parameters, i.e. set point ratio and drive frequency as a function of resonance, on time-varying tip-sample force interactions, which are directly compared to reconstructed tapping forces from real AFM experiments. As the AFM model contains a feedback loop allowing for the simulation of the entire scanning process, we further explore the impact that various tip-sample force have on the entire imaging process.

  1. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Investigating biomolecular recognition at the cell surface using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2014-05-01

    Probing the interaction forces that drive biomolecular recognition on cell surfaces is essential for understanding diverse biological processes. Force spectroscopy has been a widely used dynamic analytical technique, allowing measurement of such interactions at the molecular and cellular level. The capabilities of working under near physiological environments, combined with excellent force and lateral resolution make atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy a powerful approach to measure biomolecular interaction forces not only on non-biological substrates, but also on soft, dynamic cell surfaces. Over the last few years, AFM-based force spectroscopy has provided biophysical insight into how biomolecules on cell surfaces interact with each other and induce relevant biological processes. In this review, we focus on describing the technique of force spectroscopy using the AFM, specifically in the context of probing cell surfaces. We summarize recent progress in understanding the recognition and interactions between macromolecules that may be found at cell surfaces from a force spectroscopy perspective. We further discuss the challenges and future prospects of the application of this versatile technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of specific interactions between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yao, Zhixuan; Duan, Yanting; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2018-01-11

    The specific recognition and binding of promoter and RNA polymerase is the first step of transcription initiation in bacteria and largely determines transcription activity. Therefore, direct analysis of the interaction between promoter and RNA polymerase in vitro may be a new strategy for promoter characterization, to avoid interference due to the cell's biophysical condition and other regulatory elements. In the present study, the specific interaction between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase was studied as a model system using force spectroscopy based on atomic force microscope (AFM). The specific interaction between T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase was verified by control experiments, and the rupture force in this system was measured as 307.2 ± 6.7 pN. The binding between T7 promoter mutants with various promoter activities and T7 RNA polymerase was analyzed. Interaction information including rupture force, rupture distance and binding percentage were obtained in vitro , and reporter gene expression regulated by these promoters was also measured according to a traditional promoter activity characterization method in vivo Using correlation analysis, it was found that the promoter strength characterized by reporter gene expression was closely correlated with rupture force and the binding percentage by force spectroscopy. These results indicated that the analysis of the interaction between promoter and RNA polymerase using AFM-based force spectroscopy was an effective and valid approach for the quantitative characterization of promoters. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Examining the origins of the hydration force between lipid bilayers using all-atom simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilcore, Anastasia N; Michaud-Agrawal, Naveen; Crozier, Paul S; Stevens, Mark J; Woolf, Thomas B

    2010-05-01

    Using 237 all-atom double bilayer simulations, we examined the thermodynamic and structural changes that occur as a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer stack is dehydrated. The simulated system represents a micropatch of lipid multilayer systems that are studied experimentally using surface force apparatus, atomic force microscopy and osmotic pressure studies. In these experiments, the hydration level of the system is varied, changing the separation between the bilayers, in order to understand the forces that the bilayers feel as they are brought together. These studies have found a curious, strongly repulsive force when the bilayers are very close to each other, which has been termed the "hydration force," though the origins of this force are not clearly understood. We computationally reproduce this repulsive, relatively free energy change as bilayers come together and make qualitative conclusions as to the enthalpic and entropic origins of the free energy change. This analysis is supported by data showing structural changes in the waters, lipids and salts that have also been seen in experimental work. Increases in solvent ordering as the bilayers are dehydrated are found to be essential in causing the repulsion as the bilayers come together.

  5. Electrical characterization of grain boundaries of CZTS thin films using conductive atomic force microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhunthan, N.; Singh, Om Pal [Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, New Delhi 110012 (India); Toutam, Vijaykumar, E-mail: toutamvk@nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, V.N., E-mail: singhvn@nplindia.org [Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Experimental setup for conducting AFM (C-AFM). - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin film was grown by reactive co-sputtering. • The electronic properties were probed using conducting atomic force microscope, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. • C-AFM current flow mainly through grain boundaries rather than grain interiors. • SKPM indicated higher potential along the GBs compared to grain interiors. • The SCM explains that charge separation takes place at the interface of grain and grain boundary. - Abstract: Electrical characterization of grain boundaries (GB) of Cu-deficient CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) thin films was done using atomic force microscopic (AFM) techniques like Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Absorbance spectroscopy was done for optical band gap calculations and Raman, XRD and EDS for structural and compositional characterization. Hall measurements were done for estimation of carrier mobility. CAFM and KPFM measurements showed that the currents flow mainly through grain boundaries (GB) rather than grain interiors. SCM results showed that charge separation mainly occurs at the interface of grain and grain boundaries and not all along the grain boundaries.

  6. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Takashi, E-mail: sakuma@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Xianglian [College of Physics and Electronics Information, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Takahashi, Haruyuki [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan); Basar, Khairul [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Igawa, Naoki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Danilkin, Sergey A. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10 K and 295 K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295 K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  7. Derivation of Inter-Atomic Force Constants of Cu2O from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makhsun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron scattering intensity from Cu2O compound has been measured at 10 K and 295 K with High Resolution Powder Diffractometer at JRR-3 JAEA. The oscillatory diffuse scattering related to correlations among thermal displacements of atoms was observed at 295 K. The correlation parameters were determined from the observed diffuse scattering intensity at 10 and 295 K. The force constants between the neighboring atoms in Cu2O were estimated from the correlation parameters and compared to those of Ag2O

  8. High speed friction microscopy and nanoscale friction coefficient mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, James L; Lee, Sungjun; Huey, Bryan D; Andersen, Andreas Sø; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2014-01-01

    As mechanical devices in the nano/micro length scale are increasingly employed, it is crucial to understand nanoscale friction and wear especially at technically relevant sliding velocities. Accordingly, a novel technique has been developed for friction coefficient mapping (FCM), leveraging recent advances in high speed AFM. The technique efficiently acquires friction versus force curves based on a sequence of images at a single location, each with incrementally lower loads. As a result, true maps of the coefficient of friction can be uniquely calculated for heterogeneous surfaces. These parameters are determined at a scan velocity as fast as 2 mm s −1 for microfabricated SiO 2 mesas and Au coated pits, yielding results that are identical to traditional speed measurements despite being ∼1000 times faster. To demonstrate the upper limit of sliding velocity for the custom setup, the friction properties of mica are reported from 200 µm s −1 up to 2 cm s −1 . While FCM is applicable to any AFM and scanning speed, quantitative nanotribology investigations of heterogeneous sliding or rolling components are therefore uniquely possible, even at realistic velocities for devices such as MEMS, biological implants, or data storage systems. (paper)

  9. Super high-speed magnetically levitated system approaches practical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Shoji; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Takemasa, Hisashi

    1988-10-01

    The JR-MAGLEV, a super high-speed magnetically levitated system, has been under development since the inauguration with the manufacturing of a succession of trial vehicles. In 1987, the trial vehicle recorded a speed of 400 km/hr as a 2-car formation with passengers. As a participant in the Maglev project, Toshiba has been contributing to the development of superconducting magnets, the main element of the system, as well as auxiliary power sources and the cycloconverter to be used in the substations. A prototype vehicle for commercial service, MLU 002, was manufactured in March 1988 and is now under testing with the aim of achieving a target speed of 420km/hr. The main parameters of superconducting magnet are as follows; magnetomotive force of 700 kA and number of coils of 3 poles/2 trains/ 2 cars, and the magnets are light weight which is almost the limits with the weight ratio to rolling stock of 0.25. As measures to protect vaporization loss of helium for coil-cooling, a relicfaction process of the helium vapor by use of Claude cycle refrigerator was adopted. A circulating current cycloconverter with 16 MVA was developed for the travel motion. The cycloconverter enabled to receive power directly from an electric power company, the output current becomes complete sine wave, and the problems on traveling control were solved. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Automated setpoint adjustment for biological contact mode atomic force microscopy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casuso, Ignacio; Scheuring, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most frequently used AFM imaging mode in biology. It is about 5-10 times faster than oscillating mode imaging (in conventional AFM setups), and provides topographs of biological samples with sub-molecular resolution and at a high signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, contact mode imaging is sensitive to the applied force and intrinsic force drift: inappropriate force applied by the AFM tip damages the soft biological samples. We present a methodology that automatically searches for and maintains high resolution imaging forces. We found that the vertical and lateral vibrations of the probe during scanning are valuable signals for the characterization of the actual applied force by the tip. This allows automated adjustment and correction of the setpoint force during an experiment. A system that permanently performs this methodology steered the AFM towards high resolution imaging forces and imaged purple membrane at molecular resolution and live cells at high signal-to-noise ratio for hours without an operator.

  11. Synchronizing atomic force microscopy force mode and fluorescence microscopy in real time for immune cell stimulation and activation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaux, Séverine; Sadoun, Anaïs; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Martinez, Manuel; Obeid, Sameh [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); Bongrand, Pierre [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); APHM, Hôpital de la Conception, Laboratoire d’Immunologie, Marseille F-13385 (France); Limozin, Laurent [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France); Puech, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: pierre-henri.puech@inserm.fr [Aix Marseille Université, LAI UM 61, Marseille F-13288 (France); Inserm, UMR-S 1067, Marseille F-13288 (France); CNRS, UMR 7333, Marseille F-13288 (France)

    2016-01-15

    A method is presented for combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) force mode and fluorescence microscopy in order to (a) mechanically stimulate immune cells while recording the subsequent activation under the form of calcium pulses, and (b) observe the mechanical response of a cell upon photoactivation of a small G protein, namely Rac. Using commercial set-ups and a robust signal coupling the fluorescence excitation light and the cantilever bending, the applied force and activation signals were very easily synchronized. This approach allows to control the entire mechanical history of a single cell up to its activation and response down to a few hundreds of milliseconds, and can be extended with very minimal adaptations to other cellular systems where mechanotransduction is studied, using either purely mechanical stimuli or via a surface bound specific ligand. - Highlights: • A signal coupling AFM and fluorescence microscopy was characterized for soft cantilevers. • It can be used as an intrinsic timer to synchronize images and forces. • Mechanical stimulation of single immune cells while recording calcium fluxes was detailed. • Light-induced mechanical modifications of lymphocytes using a PA-Rac protein were demonstrated. • The precautions and limitations of use of this effect were presented.

  12. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  13. Accurate spring constant calibration for very stiff atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T. [Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Gates, Richard S.; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Smith, Douglas T.; Cook, Robert F. [Nanomechanical Properties Group, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    There are many atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications that rely on quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The AFM does not explicitly measure force, however, so in such cases knowledge of the cantilever stiffness is required. In most cases, the forces of interest are very small, thus compliant cantilevers are used. A number of methods have been developed that are well suited to measuring low stiffness values. However, in some cases a cantilever with much greater stiffness is required. Thus, a direct, traceable method for calibrating very stiff (approximately 200 N/m) cantilevers is presented here. The method uses an instrumented and calibrated nanoindenter to determine the stiffness of a reference cantilever. This reference cantilever is then used to measure the stiffness of a number of AFM test cantilevers. This method is shown to have much smaller uncertainty than previously proposed methods. An example application to fracture testing of nanoscale silicon beam specimens is included.

  14. Accurate spring constant calibration for very stiff atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T.; Gates, Richard S.; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Smith, Douglas T.; Cook, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    There are many atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications that rely on quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The AFM does not explicitly measure force, however, so in such cases knowledge of the cantilever stiffness is required. In most cases, the forces of interest are very small, thus compliant cantilevers are used. A number of methods have been developed that are well suited to measuring low stiffness values. However, in some cases a cantilever with much greater stiffness is required. Thus, a direct, traceable method for calibrating very stiff (approximately 200 N/m) cantilevers is presented here. The method uses an instrumented and calibrated nanoindenter to determine the stiffness of a reference cantilever. This reference cantilever is then used to measure the stiffness of a number of AFM test cantilevers. This method is shown to have much smaller uncertainty than previously proposed methods. An example application to fracture testing of nanoscale silicon beam specimens is included

  15. The use of high-speed imaging in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H.; McNamara, G.; Rayner, J.

    2017-02-01

    Recent improvements in camera technology and the associated improved access to high-speed camera equipment have made it possible to use high-speed imaging not only in a research environment but also specifically for educational purposes. This includes high-speed sequences that are created both with and for a target audience of students in high schools and universities. The primary goal is to engage students in scientific exploration by providing them with a tool that allows them to see and measure otherwise inaccessible phenomena. High-speed imaging has the potential to stimulate students' curiosity as the results are often surprising or may contradict initial assumptions. "Live" demonstrations in class or student- run experiments are highly suitable to have a profound influence on student learning. Another aspect is the production of high-speed images for demonstration purposes. While some of the approaches known from the application of high speed imaging in a research environment can simply be transferred, additional techniques must often be developed to make the results more easily accessible for the targeted audience. This paper describes a range of student-centered activities that can be undertaken which demonstrate how student engagement and learning can be enhanced through the use of high speed imaging using readily available technologies.

  16. Influence of Poisson's ratio variation on lateral spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M.-K.; Tai, N.-Ha; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to measure the surface morphologies and the mechanical properties of nanostructures. The force acting on the AFM cantilever can be obtained by multiplying the spring constant of AFM cantilever and the corresponding deformation. To improve the accuracy of force experiments, the spring constant of AFM cantilever must be calibrated carefully. Many methods, such as theoretical equations, the finite element method, and the use of reference cantilever, were reported to obtain the spring constant of AFM cantilevers. For the cantilever made of single crystal, the Poisson's ratio varies with different cantilever-crystal angles. In this paper, the influences of Poisson's ratio variation on the lateral spring constant and axial spring constant of rectangular and V-shaped AFM cantilevers, with different tilt angles and normal forces, were investigated by the finite element analysis. When the cantilever's tilt angle is 20 deg. and the Poisson's ratio varies from 0.02 to 0.4, the finite element results show that the lateral spring constants decrease 11.75% for the rectangular cantilever with 1 μN landing force and decrease 18.60% for the V-shaped cantilever with 50 nN landing force, respectively. The influence of Poisson's ratio variation on axial spring constant is less than 3% for both rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers. As the tilt angle increases, the axial spring constants for rectangular and V-shaped cantilevers decrease substantially. The results obtained can be used to improve the accuracy of the lateral force measurement when using atomic force microscopy

  17. Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison

  18. Probing the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingyu; Qian, Yong, E-mail: qianyong86@163.com; Deng, Yonghong; Liu, Di; Li, Hao; Qiu, Xueqing, E-mail: xueqingqiu66@163.com

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are quantitatively probed by atomic force microscopy, which is fundamental but beneficial for understanding and optimizing the absorption-dispersion and catalytic degradation processes of lignin. - Highlights: • The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are measured using AFM. • The adhesion forces between lignin and metal oxides are larger than that in nonmetal systems. • Hydrogen bond plays an important role in lignin-inorganic oxides system. - Abstract: Understanding the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides has both fundamental and practical importance in industrial and energy fields. In this work, the specific interactions between alkali lignin (AL) and three inorganic oxide substrates in aqueous environment are quantitatively measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the average adhesion force between AL and metal oxide such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO is nearly two times bigger than that between AL and nonmetal oxide such as SiO{sub 2} due to the electrostatic difference and cation-π interaction. When 83% hydroxyl groups of AL is blocked by acetylation, the adhesion forces between AL and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and SiO{sub 2} decrease 43, 35 and 75% respectively, which indicate hydrogen bonds play an important role between AL and inorganic oxides, especially in AL-silica system.

  19. [Comparison of cell elasticity analysis methods based on atomic force microscopy indentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Hao, Fengtao; Chen, Xiaohu; Yang, Zhouqi; Ding, Chong; Shang, Peng

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate in greater detail the two methods based on Hertz model for analyzing force-distance curve obtained by atomic force microscopy, we acquired the force-distance curves of Hela and MCF-7 cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation in this study. After the determination of contact point, Young's modulus in different indentation depth were calculated with two analysis methods of "two point" and "slope fitting". The results showed that the Young's modulus of Hela cell was higher than that of MCF-7 cell,which is in accordance with the F-actin distribution of the two types of cell. We found that the Young's modulus of the cells was decreased with increasing indentation depth and the curve trends by "slope fitting". This indicated that the "slope fitting" method could reduce the error caused by the miscalculation of contact point. The purpose of this study was to provide a guidance for researcher to choose an appropriate method for analyzing AFM indentation force-distance curve.

  20. Competition of elastic and adhesive properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Marsaudon, Sophie; Boisgard, Rodolphe; Aime, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we address the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips in a detailed analysis of experimental results and exhaustive description of a simple model. We show that volume elastic and surface adhesive forces both contribute to the dynamical AFM experimental signals. Their respective weights depend on the nanotube properties and on an experimental parameter: the oscillation amplitude. To quantify the elastic and adhesive contributions, a simple analytical model is used. It enables analytical expressions of the resonance frequency shift and dissipation that can be measured in the atomic force microscopy dynamical frequency modulation mode. It includes the nanotube adhesive contribution to the frequency shift. Experimental data for single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes compare well to the model predictions for different oscillation amplitudes. Three parameters can be extracted: the distance necessary to unstick the nanotube from the surface and two spring constants corresponding to tube compression and to the elastic force required to overcome the adhesion force

  1. Free-standing biomimetic polymer membrane imaged with atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Christian; Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Fluid polymeric biomimetic membranes are probed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using probes with both normal tetrahedrally shaped tips and nanoneedle-shaped Ag2Ga rods. When using nanoneedle probes, the collected force volume data show three distinct membrane regions which match the expected...... membrane structure when spanning an aperture in a hydrophobic scaffold. The method used provides a general method for mapping attractive fluid surfaces. In particular, the nanoneedle probing allows for characterization of free-standing biomimetic membranes with thickness on the nanometer scale suspended...... over 300-μm-wide apertures, where the membranes are stable toward hundreds of nanoindentations without breakage. © 2010 American Chemical Society....

  2. Robust operation and performance of integrated carbon nanotubes atomic force microscopy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rius, G; Clark, I T; Yoshimura, M

    2013-01-01

    We present a complete characterization of carbon nanotubes-atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM) probes to evaluate the cantilever operation and advanced properties originating from the CNTs. The fabrication consists of silicon probes tip-functionalized with multiwalled CNTs by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A dedicated methodology has been defined to evaluate the effect of CNT integration into the Si cantilevers. The presence of the CNTs provides enhanced capability for sensing and durability, as demonstrated using dynamic and static modes, e.g. imaging, indentation and force/current characterization.

  3. Communication: atomic force detection of single-molecule nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Prasoon; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-04-28

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows for a highly sensitive detection of spectroscopic signals. This has been first demonstrated for NMR of a single molecule and recently extended to stimulated Raman in the optical regime. We theoretically investigate the use of optical forces to detect time and frequency domain nonlinear optical signals. We show that, with proper phase matching, the AFM-detected signals closely resemble coherent heterodyne-detected signals. Applications are made to AFM-detected and heterodyne-detected vibrational resonances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (χ((3))) and sum or difference frequency generation (χ((2))).

  4. Artifact-free dynamic atomic force microscopy reveals monotonic dissipation for a simple confined liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaggwa, G. B.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Sader, J. E.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2008-07-01

    We present definitive interaction measurements of a simple confined liquid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) using artifact-free frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. We use existing theory to decouple the conservative and dissipative components of the interaction, for a known phase offset from resonance (90° phase shift), that has been deliberately introduced into the experiment. Further we show the qualitative influence on the conservative and dissipative components of the interaction of a phase error deliberately introduced into the measurement, highlighting that artifacts, such as oscillatory dissipation, can be readily observed when the phase error is not compensated for in the force analysis.

  5. Deflection-voltage curve modelling in atomic force microscopy and its use in DC electrostatic manipulation of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toset, J; Casuso, I; Samitier, J; Gomila, G [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-CREBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-10

    A model of deflection-voltage curves in atomic force microscopy and its use in DC electrostatic nanomanipulation experiments are presented. The proposed model predicts the deflection of the atomic force microscope probe as a function of the applied probe-substrate voltage, as well as the distance and voltage at which the tip collapses irreversibly onto the substrate due to electrostatic forces. The model is verified experimentally and its use in DC electrostatic manipulation of 25 nm radius gold nanoparticles is demonstrated.

  6. Research on Aerodynamic Noise Reduction for High-Speed Trains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yadong; Zhang, Jiye; Li, Tian; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    A broadband noise source model based on Lighthill’s acoustic theory was used to perform numerical simulations of the aerodynamic noise sources for a high-speed train. The near-field unsteady flow around a high-speed train was analysed based on a delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) using the finite volume method with high-order difference schemes. The far-field aerodynamic noise from a high-speed train was predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)/Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H)...

  7. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  8. Trend on High-speed Power Line Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Osamu

    High-speed power line communication (PLC) is useful technology to easily build the communication networks, because construction of new infrastructure is not necessary. In Europe and America, PLC has been used for broadband networks since the beginning of 21th century. In Japan, high-speed PLC was deregulated only indoor usage in 2006. Afterward it has been widely used for home area network, LAN in hotels and school buildings and so on. And recently, PLC is greatly concerned as communication technology for smart grid network. In this paper, the author surveys the high-speed PLC technology and its current status.

  9. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J

    2008-09-01

    The structure and surface chemistry of soil particles has extensive impact on many bulk scale properties and processes of soil systems and consequently the environments that they support. There are a number of physiochemical mechanisms that operate at the nanoscale which affect the soil's capability to maintain native vegetation and crops; this includes soil hydrophobicity and the soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients. The present study used atomic force microscopy in a novel approach to provide unique insight into the nanoscale properties of natural soil particles that control the physiochemical interaction of material within the soil column. There have been few atomic force microscopy studies of soil, perhaps a reflection of the heterogeneous nature of the system. The present study adopted an imaging and force measurement research strategy that accounted for the heterogeneity and used model systems to aid interpretation. The surface roughness of natural soil particles increased with depth in the soil column a consequence of the attachment of organic material within the crevices of the soil particles. The roughness root mean square calculated from ten 25 microm(2) images for five different soil particles from a Netherlands soil was 53.0 nm, 68.0 nm, 92.2 nm and 106.4 nm for the respective soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. A novel analysis method of atomic force microscopy phase images based on phase angle distribution across a surface was used to interpret the nanoscale distribution of organic material attached to natural and model soil particles. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of model surfaces were found to be bimodal, indicating multiple layers of material, which changed with the concentration of adsorbed humic acid. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of natural soil particles indicated a trend of decreasing surface coverage with increasing depth in the soil column. This was consistent with

  10. Single molecule imaging of RNA polymerase II using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Fu Jianhua; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the shape, orientation and surface topology of RNA polymerase II supported on silanized freshly cleaved mica was made. The overall aim is to define the molecular topology of RNA polymerase II in appropriate fluids to help clarify the relationship of conformational features to biofunctionality. A Nanoscope III atomic force microscope was used in the tapping mode with oxide-sharpened (8-10 nm) Si 3 N 4 probes in aqueous zinc chloride buffer. The main structural features observed by AFM were compared to those derived from electron-density plots based on X-ray crystallographic studies. The conformational features included a bilobal silhouette with an inverted umbrella-shaped crater connected to a reaction site. These studies provide a starting point for constructing a 3D-AFM profiling analysis of proteins such as RNA polymerase complexes

  11. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  12. A novel self-sensing technique for tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Michael G.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza [The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    This work proposes a novel self-sensing tapping-mode atomic force microscopy operation utilizing charge measurement. A microcantilever coated with a single piezoelectric layer is simultaneously used for actuation and deflection sensing. The cantilever can be batch fabricated with existing micro electro mechanical system processes. The setup enables the omission of the optical beam deflection technique which is commonly used to measure the cantilever oscillation amplitude. Due to the high amount of capacitive feedthrough in the measured charge signal, a feedforward control technique is employed to increase the dynamic range from less than 1 dB to approximately 35 dB. Experiments show that the conditioned charge signal achieves excellent signal-to-noise ratio and can therefore be used as a feedback signal for atomic force microscopy imaging.

  13. Atomic force microscopy imaging to measure precipitate volume fraction in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhettar, A.; Troyon, M.; Hazotte, A.

    1995-01-01

    In nickel-based superalloys, quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscopy images fails in providing accurate microstructural data, whereas more efficient techniques are very time-consuming. As an alternative approach, the authors propose to perform quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy images of polished/etched surfaces (quantitative microprofilometry). This permits the measurement of microstructural parameters and the depth of etching, which is the main source of measurement bias. Thus, nonbiased estimations can be obtained by extrapolation of the measurements up to zero etching depth. In this article, the authors used this approach to estimate the volume fraction of γ' precipitates in a nickel-based superalloy single crystal. Atomic force microscopy images of samples etched for different times show definition, homogeneity, and contrast high enough to perform image analysis. The result after extrapolation is in very good agreement with volume fraction values available from published reports

  14. Higher order structure of short immunostimulatory oligonucleotides studied by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Dionne C.G., E-mail: dionne.c.g.klein@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Latz, Eicke [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospitals, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Espevik, Terje [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Stokke, Bjorn T. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    Immunostimulatory CpG-DNA activates the innate immune system by binding to Toll-like receptor 9. Structurally different CpG-containing oligonucleotides trigger a different type of immune response while activating the same receptor. We therefore investigated the higher order structure of two different classes of immunostimulatory CpG-DNA. Class A, which contains a partly self-complementary sequence and poly-G ends, forms duplexes and nanoparticles in salt solution, while class B, which does not contain these features and is purely linear, does not form a duplex or nanoparticles. Results obtained here by high-resolution atomic force microscopy of classes A and B CpG-DNA, reflect these differences in secondary structure. Detailed structural analysis of the atomic force microscopy topographs is presented for two different sample preparation methods.

  15. Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jorge R., E-mail: jorge.rr@cea.cu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, España (Spain)

    2014-07-28

    The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.

  16. Combined laser and atomic force microscope lithography on aluminum: Mask fabrication for nanoelectromechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Boisen, Anja; Davis, Zachary James

    1999-01-01

    A direct-write laser system and an atomic force microscope (AFM) are combined to modify thin layers of aluminum on an oxidized silicon substrate, in order to fabricate conducting and robust etch masks with submicron features. These masks are very well suited for the production of nanoelectromecha......A direct-write laser system and an atomic force microscope (AFM) are combined to modify thin layers of aluminum on an oxidized silicon substrate, in order to fabricate conducting and robust etch masks with submicron features. These masks are very well suited for the production...... writing, and to perform submicron modifications by AFM oxidation. The mask fabrication for a nanoscale suspended resonator bridge is used to illustrate the advantages of this combined technique for NEMS. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0003-6951(99)00221-1]....

  17. Higher order structure of short immunostimulatory oligonucleotides studied by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Dionne C.G.; Latz, Eicke; Espevik, Terje; Stokke, Bjorn T.

    2010-01-01

    Immunostimulatory CpG-DNA activates the innate immune system by binding to Toll-like receptor 9. Structurally different CpG-containing oligonucleotides trigger a different type of immune response while activating the same receptor. We therefore investigated the higher order structure of two different classes of immunostimulatory CpG-DNA. Class A, which contains a partly self-complementary sequence and poly-G ends, forms duplexes and nanoparticles in salt solution, while class B, which does not contain these features and is purely linear, does not form a duplex or nanoparticles. Results obtained here by high-resolution atomic force microscopy of classes A and B CpG-DNA, reflect these differences in secondary structure. Detailed structural analysis of the atomic force microscopy topographs is presented for two different sample preparation methods.

  18. Atomic force microscopy applied to study macromolecular content of embedded biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, Nadejda B. [Electron Microscopy Centre, Institute of Applied Physics, HPM C 15.1, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: matsko@iap.phys.ethz.ch

    2007-02-15

    We demonstrate that atomic force microscopy represents a powerful tool for the estimation of structural preservation of biological samples embedded in epoxy resin, in terms of their macromolecular distribution and architecture. The comparison of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of a biosample (Caenorhabditis elegans) prepared following to different types of freeze-substitution protocols (conventional OsO{sub 4} fixation, epoxy fixation) led to the conclusion that high TEM stainability of the sample results from a low macromolecular density of the cellular matrix. We propose a novel procedure aimed to obtain AFM and TEM images of the same particular organelle, which strongly facilitates AFM image interpretation and reveals new ultrastructural aspects (mainly protein arrangement) of a biosample in addition to TEM data.

  19. Chiral Asymmetric Structures in Aspartic Acid and Valine Crystals Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2016-03-29

    Structures of crystallized deposits formed by the molecular self-assembly of aspartic acid and valine on silicon substrates were imaged by atomic force microscopy. Images of d- and l-aspartic acid crystal surfaces showing extended molecularly flat sheets or regions separated by single molecule thick steps are presented. Distinct orientation surfaces were imaged, which, combined with the single molecule step size, defines the geometry of the crystal. However, single molecule step growth also reveals the crystal chirality, i.e., growth orientations. The imaged ordered lattice of aspartic acid (asp) and valine (val) mostly revealed periodicities corresponding to bulk terminations, but a previously unreported molecular hexagonal lattice configuration was observed for both l-asp and l-val but not for d-asp or d-val. Atomic force microscopy can then be used to identify the different chiral forms of aspartic acid and valine crystals.

  20. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced resolution of atomic force microscopy with functionalized tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Nikolaj; Gross, Leo; Mohn, Fabian; Curioni, Alessandro; Meyer, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    By functionalizing the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a molecule or an atom that significantly contributes to the tip-sample interaction, the resolution can be dramatically enhanced. The interaction and therefore the resolution crucially depend on the chemical nature of the tip termination. Employing a tip functionalized with a CO molecule, atomic resolution of a pentacene molecule was recently demonstrated. In this work, the interaction between the CO tip and the pentacene imaged are studied with first principles calculations. The calculated frequency shifts compare very well with the experiment. The different energy contributions are analyzed and the Pauli energy is computed. We demonstrate that the source of the high resolution is Pauli repulsion, whereas van der Waals and electrostatic interactions only add a diffuse attractive background.

  1. Atomic force microscopy on plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes containing human aquaporin 4.

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, F.; Santacroce, M.; Cremona, A.; Gosvami, N. N.; Lascialfari, A.; Hoogenboom, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a unique tool for imaging membrane proteins in near-native environment (embedded in a membrane and in buffer solution) at ~1 nm spatial resolution. It has been most successful on membrane proteins reconstituted in 2D crystals and on some specialized and densely packed native membranes. Here, we report on AFM imaging of purified plasma membranes from Xenopus laevis oocytes, a commonly used system for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins. Isoform M23...

  2. Switched capacitor charge pump used for low-distortion imaging in atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2015-01-01

    The switched capacitor charge pump (SCCP) is an effective method of linearizing charges on piezoelectric actuators and therefore constitute a significant approach to nano-positioning. In this work, it was for the first time implemented in an atomic force microscope for low-distortion imaging. Experimental results showed that the image quality was improved evidently under the SCCP drive compared with that under traditional linear voltage drive. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Porous Anodic Alumina Thin Films from Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Richard X; Fisher, Timothy; Raman, Arvind; Sands, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a precise and convenient technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed to measure the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of a porous anodic alumina thin film. A stage was used to heat the sample from room temperature up to 450 K. Thermal effects on AFM probes and different operation modes at elevated temperatures were also studied, and a silicon AFM probe in the tapping mode was chosen for the subsequent measurements due to its temperature insensitivi...

  4. Direct Atomic Force Microscopy Observation of DNA Tile Crystal Growth at the Single-Molecule Level

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Constantine G.; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Winfree, Erik

    2012-01-01

    While the theoretical implications of models of DNA tile self-assembly have been extensively researched and such models have been used to design DNA tile systems for use in experiments, there has been little research testing the fundamental assumptions of those models. In this paper, we use direct observation of individual tile attachments and detachments of two DNA tile systems on a mica surface imaged with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to compile statistics of tile attachments and detach...

  5. Surprising volume change in PPy(DBS): An atomic force microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smela, E.; Gadegaard, N.

    1999-01-01

    Communication: Conjugated polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) have potential use as artificial muscles or in microsystems such as valves for micro-fluid handling. One of the most important parameters in such uses is the magnitude of volume change during associated redox processes; however, until now...... estimates have varied greatly. Atomic force microscopy is reported here as allowing direct measurement of the in situ thickness change during oxidation and reduction of thin films of PPy doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate....

  6. Note: A scanning electron microscope sample holder for bidirectional characterization of atomic force microscope probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Alon; Goh, M. Cynthia [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A novel sample holder that enables atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to be mounted inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the purpose of characterizing the AFM tips is described. The holder provides quick and easy handling of tips by using a spring clip to hold them in place. The holder can accommodate two tips simultaneously in two perpendicular orientations, allowing both top and side view imaging of the tips by the SEM.

  7. Nanoparticle sizing: a comparative study using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacava, L.M.; Lacava, B.M.; Azevedo, R.B.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Buske, N.; Tronconi, A.L.; Morais, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) were used to unfold the nanoparticle size of a ferrofluid sample. Compared to TEM, the AFM method showed a nanoparticle diameter (D m ) reduction of 20% and standard deviation (σ) increase of 15%. The differences in D m and σ were associated with the AFM tip and the nanoparticle concentration on the substrate

  8. Reversible electrochemical modification of the surface of a semiconductor by an atomic-force microscope probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukhov, A. S., E-mail: antonkozhukhov@yandex.ru; Sheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    A technique for reversible surface modification with an atomic-force-microscope (AFM) probe is suggested. In this method, no significant mechanical or topographic changes occur upon a local variation in the surface potential of a sample under the AFM probe. The method allows a controlled relative change in the ohmic resistance of a channel in a Hall bridge within the range 20–25%.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of surface relief in individual grains of fatigued 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 15 (2002), s. 3767-3780 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D055; GA ČR GA106/01/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : fatigue * persistent slip band * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2002

  10. Quantum degeneracy in atomic point contacts revealed by chemical force and conductance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugimoto, Y.; Ondráček, Martin; Abe, M.; Pou, P.; Morita, S.; Perez, R.; Flores, F.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 10 (2013), "106803-1"-"106803-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scanning tunneling microscopy * atomic force microscopy * degenerate states * silicon surface * dangling bonds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  11. The effect of adhesion on the contact radius in atomic force microscopy indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L; Rossi, F

    2009-01-01

    The effect of adhesion on nanoscale indentation experiments makes the interpretation of force-displacement curves acquired in these experiments very difficult. The indentation force results from the addition of adhesive and elastic forces at the indenter-sample contact. The evolution of the two forces during the indentation is determined by the variation of the indenter-sample contact radius. In the present work the variation of contact radius during atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation of elastic and adhesive samples with conical indenters (AFM tips) is indirectly determined by measurements of the contact dynamic stiffness. For weak sample deformations, the contact radius is determined mainly by the adhesion force and indenter apex radius. For strong sample deformations, the contact radius increases linearly with the increase of the indenter displacement, the slope of this linear dependence being in agreement with Sneddon's theory of indentation (Sneddon 1965 Int. J. Eng. Sci. 3 47). Based on these results, a theoretical expression of indentation force dependence on displacement is found. This expression allows for determination of the thermodynamic work of adhesion at the indenter-sample interface and the sample elasticity modulus.

  12. Nanomechanical properties of lithiated Si nanowires probed with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunsoo; Shin, Weonho; Choi, Jang Wook; Park, Jeong Young

    2012-01-01

    The nanomechanical properties of fully lithiated and pristine Si nanowires (NWs) deposited on a Si substrate were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Si NWs were synthesized using the vapour-liquid-solid process on stainless-steel substrates using an Au catalyst. Fully lithiated Si NWs were obtained using the electrochemical method, followed by drop-casting on a Si substrate. The roughness of the Si NWs, which was derived from AFM images, is greater for the lithiated Si NWs than for the pristine Si NWs. Force spectroscopy was used to study the influence of lithiation on the tip-surface adhesion force. The lithiated Si NWs revealed a smaller tip-surface adhesion force than the Si substrate by a factor of two, while the adhesion force of the Si NWs is similar to that of the Si substrate. Young's modulus, obtained from the force-distance curve, also shows that the pristine Si NWs have a relatively higher value than the lithiated Si NWs due to the elastically soft and amorphous structures of the lithiated region. These results suggest that force spectroscopy can be used to probe the degree of lithiation at nanometer scale during the charging and discharging processes. (paper)

  13. Imaging surface nanobubbles at graphite–water interfaces with different atomic force microscopy modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wen; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged nanobubbles on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces in pure water with different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, including the frequency-modulation, the tapping, and the PeakForce techniques. We have compared the performance of these modes in obtaining the surface profiles of nanobubbles. The frequency-modulation mode yields a larger height value than the other two modes and can provide more accurate measurement of the surface profiles of nanobubbles. Imaging with PeakForce mode shows that a nanobubble appears smaller and shorter with increasing peak force and disappears above a certain peak force, but the size returns to the original value when the peak force is reduced. This indicates that imaging with high peak forces does not cause gas removal from the nanobubbles. Based on the presented findings and previous AFM observations, the existing models for nanobubbles are reviewed and discussed. The model of gas aggregate inside nanobubbles provides a better explanation for the puzzles of the high stability and the contact angle of surface nanobubbles. (paper)

  14. Atomic force microscopic imaging of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Ateeq, Muhammad; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Kulsoom, Huma; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Light microscopy and electron microscopy have been successfully used in the study of microbes, as well as free-living protists. Unlike light microscopy, which enables us to observe living organisms or the electron microscope which provides a two-dimensional image, atomic force microscopy provides a three-dimensional surface profile. Here, we observed two free-living amoebae, Acanthamoeba castellanii and Balamuthia mandrillaris under the phase contrast inverted microscope, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. Although light microscopy was of lower magnification, it revealed functional biology of live amoebae such as motility and osmoregulation using contractile vacuoles of the trophozoite stage, but it is of limited value in defining the cyst stage. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy showed significantly greater magnification and resolution to reveal the ultra-structural features of trophozoites and cysts including intracellular organelles and cyst wall characteristics but it only produced a snapshot in time of a dead amoeba cell. Atomic force microscopy produced three-dimensional images providing detailed topographic description of shape and surface, phase imaging measuring boundary stiffness, and amplitude measurements including width, height and length of A. castellanii and B. mandrillaris trophozoites and cysts. These results demonstrate the importance of the application of various microscopic methods in the biological and structural characterization of the whole cell, ultra-structural features, as well as surface components and cytoskeleton of protist pathogens. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. Effectiveness of Modal Decomposition for Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy Microcantilevers in Liquid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Kwang; Lee, Soo Il

    2016-05-01

    The modal decomposition of tapping mode atomic force microscopy microcantilevers in liquid environments was studied experimentally. Microcantilevers with different lengths and stiffnesses and two sample surfaces with different elastic moduli were used in the experiment. The response modes of the microcantilevers were extracted as proper orthogonal modes through proper orthogonal decomposition. Smooth orthogonal decomposition was used to estimate the resonance frequency directly. The effects of the tapping setpoint and the elastic modulus of the sample under test were examined in terms of their multi-mode responses with proper orthogonal modes, proper orthogonal values, smooth orthogonal modes and smooth orthogonal values. Regardless of the stiffness of the microcantilever under test, the first mode was dominant in tapping mode atomic force microscopy under normal operating conditions. However, at lower tapping setpoints, the flexible microcantilever showed modal distortion and noise near the tip when tapping on a hard sample. The stiff microcantilever had a higher mode effect on a soft sample at lower tapping setpoints. Modal decomposition for tapping mode atomic force microscopy can thus be used to estimate the characteristics of samples in liquid environments.

  16. Raman-atomic force microscopy of the ommatidial surfaces of Dipteran compound eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.; Gaimari, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    The ommatidial lens surfaces of the compound eyes in several species of files (Insecta: Diptera) and a related order (Mecoptera) were analyzed using a recently developed Raman-atomic force microscope. We demonstrate in this work that the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a potentially useful instrument for gathering phylogenetic data and that the newly developed Raman-AFM may extend this application by revealing nanometer-scale surface chemistry. This is the first demonstration of apertureless near-field Raman spectroscopy on an intact biological surface. For Chrysopilus testaceipes Bigot (Rhagionidae), this reveals unique cerebral cortex-like surface ridges with periodic variation in height and surface chemistry. Most other Brachyceran flies, and the "Nematoceran" Sylvicola fenestralis (Scopoli) (Anisopodidae), displayed the same morphology, while other taxa displayed various other characteristics, such as a nodule-like (Tipula (Triplicitipula) sp. (Tipulidae)) or coalescing nodule-like (Tabanus punctifer Osten Sacken (Tabanidae)) morphology, a smooth morphology with distinct pits and grooves (Dilophus orbatus (Say) (Bibionidae)), or an entirely smooth surface (Bittacus chlorostigma MacLachlan (Mecoptera: Bittacidae)). The variation in submicrometer structure and surface chemistry provides a new information source of potential phylogenetic importance, suggesting the Raman-atomic force microscope could provide a new tool useful to systematic and evolutionary inquiry.

  17. Evaluation of the roughness of the surface of porcelain systems with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria Rodriguez, Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The surface of a dental ceramic was evaluated and compared with an atomic force microscope after being treated with different systems of polishing. 14 identical ceramic Lava® Zirconia discs were used to test the different polishing systems. 3 polishing systems from different matrix houses were used to polish dental porcelain. The samples were evaluated quantitatively with an atomic force microscope in order to study the real effectiveness of each system, on the roughness average (Ra) and the maximum peak to valley roughness (Ry) of the ceramic surfaces. A considerable reduction of the surface roughness was obtained by applying different polishing systems on the surface of dental ceramics. Very reliable values of Ra and Ry were obtained by making measurements on the structure reproduced by the atomic force microscope. The advanced ceramics of zirconium oxide presented the best physical characteristics and low levels of surface roughness. A smoother surface was achieved with the application of polishing systems, thus demonstrating the reduction of the surface roughness of a dental ceramic [es

  18. Atomic force microscopic study of the influence of physical stresses on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adya, Ashok K; Canetta, Elisabetta; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-01-01

    Morphological changes in the cell surfaces of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681), and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354), in response to thermal and osmotic stresses, were investigated using an atomic force microscope. With this microscope imaging, together with measurements of culture viability and cell size, it was possible to relate topological changes of the cell surface at nanoscale with cellular stress physiology. As expected, when the yeasts were exposed to thermostress or osmostress, their viability together with the mean cell volume decreased in conjunction with the increase in thermal or osmotic shock. Nevertheless, the viability of cells stressed for up to 1 h remained relatively high. For example, viabilities were >50% and >90% for the thermostressed, and >60% and >70% for the osmostressed S. cerevisiae and Schiz. pombe, respectively. Mean cell volume measurements, and bearing and roughness analyses of atomic force microscope images of stressed yeasts indicate that Schiz. pombe may be more resistant to physical stresses than S. cerevisiae. Overall, this study has highlighted the usefulness of atomic force microscope in studies of yeast stress physiology.

  19. Atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy on the cytoskeleton of permeabilised and embedded cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, Karl; Theiss, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technical method of cell permeabilisation and embedding to study the organisation and distribution of intracellular proteins with aid of atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in identical areas. While confocal laser scanning microscopy is useful for the identification of certain proteins subsequent labelling with markers or antibodies, atomic force microscopy allows the observation of macromolecular structures in fixed and living cells. To demonstrate the field of application of this preparatory technique, cells were permeabilised, fixed, and the actin cytoskeleton was stained with phalloidin-rhodamine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to show the organisation of these microfilaments, e.g. geodesic dome structures. Thereafter, cells were embedded in Durcupan water-soluble resin, followed by UV-polymerisation of resin at 4 o C. This procedure allowed intracellular visualisation of the cell nucleus or cytoskeletal elements by atomic force microscopy, for instance to analyse the globular organisation of actin filaments. Therefore, this method offers a great potential to combine both microscopy techniques in order to understand and interpret intracellular protein relations, for example, the biochemical and morphological interaction of the cytoskeleton

  20. Identification of 6H-SiC polar faces with pull-off force of atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Di; Song, Youting; Yang, Junwei; Chen, Hongxiang [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Liwei, E-mail: lwguo@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Xiaolong, E-mail: chenx29@iphy.ac.cn [Research & development Center for Functional Crystals, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new method is proposed and demonstrated to distinguish the polar faces of 6H-SiC by pull-off forces which are clearly different on the Si-face and the C-face of 6H-SiC. • The reliability of this method is confirmed on 6H-SiC samples treated with different surface processing procedures. • The essence of different pull-off forces on different polar faces of 6H-SiC is that the surface energies between them are obviously different. • Theoretical calculations are consistent with our experimental results. - Abstract: Distinguishing SiC (0001) Si-face from SiC (000-1) C-face without any damages is extremely important because the two polar faces have different physical and chemical properties which seriously influence the quality of a homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy thin film on it. Here, a convenient and nondestructive detection method is developed to distinguish the Si-face and C-face of a (0001) oriented SiC wafer by employing a pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. It is found that the pull-off force from a Si-face of 6H-SiC is about two times of that from a C-face, no matter it is a two-face chemical mechanical polishing or etched 6H-SiC wafer. The method developed here is suitable to identify polar faces of materials only if the two polar faces having different surface energy.