Sample records for high-sensitivity bd-pnd bubble

  1. Longevity Tests of High-Sensitivity BD-PND Bubble Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, R; Carlberg, E


    Medium- and very-high-sensitivity neutron bubble dosimeters (BD-PNDs) made by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to study the life span of such dosimeters in a standard setup with a {sup 252}Cf source. Although data on the longevity of bubble dosimeters with low and medium sensitivity exist, such data for dosimeters with high and very high sensitivity are not readily available. The manufacturer guarantees optimum dosimeter performance for 3 months after receipt. However, it is important to know the change in the dosimeters' characteristics with time, especially after the first 3 months. The long-term performance of four sets of very high sensitivity and one set of medium-sensitivity bubble dosimeters was examined for periods of up to 13 months. During that time, the detectors were exposed and reset more than 20 times. Although departures from initial detection sensitivity were observed in several cases, the detectors indicated a significantly longer life span than stated in the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, the change in the number of bubbles and in evaluated neutron dose as a function of the time from the end of exposure until the dosimeters were read was investigated.

  2. Fabry-Perot cavity based on air bubble for high sensitivity lateral load and strain measurements (United States)

    Novais, Susana; Ferreira, Marta S.; Pinto, João. L.


    A Fabry-Perot air bubble microcavity fabricated between a section of single mode fiber and a multimode fiber is proposed. The study of the microcavities growth with the number of applied arcs is performed. The sensors are tested for lateral load and strain, where sensitivities of 0.32 nm/N and 2.11 nm/N and of 4.49 pm/μɛ and 9.12 pm/μɛ are obtained for the 47 μm and 161 μm long cavities, respectively. The way of manufacturing using a standard fusion splicer and given that no oils or etching solutions are involved, emerges as an alternative to the previously developed air bubble based sensors.

  3. Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.


    A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could a...

  4. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Harris, T. D.


    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  5. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz


    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  6. Bubble coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orvalho, Sandra; Ruzicka, Marek C.; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio


    The goal of this study is to present new experimental data on the effect of the bubble approach velocity and liquid viscosity on pairwise bubble coalescence. Measurements were performed to investigate the dynamics of bubble coalescence under well-defined laboratory conditions. Air and pure

  7. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A


    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  8. Bubble Combustion (United States)

    Corrigan, Jackie


    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  9. Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble. (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001


    Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)

  10. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection. (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes.

  11. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection† (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang


    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  12. Bubble diagnostics (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.


    The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.

  13. Filter Bubble vs. Preference Bubble


    Lindström, Hanna-Stiina; Soliman, Gabriela


    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli internetin personointi ja siitä aiheutuva filter bubble –ilmiö. Tarkoituksena oli tutkia kuluttajien suhtautumista ilmiöön, jota Suomessa ei vielä tunnisteta laajasti. Suhtautuminen haluttiin tuoda esiin vastakkainasettelun avulla. Filter bubble –näkökulma edusti tässä työssä ilmiön negatiivista suhtautumistapaa ja preference bubble –näkökulma positiivista. Opinnäytetyö oli tietopaketti yrityksille Filter bubble –ilmiön ominaisuuksista sekä sen käyttäytymisestä...

  14. Leverage bubble (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier


    Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.

  15. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  16. Bubble bath soap poisoning (United States)

    ... Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  17. Cooled membrane for high sensitivity gas sampling. (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    A novel sample preparation method that combines the advantages of high surface area geometry and cold surface effect was proposed to achieve high sensitivity gas sampling. To accomplish this goal, a device that enables the membrane to be cooled down was developed for sampling, and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used for separation and quantification analysis. Method development included investigation of the effect of membrane temperature, membrane size, gas flow rate and humidity. Results showed that high sensitivity for equilibrium sampling, such as limonene sampling in the current study could be achieved by either cooling down the membrane and/or using a large volume extraction phase. On the other hand, for pre-equilibrium extraction, in which the extracted amount was mainly determined by membrane surface area and diffusion coefficient, high sensitivity could be obtained by using thinner membranes with a larger surface and/or a higher sampling flow rate. In addition, humidity showed no significant influence on extraction efficiency, due to the absorption property of the liquid extraction phase. Next, the limit of detection (LOD) was found, and the reproducibility of the developed cooled membrane gas sampling method was evaluated. Results showed that LODs with a membrane diameter of 19mm at room temperature sampling were 9.2ng/L, 0.12ng/L, 0.10ng/L for limonene, cinnamaldehyde and 2-pentadecanone, respectively. Intra- and inter-membrane sampling reproducibility revealed RSD% lower than 8% and 13%, respectively. Results uniformly demonstrated that the proposed cooled membrane device could serve as an alternative powerful tool for future gas sampling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.


    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  19. The high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (United States)

    Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Revenko, A. V.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.


    A high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) has been developed. It is based on 16 HPGe detectors of volume 1200 × 6 mm 3 each in the same cryostat. The TGV spectrometer was proposed for the study of ultrarare nuclear processes (e.g. 2νββ, 0νββ, 2νEC/EC). Details of the TGV spectrometer construction are described, the principles of background suppression, the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the results of test background measurements (in Dubna and Modane underground laboratory) are provided.

  20. Aluminum nanocantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja


    We have fabricated Al nanocantilevers using a simple, one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral and vertical dimensions under 500 and 100 nm, respectively. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Furthermore, it is shown...... that Al has a potential higher sensitivity than Si based dynamic sensors. Initial testing of these devices has been conducted using a scanning electron microscope setup were the devices were tested under high vacuum conditions. The Q factor was measured to be approximately 200 and the mass sensitivity...

  1. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T]. (United States)

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro


    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Fama on bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to. On......, there is evidence of an explosive component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble........ On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable. However, this argument cannot be used to rule out rational bubbles because such bubbles do not necessarily imply return predictability. On data samples that include the 1990s...

  3. High sensitivity troponin and valvular heart disease. (United States)

    McCarthy, Cian P; Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot; Griffin, Brian P; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; McEvoy, John W


    Blood-based biomarkers have been extensively studied in a range of cardiovascular diseases and have established utility in routine clinical care, most notably in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (e.g., troponin) and the management of heart failure (e.g., brain-natriuretic peptide). The role of biomarkers is less well established in the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), in which the optimal timing of surgical intervention is often challenging. One promising biomarker that has been the subject of a number of recent VHD research studies is high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Novel high-sensitivity assays can detect subclinical myocardial damage in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, hs-cTn may have utility in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe VHD who do not have a clear traditional indication for surgical intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence for hs-cTn as a potential biomarker in the most commonly encountered VHD conditions, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. This review provides a synopsis of early evidence indicating that hs-cTn has promise as a biomarker in VHD. However, the impact of its measurement on clinical practice and VHD outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expendable bubble tiltmeter for geophysical monitoring


    Westphal, J. A.; Carr, M. A.; Miller, W. F.; Dzurisin, Daniel


    An unusually rugged highly sensitive and inexpensive bubble tiltmeter has been designed, tested, and built in quantity. These tiltmeters are presently used on two volcanoes and an Alaskan glacier, where they continuously monitor surface tilts of geological interest. This paper discusses the mechanical, thermal, and electric details of the meter, and illustrates its performance characteristics in both large ( > 10^(-4) radian) and small ( < 10^(-6) radian) tilt environments. The meter's ult...

  5. Measuring bubbles in a bubbly wake flow (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kawakami, Ellison; Arndt, Roger E. A.


    This paper presents measurements of the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). A narrow depth-of-field (DoF) is required for imaging a 2-dimensional plane within a flow volume. Shadows of the bubbles were collected by a high-speed camera. Once a reference image, taken when no bubbles were present in the flow, was subtracted from the images, the image was segmented using an edge detection technique. The Canny algorithm was determined to be best suited for this application. A curvature profile method was employed to distinguish individual bubbles within a cluster of highly overlapping bubbles. The utilized algorithm was made to detect partly overlapping bubbles and reconstruct the missing parts. The movement of recognized individual bubbles was tracked on a two dimensional plane within a flow volume. In order to obtain quantitative results, the wake of a ventilated hydrofoil was investigated by applying the shadowgraphy technique and the described bubble detection algorithm. These experiments were carried out in the high speed cavitation tunnel at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) of the University of Minnesota. This research is jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Re- search, Dr. Ron Joslin, program manager, and the Department of Energy, Golden Field Office.

  6. Fama on Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom


    . However, this argument cannot be used to rule out rational bubbles because such bubbles do not necessarily imply return predictability, and return predictability of the kind documented by Fama does not rule out rational bubbles. On data samples that include the 1990s, there is evidence of an explosive......While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable...

  7. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H


    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  8. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer. (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A; Matheoud, Alessandro V; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 10 12 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz 1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  9. High sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (United States)

    Chavarria, Mario A.; Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Marmillod, Philippe; Liu, Youjiang; Kong, Deyi; Brugger, Jürgen; Boero, Giovanni


    A high sensitivity field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer (FAIMS) was designed, fabricated, and tested. The main components of the system are a 10.6 eV UV photoionization source, an ion filter driven by a high voltage/high frequency n-MOS inverter circuit, and a low noise ion detector. The ion filter electronics are capable to generate square waveforms with peak-to-peak voltages up to 1000 V at frequencies up to 1 MHz with adjustable duty cycles. The ion detector current amplifier has a gain up to 1012 V/A with an effective equivalent input noise level down to about 1 fA/Hz1/2 during operation with the ion filter at the maximum voltage and frequency. The FAIMS system was characterized by detecting different standard chemical compounds. Additionally, we investigated the use of a synchronous modulation/demodulation technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in FAIMS measurements. In particular, we implemented the modulation of the compensation voltage with the synchronous demodulation of the ion current. The analysis of the measurements at low concentration levels led to an extrapolated limit of detection for acetone of 10 ppt with an averaging time of 1 s.

  10. Soap Bubbles and Crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    volume work summarizing his decades of research into soap bubbles and related phe- nomena due to surface tension. He gave the rules governing the geometry of bubbles, without any proof. It is a remarkable achievement as these experiments.

  11. Soap Bubbles and Logic. (United States)

    Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others


    Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)

  12. Economic Growth with Bubbles


    Alberto Martin


    This paper presents a stylized model of economic growth with bubbles. This model views asset price bubbles as a market-generated device to moderate the effects of frictions in financial markets, improving the allocation of investments and raising the capital stock and welfare. It shows that, contrary to conventional wisdom, bubbles can arise even if all investments in the economy are dynamically efficient.

  13. Soap Films and Bubbles. (United States)

    Rice, Karen


    Develops and explains a format for a workshop which focuses on soap films and bubbles. The plan consists of: a discussion to uncover what children know about bubbles; explanations of the demonstration equipment; the presentation itself; the assembly of the workshop kit; and time to play with the bubbles. (ML)

  14. Cavitation bubble dynamics. (United States)

    Lauterborn, W; Ohl, C D


    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles on water is investigated for bubbles produced optically and acoustically. Single bubble dynamics is studied with laser produced bubbles and high speed photography with framing rates up to 20.8 million frames per second. Examples for jet formation and shock wave emission are given. Acoustic cavitation is produced in water in the interior of piezoelectric cylinders of different sizes (up to 12 cm inner diameter). The filementary structure composed of bubbles is investigated and their light emission (sonoluminescence) studied for various driving strengths.

  15. Effect of bubble deformability on the vertical channel bubbly flow


    Dabiri, Sadegh; Lu, Jiacai; Tryggvason, Gretar


    This article describes the fluid dynamics video: "Effect of bubble deformability on the vertical channel bubbly flow". The effect of bubble deformability on the flow rate of bubbly upflow in a turbulent vertical channel is examined using direct numerical simulations. A series of simulations with bubbles of decreasing deformability reveals a sharp transition from a flow with deformable bubbles uniformly distributed in the middle of the channel to a flow with nearly spherical bubbles with a wal...

  16. Planar Soap Bubbles


    Vaughn, Rick


    The generalized soap bubble problem seeks the least perimeter way to enclose and separate n given volumes in R^m. We study the possible configurations for perimeter minimizing bubble complexes enclosing more than two regions. We prove that perimeter minimizing planar bubble complexes with equal pressure regions and without empty chambers must have connected regions. As a consequence, we show that the least perimeter planar graph that...

  17. Magnetic bubble materials. (United States)

    Giess, E A


    Physicists, materials scientists, and engineers combined to bring solid-state bubble devices into the computer memory and recording marketplace. Devices with smaller bubbles are being developed for increased data capacity and lower cost. Epitaxial garnet films made by isothermal dipping in molten solutions helped put the technology in place and will probably satisfy the material needs of future devices with bubbles scaled down from 2 to 0.5 micrometer in size.

  18. Sonochemistry and bubble dynamics. (United States)

    Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Troia, Adriano


    The details of bubble behaviour in chemically active cavitation are still not sufficiently well understood. Here we report on experimental high-speed observations of acoustically driven single-bubble and few-bubble systems with the aim of clarification of the connection of their dynamics with chemical activity. Our experiment realises the sonochemical isomerization reaction of maleic acid to fumaric acid, mediated by bromine radicals, in a bubble trap set-up. The main result is that the reaction product can only be observed in a parameter regime where a small bubble cluster occurs, while a single trapped bubble stays passive. Evaluations of individual bubble dynamics for both cases are given in form of radius-time data and numerical fits to a bubble model. A conclusion is that a sufficiently strong collapse has to be accompanied by non-spherical bubble dynamics for the reaction to occur, and that the reason appears to be an efficient mixing of liquid and gas phase. This finding corroborates previous observations and literature reports on high liquid phase sonochemical activity under distinct parameter conditions than strong sonoluminescence emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server



    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  20. Bubbles, Banks, and Financial Stability


    Kosuke Aoki; Kalin Nikolov


    This paper asks two main questions: (1) What makes some asset price bubbles more costly for the real economy than others? and (2) When do costly bubbles occur? We construct a model of rational bubbles under credit frictions and show that when bubbles held by banks burst this is followed by a costly financial crisis. In contrast, bubbles held by ordinary savers have relatively muted effects. Banks tend to invest in bubbles when financial liberalisation decreases their profitability.

  1. Single bubble sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef


    Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light

  2. Bubbles in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun


    Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...

  3. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects......Understanding how and why bubbles occur as well as whether these could be anticipated, managed, or even prevented is equally important as to know how to recover from them. To address these questions, a model of bubble emergence is put forward. The model builds on two fundamental commonalities...... of a new venture and intended outcomes of that new venture; the higher the residue, the higher the likelihood of the bubble emergence; as residue increases, the likelihood of bubble burst increases. One question that arises is whether one can manage the hype, hence the residue. In this, it is maintained...

  4. Bubble impacts with microcantilevers. (United States)

    Stegmeir, Matthew; Longmire, Ellen; Ali, Mubassar; Mantell, Susan


    In the current study, we investigate bubbles in laminar channel flows impacting microcantilever obstacles. Static and resonating cantilevers instrumented with integrated strain gages are mounted perpendicular to the mean flow in a vertically-oriented channel with thickness 2mm, span 10mm, and length 585 mm. Steady, fully-developed upward flows with channel Reynolds numbers based on mean fluid velocity and hydraulic diameter of 0-2500 are considered. Bubbles of diameter 200-1000μm are introduced upstream of the test section, and impacts are observed using a microscope equipped with a high frame rate camera. Observations are made along the length of cantilevers backlit with white light. Strain gage signals are monitored and correlated to impact events. The effect of obstacles on bubble motion and deformation as well as the effect of bubble impacts on the cantilever will be discussed. The flow studies are part of a larger research program examining reliability and performance of vibrating microbeams.

  5. Chemistry in Soap Bubbles. (United States)

    Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai


    Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)

  6. Bubble dynamics in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Metzler, Ralf [NORDITA-Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)


    The formation of local denaturation zones (bubbles) in double-stranded DNA is an important example of conformational changes of biological macromolecules. We study the dynamics of bubble formation in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density to find a bubble of size n base pairs at time t, on the basis of the free energy in the Poland-Scheraga model. Characteristic bubble closing and opening times can be determined from the corresponding first passage time problem, and are sensitive to the specific parameters entering the model. A multistate unzipping model with constant rates recently applied to DNA breathing dynamics (Altan-Bonnet et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 138101) emerges as a limiting case. (letter to the editor)

  7. High-sensitivity troponin after running--a systematic review. (United States)

    Vilela, E M; Bastos, J C C; Rodrigues, R P; Nunes, J P L


    A systematic review was carried out to study the pattern of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin release after running (search performed on PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases). A total of ten reports were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria (eight using high-sensitivity troponin T and two using high-sensitivity troponin I). The papers were published between 2009 and 2013, amounting to a total of 479 participants under study. Eight reports provided data comparing post-running troponin levels with the 99th percentile reference value. A total number of 296 participants, out of 424, showed post-running high-sensitivity troponin values higher than the 99th percentile reference value (69.8%). In conclusion, using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays, studies have shown that elevated post-running values are seen in more than two-thirds of runners. Whether troponin release in this setting represents a fully reversible phenomenon is currently unknown; the effects of strenuous running on long-term health are also uncertain.

  8. Colliding with a crunching bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen


    In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.

  9. A Bubble Bursts (United States)


    RCW 79 is seen in the southern Milky Way, 17,200 light-years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. The bubble is 70-light years in diameter, and probably took about one million years to form from the radiation and winds of hot young stars. The balloon of gas and dust is an example of stimulated star formation. Such stars are born when the hot bubble expands into the interstellar gas and dust around it. RCW 79 has spawned at least two groups of new stars along the edge of the large bubble. Some are visible inside the small bubble in the lower left corner. Another group of baby stars appears near the opening at the top. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope easily detects infrared light from the dust particles in RCW 79. The young stars within RCW 79 radiate ultraviolet light that excites molecules of dust within the bubble. This causes the dust grains to emit infrared light that is detected by Spitzer and seen here as the extended red features.

  10. Bubble nuclei; Noyaux Bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Aluminum nano-cantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Boisen, Anja


    We have fabricated Al nano-cantilevers using a very simple one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral dimensions under 500 nm and vertical dimensions of approximately 100 nm. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Further...

  12. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sensitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms. We demonstrate the ...

  13. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absorption imaging using a high sensitivity CCD camera gives the size of the expanding cloud and hence ... (LVIS) [2], the peak signal in a 1 mm thick resonant probe beam corresponds to the absorption by 3 × 105 ... used in our atom optics experiments on the reflection of atoms from magnetic thin films [13]. The sensitivity ...

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, malondialdehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity in psoriasis. ... Abstract. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and lymphocytic infiltration. The ongoing inflammatory process in psoriasis affects the arterial wall promoting ...

  15. The effect of gravity-induced pressure gradient on bubble luminescence (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Tinguely, Marc; Farhat, Mohamed


    The violent collapse of a bubble can heat up its gaseous contents to temperatures exceeding those on the sun's surface, resulting in a short luminescence flash. Occurring at the very moment of the collapse, luminescence must be highly sensitive to the bubble geometry at the preceding final stage. This represents an important feature as any pressure anisotropy in the surrounding liquid will result in a deformation of an initially spherical bubble, inducing a micro-jet that pierces the bubble and makes it experience a toroidal collapse. We therefore present these as complementary phenomena by investigating the link between jets and luminescence of laser-generated single bubbles. Through ultra-high-speed imaging, the micro-jet formation and evolution of a single bubble are observed with unprecedented detail, whilst the bubble light emission is analyzed by means of a spectrometer. The bubble energy and the micro-jet size are controlled by adjusting the laser-pulse and by varying the gravity level aboard ESA parabolic flights, respectively. We here provide systematic evidence on how bubble-jets suppress luminescence in a considerable manner, even in normal gravity where the jet is barely observable. We conclude that gravity must be accounted for in accurate models of luminescence.

  16. Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles (United States)

    Fry, John


    In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.

  17. The Liberal Arts Bubble (United States)

    Agresto, John


    The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…

  18. BEBC bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.

  19. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia


    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  20. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  1. Highly sensitive troponin T in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P


    in decedents than in survivors. After adjustment for stroke severity, C-reactive protein, age, NT-proBNP and prior heart and/or renal failure, hsTnT levels were not a significant predictor of long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Elevated levels of hsTnT are frequently present......Background: Newly developed troponin assays have superior diagnostic and prognostic performance in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), when compared to conventional troponin assays; however, highly sensitive troponin has not been evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Highly...... sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) was measured daily during the first 4 days in 193 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke without overt ACS or atrial fibrillation. The patients were previously tested normal with a fourth-generation TnT assay. The patients were followed for 47 months, with all...

  2. Performance of terahertz metamaterials as high-sensitivity sensor (United States)

    He, Yanan; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Jingling


    A high-sensitivity sensor based on the resonant transmission characteristics of terahertz (THz) metamaterials was investigated, with the proposal and fabrication of rectangular bar arrays of THz metamaterials exhibiting a period of 180 μm on a 25 μm thick flexible polyimide. Varying the size of the metamaterial structure revealed that the length of the rectangular unit modulated the resonant frequency, which was verified by both experiment and simulation. The sensing characteristics upon varying the surrounding media in the sample were tested by simulation and experiment. Changing the surrounding medium from that of air to that of alcohol or oil produced resonant frequency redshifts of 80 GHz or 150 GHz, respectively, which indicates that the sensor possessed a high sensitivity of 667 GHz per unit of refractive index. Finally, the influence of the sample substrate thickness on the sensor sensitivity was investigated by simulation. It may be a reference for future sensor design.

  3. Highly sensitive humidity sensor based on graphene oxide foam (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Lun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Bao-Xun; Zhao, Quan-Liang


    Since sensitive humidity sensing is strongly desired, we present a highly sensitive humidity sensor fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) foam based on low-frequency dielectric properties. The GO foam shows humidity- and compression-dependent dielectric. Upon applying compression on GO foam, the humidity sensitivity increases and the maximum humidity sensitivity of dielectric loss is more than 12-fold higher than that of direct-current electrical conductivity. The highly sensitive humidity response originates from the generation of local conductive networks, which is the result of the connected isolated conductive regions by water cluster. Additionally, the dielectric properties of fabricated GO foam show a stable and repeatable humidity response, suggesting a carbon prototype with great potential in humidity sensors.

  4. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, W.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical

  5. Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de


    Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened

  6. Bubbling controlled by needle movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejrazka, Jiri; Fujasova, Maria; Stanovsky, Petr; Ruzicka, Marek C; Drahos, JirI [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail:


    A device for 'on-demand' production of bubbles is presented. The device is based on a movable needle, through which air is injected. Bubbling is controlled by a rapid needle movement, which induces the bubble detachment. Conditions for proper function of the device include the restriction on the flow rate through the needle, sufficient needle pressure drop and adequate needle acceleration. Functionality of the device is demonstrated. Bubbling from a stationary needle is also discussed and a scaling for bubble size is proposed for the case of short needles, to which a constant flow rate is imposed through tubes of a finite volume.

  7. Structural Glycomic Analyses at High Sensitivity: A Decade of Progress (United States)

    Alley, William R.; Novotny, Milos V.


    The field of glycomics has recently advanced in response to the urgent need for structural characterization and quantification of complex carbohydrates in biologically and medically important applications. The recent success of analytical glycobiology at high sensitivity reflects numerous advances in biomolecular mass spectrometry and its instrumentation, capillary and microchip separation techniques, and microchemical manipulations of carbohydrate reactivity. The multimethodological approach appears to be necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of very complex glycomes in different biological systems. PMID:23560930

  8. High Sensitivity Very Low Frequency Receiver for Earthquake Data Acquisition. (United States)

    Munir, A.; Najmurrokhman, A.


    high sensitivity very low frequency (VLF) receiver is developed based on AD744 monolithic operational amplifier (Op-Amp) for earthquake data acquisition. In research related natural phenomena such as atmospheric noise, lightning and earthquake, a VLF receiver particularly with high sensitivity is utterly required due to the low power of VLF wave signals received by the antenna. The developed receiver is intended to have high sensitivity reception for the signals in frequency range of 10-30kHz allocated for earthquake observation. The VLF receiver which is portably designed is also equipped with an output port connectable to the soundcard of personal computer for further data acquisition. After obtaining the optimum design, the hardware realization is implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB) for experimental characterization. It shows that the sensitivity of realized VLF receiver is almost linear in the predefined frequency range for the input signals lower than -12dBm and to be quadratic for the higher level input signals.

  9. Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server


    This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa,  M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz),  shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...

  10. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)


    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  11. Bubble dynamics in drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broučková Zuzana


    Full Text Available This study introduces two physical effects known from beverages: the effect of sinking bubbles and the hot chocolate sound effect. The paper presents two simple „kitchen” experiments. The first and second effects are indicated by means of a flow visualization and microphone measurement, respectively. To quantify the second (acoustic effect, sound records are analyzed using time-frequency signal processing, and the obtained power spectra and spectrograms are discussed.

  12. Quantum Subcritical Bubbles (United States)

    Uesugi, T.; Morikawa, M.; Shiromizu, T.


    We quantize subcritical bubbles which are formed in the weakly first order phase transition. We find that the typical size of the thermal fluctuation reduces in quantum-statistical physics. We estimate the typical size and the amplitude of thermal fluctuations near the critical temperature in the electroweak phase transition using a quantum statistical average. Furthermore, based on our study, we discuss implications for the dynamics of phase transitions.

  13. Popping the filter bubble


    Hughes, Katie; Cronin, G; Welch, L


    So-called “fake news” is everywhere and is having a major impact on daily life from politics to education. The rapid growth of information and the numbers of people who can create it means that we need more sophisticated tools to process the news we receive. Join us to learn about different methods you can use to be your own fact checker and pop your filter bubble.

  14. BubbleDeck


    ECT Team, Purdue


    Conventional horizontal concrete slabs are heavy that limit their spans. Enhancement of span results in addition of beams that increases the cost of the structure. Thus, there is a need for a technology that will help in increasing the span by reducing weight of the span. BubbleDeck is a revolutionary construction method that virtually eliminates concrete from the middle of a floor slab between columns that does not perform any structural function, thereby dramatically reducing structural dea...

  15. Electrooptic modulation methods for high sensitivity tunable diode laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Glenar, David A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Nadler, Shacher


    A CdTe phase modulator and low power RF sources have been used with Pb-salt tunable diode lasers operating near 8 microns to generate optical sidebands for high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy. Sweep averaged, first-derivative sample spectra of CH4 were acquired by wideband phase sensitive detection of the electrooptically (EO) generated carrier-sideband beat signal. EO generated beat signals were also used to frequency lock the TDL to spectral lines. This eliminates low frequency diode jitter, and avoids the excess laser linewidth broadening that accompanies TDL current modulation frequency locking methods.

  16. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...... spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...

  17. In Search of the Big Bubble (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany


    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  18. Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode. (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Chung, Dae Sung


    We report on tuning of the interfacial properties of a highly sensitive organic photodiode by introducing a buffer layer between the anode and the semiconductor layer. The effects of different buffer layers consisting of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), PEDOT:PSS, and pentacene on the morphology and crystallinity of the upper-deposited bulk heterojunction semiconductor layer are carefully analyzed combined with electrical analysis. The active layer is controlled to be nearly homogeneous and to have low crystallinity by using a SAM or PEDOT:PSS buffer layers, whereas a highly crystalline morphology is realized by using the pentacene buffer layer. When exposed to light pulses, the external quantum efficiency and thus the photocurrent are slightly higher for the PEDOT:PSS-based photodiode; however the dark current is the lowest for the pentacene-based photodiode. We discuss the origin of the high sensitivity (a detectivity of 1.3 × 10(12) Jones and a linear dynamic range of 95 dB) of the pentacene-based photodiode, particularly in terms of the morphology-driven low dark current.

  19. Bubble measuring instrument and method (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)


    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  20. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.


    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  1. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions. (United States)

    Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel


    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.

  2. Acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid (United States)

    Divoux, T.; Vidal, V.; Melo, F.; Géminard, J.-C.


    We report experimental measurements of the acoustic emission associated with the bursting of a gas bubble at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid. On account of the viscoelastic properties of the fluid, the bubble is generally elongated. The associated frequency and duration of the acoustic signal are discussed with regard to the shape of the bubble and successfully accounted for by a simple linear model. The acoustic energy exhibits a high sensitivity to the dynamics of the thin film bursting, which demonstrates that, in practice, it is barely possible to deduce from the acoustic measurements the total amount of energy released by the event. Our experimental findings provide clues for the understanding of the signals from either volcanoes or foams, where one observes respectively, the bursting of giant bubbles at the free surface of lava and bubble bursting avalanches.

  3. A simple, tunable, and highly sensitive radio-frequency sensor. (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Sun, Jiwei; He, Yuxi; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Pingshan


    We report a radio frequency (RF) sensor that exploits tunable attenuators and phase shifters to achieve high-sensitivity and broad band frequency tunability. Three frequency bands are combined to enable sensor operations from ∼20 MHz to ∼38 GHz. The effective quality factor (Qeff ) of the sensor is as high as ∼3.8 × 10(6) with 200 μl of water samples. We also demonstrate the measurement of 2-proponal-water-solution permittivity at 0.01 mole concentration level from ∼1 GHz to ∼10 GHz. Methanol-water solution and de-ionized water are used to calibrate the RF sensor for the quantitative measurements.

  4. High Sensitivity Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Tryptophan (United States)

    Kandakkathara, Archana

    Raman spectroscopy has the capability of providing detailed information about molecular structure, but the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering prevents this technique from applications requiring high sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the other hand provides strongly increased Raman signal from molecules attached to metallic nanostructures. SERS is thus a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. One particular area of interest is the application of such techniques for the analysis of the composition of biological cells. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The latter processes introduce a delay time for the observation of maximum enhancement factors which must be taken into account for any given implementation of SERS. In the present thesis the goal was to develop very sensitive SERS techniques for the measurement of biomolecules of interest for analysis of the contents of cells. The techniques explored could be eventually be applicable to microfluidic systems with the ultimate goal of analyzing the molecular constituents of single cells. SERS study of different amino acids and organic dyes were performed during the course of this thesis. A high sensitivity detection system based on SERS has been developed and spectrum from tryptophan (Trp) amino acid at very low concentration (10-8 M) has been detected. The concentration at which good quality SERS spectra could be detected from Trp is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than that previously reported in literature. It has shown that at such low concentrations the SERS spectra of Trp are qualitatively distinct from the spectra commonly reported in

  5. A highly sensitive method for quantification of iohexol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, A.; Boeringer, F.; Swifka, J.


    lohexol (1-N,3-N-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-5-IN-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) acetamide-2,4,6-triiodobenzene1,3-dicarboxamide) is used for accurate determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, high iohexol amounts might lead to adverse effects in...... in organisms. In order to minimize the iohexol dosage required for the GFR determination in humans, the development of a sensitive quantification method is essential. Therefore, the objective of our preclinical study was to establish and validate a simple and robust liquid......-spectrometry based method has been proved to be sensitive, selective and suitable for the quantification of iohexol in serum. Due to high sensitivity of this novel method the iohexol application dose as well as the sampling time in the clinical routine could be reduced in the future in order to further minimize side...

  6. Development of high sensitive radon detector with electrostatic collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Machiko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tasaka, Shigeki; Hori, Hidemitsu; Okumura, Kimihiro; Kajita, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo


    One of the main purposes of Super-Kamiokande is the observation of solar neutrinos. The radon concentration in the detector water should be less than about 5 mBq/m{sup 3}, because low energy background events in this experiment are dominated by radon daughters. We developed a high sensitive radon detector with an electrostatic collection method and a PIN photodiode to measure the energy of {alpha} particles from the daughter nuclei of {sup 222}Rn. We constructed a calibration system to study high voltage dependence and absolute humidity dependence of the detector. As a result, the absolute humidity dependence was clearly observed at the region less than 1.6 g/m{sup 3}. The calibration factor at 0.08 g/m{sup 3} was 1.8{+-}0.1 (count/d)/(mBq/m{sup 3}). The detection limit was 13 mBq/m{sup 3} by the Curie`s method. (author)

  7. Highly Sensitive Filter Paper Substrate for SERS Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Fierro-Mercado


    Full Text Available We report on a novel and extremely low-cost surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate fabricated depositing gold nanoparticles on common lab filter paper using thermal inkjet technology. The paper-based substrate combines all advantages of other plasmonic structures fabricated by more elaborate techniques with the dynamic flexibility given by the inherent nature of the paper for an efficient sample collection, robustness, and stability. We describe the fabrication, characterization, and SERS activity of our substrate using 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as analytes. The paper-based SERS substrates presented a high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility for analytes employed, demonstrating a direct application in forensic science and homeland security.

  8. Na emission and bubble instability in single-bubble sonoluminescence. (United States)

    Choi, Pak-Kon; Takumori, Keisuke; Lee, Hyang-Bok


    Na emission in single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) was observed from 0.1mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution containing a dissolved noble gas at a low acoustic pressure, at which a continuous spectral component was negligible. High-speed shadowgraph movies were captured at a frame rate of 30,000fps, which indicated that bubble dancing is responsible for the Na emission. The measured bubble path length was well correlated with the Na intensity. The disintegration of a daughter bubble followed by immediate coalescence was frequently observed, which may have been the cause of the bubble dancing. A comparison of the Na spectra obtained in SBSL and multibubble SL showed that the conditions under which Na emission is generated are twofold. A narrow component was observed in the Na spectrum in SBSL, while narrow and broad components were observed in MBSL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system.We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1.We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  10. Highly sensitive detection using microring resonator and nanopores (United States)

    Bougot-Robin, K.; Hoste, J. W.; Le Thomas, N.; Bienstman, P.; Edel, J. B.


    One of the most significant challenges facing physical and biological scientists is the accurate detection and identification of single molecules in free-solution environments. The ability to perform such sensitive and selective measurements opens new avenues for a large number of applications in biological, medical and chemical analysis, where small sample volumes and low analyte concentrations are the norm. Access to information at the single or few molecules scale is rendered possible by a fine combination of recent advances in technologies. We propose a novel detection method that combines highly sensitive label-free resonant sensing obtained with high-Q microcavities and position control in nanoscale pores (nanopores). In addition to be label-free and highly sensitive, our technique is immobilization free and does not rely on surface biochemistry to bind probes on a chip. This is a significant advantage, both in term of biology uncertainties and fewer biological preparation steps. Through combination of high-Q photonic structures with translocation through nanopore at the end of a pipette, or through a solid-state membrane, we believe significant advances can be achieved in the field of biosensing. Silicon microrings are highly advantageous in term of sensitivity, multiplexing, and microfabrication and are chosen for this study. In term of nanopores, we both consider nanopore at the end of a nanopipette, with the pore being approach from the pipette with nanoprecise mechanical control. Alternatively, solid state nanopores can be fabricated through a membrane, supporting the ring. Both configuration are discussed in this paper, in term of implementation and sensitivity.

  11. Bubble nucleation dynamics in 3He/4He mixture by holographic interferometry (United States)

    Morikawa, M.; Abe, H.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.


    We were able to nucleate a gas bubble in the diluted phase of 3He-4He mixture by a 1 ms width strong sound pulse. The nucleated bubble became large and detached from the bottom transducer and was pushed out to the bulk liquid by the acoustic wave pulse. The bubble then repeatedly expanded and contracted a few times and finally disappeared. The overall motion of the bubble was traced by a high speed camera with a time resolution of 1 ms. We are attempting to investigate the small density fluctuation around the bubble by incorporating holographic interferometry technology. The measurement was done at T=0.35 K for the phase separated mixture at saturated vapor pressure. An acoustic wave transducer was located at the bottom of the cell, so the bubble was nucleated in the dilute phase of the mixture. We resolved the density fluctuation as small as Δρ/ρ = 2 × 10-6 in the dilute phase with the sample width of 25 mm, which could not be obtained by other methods. It was found that there appeared a less dense region of —Δρ/ρ approx 1.46 × 10-3 just above the bubble. The bubble appeared just after the pulse was turned off, but this less dense region appeared prior to the emergence of the bulk bubble. It should be an important information about the bubble nucleation mechanism. This very high sensitivity of holographic interferometry with respect to the density fluctuation could be widely used in quantum liquid.

  12. Sonoporation from jetting cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, C.D.; Arora, M.; Ikink, Roy; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Delius, Michael; Lohse, Detlef


    The fluid dynamic interaction of cavitation bubbles with adherent cells on a substrate is experimentally investigated. We find that the nonspherical collapse of bubbles near to the boundary is responsible for cell detachment. High-speed photography reveals that a wall bounded flow leads to the

  13. Sonoporation from jetting cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.-D. Ohl (Claus-Dieter); M. Arora (Manish); R. Ikink (Roy); N. de Jong (Nico); M. Versluis (Michel); M. Delius (Michael); D. Lohse (Detlef)


    textabstractThe fluid dynamic interaction of cavitation bubbles with adherent cells on a substrate is experimentally investigated. We find that the nonspherical collapse of bubbles near to the boundary is responsible for cell detachment. High-speed photography reveals that a wall bounded flow leads

  14. Bubble size distribution of foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.W.; den Engelsen, C.W.; Isarin, J.C.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Groot Wassink, J.; Groot Wassink, J.


    A procedure based upon image analysis has been adopted to study the influence of several physical parameters on bubble size in foam. A procedure has been described to account for the distribution of bubble size. Foam was generated in a rotor-stator mixer. In the present research, the nature of the

  15. Hadron bubbles in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troitskii, M.A.; Khodel' , V.A.


    Nonlinear effects in the interaction of hadrons with a nucleus are analyzed. It is shown that K/sup +/ mesons form bubbles in nuclear matter which are similar to electron bubbles in liquid helium. Charged pions produced in collisions of heavy relativistic ions may collect and form droplets approx.5--7 Fm in size containing approx.10/sup 2/ particles.

  16. Mr. Bubble Gum: "Not Now!"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    PreS-Gr 2-- Mr. Bubble Gum is a Level 3 book, the most difficult in this series. In four short stories of varying lengths, an older brother tells about his younger brother Eli, who "sticks to me like bubble gum...

  17. Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks

    CERN Multimedia


    This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.

  18. Bubble columns : Structures or stability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, W.K.


    The aim of the thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the hydrodynamics of the gravity driven bubbly flow that can be found in bubble columns. Special attention is paid to the large scale structures that have a strong impact on several key parameters such as the degree of mixing, mass and

  19. Phase diagrams for sonoluminescing bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Brenner, Michael P.


    Sound driven gas bubbles in water can emit light pulses. This phenomenon is called sonoluminescence (SL). Two different phases of single bubble SL have been proposed: diffusively stable and diffusively unstable SL. We present phase diagrams in the gas concentration versus forcing pressure state

  20. Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias


    We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well...

  1. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper


    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  2. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Mitchell R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Buckley, Heather L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arnold, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves "Click" chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  3. High-sensitivity active pixel sensor with variable threshold photodetector (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo


    A novel high-sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) with a variable threshold photodetector has been presented and for the first time, a simple SPICE model for the variable threshold photodetector is presented. Its SPICE model is in good agreement with measurements and is more simpler than the conventional model. The proposed APS has a gate/body-tied PMOSFET-type photodetector with an overlapping control gate that makes it possible to control the sensitivity of the proposed APS. It is a hybrid device composed of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), a lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and a vertical BJT. Using sufficient overlapping control gate bias to operate the MOSFET in inversion mode, the variable threshold photodetector allows for increasing the photocurrent gain by 105 at low light intensities when the control gate bias is -3 V. Thus, the proposed APS with a variable threshold photodetector has better low-light-level sensitivity than the conventional APS operating mode, and it has a variable sensitivity which is determined by the control gate bias. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary MOS (CMOS) process and its characteristics have been evaluated.

  4. A highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating diaphragm pressure transducer (United States)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Lubansky, Alex; Hinckley, Steven


    In this work, a novel diaphragm based pressure transducer with high sensitivity is described, including the physical design structure, in-depth analysis of optical response to changes in pressure, and a discussion of practical implementation and limitations. A flat circular rubber membrane bonded to a cylinder forms the body of the transducer. A fiber Bragg grating bonded to the center of the diaphragm structure enables the fractional change in pressure to be determined by analyzing the change in Bragg wavelength of the reflected spectra. Extensive evaluation of the physical properties and optical characteristics of the transducer has been performed through experimentation, and modeling using small deformation theory. The results show the transducer has a sensitivity of 0.116 nm/kPa, across a range of 15 kPa. Ultra-low cost interrogation of the optical signal was achieved through the use of an optically mismatched Bragg grating acting as an edge filter to convert the spectral change into an intensity change. A numerical model of the intensity based interrogation was implemented in order to validate the experimental results. Utilizing this interrogation technique and housing both the sensing and reference Bragg gratings within the main body of the transducer means it is effectively temperature insensitive and easily connected to electronic systems.

  5. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings. (United States)

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang


    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.

  6. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide microelectrode array sensor. (United States)

    Ng, Andrew M H; Kenry; Teck Lim, Chwee; Low, Hong Yee; Loh, Kian Ping


    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been fabricated into a microelectrode array (MEA) using a modified nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Through a modified NIL process, the rGO MEA was fabricated by a self-alignment of conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and rGO layer without etching of the rGO layer. The rGO MEA consists of an array of 10μm circular disks and microelectrode signature has been found at a pitch spacing of 60μm. The rGO MEA shows a sensitivity of 1.91nAμm(-1) to dopamine (DA) without the use of mediators or functionalization of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) active layer. The performance of rGO MEA remains stable when tested under highly resistive media using a continuous flow set up, as well as when subjecting it to mechanical stress. The successful demonstration of NIL for fabricating rGO microelectrodes on flexible substrate presents a route for the large scale fabrication of highly sensitive, flexible and thin biosensing platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Freely suspended nanocomposite membranes as highly sensitive sensors. (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoyang; Markutsya, Sergiy; Pikus, Yuri; Tsukruk, Vladimir V


    Highly sensitive sensor arrays are in high demand for prospective applications in remote sensing and imaging. Measuring microscopic deflections of compliant micromembranes and cantilevers is developing into one of the most versatile approaches for thermal, acoustic and chemical sensing. Here, we report on an innovative fabrication of compliant nanocomposite membranes with nanoscale thickness showing extraordinary sensitivity and dynamic range, which makes them candidates for a new generation of membrane-based sensor arrays. These nanomembranes with a thickness of 25-70 nm, which can be freely suspended over large (hundred micrometres) openings are fabricated with molecular precision by time-efficient, spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly. They are designed as multilayered molecular composites made of a combination of polymeric monolayers and a metal nanoparticle intralayer. We demonstrate that these nanocomposite membranes possess unparalleled sensitivity and a unique autorecovering ability. The membrane nanostructure that is responsible for these outstanding properties combines multilayered polymer/nanoparticle organization, high polymer-chain orientation, and a pre-stretched state.

  8. Highly Sensitive Detection of Protein Biomarkers with Organic Electrochemical Transistors. (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Wang, Naixiang; Yang, Anneng; Law, Helen Ka-Wai; Li, Li; Yan, Feng


    The analysis of protein biomarkers is of great importance in the diagnosis of diseases. Although many convenient and low-cost electrochemical approaches have been extensively investigated, they are not sensitive enough in the detection of protein biomarkers with low concentrations in physiological environments. Here, this study reports a novel organic-electrochemical-transistor-based biosensor that can successfully detect cancer protein biomarkers with ultrahigh sensitivity. The devices are operated by detecting electrochemical activity on gate electrodes, which is dependent on the concentrations of proteins labeled with catalytic nanoprobes. The protein sensors can specifically detect a cancer biomarker, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, down to the concentration of 10(-14) g mL(-1) , which is several orders of magnitude lower than the detection limits of previously reported electrochemical approaches. Moreover, the devices can successfully differentiate breast cancer cells from normal cells at various concentrations. The ultrahigh sensitivity of the protein sensors is attributed to the inherent amplification function of the organic electrochemical transistors. This work paves a way for developing highly sensitive and low-cost biosensors for the detection of various protein biomarkers in clinical analysis in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The bubble legacy (United States)

    Hecht, Jeff


    Imagine an optics company - let's call it JDS Uniphase - with a market capitalization approaching the gross domestic product (GDP) of Ireland. Now imagine it merging with a laser company - say, SDL - that has a stock valuation of 41bn, higher than the GDP of Costa Rica. Finally, imagine a start-up with 109m in venture capital in its pocket but no product to its name (Novalux) turning down an offer of 500m as insufficient. It may be hard to believe, but these tales are true: they occurred in the year 2000 - an era when the laser, fibre-optics and photonics industries were the darlings of the financial world. Such was the madcap nature of that brief period that survivors call it simply "the bubble".

  10. Bubble size distribution and inner surface in a bubble flow (United States)

    Žitek, P.; Valenta, V.


    This paper follows the reports [4] and gives instructions on how to theoretically determine the bubble size and its distribution using the distribution function of Nukiyama-Tanasawa with friction factors.

  11. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi


    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  12. Partial coalescence of soap bubbles (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.


    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.

  13. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence. (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I


    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. New evidence on the first financial bubble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehen, R.G.P.; Goetzmann, W.; Rouwenhorst, K.G.


    The Mississippi Bubble, South Sea Bubble and the Dutch Windhandel of 1720 together represent the world's first global financial bubble. We hand-collect cross-sectional price data and investor account data from 1720 to test theories about market bubbles. Our tests suggest that innovation was a key

  15. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation. (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M


    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  16. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of antibiotics in milk. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin


    Antibiotics residues in foods are very harmful to human beings. Determination of antibiotics residues relies largely on the availability of adequate analytical techniques. Currently, there is an urgent need for on site and real time detection of antibiotics in food. In this work, a novel one step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was proposed using pyrocatechol violet (PCV) as a reducer agent. Highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection of four antibiotics kanamycin mono sulfate (KA), neomycin sulfate (NE), streptomycin sulfate (ST) and bleomycin sulfate (BL) was realized during the formation of AuNPs. PCV has -OH groups and these antibiotics have -OH, -NH2, -NH- groups, so there may be some special hydrogen-bonding interactions between PCV and these antibiotics. Therefore, the presence of KA, NE, ST and BL would influence the synthesis of AuNPs, then the color and state of AuNPs would change, which could be observed with the naked eye or a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Results showed that A670 was linear with the logarithm of KA concentration in the range from 1.0×10(-8) to 5.0×10(-7)M and 5.0×10(-7) to 5.5×10(-5)M. The detection limit of KA was 1.0×10(-9)M (S/N=3). The coexisting substances including 1.0×10(-5)M phenylalanine, alanine, glycerol, glucose, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), CO3(2-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-) and Br(-) did not affect the determination of 1.0×10(-7)M antibiotics. In particular, the proposed method could be applied successfully to the detection of antibiotics in the pretreated liquid milk products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A.; Noack, J. [Meizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany); Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored by time-resolved photography and numerical simulations. The growth-collapse period of cylindrical bubbles of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) differs only slightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble size and energy even for aspherical bubbles. The change of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid walls and elastic (tissue-like) boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also investigated.

  18. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet


    Dean Baker


    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  19. Magnetism. Blowing magnetic skyrmion bubbles. (United States)

    Jiang, Wanjun; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Guoqiang; Jungfleisch, M Benjamin; Fradin, Frank Y; Pearson, John E; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Wang, Kang L; Heinonen, Olle; te Velthuis, Suzanne G E; Hoffmann, Axel


    The formation of soap bubbles from thin films is accompanied by topological transitions. Here we show how a magnetic topological structure, a skyrmion bubble, can be generated in a solid-state system in a similar manner. Using an inhomogeneous in-plane current in a system with broken inversion symmetry, we experimentally "blow" magnetic skyrmion bubbles from a geometrical constriction. The presence of a spatially divergent spin-orbit torque gives rise to instabilities of the magnetic domain structures that are reminiscent of Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities in fluid flows. We determine a phase diagram for skyrmion formation and reveal the efficient manipulation of these dynamically created skyrmions, including depinning and motion. The demonstrated current-driven transformation from stripe domains to magnetic skyrmion bubbles could lead to progress in skyrmion-based spintronics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng


    Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.

  1. Doughnut-shaped soap bubbles. (United States)

    Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto


    Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V=L(3)/6π(2), and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for Vbubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V<αL(3)/6π(2) cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.

  2. Bubbles and foams in microfluidics. (United States)

    Huerre, Axel; Miralles, Vincent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline


    Microfluidics offers great tools to produce highly-controlled dispersions of gas into liquid, from isolated bubbles to organized microfoams. Potential technological applications are manifold, from novel materials to scaffolds for tissue engineering or enhanced oil recovery. More fundamentally, microfluidics makes it possible to investigate the physics of complex systems such as foams at scales where the capillary forces become dominant, in model experiments involving few well-controlled parameters. In this context, this review does not have the ambition to detail in a comprehensive manner all the techniques and applications involving bubbles and foams in microfluidics. Rather, it focuses on particular consequences of working at the microscale, under confinement, and hopes to provide insight into the physics of such systems. The first part of this work focuses on bubbles, and more precisely on (i) bubble generation, where the confinement can suppress capillary instabilities while inertial effects may play a role, and (ii) bubble dynamics, paying special attention to the lubrication film between bubble and wall and the influence of confinement. The second part addresses the formation and dynamics of microfoams, emphasizing structural differences from macroscopic foams and the influence of the confinement.

  3. From rational bubbles to crashes (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Malevergne, Y.


    We study and generalize in various ways the model of rational expectation (RE) bubbles introduced by Blanchard and Watson in the economic literature. Bubbles are argued to be the equivalent of Goldstone modes of the fundamental rational pricing equation, associated with the symmetry-breaking introduced by non-vanishing dividends. Generalizing bubbles in terms of multiplicative stochastic maps, we summarize the result of Lux and Sornette that the no-arbitrage condition imposes that the tail of the return distribution is hyperbolic with an exponent μbubble model to arbitrary dimensions d: a number d of market time series are made linearly interdependent via d× d stochastic coupling coefficients. We derive the no-arbitrage condition in this context and, with the renewal theory for products of random matrices applied to stochastic recurrence equations, we extend the theorem of Lux and Sornette to demonstrate that the tails of the unconditional distributions associated with such d-dimensional bubble processes follow power laws, with the same asymptotic tail exponent μmodel and the non-stationary growth rate model) of the RE bubble model that provide two ways of reconciliation with the stylized facts of financial data.

  4. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov


    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.



    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas



    イシイ, セイゴ; ナリタ, ヒデキ; マエノ, ノリカズ; Seigo, ISHII; Hideki, NARITA; Norikazu, MAENO


    Bubble formation experiments were conducted for snow composed of ice spheres 303μm in diameter at various temperatures and applied pressures. By measuring volumes of closed-off bubbles at various densities, the bubble formation density (ρ_f) and the bubble close-off density (ρ_c) were obtained. ρ_f, that is the density at which bubble formation begins, decreased with lowering temperature or pressure. On the other hand, ρ_c, that is the density at which bubble formation finishes, increased wit...

  7. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw


    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  8. On the Inception of Financial Representative Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferrara


    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to formalize the inception of representative bubbles giving the condition under which they may arise. We will find that representative bubbles may start at any time, depending on the definition of a behavioral component. This result is at odds with the theory of classic rational bubbles, which are those models that rely on the fulfillment of the transversality condition by which a bubble in a financial asset can arise just at its first trade. This means that a classic rational bubble (differently from our model cannot follow a cycle since if a bubble exists, it will burst by definition and never arise again.

  9. Bubble rearrangements dynamics in foams (United States)

    Le Merrer, Marie; Costa, Severine; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie; Hoehler, Reinhard


    Liquid foams are jammed dispersions of gas bubbles in a surfactant solution. Their structure evolves with time because surface tension drives a diffusive gas exchange between neighboring bubbles. This coarsening leads to a build-up of stresses which are relaxed upon local intermittent bubble rearrangements. These events govern the slow viscoelastic foam response, and similar bubble rearrangements are the elementary processes of plastic flow. Thus, the rearrangement duration is a key parameter describing how the microstructure dynamics control the macroscopic rheological response. We probe the duration of coarsening-induced rearrangements in 3D foams using a multiple light scattering technique (time resolved Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy) as a function of the surfactant chemistry and the liquid fraction. As the foam becomes wetter, the confinement pressure of the packing goes to zero and the contacts between bubbles vanish. For mobile interfaces, we find that the rearrangements slow down as the jamming point is approached. These findings are compared to scaling laws which reveal an analogy between rearrangements dynamics in foams and granular suspensions.

  10. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles (United States)

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David


    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  11. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles. (United States)

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David


    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.

  12. Aspherical bubble dynamics and oscillation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin, R.P.; Chapyak, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Noack, J.; Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany)


    The cavitation bubbles common in laser medicine are rarely perfectly spherical and are often located near tissue boundaries, in vessels, etc., which introduce aspherical dynamics. Here, novel features of aspherical bubble dynamics are explored. Time-resolved experimental photographs and simulations of large aspect ratio (length:diameter {approximately}20) cylindrical bubble dynamics are presented. The experiments and calculations exhibit similar dynamics. A small high-pressure cylindrical bubble initially expands radially with hardly any axial motion. Then, after reaching its maximum volume, a cylindrical bubble collapses along its long axis with relatively little radial motion. The growth-collapse period of these very aspherical bubbles differs only sightly from twice the Rayleigh collapse time for a spherical bubble with an equivalent maximum volume. This fact justifies using the temporal interval between the acoustic signals emitted upon bubble creation and collapse to estimate the maximum bubble volume. As a result, hydrophone measurements can provide an estimate of the bubble energy even for aspherical bubbles. The prolongation of the oscillation period of bubbles near solid boundaries relative to that of isolated spherical bubbles is also discussed.

  13. Soap Bubbles on a Cold Day. (United States)

    Waiveris, Charles


    Discusses the effects of blowing bubbles in extremely cold weather. Describes the freezing conditions of the bubbles and some physical properties. Suggests using the activity with all ages of students. (MVL)

  14. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water (United States)

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve


    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  15. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure

  16. Does monetary policy generate asset price bubbles ?


    Blot, Christophe; Hubert, Paul; Labondance, Fabien


    This paper empirically assesses the effect of monetary policy on asset price bubbles and aims to disentangle the competing predictions of theoretical bubble models. First, we take advantage of the model averaging feature of Principal Component Analysis to estimate bubble indicators, for the stock, bond and housing markets in the United States and Euro area, based on the structural, econometric and statistical approaches proposed in the literature to measure bubbles. Second, we ...

  17. Eulerian simulations of bubble behaviour in a two-dimensional gas-solid bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Huilin; Liu Wentie; Zhao Guangbo; He Yurong [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Dept. of Power Engineering; Li Feng [Jiangxi Boiler Co. Ltd., Nanchang (China)


    In the present study, the CFD model is based on a two-fluid model extended with the kinetic theory of granular flow. The simulation results of bubble diameter and bubble rise velocity are compared to the Darton equation and the Davidson model in a free bubbling fluidized bed. The predicted values are in reasonable agreement with the values from the Darton bubble size equation and the Davidson model for isolated bubbles. It is shown that the break-up and direct wall interaction effects influence the dynamic bubble behavior in the free bubbling fluidized beds. (author)

  18. Behavior of a Large Bubble in a Horizontal Channel : 2nd Report, Large Bubble Penetrating into Running Liquid


    坂口, 忠司; 小澤, 守; 浜口, 八朗; 福永, 毅


    The behavior of a large bubble penetrating into running liquid in a horizontal pipe has been studied experimentally. The flow regime of the large bubble is classified into the following three regimes : a steadily moving bubble regime, a transition regime and a stationary bubble regime. In the steadily moving bubble regime, the large bubble penetrates at constant velocity and the shape of the bubble nose does not change along the pipe. An analysis of the behavior of the large bubble has been c...

  19. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S


    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  20. Bubble Size Distributions in Coastal Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble size distributions have been measured with an optical system that is based on imaging of a small sample volume with a CCD camera system, and processing of the images to obtain the size of individual bubbles in the diameter range from 30 to lOOO^m. This bubble measuring system is deployed from

  1. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  2. Frictional drag reduction by bubble injection (United States)

    Murai, Yuichi


    The injection of gas bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer of a liquid phase has multiple different impacts on the original flow structure. Frictional drag reduction is a phenomenon resulting from their combined effects. This explains why a number of different void-drag reduction relationships have been reported to date, while early works pursued a simple universal mechanism. In the last 15 years, a series of precisely designed experimentations has led to the conclusion that the frictional drag reduction by bubble injection has multiple manifestations dependent on bubble size and flow speed. The phenomena are classified into several regimes of two-phase interaction mechanisms. Each regime has inherent physics of bubbly liquid, highlighted by keywords such as bubbly mixture rheology, the spectral response of bubbles in turbulence, buoyancy-dominated bubble behavior, and gas cavity breakup. Among the regimes, bubbles in some selected situations lose the drag reduction effect owing to extra momentum transfer promoted by their active motions. This separates engineers into two communities: those studying small bubbles for high-speed flow applications and those studying large bubbles for low-speed flow applications. This article reviews the roles of bubbles in drag reduction, which have been revealed from fundamental studies of simplified flow geometries and from development of measurement techniques that resolve the inner layer structure of bubble-mixed turbulent boundary layers.

  3. Affirmative Discrimination and the Bubble (United States)

    Clegg, Roger


    In this essay, the author discusses how affirmative action contributed to an unnatural rise in enrollments in college. In considering the higher education bubble, he makes the case that as the opposition to preferences continues to build, the momentum of this trend will only increase as funding shrinks. He offers some tentative answers to a series…

  4. The Coming Law School Bubble (United States)

    Krauss, Michael I.


    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  5. Models of cylindrical bubble pulsation (United States)

    Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hay, Todd A.; Hamilton, Mark F.


    Three models are considered for describing the dynamics of a pulsating cylindrical bubble. A linear solution is derived for a cylindrical bubble in an infinite compressible liquid. The solution accounts for losses due to viscosity, heat conduction, and acoustic radiation. It reveals that radiation is the dominant loss mechanism, and that it is 22 times greater than for a spherical bubble of the same radius. The predicted resonance frequency provides a basis of comparison for limiting forms of other models. The second model considered is a commonly used equation in Rayleigh-Plesset form that requires an incompressible liquid to be finite in extent in order for bubble pulsation to occur. The radial extent of the liquid becomes a fitting parameter, and it is found that considerably different values of the parameter are required for modeling inertial motion versus acoustical oscillations. The third model was developed by V. K. Kedrinskii [Hydrodynamics of Explosion (Springer, New York, 2005), pp. 23–26] in the form of the Gilmore equation for compressible liquids of infinite extent. While the correct resonance frequency and loss factor are not recovered from this model in the linear approximation, it provides reasonable agreement with observations of inertial motion. PMID:22978863

  6. The Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    The 3.70 metre Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC), dismantled on 9 August 1984. During operation it was one of the biggest detectors in the world, producing direct visual recordings of particle tracks. 6.3 million photos of interactions were taken with the chamber in the course of its existence.

  7. Explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a very high temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures homogeneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles almost instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and

  8. Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shpak, O.; Verweij, M.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Escoffre, J.M.; Bouakaz, A.


    The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to

  9. Electrolysis Bubbles Make Waterflow Visible (United States)

    Schultz, Donald F.


    Technique for visualization of three-dimensional flow uses tiny tracer bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen made by electrolysis of water. Strobe-light photography used to capture flow patterns, yielding permanent record that is measured to obtain velocities of particles. Used to measure simulated mixing turbulence in proposed gas-turbine combustor and also used in other water-table flow tests.

  10. Impurity bubbles in a BEC (United States)

    Timmermans, Eddy; Blinova, Alina; Boshier, Malcolm


    Polarons (particles that interact with the self-consistent deformation of the host medium that contains them) self-localize when strongly coupled. Dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) doped with neutral distinguishable atoms (impurities) and armed with a Feshbach-tuned impurity-boson interaction provide a unique laboratory to study self-localized polarons. In nature, self-localized polarons come in two flavors that exhibit qualitatively different behavior: In lattice systems, the deformation is slight and the particle is accompanied by a cloud of collective excitations as in the case of the Landau-Pekar polarons of electrons in a dielectric lattice. In natural fluids and gases, the strongly coupled particle radically alters the medium, e.g. by expelling the host medium as in the case of the electron bubbles in superfluid helium. We show that BEC-impurities can self-localize in a bubble, as well as in a Landau-Pekar polaron state. The BEC-impurity system is fully characterized by only two dimensionless coupling constants. In the corresponding phase diagram the bubble and Landau-Pekar polaron limits correspond to large islands separated by a cross-over region. The same BEC-impurity species can be adiabatically Feshbach steered from the Landau-Pekar to the bubble regime. This work was funded by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  11. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy (United States)

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.


    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  12. Bubble bouncing at a clean water surface. (United States)

    Zawala, Jan; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Malysa, Kazimierz


    Experiments on the coalescence time of submillimeter bubbles colliding with a distilled water/air interface either being at rest (undisturbed) or vibrating vertically (with controlled amplitude and frequency) were carried out. It was found that the outcome of the bubble collision (coalescence or bounce) depends on impact velocity and size of the bubble, i.e. the parameters determining the bubble deformation degree. With the surface at rest, when the deformation of the bubble was sufficiently high, bubble bouncing was observed. It was caused by the fact that the radius of the intervening liquid film formed between the colliding bubble and water/air interface was large enough to prevent the liquid layer from reaching its thickness of rupture within the time of bubble-interface contact. Coalescence occurred in a consecutive collision if the bubble deformation was below a threshold value, as a result of dissipation of the kinetic energy associated with the bubble motion. The hypothesis about the crucial role of the bubble deformation and size of the liquid film formed in the bouncing mechanism was confirmed in a series of experiments where the bubble collided with a vibrating water/air interface. It was shown that when the kinetic energy was properly re-supplied from an external source (interface vibrations), the spectacular phenomenon of "immortal" bubbles, dancing indefinitely at the water/air interface, was achieved. It was shown that "immortal" bubble formation is a consequence of a similarly high degree of the bubble shape deformation and consequently a large enough radius of the liquid film formed.

  13. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerov, N. A., E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Akhatov, I. S. [Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Ohl, C.-D. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Sametov, S. P. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Khazimullin, M. V. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054 (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Avila, S. R. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    Experiments with water–air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ∼100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ∼30 μm in diameter can be “pushed” away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.

  14. Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 2. Bubble plumes, bubbles, and wave characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw,


    Measurements of breaking-wave-generated bubble plumes were made in fresh (but not clean) water in a large wind-wave tunnel. To preserve diversity, a classification scheme was developed on the basis of plume dimensions and "optical density," or the plume's ability to obscure the background. Optically

  15. Simulations of Rising Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Bubbles (United States)

    Ricker, P. M.; Robinson, K.; Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Calder, A. C.; Zingale, M.; Truran, J. W.; Linde, T.; Caceres, A.; Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Riley, K.; Siegel, A.; Vladimirova, N.

    Motivated by recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of X-ray emission voids in galaxy cluster cooling flows, we have investigated the behavior of rising bubbles in stratified atmospheres using the FLASH adaptive-mesh simulation code. We present results from two-dimensional simulations with and without the effects of magnetic fields, and with varying bubble sizes and background stratifications. We find purely hydrodynamic bubbles to be unstable; a dynamically important magnetic field is required to maintain a bubble's integrity. This suggests that, even absent thermal conduction, for bubbles to be persistent enough to be regularly observed, they must be supported in large part by magnetic fields. We also observe that magnetically supported bubbles leave a tail as they rise. The structure of these tails may provide clues to the bubble's dynamical history.

  16. Double bubble with the big-bubble technique during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie; Dubord, Paul; Yeung, Sonia N


    To report a case of intraoperative double bubble that formed during big-bubble DALK surgery in a patient with corneal scarring secondary to herpetic stromal keratitis. Case report. A 22 year old woman presented with a large corneal scar, likely secondary to previous herpetic stromal keratitis. She underwent big-bubble DALK surgery for visual rehabilitation. Intraoperatively, a mixed bubble with persistent type 2 bubble postoperatively was noted. The second bubble resorbed with clearance of the graft and good visual outcome after 6 weeks. This case report describes the unusual development of a mixed bubble during big-bubble DALK surgery. This graft cleared with resolution of the second bubble postoperatively without further surgical intervention.

  17. Application of Defocusing Technique to Bubble Depth Measurement


    Mugikura, Yuki


    The thesis presents a defocusing technique to extract bubble depth information. Typically, when a bubble is out of focus in an image, the bubble is ignored by applying a filter or thresholding. However, it is known that a bubble image becomes blurred as the bubble moves away from the focal plane. Then, this technique is applied to determine the bubble distance along the optical path based on the blurriness or intensity gradient information of the bubble. Using the image processing algorithm, ...

  18. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage


    . The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model......The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years......, and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid...

  19. Conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, V A; Eroshenko, Yu N


    We describe the general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions, consisting of two classes, is found. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar, and the representatives are the famous Robertson--Walker metrics. We called one of them the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. These "gravitational bubbles" are the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant), which are absolutely impossible in General Relativity. This phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from "nothing". The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family, which can be conformally covered by the thee-para...

  20. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  1. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science (United States)

    Behroozi, F.


    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  2. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt


    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  3. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  4. Bubble-induced cave collapse. (United States)

    Girihagama, Lakshika; Nof, Doron; Hancock, Cathrine


    Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon) physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked) beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m). Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section), with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet), and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  5. Bubble capture by a propeller (United States)

    Caillé, François; Clanet, Christophe; Magnaudet, Jacques


    A small air bubble (radius a) is injected in water (kinematic viscosity nu) in the vicinity (distance r_0) of a propeller (radius r_p, angular frequency omega). We study experimentally and theoretically the conditions under which the bubble can be ‘captured’, i.e. deviated from its vertical trajectory (imposed by gravity g) and moved toward the centre of the propeller (r {=} 0). We show that the capture frequency omega_{scriptsizecapt} follows the relationship [omega_{hboxriptsizeit capt}=left(frac{2ga^2}{9betanu r_p f(hboxRe_b)}right)left(frac{r_0}{r_p}right)^2(1+\\cos\\varphi_0),] where beta is a dimensionless parameter characterizing the propeller, f(Re_b) is an empirical correction to Stokes' drag law which accounts for finite-Reynolds-number effects and pi/2-varphi_0 is the angle between the axis of the propeller and the line between the centre of the propeller and the point where the bubble is injected. This law is found to be valid as long as the distance d between the propeller and the water surface is larger than 3r_0. For smaller distances, the capture frequency increases; using an image technique, we show how the above expression is modified by the presence of the surface.

  6. Interaction of positive streamers in air with bubbles floating on liquid surfaces: conductive and dielectric bubbles (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Naidis, George V.; Kushner, Mark J.


    The interaction of plasmas sustained in humid air with liquids produces reactive species in both the gas phase and liquid for applications ranging from medicine to agriculture. In several experiments, enhanced liquid reactivity has been produced when the liquid is a foam or a bubble coated liquid. To investigate the phenomena of streamers interacting with bubbles a two-dimensional computational investigation has been performed of streamer initiation and propagation on and inside hemispherical bubble-shells floating on a liquid surface. Following prior experiments, water and oil bubble-shells with an electrode located outside and inside the bubble were investigated. We found that positive air streamers interact differently with conductive water and dielectric oil bubbles. The streamer propagates along the external surface of a water bubble while not penetrating through the bubble due to screening of the electric field by the conducting shell. If the electrode is inserted inside the bubble, the path of the streamer depends on how deeply the electrode penetrates. For shallow penetration, the streamer propagates along the inner surface of the bubble. Due to the low conductivity of oil bubble-shells, the electric field from an external electrode penetrates into the interior of the bubble. The streamer can then be re-initiated inside the bubble.

  7. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  8. Postsynthetic lanthanide functionalization of nanosized metal-organic frameworks for highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent thermometry. (United States)

    Zhou, You; Yan, Bing; Lei, Fang


    A straightforward postsynthetic lanthanide functionalization strategy is developed for fabricating highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent nanothermometers based on nanosized MOFs, which highlights the ability of a broad range of nanosized MOFs to construct nanothermometers.

  9. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  10. Desensitization protocol for highly sensitized renal transplant patients: A single-center experience


    Kute, Vivek B.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Shah, Pankaj R; Kamal R Goplani; Patel, Himanshu V.; Gumber, Manoj R.; Patel, Rashmi D; Kamal V Kanodia; Kamlesh S Suthar; Trivedi, Varsha B; Pranjal R Modi


    Highly sensitized patients are destined to remain untransplanted for long. Early transplantation results in cost-saving, reduced morbidity/mortality and improved quality of life. We carried out a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of desensitization protocol vis-à-vis patient/graft survival in living donor renal transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Between December 2008 and April 2010, 34 renal transplant (RTx) patients underwent desensitization protocol. An anti-...

  11. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing? (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin


    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  12. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Ralf [Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, James Franck Strasse, 85747 Garching (Germany); Ambjoernsson, Tobias [Chemistry Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hanke, Andreas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas, 80 Fort Brown, Brownsville (United States); Fogedby, Hans C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Arhus C (Denmark)], E-mail:


    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments for situations below, at, and above the denaturation transition. We also propose a new single molecule setup based on DNA constructs with two bubble zones to measure the bubble coalescence and extract the physical parameters relevant to DNA breathing. Finally we consider the interplay between denaturation bubbles and selectively single-stranded DNA binding proteins.

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation of the Lift Force in Bubbly Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, W.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    It is well-known that the lift force is responsible for the segregation of small and large bubbles encountered in bubbly flows through pipes and bubble columns: in the case of up flow small spherical bubbles move to the wall, while larger deformed bubbles move to the core region. Depending on the

  14. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.


    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  15. Cusped Bubbles Rising through Polyelectrolyte Solutions (United States)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Sostarecz, Michael


    It is well known that a bubble rising in a polymer fluid can have a cusp-like tail. We report on an experimental study of bubbles rising through solutions of glycerol/water with the addition of the polymer xanthan gum, a polyelectrolyte which becomes more rigid as the free ion concentration is increased. The addition of salt also decreases the elasticity of the xanthan gum solutions, and we observe its effects on the velocity and shape of the cusped bubble.

  16. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed


    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  17. Asset Bubbles, Endogenous Growth, and Financial Frictions


    Hirano, Tomohiro; Yanagawa, Noriyuki


    This paper analyzes the effects of bubbles in an infinitely-lived agent model of endogenous growth with financial frictions and heterogeneous agents. We provide a complete characterization on the relationship between financial frictions and the existence of bubbles. Our model predicts that if the degree of pledgeability is sufficiently high or sufficiently low, bubbles can not exist. They can only arise at an intermediate degree. This suggests that improving the financial market condition mig...

  18. Bubbles, Financial Crises, and Systemic Risk


    Markus K. Brunnermeier; Martin Oehmke


    This chapter surveys the literature on bubbles, financial crises, and systemic risk. The first part of the chapter provides a brief historical account of bubbles and financial crisis. The second part of the chapter gives a structured overview of the literature on financial bubbles. The third part of the chapter discusses the literatures on financial crises and systemic risk, with particular emphasis on amplification and propagation mechanisms during financial crises, and the measurement of sy...

  19. Stable bubble oscillations beyond Blake's critical threshold. (United States)

    Hegedűs, Ferenc


    The equilibrium radius of a single spherical bubble containing both non-condensable gas and vapor is determined by the mechanical balance at the bubble interface. This expression highlights the fact that decreasing the ambient pressure below the so called Blake's critical threshold, the bubble has no equilibrium state at all. In the last decade many authors have tried to find evidence for the existence of stable bubble oscillation under harmonic forcing in this regime, that is, they have tried to stabilize the bubble motion applying ultrasonic radiation on the bubble. The available numerical results provide only partial proof for the existence as they are usually based on linearized or weakly nonlinear (higher order approximation) bubble models. Here, based on numerical techniques of the modern nonlinear and bifurcation theory, the existence of stable bubble motion has been proven without any restrictions in nonlinearities. Although the model, applied in this paper, is the rather simple Rayleigh-Plesset equation, the presented technique can be extended to more complex bubble models easily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvised bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) device at the National Hospital Abuja gives immediate improvement in respiratory rate and oxygenation in neonates with respiratory distress.

  1. Liquid jet formation through the interactions of a laser-induced bubble and a gas bubble (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Liu; Zhao, Xiong-Tao; Ni, Xiao-Wu


    The mechanisms of the liquid jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair are investigated and compared with the jet formation from the interaction of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair. The strobe photography experimental method and numerical simulations are implemented to obtain the parameter space of the optimum liquid jet, i.e. highest speed and lowest diameter. It is found that due to the enhanced "catapult effect", which is induced by the protrusion of the first bubble into the second bubble and the flip back of the elongated part of the first bubble, the optimum liquid jet of the second bubble of the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pair compared to that of the laser-induced and gas bubble pair is 54 %, 65 % and 11 % faster in speed, and 4 %, 44 % and 64 % smaller in diameter, for the 500 μm, 50 μm and 5 μm sized bubbles, respectively. The optimum dimensionless distance for the optimum jet of the laser-induced and the gas bubble is around 0.7, when the maximum bubble radius increases from ˜ 5μm to ˜500 μm, which is different from the laser-induced anti-phase bubble pairs. Besides, the optimum jet of the laser-induced bubble appeared when the bubbles are equal sized, while that of the gas bubble is independent of the relative bubble size, i.e. the liquid jet of the gas bubble has higher robustness in real liquid jet assisted applications when the laser-induced bubble size varies. However, the jet of bubble 2 could maintain a high speed (20 m/s - 35 m/s) and a low diameter (˜5 % of the maximum bubble diameter) over a big range of the dimensionless distance (0.6 - 0.9) for both of the 50 μm and 500 μm sized laser-induced equal sized anti-phase bubble pairs.

  2. Colorful Demos with a Long-Lasting Soap Bubble. (United States)

    Behroozi, F.; Olson, D. W.


    Describes several demonstrations that feature interaction of light with soap bubbles. Includes directions about how to produce a long-lasting stationary soap bubble with an easily changeable size and describes the interaction of white light with the bubble. (DDR)

  3. Neural basis of economic bubble behavior. (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A


    Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraoperative review of different bubble types formed during pneumodissection (big-bubble) deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. (United States)

    Goweida, Mohamed Bahgat Badawi


    To evaluate the preoperative factors and intraoperative complications of the 2 bubble types formed during big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). This is a retrospective review of medical records of a series of patients who underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique from September 2009 to March 2014. A total of 134 eyes were included in this study-89 eyes with advanced keratoconus, 35 eyes with post-microbial keratitis corneal scars, 8 eyes with stromal dystrophies, and 2 eyes with post-laser in situ keratomileusis ectasia. A type 1 bubble (white margin) was achieved in 56 eyes (41.8%), whereas a type 2 bubble (clear margin) was formed in 14 eyes (10.4%) and a mixed bubble was formed in 2 eyes (1.5%). Big-bubble formation failed in 62 (46.3%). All eyes with the type 1 bubble were completed as DALK; microperforation occurred in 4 eyes. Twelve of 14 eyes with the type 2 bubble were converted to penetrating keratoplasty because of large perforations. The type 2 bubble is more likely to form in elderly patients and those with deep corneal scars and thin corneas. Because of the high rate of conversion to penetrating keratoplasty, better surgical strategies may be needed to manage type 2 bubbles.

  5. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium (United States)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges


    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  6. Bubble aspect ratio in dense bubbly flows: experimental studies in low Morton-number systems (United States)

    Besagni, G.; Inzoli, F.; Ziegenhein, T.; Hessenkemper, H.; Lucas, D.


    Almost every modelling approach of bubbly flows includes assumptions concerning the bubble shape. Such assumptions are usually made based on single bubble experiments in quiescent flows, which is far away from the flow field observed in large-scale multiphase facilities. Considering low Morton-numbers and the highly deformable interface at medium and large Eötvös-numbers, the evaluation of the bubble shape in such systems under real flow conditions is highly desirable. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the bubble shape (in terms of aspect ratio), at low Morton-numbers, in different bubble column setups and a pipe flow setup under different operating conditions. The bubble shape in the bubble column experiments were obtained with cameras at Politecnico di Milano and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR) whereas the shapes in the pipe flows were measured by the ultrafast electron beam X-ray tomography system (ROFEX) at HZDR. In the bubble column experiments almost the same shape is observed; conversely, the shape in the pipe flows distinctly depends on the flow conditions. In conclusion, in bubble columns the assumption of a constant shape regardless of the flow conditions is valid whereas in pipe flows the turbulence and shear rates can be strong enough to deform distinctly the bubbles.

  7. Bubble Movement on Inclined Hydrophobic Surfaces. (United States)

    Kibar, Ali; Ozbay, Ridvan; Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Kang, Yong Tae; Choi, Chang-Hwan


    The movement of a single air bubble on an inclined hydrophobic surface submerged in water, including both the upward- and downward-facing sides of the surface, was investigated. A planar Teflon sheet with an apparent contact angle of a sessile water droplet of 106° was used as a hydrophobic surface. The volume of a bubble and the inclination angle of a Teflon sheet varied in the ranges 5-40 μL and 0-45°, respectively. The effects of the bubble volume on the adhesion and dynamics of the bubble were studied experimentally on the facing-up and facing-down surfaces of the submerged hydrophobic Teflon sheet, respectively, and compared. The result shows that the sliding angle has an inverse relationship with the bubble volume for both the upward- and downward-facing surfaces. However, at the same given volume, the bubble on the downward-facing surface spreads over a larger area of the hydrophobic surface than the upward-facing surface due to the greater hydrostatic pressure acting on the bubble on the downward-facing surface. This makes the lateral adhesion force of the bubble greater and requires a larger inclination angle to result in sliding.

  8. The Minnaert Bubble: An Acoustic Approach (United States)

    Devaud, Martin; Hocquet, Thierry; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Leroy, Valentin


    We propose an "ab initio" introduction to the well-known Minnaert pulsating bubble at graduate level. After a brief recall of the standard stuff, we begin with a detailed discussion of the radial movements of an air bubble in water. This discussion is managed from an acoustic point of view, and using the Lagrangian rather than the Eulerian…

  9. The life and death of film bubbles (United States)

    Poulain, S.; Villermaux, E.; Bourouiba, L.


    Following its burst, the fragmentation of a large bubble (film bubble) at the air-water interface can release hundreds of micrometer-sized film-drops in the air we breathe. This mechanism of droplet formation is one of the most prominent sources of sea spray. Indoor or outdoor, pathogens from contaminated water are transported by these droplets and have also been linked to respiratory infection. The lifetime and thickness of bubbles govern the number and size of the droplets they produce. Despite these important implications, little is known about the factors influencing the life and death of surface film bubbles. In particular, the fundamental physical mechanisms linking bubble aging, thinning, and lifetime remain poorly understood. To address this gap, we present the results of an extensive investigation of the aging of film-drop-producing bubbles in various ambient air, water composition, and temperature conditions. We present and validate a generalized physical picture and model of bubble cap thickness evolution. The model and physical picture are linked to the lifetime of bubbles via a series of cap rupture mechanisms of increasing efficiency.

  10. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling. (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C


    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  11. Measuring the surface tension of soap bubbles (United States)

    Sorensen, Carl D.


    The objectives are for students to gain an understanding of surface tension, to see that pressure inside a small bubble is larger than that inside a large bubble. These concepts can be used to explain the behavior of liquid foams as well as precipitate coarsening and grain growth. Equipment, supplies, and procedures are explained.

  12. Microfluidics with ultrasound-driven bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmottant, P.; Marmottant, P.G.M.; Raven, J.P.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Hilgenfeldt, S.


    Microstreaming from oscillating bubbles is known to induce vigorous vortex flow. Here we show how to harness the power of bubble streaming in an experiment to achieve directed transport flow of high velocity, allowing design and manufacture of microfluidic MEMS devices. By combining oscillating

  13. Videotaping the Lifespan of a Soap Bubble. (United States)

    Ramme, Goran


    Describes how the use of a videotape to record the history of a soap bubble allows a study of many interesting events in considerable detail including interference fringes, convection and turbulence patterns on the surface, formation of black film, and the ultimate explosion of the bubble. (JRH)

  14. The Interaction of Two Underwater Explosion Bubbles (United States)

    Milligan, Charles; Duncan, James


    The interaction between two growing and collapsing underwater explosion bubbles is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiments, the bubbles are generated by detonating small Lead Azide explosive charges submerged in a transparent water tank, and the resulting interactions are photographed using a high-speed camera. The parametric studies include simultaneous detonation of two charges of different sizes, and detonation of identically sized charges at staggered times. When the time delay between detonations is significant, the collapsing first bubble forms a jet directed away from the expanding second bubble and then re-expands nonspherically. During the re-expansion of the first bubble, a micro-jet forms in the second bubble. Eventually this micro-jet pierces the side of the second bubble farthest from the first and vortex rings are formed. Numerical simulations of the interaction phenomena are achieved using a boundary element method. By partitioning the system into computational sub-domains it is possible to replicate many relevant physical details including jet formation, fluid-fluid impact, and bubble re-expansion after complete jet penetration. The numerical results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental findings.

  15. Interaction of cavitation bubbles on a wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Bremond, N.P.; Arora, M.; Dammer, S.M.; Lohse, Detlef


    We report experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamics of the cavitation of bubbles on a solid surface and the interaction between them with the help of controlled cavitation nuclei: hemispherical bubbles are nucleated from hydrophobic microcavities that act as gas traps when the

  16. Clustering and Lagrangian Statistics of Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Mercado, J.


    Due to their relevance and occurrence in both natural phenomena and in industrial applications, the study and understanding of bubbly flows is currently an important topic for fluid dynamicists. Bubble columns are commonly used in bio- and petrochemical industries to enhance mixing, mass and heat

  17. The charged bubble oscillator: Dynamics and thresholds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Technology-Bangalore (IIIT-B), 26/C Electronics City, Hosur Road, Bengaluru 560 100, India. 2School of Natural Sciences & Engineering, .... liquid, the difference in pressure causes expansion and rapid collapse of the bubble, followed ... of the dimensions of the bubble, we define an expansion- compression ratio that we ...

  18. The use of microholography in bubble chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, H


    In-line holography has been used for the first time in a bubble chamber for the account of the CERN (Geneva, CH). The holograms were recorded with the help of a single-mode pulse laser. Bubble tracks of 25 microns in diameter have been reconstructed with a resolution of 2 microns. (12 refs).

  19. Laminar separation bubbles: Dynamics and control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it thus are essential prerequisites for efficient design of these aerodynamic devices. Gaster. (1967) was the first to systematically explore the stability characteristics associated with the transition taking place in separation bubble. Many recent studies have been directed towards exploring the dynamics of separation bubbles ...

  20. Laminar separation bubbles: Dynamics and control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work is an experimental investigation of the dynamics and control of the laminar separation bubbles which are typically present on the suction surface of an aerofoil at a large angle of attack. A separation bubble is produced on the upper surface of a flat plate by appropriately contouring the top wall of the wind tunnel.

  1. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei (United States)

    Mørch, K. A.


    The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years, and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid. The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure–time history of the water. A recent model and associated experiments throw new light on the effects of transient pressures on the tensile strength of water, which may be notably reduced or increased by such pressure changes. PMID:26442138

  2. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey

  3. Correlation between high-sensitive collimator and quantitative analysis in lung ventilation SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Soo [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigated the correlation between the characteristics of collimator in accordance with the efficiency of detecting photon signals and the quantitative analysis of the lung function, thereby assessing the possibility of clinically applying high sensitivity lung ventilation SPECT. From March to May, 2014, 10 subjects in normal volunteers underwent an ultra high resolution, high resolution a nd high sensitivity collimator planar scan and SPECT. The experiment showed t hat compared with the collimator scan, the quantitative analysis results were significant (p=0.89), and compared to the high resolution collimator SPECT, the time was reduced by 4.9 fold. Therefore, the lung ventilation SPECT that had not been used due to an undermined effectiveness can offer usefulness when clinically applied if a high sensitivity collimator is used since the quality and quantity of information and the duration of scan time all offer an improvement.

  4. Two-channel highly sensitive sensors based on 4 × 4 multimode interference couplers (United States)

    Le, Trung-Thanh


    We propose a new kind of microring resonators (MRR) based on 4 × 4 multimode interference (MMI) couplers for multichannel and highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors. The proposed sensor structure has advantages of compactness and high sensitivity compared with the reported sensing structures. By using the transfer matrix method (TMM) and numerical simulations, the designs of the sensor based on silicon waveguides are optimized and demonstrated in detail. We apply our structure to detect glucose and ethanol concentrations simultaneously. A high sensitivity of 9000 nm/RIU, detection limit of 2 × 10‒4 for glucose sensing and sensitivity of 6000 nm/RIU, detection limit of 1.3 × 10‒5 for ethanol sensing are achieved.

  5. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao


    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  6. Highly sensitive protein detection by biospecific AFM-based fishing with pulsed electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Pleshakova, Tatyana O; Malsagova, Kristina A; Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Arthur T; Tatur, Vadim Yu; Ziborov, Vadim S; Kanashenko, Sergey L; Galiullin, Rafael A; Ivanov, Yuri D


    We report here the highly sensitive detection of protein in solution at concentrations from 10-15 to 10-18 m using the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry. Biospecific detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin was carried out by fishing out the protein onto the surface of AFM chips with immobilized avidin, which determined the specificity of the analysis. Electrical stimulation was applied to enhance the fishing efficiency. A high sensitivity of detection was achieved by application of nanosecond electric pulses to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite placed under the AFM chip. A peristaltic pump-based flow system, which is widely used in routine bioanalytical assays, was employed throughout the analysis. These results hold promise for the development of highly sensitive protein detection methods using nanosensor devices.

  7. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca


    stimulation by endogenous or exogenous TSH is recommended by current clinical guidelines to detect occult disease with a maximum sensitivity due to the suboptimal sensitivity of older Tg assays. However, the development of new highly sensitive Tg assays with improved analytical sensitivity and precision...... at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians...... caring for patients with DTC. The aim of this clinical position paper is, therefore, to offer advice on the various aspects and implications of using these highly sensitive Tg assays in the clinical care of patients with DTC....

  8. Constraining hadronic models of the Fermi bubbles (United States)

    Razzaque, Soebur


    The origin of sub-TeV gamma rays detected by Fermi-LAT from the Fermi bubbles at the Galactic center is unknown. In a hadronic model, acceleration of protons and/or nuclei and their subsequent interactions with gas in the bubble volume can produce observed gamma ray. Such interactions naturally produce high-energy neutrinos, and detection of those can discriminate between a hadronic and a leptonic origin of gamma rays. Additional constraints on the Fermi bubbles gamma-ray flux in the PeV range from recent HAWC observations restrict hadronic model parameters, which in turn disfavor Fermi bubbles as the origin of a large fraction of neutrino events detected by IceCube along the bubble directions. We revisit our hadronic model and discuss future constraints on parameters from observations in very high-energy gamma rays by CTA and in neutrinos.

  9. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  10. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael


    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  11. Mesoporous hollow spheres from soap bubbling. (United States)

    Yu, Xianglin; Liang, Fuxin; Liu, Jiguang; Lu, Yunfeng; Yang, Zhenzhong


    The smaller and more stable bubbles can be generated from the large parent bubbles by rupture. In the presence of a bubble blowing agent, hollow spheres can be prepared by bubbling a silica sol. Herein, the trapped gas inside the bubble acts as a template. When the porogen, i.e., other surfactant, is introduced, a mesostructured shell forms by the co-assembly with the silica sol during sol-gel process. Morphological evolution emphasizes the prerequisite of an intermediate interior gas flow rate and high exterior gas flow rate for hollow spheres. The method is valid for many compositions from inorganic, polymer to their composites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primordial black hole formation by vacuum bubbles (United States)

    Deng, Heling; Vilenkin, Alexander


    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate during the inflationary epoch and expand, reaching relativistic speeds. After inflation ends, the bubbles are quickly slowed down, transferring their momentum to a shock wave that propagates outwards in the radiation background. The ultimate fate of the bubble depends on its size. Bubbles smaller than certain critical size collapse to ordinary black holes, while in the supercritical case the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior region by a wormhole. The wormhole then closes up, turning into two black holes at its two mouths. We use numerical simulations to find the masses of black holes formed in this scenario, both in subcritical and supercritical regime. The resulting mass spectrum is extremely broad, ranging over many orders of magnitude. For some parameter values, these black holes can serve as seeds for supermassive black holes and may account for LIGO observations.

  13. Interacting bubble clouds and their sonochemical production

    CERN Document Server

    Stricker, Laura; Rivas, David Fernandez; Lohse, Detlef


    Acoustically driven air pockets trapped in artificial crevices on a sur- face can emit bubbles which organize in (interacting) bubble clusters. With increasing driving power Fernandez Rivas et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2010] observed three different behaviors: clusters close to the very pits out of which they had been created, clusters pointing toward each other, and merging clusters. The latter behavior is highly undesired for technological purposes as it is associated with a reduction of the radical production and an enhancement of the erosion of the reactor walls. The dependence on the control parameters such as the distance of the pits and the conditions for cluster-merging are examined. The underlying mechanism, governed by the secondary Bjerknes forces, turns out to be strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the bubble oscillations and not directly by the number of nucleated bubbles. The Bjerknes forces are found to dampen the bubble oscillations, thus reducing the radical production. Therefore, th...

  14. Bubble streams rising beneath an inclined surface (United States)

    Bird, James; Brasz, Frederik; Kim, Dayoung; Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse


    Bubbles released beneath a submerged inclined surface can tumble along the wall as they rise, dragging the surrounding fluid with them. This effect has recently regained attention as a method to mitigate biofouling in marine environment, such as a ship hull. It appears that the efficacy of this approach may be related to the velocity of the rising bubbles and the extent that they spread laterally as they rise. Yet, it is unclear how bubble stream rise velocity and lateral migration depend on bubble size, flow rate, and inclination angle. Here we perform systematic experiments to quantify these relationships for both individual bubble trajectories and ensemble average statistics. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Number award N00014-16-1-3000.

  15. Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials. (United States)

    Solano-Altamirano, J M; Malcolm, John D; Goldman, Saul


    Epstein and Plesset's seminal work on the rate of gas bubble dissolution and growth in a simple liquid is generalized to render it applicable to a gas bubble embedded in a soft elastic solid. Both the underlying diffusion equation and the expression for the gas bubble pressure were modified to allow for the non-zero shear modulus of the medium. The extension of the diffusion equation results in a trivial shift (by an additive constant) in the value of the diffusion coefficient, and does not change the form of the rate equations. But the use of a generalized Young-Laplace equation for the bubble pressure resulted in significant differences on the dynamics of bubble dissolution and growth, relative to an inviscid liquid medium. Depending on whether the salient parameters (solute concentration, initial bubble radius, surface tension, and shear modulus) lead to bubble growth or dissolution, the effect of allowing for a non-zero shear modulus in the generalized Young-Laplace equation is to speed up the rate of bubble growth, or to reduce the rate of bubble dissolution, respectively. The relation to previous work on visco-elastic materials is discussed, as is the connection of this work to the problem of Decompression Sickness (specifically, "the bends"). Examples of tissues to which our expressions can be applied are provided. Also, a new phenomenon is predicted whereby, for some parameter values, a bubble can be metastable and persist for long times, or it may grow, when embedded in a homogeneous under-saturated soft elastic medium.

  16. Aptamer-Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Detection of Leukemia Cells (United States)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Nuo; Hu, Zixi; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jianhong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Yating; Zhu, Jianmeng; Xue, Dabin; Huang, Yingying; Lai, Zongqiang; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang


    A simple, highly sensitive method to detect leukemia cells has been developed based on aptamer-modified fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). In this strategy, the amine-labeled Sgc8 aptamer was conjugated to carboxyl-modified FSNPs via amide coupling between amino and carboxyl groups. Sensitivity and specificity of Sgc8-FSNPs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results showed that Sgc8-FSNPs detected leukemia cells with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamer-modified FSNPs hold promise for sensitive and specific detection of leukemia cells. Changing the aptamer may allow the FSNPs to detect other types of cancer cells.

  17. Association between high-sensitive troponin I and coronary artery calcification in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik; Engborg, Jonathan; Grønhøj, Mette H.


    . METHODS: 1173 randomized, middle-aged subjects without known CVD underwent a non-contrast cardiac-CT scan for CAC determination. Hs-TnI was detected using ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I immunoassay. Total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated using HeartScore. The relationship......BACKGROUND: High-sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) is an individual predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship between hs-TnI and coronary artery calcification (CAC) as determined by computed tomography (CT) has not previously been investigated in a general population...

  18. A buried intrusion monitoring system based on high sensitivity optical fiber geophone (United States)

    Li, Shujuan; Zhang, Faxiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Sun, Zhihui; Min, Li; Wang, Chang


    A new intrusion monitoring system is designed, based on a high sensitivity fiber grating geophone and PGC interferometric demodulation. A kind of high sensitive fiber Bragg grating geophone is designed. The sensitivity of the geophone is analyzed by finite element software. The PGC interferometric demodulation algorithm is used to detect the wavelength of the geophone, to reduce the noise of the system and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Invasive monitoring test was carried out, the personnel and vehicles invading signal were collected and analyzed. Test results show that the intrusion monitoring system based on fiber geophone can effectively identify remote intrusion, and has low false alarm rate.

  19. Highly sensitive fiber optic Fabry-Perot geophone with graphene coated PMMA membrane (United States)

    Yu, C. B.; Wu, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, C.; Zhou, J. H.; Rao, Y. J.; Chen, Y. F.


    A highly sensitive fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric geophone (FFPG) with graphene coated PMMA membrane is proposed and demonstrated, where the graphene coating is used for enhancement of the mechanical strength of the membrane. It is found that the sensitivity of the FFPG is much higher than that of the conventional electrical geophone. Such a novel all-optical geophone with low cost, high sensitivity, electromagnetic interference immunity, easy fabrication and robust structure would have great potential for use in oil/gas exploration and seismic wave detection.

  20. Observation of Microhollows Produced by Bubble Cloud Cavitation (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Miwa, Takashi


    When an ultrasonic wave with sound pressure less than the threshold level of bubble destruction irradiates microbubbles, the microbubbles aggregate by an acoustic radiation force and form bubble clouds. The cavitation of bubble clouds produces a large number of microhollows (microdips) on the flow channel wall. In this study, microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation is evaluated using a blood vessel phantom made of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel. Microbubble dynamics in bubble cloud cavitation is observed by a microscope with a short pulse light emitted diode (LED) light source. Microhollows produced on the flow channel wall are evaluated by a confocal laser microscope with a water immersion objective. It is observed that a mass of low-density bubbles (bubble mist) is formed by bubble cloud cavitation. The spatial correlation between the bubble mist and the microhollows shows the importance of the bubble mist in microhollow production by bubble cloud cavitation.

  1. Nonlinear ultrasonic waves in bubbly liquids with nonhomogeneous bubble distribution: Numerical experiments. (United States)

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé


    This paper deals with the nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in mixtures of air bubbles in water, but for which the bubble distribution is nonhomogeneous. The problem is modelled by means of a set of differential equations which describes the coupling of the acoustic field and bubbles vibration, and solved in the time domain via the use and adaptation of the SNOW-BL code. The attenuation and nonlinear effects are assumed to be due to the bubbles exclusively. The nonhomogeneity of the bubble distribution is introduced by the presence of bubble layers (or clouds) which can act as acoustic screens, and alters the behaviour of the ultrasonic waves. The effect of the spatial distribution of bubbles on the nonlinearity of the acoustic field is analyzed. Depending on the bubble density, dimension, shape, and position of the layers, its effects on the acoustic field change. Effects such as shielding and resonance of the bubbly layers are especially studied. The numerical experiments are carried out in two configurations: linear and nonlinear, i.e. for low and high excitation pressure amplitude, respectively, and the features of the phenomenon are compared. The parameters of the medium are chosen such as to reproduce air bubbly water involved in the stable cavitation process.

  2. Effect of bubble's arrangement on the viscous torque in bubbly Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    Fokoua, G. Ndongo; Gabillet, C.; Aubert, A.; Colin, C.


    An experimental investigation of the interactions between bubbles, coherent motion, and viscous drag in a Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder at rest is presented. The cylinder radii ratio η is 0.91. Bubbles are injected inside the gap through a needle at the bottom of the apparatus. Different bubbles sizes are investigated (ratio between the bubble diameter and the gap width ranges from 0.05 to 0.125) for very small void fraction (α ≤ 0.23%). Different flow regimes are studied corresponding to Reynolds number Re based on the gap width and velocity of the inner cylinder, ranging from 6 × 102 to 2 × 104. Regarding these Re values, Taylor vortices are persistent leading to an axial periodicity of the flow. A detailed characterization of the vortices is performed for the single-phase flow. The experiment also develops bubbles tracking in a meridian plane and viscous torque of the inner cylinder measurements. The findings of this study show evidence of the link between bubbles localisation, Taylor vortices, and viscous torque modifications. We also highlight two regimes of viscous torque modification and various types of bubbles arrangements, depending on their size and on the Reynolds number. Bubbles can have a sliding and wavering motion near the inner cylinder and be either captured by the Taylor vortices or by the outflow areas near the inner cylinder. For small buoyancy effect, bubbles are trapped, leading to an increase of the viscous torque. When buoyancy induced bubbles motion is increased by comparison to the coherent motion of the liquid, a decrease in the viscous torque is rather observed. The type of bubble arrangement is parameterized by the two dimensionless parameters C and H introduced by Climent et al. ["Preferential accumulation of bubbles in Couette-Taylor flow patterns," Phys. Fluids 19, 083301 (2007)]. Phase diagrams summarizing the various types of bubbles arrangements, viscous torque modifications, and axial wavelength evolution are

  3. Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Yuan, Wu; Vlachos, Kyriakos


    We present experimentally feasible designs of a dual-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF), which can act as a highly sensitive, label-free, and selective biosensor. An immobilized antigen sensing layer on the walls of the holes in the mPOF provides the ability to selectively capture...

  4. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens


    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv...

  5. Brandaris 128: A digital 25 million frames per second camera with 128 highly sensitive frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Chien Ting; Lancée, Charles; Borsboom, Jerome; Mastik, Frits; Frijlink, Martijn E.; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef


    A high-speed camera that combines a customized rotating mirror camera frame with charge coupled device (CCD) image detectors and is practically fully operated by computer control was constructed. High sensitivity CCDs are used so that image intensifiers, which would degrade image quality, are not

  6. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.


    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  7. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep


    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  8. Genotype-based dosage of acenocoumarol in highly-sensitive geriatric patients. (United States)

    Lozano, Roberto; Franco, María-Esther; López, Luis; Moneva, Juan-José; Carrasco, Vicente; Pérez-Layo, Maria-Angeles


    Our aim was to determinate the acenocoumarol dose requirement in highly sensitive geriatric patients, based on a minimum of genotype (VKORC1 and CYP2C9) data. We used a Gaussian kernel density estimation test to identify patients highly sensitive to the drug and PHARMACHIP®-Cuma test (Progenika Biopharma, SA, Grifols, Spain) to determine the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype. All highly sensitive geriatric patients were taking ≤5.6 mg/week of acenocoumarol (AC), and 86% of these patients presented the following genotypes: CYP2C9*1/*3 or CYP2C9*1/*2 plus VKORC1 A/G, CYP2C9*3/*3, or VKORC1 A/A. VKORC1 A and CYP2C9*2 and/or *3 allelic variants extremely influence on AC dose requirement of highly sensitive geriatric patients. These patients display acenocoumarol dose requirement of ≤5.6 mg/week.

  9. Highly sensitive micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with reduced hysteresis and low parasitic capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Fragiacomo, Giulio; Hansen, Ole


    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a capacitive pressure sensor that has a large capacitance signal and a high sensitivity of 76 pF/bar in touch mode operation. Due to the large signal, problems with parasitic capacitances are avoided and hence it is possible to integrate the sensor...

  10. Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan


    We describe a highly sensitive sensor which uses the evanescent field of a reusable planar optical waveguide as the sensing element. The waveguide used is optimized to obtain a steep dependence of the propagation velocity on the refractive-index profile near the surface. The adsorption of a layer of

  11. Spectral-domain optical coherence reflectometric sensor for highly sensitive molecular detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joo, C.; de Boer, J.F.


    We describe what we believe to be a novel use of spectral-domain optical coherence reflectometry (SD-OCR) for highly sensitive molecular detection in real time. The SD-OCR sensor allows identification of a sensor surface of interest in an OCR depth scan and monitoring the phase alteration due to

  12. Detonation wave phenomena in bubbled liquid (United States)

    Gülhan, A.; Beylich, A. E.


    Shock wave propagation was investigated in two phase media consisting of diluted glycerin (85%) and reactive gas bubbles. To understand these complex phenomena, we first performed a numerical analysis and experimental studies of single bubbles containing a reactive gas-mixture. For the two-phase mixtures, a needle matrix bubble-generator enabled us to produce a homogeneous bubble distribution with a size dispersion less than 5%. The void fraction β0 was varied over one order of magnitude, β0=0.2-2%. It was found that there exists a critical value of shock strength above which bubble explosion starts. Once a bubble explodes, it stimulates the adjacent bubbles to explode due to emission of a blast wave; this process is followed by a series of similar events. A steady detonationlike wave propagates as a precurser with a constant velocity which is much higher than that of the first wave. To study the structure of the detonation wave the measured pressured profiles were averaged by superimposing 50 shots.

  13. The rheology of gravity driven bubbly liquids (United States)

    Martinez-Mercado, Julian; Zenit, Roberto


    Experiments on a vertical channel were performed to to study the behavior of a monodispersed bubble suspension. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, we were able to obtain measurements for a range of Reynolds and Weber numbers. To generate a uniform stream of bubbles an array of identical capillaries was used. To avoid the coalescence effects, a small amount of salt was added to the interstitial fluid, which did not affect the fluid properties significantly. Measurements of the bubble phase velocity were obtained using a dual impedance probe and through high speed digital video processing. We also obtained measurements of the bubble size and shape as a function of the gas volume fraction for the different flow regimes. We found that, for all cases, the bubble velocity decreases as mean gas volume fraction increases. The flow agitation, characterized with the bubble velocity variance, increases with bubble concentration. The flow becomes unstable for lower gas concentrations as the viscosity of the interstitial fluid increases.

  14. Shock waves from nonspherical cavitation bubbles (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Tinguely, Marc; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Farhat, Mohamed


    We present detailed observations of the shock waves emitted at the collapse of single cavitation bubbles using simultaneous time-resolved shadowgraphy and hydrophone pressure measurements. The geometry of the bubbles is systematically varied from spherical to very nonspherical by decreasing their distance to a free or rigid surface or by modulating the gravity-induced pressure gradient aboard parabolic flights. The nonspherical collapse produces multiple shocks that are clearly associated with different processes, such as the jet impact and the individual collapses of the distinct bubble segments. For bubbles collapsing near a free surface, the energy and timing of each shock are measured separately as a function of the anisotropy parameter ζ , which represents the dimensionless equivalent of the Kelvin impulse. For a given source of bubble deformation (free surface, rigid surface, or gravity), the normalized shock energy depends only on ζ , irrespective of the bubble radius R0 and driving pressure Δ p . Based on this finding, we develop a predictive framework for the peak pressure and energy of shock waves from nonspherical bubble collapses. Combining statistical analysis of the experimental data with theoretical derivations, we find that the shock peak pressures can be estimated as jet impact-induced hammer pressures, expressed as ph=0.45 (ρc2Δ p ) 1 /2ζ-1 at ζ >10-3 . The same approach is found to explain the shock energy decreasing as a function of ζ-2 /3.

  15. Performance Tests for Bubble Blockage Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Kwang Soon; Wi, Kyung Jin; Park, Rae Joon; Wan, Han Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Postulated severe core damage accidents have a high threat risk for the safety of human health and jeopardize the environment. Versatile measures have been suggested and applied to mitigate severe accidents in nuclear power plants. To improve the thermal margin for the severe accident measures in high-power reactors, engineered corium cooling systems involving boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation have been proposed for decay heat removal. A boiling-induced natural circulation flow is generated in a coolant path between a hot vessel wall and cold coolant reservoir. In general, it is possible for some bubbles to be entrained in the natural circulation loop. If some bubbles entrain in the liquid phase flow passage, flow instability may occur, that is, the natural circulation mass flow rate may be oscillated. A new device to block the entraining bubbles is proposed and verified using air-water test loop. To avoid bubbles entrained in the natural circulation flow loop, a new device was proposed and verified using an air-water test loop. The air injection and liquid circulation loop was prepared, and the tests for the bubble blockage devices were performed by varying the geometry and shape of the devices. The performance of the bubble blockage device was more effective as the area ratio of the inlet to the down-comer increased, and the device height decreased. If the device has a rim to generate a vortex zone, the bubbles will be most effectively blocked.

  16. Bubbles in live-stranded dolphins. (United States)

    Dennison, S; Moore, M J; Fahlman, A; Moore, K; Sharp, S; Harry, C T; Hoppe, J; Niemeyer, M; Lentell, B; Wells, R S


    Bubbles in supersaturated tissues and blood occur in beaked whales stranded near sonar exercises, and post-mortem in dolphins bycaught at depth and then hauled to the surface. To evaluate live dolphins for bubbles, liver, kidneys, eyes and blubber-muscle interface of live-stranded and capture-release dolphins were scanned with B-mode ultrasound. Gas was identified in kidneys of 21 of 22 live-stranded dolphins and in the hepatic portal vasculature of 2 of 22. Nine then died or were euthanized and bubble presence corroborated by computer tomography and necropsy, 13 were released of which all but two did not re-strand. Bubbles were not detected in 20 live wild dolphins examined during health assessments in shallow water. Off-gassing of supersaturated blood and tissues was the most probable origin for the gas bubbles. In contrast to marine mammals repeatedly diving in the wild, stranded animals are unable to recompress by diving, and thus may retain bubbles. Since the majority of beached dolphins released did not re-strand it also suggests that minor bubble formation is tolerated and will not lead to clinically significant decompression sickness.

  17. Inert gas bubbles in bcc Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Xiao, E-mail:; Smith, Roger, E-mail:; Kenny, S.D., E-mail:


    The properties of inert gas bubbles in bcc Fe is examined using a combination of static energy minimisation, molecular dynamics and barrier searching methods with empirical potentials. Static energy minimisation techniques indicate that for small Ar and Xe bubbles, the preferred gas to vacancy ratio at 0 K is about 1:1 for Ar and varies between 0.5:1 and 0.9:1 for Xe. In contrast to interstitial He atoms and small He interstitial clusters, which are highly mobile in the lattice, Ar and Xe atoms prefer to occupy substitutional sites and any interstitials present in the lattice soon displace Fe atoms and become substitutional. If a pre-existing bubble is present then there is a capture radius around a bubble which extends up to the 6th neighbour position. Collision cascades can also enlarge an existing bubble by the capture of vacancies. Ar and Xe can diffuse through the lattice through vacancy driven mechanisms but with relatively high energy barriers of 1.8 and 2.0 eV respectively. This indicates that Ar and Xe bubbles are much harder to form than bubbles of He and that such gases produced in a nuclear reaction would more likely be dispersed at substitutional sites without the help of increased temperature or radiation-driven mechanisms.

  18. Pressure waves in a supersaturated bubbly magma (United States)

    Kurzon, I.; Lyakhovsky, V.; Navon, O.; Chouet, B.


    We study the interaction of acoustic pressure waves with an expanding bubbly magma. The expansion of magma is the result of bubble growth during or following magma decompression and leads to two competing processes that affect pressure waves. On the one hand, growth in vesicularity leads to increased damping and decreased wave amplitudes, and on the other hand, a decrease in the effective bulk modulus of the bubbly mixture reduces wave velocity, which in turn, reduces damping and may lead to wave amplification. The additional acoustic energy originates from the chemical energy released during bubble growth. We examine this phenomenon analytically to identify conditions under which amplification of pressure waves is possible. These conditions are further examined numerically to shed light on the frequency and phase dependencies in relation to the interaction of waves and growing bubbles. Amplification is possible at low frequencies and when the growth rate of bubbles reaches an optimum value for which the wave velocity decreases sufficiently to overcome the increased damping of the vesicular material. We examine two amplification phase-dependent effects: (1) a tensile-phase effect in which the inserted wave adds to the process of bubble growth, utilizing the energy associated with the gas overpressure in the bubble and therefore converting a large proportion of this energy into additional acoustic energy, and (2) a compressive-phase effect in which the pressure wave works against the growing bubbles and a large amount of its acoustic energy is dissipated during the first cycle, but later enough energy is gained to amplify the second cycle. These two effects provide additional new possible mechanisms for the amplification phase seen in Long-Period (LP) and Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic signals originating in magma-filled cracks.

  19. Numerical investigation of bubble nonlinear dynamics characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jie, E-mail:; Yang, Desen; Shi, Shengguo; Hu, Bo [Acoustic Science and Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Haoyang; Jiang, Wei [College of Underwater Acoustic Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)


    The complicated dynamical behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave can provide favorable conditions for many engineering applications. On the basis of Keller-Miksis model, the influences of control parameters, including acoustic frequency, acoustic pressure and radius of gas bubble, are discussed by utilizing various numerical analysis methods, Furthermore, the law of power spectral variation is studied. It is shown that the complicated dynamic behaviors of bubble oscillation driven by acoustic wave, such as bifurcation and chaos, further the stimulated scattering processes are revealed.

  20. Single DNA denaturation and bubble dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Hanke, Andreas


    While the Watson-Crick double-strand is the thermodynamically stable state of DNA in a wide range of temperature and salt conditions, even at physiological conditions local denaturation bubbles may open up spontaneously due to thermal activation. By raising the ambient temperature, titration......, or by external forces in single molecule setups bubbles proliferate until full denaturation of the DNA occurs. Based on the Poland-Scheraga model we investigate both the equilibrium transition of DNA denaturation and the dynamics of the denaturation bubbles with respect to recent single DNA chain experiments...

  1. A view inside the Gargamelle bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    Gargamelle was the name given to a big bubble chamber built at the Saclay Laboratory in France during the late 1960s. It was designed principally for the detection at CERN of the elusive particles called neutrinos. A bubble chamber contains a liquid under pressure, which reveals the tracks of electrically charged particles as trails of tiny bubbles when the pressure is reduced. Neutrinos have no charge, and so leave no tracks, but the aim with Gargamelle was "see neutrinos" by making visible any charged particles set in motion by the interaction of neutrinos in the liquid

  2. Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Mohsen


    In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An

  3. Arrested Bubble Rise in a Narrow Tube (United States)

    Lamstaes, Catherine; Eggers, Jens


    If a long air bubble is placed inside a vertical tube closed at the top it can rise by displacing the fluid above it. However, Bretherton found that if the tube radius, R, is smaller than a critical value Rc=0.918 ℓ _c, where ℓ _c=√{γ /ρ g} is the capillary length, there is no solution corresponding to steady rise. Experimentally, the bubble rise appears to have stopped altogether. Here we explain this observation by studying the unsteady bubble motion for Rmotion.

  4. The bubbling galactic plane: fertilization or sterilization? (United States)

    Testi, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria; Zavagno, Annie; Deharveng, Lise; Leurini, Silvia; Molinari, Sergio


    Spitzer surveys have revealed that the galactic plane has a high density of bubbles. Many of these show evidence of being associated with star formation. Followup observations collected so far have failed to conclusively determine the relationship (if any) between the bubbles and the triggering of star formation. We propose to obtain MOPRA molecular line pointed observations towards bubbles detected with APEX in the millimeter continuum and with Herschel in the far infrared/submm to reveal the presence and kinematics of dense gas and to search for evidence of the initial phases of star formation.

  5. Bubble Size Distributions on the North Atlantic and North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble size distributions were measured at open sea with optical bubble measuring systems(BMS)deployed from buoys at depths from 0.4 to l.5m. The BMS measures the bubbles in a small sample volume that is monitored with a video camera. The images are analyzed to obtain bubble size distributions in


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Under microgravity conditions in both parabolic and sounding rocket flights, the mass-transfer-induced Marangoni convection around an air bubble was studied. To prevent the bubble from becoming saturated, the bubble was ventilated. It turned out that the flow rate of the air through the bubble

  7. Stability of a bubble expanding and translating through an inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is only one equilibrium point and the bubble is stable there.

  8. Approach to universality in axisymmetric bubble pinch-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gekle, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Roger M.


    The pinch-off of an axisymmetric air bubble surrounded by an inviscid fluid is compared in four physical realizations: (i) cavity collapse in the wake of an impacting disk, (ii) gas bubbles injected through a small orifice, (iii) bubble rupture in a straining flow, and (iv) a bubble with an

  9. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b) Classification...

  10. Stochastic DSMC method for dense bubbly flows : Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamath, S.; Padding, J.T.; Buist, K. A.; Kuipers, J.


    A stochastic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been extended for handling bubble-bubble and bubble-wall collisions. Bubbly flows are generally characterized by highly correlated velocities due to presence of the surrounding liquid. The DSMC method has been improved to account for

  11. Conservation of bubble size distribution during gas reactive absorption in bubble column reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L.C. LAGE


    Full Text Available Conservation of the bubble size distribution function was applied to the reactive absorption of carbon dioxide in a bubble column reactor. The model developed was solved by the method of characteristics and by a Monte Carlo method. Simulations were carried out using simplified models for the liquid phase and for the gas-liquid mass transfer. Predictions of gas holdup and outlet gas composition showed that the concept of a mean bubble diameter is not applicable when the bubble size distribution is reasonably polydispersed. In these cases, the mass mean velocity and the numerical mean velocity of the bubbles are very different. Therefore, quantification of the polydispersion of bubbles was shown to be essential to gas-phase hydrodynamics modeling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Marhaendro Jati Purnomo


    Full Text Available Sorting is common process in computational world. Its utilization are on many fields from research to industry. There are many sorting algorithm in nowadays. One of the simplest yet powerful is bubble sort. In this study, bubble sort is implemented on FPGA. The implementation was taken on serial and parallel approach. Serial and parallel bubble sort then compared by means of its memory, execution time, and utility which comprises slices and LUTs. The experiments show that serial bubble sort required smaller memory as well as utility compared to parallel bubble sort. Meanwhile, parallel bubble sort performed faster than serial bubble sort

  13. Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Arun


    This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble through experiments that can be performed by undergraduate students. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. It is observed that the change in thickness of a typical shampoo bubble film enclosed in a container is gradual and slow, and the hydrocarbon components of the bubble drain from the bubble much more slowly than water. An additional agent, such as acetonitrile, strikingly alters the dynamics of evolution of such a bubble.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Multiple Bubbles Motion under Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Nie


    Full Text Available The motion of multiple bubbles under gravity in two dimensions is numerically studied through the lattice Boltzmann method for the Eotvos number ranging from 1 to 12. Two kinds of initial arrangement are taken into account: vertical and horizontal arrangement. In both cases the effects of Eotvos number on the bubble coalescence and rising velocity are investigated. For the vertical arrangement, it has been found that the coalescence pattern is similar. The first coalescence always takes place between the two uppermost bubbles. And the last coalescence always takes place between the coalesced bubble and the bottommost bubble. For four bubbles in a horizontal arrangement, the outermost bubbles travel into the wake of the middle bubbles in all cases, which allows the bubbles to coalesce. The coalescence pattern is more complex for the case of eight bubbles, which strongly depends on the Eotvos number.

  15. [Psychological Well-being of Highly-sensitive Persons in Transition to Parenthood - A Cross-sectional Study]. (United States)

    Schmückle, M; Lindert, J; Schmolz, G


    Well-being of highly sensitive people in the transformation period to parenthood is of increasing concern. This study examines whether the transformation period to parenthood has a higher effect on the psychological well-being (PWB) of highly sensitive people than on not highly sensitive people. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of parents (n=614), highly sensitive (n=440) and not highly sensitive (n=174), at the transition to parenthood. Instruments were the Ryff psychological well-being scale. Independent variables and well-being were examined by descriptive and bivariate methods. Well-being of highly sensitive parents is associated with transition to parenthood (b=-10,129; phighly sensitive highly sensitive highly sensitive parents. It can be stated that there is an urgent need for research in this area. Because with a prevalence of 10-20% highly sensitive people within the population, it can be assumed that highly sensitive mostly young parents, could be an important target group of health promotion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Optimization of the bubble radius in a moving single bubble sonoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirheydari, Mona; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Rezaee, Nastaran; Ebrahimi, Homa, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, 11365-91, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A complete study of the hydrodynamic force on a moving single bubble sonoluminescence in N-methylformamide is presented in this work. All forces exerted, trajectory, interior temperature and gas pressure are discussed. The maximum values of the calculated components of the hydrodynamic force for three different radii at the same driving pressure were compared, while the optimum bubble radius was determined. The maximum value of the buoyancy force appears at the start of bubble collapse, earlier than the other forces whose maximum values appear at the moment of bubble collapse. We verified that for radii larger than the optimum radius, the temperature peak value decreases.

  17. Chaotic behavior in bubble formation dynamics (United States)

    Tufaile, A.; Sartorelli, J. C.


    We constructed an experimental apparatus to study the dynamics of the formation of air bubbles in a submerged nozzle in a water/glycerin solution inside a cylindrical tube. The delay time between successive bubbles was measured with a laser-photodiode system. It was observed bifurcations, chaotic behavior, and sudden changes in a periodic regime as a function of the decreasing air pressure in a reservoir. We also observed dynamical effects by applying a sound wave tuned to the fundamental frequency of the air column above the solution. As a function of the sound wave amplitude, we obtained a limit cycle, a flip bifurcation, chaotic behavior, and the synchronization of the bubbling with sound wave frequency. We related some of the different dynamical behaviors to coalescent effects and bubble sizes.

  18. Large bubble entrainment in drop impact (United States)

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Li, Yangfan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    A drop impacting on a pool of the same liquid can entrap air bubbles in many different ways. A peculiar entrapment was observed by Pumphrey and Elmore (1990) and remained unexplained until now. For a small range of parameters, the cavity produced by the impacting drop spreads radially in a dish-shape and then closes to entrap a bubble larger than the drop. We demonstrate that the large bubble is caused by a vortex ring produced in the liquid during the impact of the drop. We combine experiments and numerical simulations to show that the vortex ring pulls on the interface on the side of the cavity to stretch it radially, explaining the shape of the cavity. Only prolate drops are able to generate large bubbles. This is due to the self-destruction of the vortex earlier during the impact for flatter drops.

  19. On the shape of giant soap bubbles. (United States)

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Reyssat, Etienne; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe


    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the mean thickness of the soap film and [Formula: see text] is the capillary length ([Formula: see text] stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and [Formula: see text] stands for the liquid density). We first show experimentally that large soap bubbles do not retain a spherical shape but flatten when increasing their size. A theoretical model is then developed to account for this effect, predicting the shape based on mechanical equilibrium. In stark contrast to liquid drops, we show that there is no mechanical limit of the height of giant bubble shapes. In practice, the physicochemical constraints imposed by surfactant molecules limit the access to this large asymptotic domain. However, by an exact analogy, it is shown how the giant bubble shapes can be realized by large inflatable structures.

  20. The Soap-Bubble-Geometry Contest. (United States)

    Morgan, Frank; Melnick, Edward R.; Nicholson, Ramona


    Presents an activity on soap-bubble geometry using a guessing contest, explanations, and demonstrations that allow students to mesh observation and mathematical reasoning to discover that mathematics is much more than just number crunching. (ASK)

  1. TE Scattering From Bubbles In RAM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, John


    ... (00) to 450 and at a frequency range from 2-18 GHz, TE polarization. The results from the absolute RCS measurement of the various sized RAM bubbles are discussed in terms of a frequency dependent increase in RCS...

  2. Test and evaluation of bubble memories (United States)

    Bahm, E.


    A description is presented of a test program which has shown that well-constructed bubble memories can operate reliably over long periods of time and at low error rates. Even the relatively high error rate of one memory during burn-in can be considered acceptable if compared with tape recorder standards. No wear-out mechanism or aging could be detected. Bubble memories are now considered suitable for long-duration space missions and certainly are suitable for many military and commercial applications. It must be recognized, however, that bubble memories are complex devices and not yet fully understood. While the particular memory tested may never find practical applications, it nevertheless has provided insight into performance characteristics considered typical of bubble memories.

  3. Electron acceleration in the bubble regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Oliver


    The bubble regime of laser-wakefield acceleration has been studied over the recent years as an important alternative to classical accelerators. Several models and theories have been published, in particular a theory which provides scaling laws for acceleration parameters such as energy gain and acceleration length. This thesis deals with numerical simulations within the bubble regime, their comparison to these scaling laws and data obtained from experiments, as well as some specific phenomenona. With a comparison of the scaling laws with numerical results a parameter scan was able to show a large parameter space in which simulation and theory agree. An investigation of the limits of this parameter space revealed boundaries to other regimes, especially at very high (a{sub 0} > 100) and very low laser amplitudes (a{sub 0} < 4). Comparing simulation data with data from experiments concerning laser pulse development and electron energies, it was found that experimental results can be adequately reproduced using the Virtual-Laser-Plasma-Laboratory code. In collaboration with the Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik at the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena synchrotron radiation emitted from the inside of the bubble was investigated. A simulation of the movement of the electrons inside the bubble together with time dependent histograms of the emitted radiation helped to prove that the majority of radiation created during a bubble acceleration originates from the inside of the bubble. This radiation can be used to diagnose the amplitude of oscillation of the trapped electrons. During a further study it was proven that the polarisation of synchrotron radiation from a bubble contains information about the exact oscillation direction. This oscillation was successfully controlled by using either a laser pulse with a tilted pulse front or an asymmetric laser pulse. First results of ongoing studies concerning injecting electrons into an existing bubble and a scheme called

  4. Numerical simulation of single bubble boiling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu


    Full Text Available The phenomena of a single bubble boiling process are studied with numerical modeling. The mass, momentum, energy and level set equations are solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The bubble boiling dynamics, the transient pressure field, velocity field and temperature field in time are analyzed, and reasonable results are obtained. The numeral model is validated by the empirical equation of Fritz and could be used for various applications.

  5. Test ventilation with smoke, bubbles, and balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, P.L.; Cucchiara, A.L.; McAtee, J.L.; Gonzales, M.


    The behavior of smoke, bubbles, and helium-filled balloons was videotaped to demonstrate the mixing of air in the plutonium chemistry laboratories, a plutonium facility. The air-distribution patterns, as indicated by each method, were compared. Helium-filled balloons proved more useful than bubbles or smoke in the visualization of airflow patterns. The replay of various segments of the videotape proved useful in evaluating the different techniques and in identifying airflow trends responsible for air mixing. 6 refs.

  6. Fluid dynamics of bubbles in liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Results gathered from the literature on the dynamics of bubbles in liquid are correlated by means of a formulation traditionally employed to describe the dynamics of isometric solid particles. It is assumed that the shape of the bubble depends, by means of the Eotvos number, on its diameter and on the gas-liquid surface tension. The analysis reported herein includes the dynamics of the isolated bubble along with wall and concentration effects. However, the effects of gas circulation in the bubble, which result in terminal velocities higher than those of a rigid sphere, are not being considered. A limited number of experimental points are obtained employing a modified version of the Mariotte flask which permits the precise measure of bubble volume. A classic bubble column is also employed in order to measure gas holdup in the continuous phase. Experiments were carried out employing air, with distilled water, potable water, water with variable amounts of surfactant and glycerin as the liquid phase.

  7. Gas Bubble Dynamics under Mechanical Vibrations (United States)

    Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Elbing, Brian


    The scientific community has a limited understanding of the bubble dynamics under mechanical oscillations due to over simplification of Navier-Stockes equation by neglecting the shear stress tensor and not accounting for body forces when calculating the acoustic radiation force. The current work experimental investigates bubble dynamics under mechanical vibration and resulting acoustic field by measuring the bubble size and velocity using high-speed imaging. The experimental setup consists of a custom-designed shaker table, cast acrylic bubble column, compressed air injection manifold and an optical imaging system. The mechanical vibrations resulted in accelerations between 0.25 to 10 times gravitational acceleration corresponding to frequency and amplitude range of 8 - 22Hz and 1 - 10mm respectively. Throughout testing the void fraction was limited to bubble size is larger than resonance size and smaller than acoustic wavelength. The amplitude of acoustic pressure wave was estimated using the definition of Bjerknes force in combination with Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Physical behavior of the system was capture and classified. Bubble size, velocity as well as size and spatial distribution will be presented.

  8. Fearless versus fearful speculative financial bubbles (United States)

    Andersen, J. V.; Sornette, D.


    Using a recently introduced rational expectation model of bubbles, based on the interplay between stochasticity and positive feedbacks of prices on returns and volatility, we develop a new methodology to test how this model classifies nine time series that have been previously considered as bubbles ending in crashes. The model predicts the existence of two anomalous behaviors occurring simultaneously: (i) super-exponential price growth and (ii) volatility growth, that we refer to as the “fearful singular bubble” regime. Out of the nine time series, we find that five pass our tests and can be characterized as “fearful singular bubbles”. The four other cases are the information technology Nasdaq bubble and three bubbles of the Hang Seng index ending in crashes in 1987, 1994 and 1997. According to our analysis, these four bubbles have developed with essentially no significant increase of their volatility. This paper thus proposes that speculative bubbles ending in crashes form two groups hitherto unrecognized, namely those accompanied by increasing volatility (reflecting increasing risk perception) and those without change of volatility (reflecting an absence of risk perception).

  9. A novel detection platform for parallel monitoring of DNA hybridization with high sensitivity and specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sun; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Wang, Zhenyu

    We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities of microa......We developed a high-sensitive platform to monior multiple hybridization events in real time. By creating a microoptical array in a polymeric chip, the system combine the excellent discriminative power of supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) microscopy with high-throughput capabilities...... of microarrays. The micro-optical array is easy to fabricate, and exhibits significantly improved analytical performance. It has a potential to become a basic tool for applications such as gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection....

  10. Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity. (United States)

    Lin, Kaiqun; Lu, Yonghua; Chen, Junxue; Zheng, Rongsheng; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai


    High sensitivity is obtained at larger resonant incident angle if negative diffraction order of metallic grating is used to excite the surface plasmon. A highly sensitive grating-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is designed for the hydrogen detection. A thin palladium (Pd) film deposited on the grating surface is used as transducer. The influences of grating period and the thickness of Pd on the performance of sensor are investigated using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. The sensitivity as well as the width of the SPR curves and reflective amplitude is considered simultaneously for designing the grating-based SPR hydrogen sensor, and a set of optimized structural parameters is presented. The performance of grating-based SPR sensor is also compared with that of conventional prism-based SPR sensor.

  11. Highly Sensitive and Reproducible SERS Performance from Uniform Film Assembled by Magnetic Noble Metal Composite Microspheres. (United States)

    Niu, Chunyu; Zou, Bingfang; Wang, Yongqiang; Cheng, Lin; Zheng, Haihong; Zhou, Shaomin


    To realize highly sensitive and reproducible SERS performance, a new route was put forward to construct uniform SERS film by using magnetic composite microspheres. In the experiment, monodisperse Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microspheres with hierarchical surface were developed and used as building block of SERS substrate, which not only realized fast capturing analyte through dispersion and collection under external magnet but also could be built into uniform film through magnetically induced self-assembly. By using R6G as probe molecule, the as-obtained uniform film exhibited great improvement on SERS performance in both sensitivity and reproducibility when compared with nonuniform film, demonstrating the perfect integration of high sensitivity of hierarchal noble metal microspheres and high reproducibility of ordered microspheres array. Furthermore, the as-obtained product was used to detect pesticide thiram and also exhibited excellent SERS performance for trace detection.

  12. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia. (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan


    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH3) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  13. Highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid with a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash


    The sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA) is strongly associated with the sensing of bacterial organisms in food and many types of environmental samples. To date, the demand for a sensitive detection method for bacterial toxicity has increased remarkably. Herein, we investigated the DPA detection potential of a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework (Tb-MOF) based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The Tb-MOF showed a highly sensitive ability to detect DPA at a limit of detection of 0.04nM (linear range of detection: 1nM to 5µM) and also offered enhanced selectivity from other commonly associated organic molecules. The present study provides a basis for the application of Tb-MOF for direct, convenient, highly sensitive, and specific detection of DPA in the actual samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly Sensitive Electro-Plasmonic Switches Based on Fivefold Stellate Polyhedral Gold Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhong, Liubiao; Jiang, Yueyue; Liow, Chihao; Meng, Fanben; Sun, Yinghui; Chandran, Bevita K; Liang, Ziqiang; Jiang, Lin; Li, Shuzhou; Chen, Xiaodong


    Electron-photon coupling in metal nanostructures has raised a new trend for active plasmonic switch devices in both fundamental understanding and technological applications. However, low sensitivity switches with an on/off ratio less than 5 have restricted applications. In this work, an electrically modulated plasmonic switch based on a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system with a single fivefold stellate polyhedral gold nanoparticle (FSPAuNP) is reported. The reversible switch of the SERS signal shows high sensitivity with an on/off ratio larger than 30. Such a high on/off ratio arises primarily from the plasmonic resonance shift of the FSPAuNP with the incident laser due to the altered free electron density on the nanoparticle under an applied electrochemical potential. This highly sensitive electro-plasmonic switch may enable further development of plasmonic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed


    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross-coupled rectifier, the proposed design offers 3.2× the dynamic range. It is also highly sensitive and requires −18 dBm of input power to produce a 1 V-output voltage when operating with a 100 kΩ load. Furthermore, the proposed design offers an open circuit sensitivity of −23.4 dBm and a peak power conversion efficiency of 67%.

  16. A wide range and highly sensitive optical fiber pH sensor using polyacrylamide hydrogel (United States)

    Pathak, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar


    In the present study we report the fabrication and characterization of no-core fiber sensor (NCFS) using smart hydrogel coating for pH measurement. The no-core fiber (NCF) is stubbed between two single-mode fibers with SMA connector before immobilizing of smart hydrogel. The wavelength interrogation technique is used to calculate the sensitivity of the proposed sensor. The result shows a high sensitivity of 1.94 nm/pH for a wide range of pH values varied from 3 to 10 with a good linear response. In addition to high sensitivity, the fabricated sensor provides a fast response time with a good stability, repeatability and reproducibility.

  17. High sensitive LPFG magnetic field sensor based on dual-peak resonance (United States)

    Gu, Zhengtian; Ling, Qiang; Lan, Jinlong; Gao, Kan


    A high sensitivity magnetic field sensor based on magnetic-fluid-clad LPFG structure with dual peak resonance is presented and experimentally investigated. Based on coupled mode theory, the sensing principle of this sensor is originated from the sensibility of the dual peak based LPFG to the environment refractive index. In experiment, a dual peak interval change was available to 38 nm with a magnetic field strength varying from 0 to 12 mT when the temperature was 17.3 °C, and the dual peak interval displays a cubic polynomial dependence with the magnetic field strength at the low field regime. The sensitivity of this sensor to the magnetic field can be available to 4.08 nm/mT, and it is one order and two orders of magnitude higher than that of the sensors based on MSM and SMS fiber structure, respectively. The novel sensor has many advantages of simple technology, structure stability and high sensitivity.

  18. Three-dimensional conformal graphene microstructure for flexible and highly sensitive electronic skin (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ran, Qincui; Wei, Dapeng; Sun, Tai; Yu, Leyong; Song, Xuefen; Pu, Lichun; Shi, Haofei; Du, Chunlei


    We demonstrate a highly stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) based on the facile combination of microstructured graphene nanowalls (GNWs) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The microstructure of the GNWs was endowed by conformally growing them on the unpolished silicon wafer without the aid of nanofabrication technology. Then a stamping transfer method was used to replicate the micropattern of the unpolished silicon wafer. Due to the large contact interface between the 3D graphene network and the PDMS, this type of E-skin worked under a stretching ratio of nearly 100%, and showed excellent mechanical strength and high sensitivity, with a change in relative resistance of up to 6500% and a gauge factor of 65.9 at 99.64% strain. Furthermore, the E-skin exhibited an obvious highly sensitive response to joint movement, eye movement and sound vibration, demonstrating broad potential applications in healthcare, body monitoring and wearable devices.

  19. Highly sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Watabe, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Morikawa, Mika; Okada, Ryuichi; Miura, Toshiaki; Ito, Etsuro


    Because H(2)O(2) is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H(2)O(2) is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H(2)O(2) and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). FCS has the advantage of allowing us to determine the number of fluorescent molecules. FCS measures the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity caused by fluorescent probe movement in a small light cavity with a defined volume generated by confocal illumination. We thus developed a highly sensitive determination system of H(2)O(2) by FCS, where horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between fluorescent molecules and proteins in the presence of H(2)O(2). Our developed system gave a linear calibration curve for H(2)O(2) in the range of 28 to 300 nM with the detection limit of 8 nM. In addition, by coupling with glucose oxidase (GOD)-catalyzed reaction, the method allows to measure glucose in the range of 80 nM to 1.5 µM with detection limit of 24 nM. The method was applicable to the assay of glucose in blood plasma. The mean concentration of glucose in normal human blood plasma was determined to be 4.9 mM. In comparison with commercial available methods, the detection limit and the minimum value of determination for glucose are at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive in our system. Such a highly sensitive method leads the fact that only a very small amount of plasma (20 nL) is needed for the determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma.

  20. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antohe, V.A.; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária


    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features...... by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved...

  1. 12th Rencontres du Vietnam : High Sensitivity Experiments Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server


    The goal of this workshop is to gather researchers, theoreticians, experimentalists and young scientists searching for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics using high sensitivity experiments. The standard model has been very successful in describing the particle physics world; the Higgs-Englert-Brout boson discovery is its last major discovery. Complementary to the high energy frontier explored at colliders, real opportunities for discovery exist at the precision frontier, testing fundamental symmetries and tracking small SM deviations.

  2. Highly sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Watabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because H(2O(2 is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H(2O(2 is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H(2O(2 and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FCS has the advantage of allowing us to determine the number of fluorescent molecules. FCS measures the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity caused by fluorescent probe movement in a small light cavity with a defined volume generated by confocal illumination. We thus developed a highly sensitive determination system of H(2O(2 by FCS, where horseradish peroxidase (HRP catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between fluorescent molecules and proteins in the presence of H(2O(2. Our developed system gave a linear calibration curve for H(2O(2 in the range of 28 to 300 nM with the detection limit of 8 nM. In addition, by coupling with glucose oxidase (GOD-catalyzed reaction, the method allows to measure glucose in the range of 80 nM to 1.5 µM with detection limit of 24 nM. The method was applicable to the assay of glucose in blood plasma. The mean concentration of glucose in normal human blood plasma was determined to be 4.9 mM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison with commercial available methods, the detection limit and the minimum value of determination for glucose are at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive in our system. Such a highly sensitive method leads the fact that only a very small amount of plasma (20 nL is needed for the determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma.

  3. Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application. (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Yu; Wu, Guo-An; Wang, Kui-Yuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Zou, Yi-Feng; Wang, Dan-Dan; Luo, Lin-Bao


    A deep UV light photodetector is assembled by coating multilayer graphene on beta-gallium oxide (β-Ga2 O3 ) wafer. Optoelectronic analysis reveals that the heterojunction device is virtually blind to light illumination with wavelength longer than 280 nm, but is highly sensitive to 254 nm light with very good stability and reproducibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cardiac troponin T determination by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid. (United States)

    González-Herrera, Lucas; Valenzuela, Aurora; Ramos, Valentín; Blázquez, Antonia; Villanueva, Enrique


    The main objective of this study was to test, for the first time, a highly sensitive cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) assay in postmortem serum and pericardial fluid and to evaluate cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels and their stability after death at different postmortem intervals, in an attempt to determine the viability of the cTnThs assay in the postmortem diagnosis of the cause of death. cTnT levels were determined in serum and pericardial fluid samples taken from 58 cadavers at known postmortem intervals, whose causes of death were categorized into the following groups: (1) sudden cardiac deaths, (2) multiple trauma, (3) mechanical asphyxia, and (4) other natural deaths. cTnT was determined by inmunoassay, using the Troponin T highly sensitive STAT assay (Roche(®)). Average cTnT levels measured by a highly sensitive assay in postmortem serum were markedly higher than clinical serum levels. Moreover, similar results, higher cTnT levels in postmortem pericardial fluid, were obtained when compared to levels found in pericardial fluid taken from two living patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. cTnT levels in both postmortem fluids remained stable for up to 34 h after death. No differences in cTnT levels in either postmortem fluid by sex and age were detected. Levels of cTnT found in pericardial fluid in the other natural deaths group were significantly lower than the cTnT levels found in that postmortem fluid from any of the other causes of death groups. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that determination of cTnT by a highly sensitive assay in pericardial fluid can provide forensic pathologists with a complementary test to the diagnosis of cause of death.

  5. Highly sensitive surface-scanning detector for the direct bacterial detection using magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Horikawa, Shin; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Du, Songtao; Wikle, Howard C.; Suh, Sang-Jin; Chin, Bryan A.


    This paper demonstrates a highly sensitive surface-scanning detector used for magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors for the detection of Salmonella on the surface of a polyethylene (PE) food preparation surface. The design and fabrication methods of the new planar spiral coil are introduced. Different concentrations of Salmonella were measured on the surface of a PE board. The efficacy of Salmonella capture and detection is discussed.

  6. Capacitively-coupled differential position detection in the development of a high-sensitivity torsion balance (United States)

    Rackson, Charles; Watt, Alex; Kim, Woo-Joong; Seattle University Team


    We report on the development of a high-sensitivity torsion balance using a capacitively-coupled Wheatstone Bridge. The torsion balance will be employed to measure the Casimir Force, with a particular emphasis on the surface patch effects that are ubiquitous on metallic surfaces. We will show that these effects also play a significant role in another class of experiments involving quantum-point contacts between two metal wires.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshitha Gowda B.H, Meera K.S , Mahesh E


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease cases are at increased risk for progression to end stage renal disease and accelerated atherosclerosis, with premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality being the more frequent outcome. Aim: The study was taken up to find if there is any association between nontraditional cardiovascular risk markers like high sensitivity C reactive protein (marker of inflammation and malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation with the progression of chronic kidney disease. Methodology: The study included 44 pre dialysis chronic kidney disease cases and 44 healthy controls. Serum levels of creatinine, high sensitivity C reactive protein and malondialdehyde were estimated in both groups. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR in chronic kidney disease patients was calculated by the MDRD formula. Results: The mean eGFR in cases was found to be 23.65 14.99 ml/min by MDRD formula. The serum hsCRP and malondialdehyde levels in cases was 11.8 7.24 mg/L and 3.02 1.24 nmol/ml respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.001 between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde with eGFR. A highly significant positive correlation was found between serum hsCRP and malondialdehyde (p<0.001 in chronic kidney disease underlining the synergism between oxidative stress and inflammation, perpetuating to further deterioration of renal function and enhancing the predisposition to cardiovascular risk with the progression of chronic kidney disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ya. Tyul’kova


    Full Text Available According to normative documents regulating anti-tuberculosis measures, children with hyperergy to tuberculin (papule _ 17 mm are in risk group of development of local tuberculosis. Patients with hyperergy to tuberculin are treated with two anti-tuberculosis drugs for minimization of this risk. Children and adolescents with high sensitivity to tuberculin (papule = 15–16 mm can be treated with one drug. Present study proved that selection of patients into corresponding risk groups based on subjective measures of papule diameter lead to low effectiveness of preventive treatment in children with high sensitivity to tuberculin. An analysis showed that patients with high sensitivity and hyperergy to tuberculin have comparable frequency of different social, epidemiological, clinical and immunopathological states and rates of immunological tests. This fact shows necessity of observation of children with papule 15–16 mm as a reaction for 2 tuberculin units in frames of VI B group and performance of preventive treatment with two antituberculosis drugs.Key words: children, tuberculin, sensitivity, hyperergy, immune system.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:22-26

  9. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal


    high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). METHODS: Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit...... hs-cTnI assay and contemporary cTnI assay at 99th percentile cut-off was found to be 95%. TnI was detectable in 75% and 57% of the apparently healthy population using the lower (1.1 ng/L) and upper (1.9 ng/L) limit of the LoD range provided by the ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI package insert, respectively....... The 99th percentile values were gender dependent. CONCLUSIONS: The new ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI assay with improved analytical features meets the criteria of high sensitive Tn test and will be a valuable diagnostic tool....

  10. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR. (United States)

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi


    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance.

  11. Highly Sensitive Glucose Sensor Based on Organic Electrochemical Transistor with Modified Gate Electrode. (United States)

    Ji, Xudong; Chan, Paddy K L


    An organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) with a glucose oxidase (GOx) and poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) gate electrode was successfully integrated with a microfluidic channel to act as a highly sensitive chip-based glucose sensor. The sensing mechanism relies on the enzymatic reaction between glucose and GOx followed by electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced in the enzymatic reaction. This process largely increases the electrolyte potential that applies on PEDOT:PSS channel and causes more cations penetrate into PEDOT:PSS film to reduce it to semi-conducting state resulting in lower electric current between the source and the drain. The extremely high sensitivity and low detection limit (0.1 μM) of the sensor was achievable due to highly efficient Pt NPs catalysis in oxidation of H2O2. Pt NPs were deposited by a bias-free two-step dip coating method followed by a UV-Ozone post-treatment to enhance catalytic ability. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel was directly attached to the OECT active layer, providing a short detection time (~1 min) and extremely low analyte consumption (30 μL). Our sensor has great potential for real-time, noninvasive, and portable glucose sensing applications due to its compact size and high sensitivity.

  12. The Scientometric Bubble Considered Harmful. (United States)

    Génova, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Fraga, Anabel


    This article deals with a modern disease of academic science that consists of an enormous increase in the number of scientific publications without a corresponding advance of knowledge. Findings are sliced as thin as salami and submitted to different journals to produce more papers. If we consider academic papers as a kind of scientific 'currency' that is backed by gold bullion in the central bank of 'true' science, then we are witnessing an article-inflation phenomenon, a scientometric bubble that is most harmful for science and promotes an unethical and antiscientific culture among researchers. The main problem behind the scenes is that the impact factor is used as a proxy for quality. Therefore, not only for convenience, but also based on ethical principles of scientific research, we adhere to the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment when it emphasizes "the need to eliminate the use of journal-based metrics in funding, appointment and promotion considerations; and the need to assess research on its own merits rather on the journal in which the research is published". Our message is mainly addressed to the funding agencies and universities that award tenures or grants and manage research programmes, especially in developing countries. The message is also addressed to well-established scientists who have the power to change things when they participate in committees for grants and jobs.

  13. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts target organ damage in Chinese patients with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Nie, Hai; He, Hongbo


    with metabolic syndrome. A total of 1082 consecutive patients of Chinese origin were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and target organ damage, including cardiac hypertrophy...... with the elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein had a higher percentage of target organ damage than those with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Stepwise multiple logistic regression confirmed that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly associated with cardiac hypertrophy, carotid...

  14. Bubbles and semi-bubbles as a new kind of superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dechargé, J; Girod, M; Dietrich, K G


    Applying the HFB theory with the effective interaction D1S of Gogny, two kinds of 'hyperheavy nuclei' were discovered: true 'bubbles' with practically vanishing nuclear density in the central region of the nucleus, and 'semi-bubbles' ('unsaturated nuclei') with a reduced but finite density near the nuclear center. Semi-bubbles are found to be stable with regard to the emission of a neutron or a proton for nucleon numbers A and charge numbers Z in the ranges 292 < or approx. 750 and 120 < or approx. 240, and true bubbles for 750 < or approx. 920 and 240 < or approx. 280, respectively. For a limited number of nuclear species, a third type of hyperheavy nuclei with a finite, strongly reduced, halo-like central density ('internal halo nuclei') is found. Coexistence of bubble and semi-bubble solutions for given nucleon and charge numbers is frequently obtained, the semi-bubbles being the ground states for A < or approx. 240, and the true bubbles for the heavier nuclear species. The dominant disinteg...

  15. The importance of bubble deformability for strong drag reduction in bubbly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Dennis Paulus Maria; Narezo Guzman, Daniela; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    Bubbly turbulent Taylor–Couette (TC) flow is globally and locally studied at Reynolds numbers of Re=5×105 to 2×106 with a stationary outer cylinder and a mean bubble diameter around 1 mm. We measure the drag reduction (DR) based on the global dimensional torque as a function of the global gas volume

  16. Dynamics and switching processes for magnetic bubbles in nanoelements (United States)

    Moutafis, C.; Komineas, S.; Bland, J. A. C.


    We study numerically the dynamics of a magnetic bubble in a disk-shaped magnetic element which is probed by a pulse of a magnetic field gradient. Magnetic bubbles are nontrivial magnetic configurations which are characterized by a topological (skyrmion) number N and they have been observed in mesoscopic magnetic elements with strong perpendicular anisotropy. For weak fields we find a skew deflection of the axially symmetric N=1 bubble and a subsequent periodic motion around the center of the dot. This gyrotropic motion of the magnetic bubble is shown here for the first time. Stronger fields induce switching of the N=1 bubble to a bubble which contains a pair of Bloch lines and has N=0 . The N=0 bubble can be switched back to a N=1 bubble by applying again an external field gradient. Detailed features of the unusual bubble dynamics are described by employing the skyrmion number and the moments of the associated topological density.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry via a True Sheathless Metal-Coated Emitter Interface for Robust and High-Sensitivity Sample Quantification. (United States)

    Guo, Xuejiang; Fillmore, Thomas L; Gao, Yuqian; Tang, Keqi


    A new sheathless transient capillary isotachophoresis (CITP)/capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE)-MS interface, based on a commercially available capillary with an integrated metal-coated ESI emitter, was developed in this study aiming at overcoming the reproducibility and ruggedness problems suffered to a certain degree by almost all the available CE-MS interfaces, and pushing the CE-MS technology suitable for routine sample analysis with high sensitivity. The new CITP/CZE-MS interface allows the electric contact between ESI voltage power supply and the CE separation liquid by using a conductive liquid that comes in contact with the metal-coated surface of the ESI emitter, making it a true sheathless CE-MS interface. Stable electrospray was established by avoiding the formation of gas bubbles from electrochemical reaction inside the CE capillary. Crucial operating parameters, such as sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation voltage, were systematically evaluated for their effects on both CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. Around one hundred CITP/CZE-MS analyses can be easily achieved by using the new sheathless CITP/CZE interface without a noticeable loss of metal coating on the ESI emitter surface, or degrading of the ESI emitter performance. The reproducibility in analyte migration time and quantitative performance of the new interface was experimentally evaluated to demonstrate a LOQ below 5 attomole.

  18. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric


    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  19. Scaling laws and dynamics of bubble coalescence (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher R.; Kamat, Pritish M.; Thete, Sumeet S.; Munro, James P.; Lister, John R.; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.


    The coalescence of bubbles and drops plays a central role in nature and industry. During coalescence, two bubbles or drops touch and merge into one as the neck connecting them grows from microscopic to macroscopic scales. The hydrodynamic singularity that arises when two bubbles or drops have just touched and the flows that ensue have been studied thoroughly when two drops coalesce in a dynamically passive outer fluid. In this paper, the coalescence of two identical and initially spherical bubbles, which are idealized as voids that are surrounded by an incompressible Newtonian liquid, is analyzed by numerical simulation. This problem has recently been studied (a) experimentally using high-speed imaging and (b) by asymptotic analysis in which the dynamics is analyzed by determining the growth of a hole in the thin liquid sheet separating the two bubbles. In the latter, advantage is taken of the fact that the flow in the thin sheet of nonconstant thickness is governed by a set of one-dimensional, radial extensional flow equations. While these studies agree on the power law scaling of the variation of the minimum neck radius with time, they disagree with respect to the numerical value of the prefactors in the scaling laws. In order to reconcile these differences and also provide insights into the dynamics that are difficult to probe by either of the aforementioned approaches, simulations are used to access both earlier times than has been possible in the experiments and also later times when asymptotic analysis is no longer applicable. Early times and extremely small length scales are attained in the new simulations through the use of a truncated domain approach. Furthermore, it is shown by direct numerical simulations in which the flow within the bubbles is also determined along with the flow exterior to them that idealizing the bubbles as passive voids has virtually no effect on the scaling laws relating minimum neck radius and time.

  20. Financial Bubbles, Real Estate Bubbles, Derivative Bubbles, and the Financial and Economic Crisis (United States)

    Sornette, Didier; Woodard, Ryan

    The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank interventions and government spending programs have been launched worldwide and especially in the USA and Europe, with the hope to unfreeze credit and bolster consumption. Here, we present evidence and articulate a general framework that allows one to diagnose the fundamental cause of the unfolding financial and economic crisis: the accumulation of several bubbles and their interplay and mutual reinforcement have led to an illusion of a "perpetual money machine" allowing financial institutions to extract wealth from an unsustainable artificial process. Taking stock of this diagnostic, we conclude that many of the interventions to address the so-called liquidity crisis and to encourage more consumption are ill-advised and even dangerous, given that precautionary reserves were not accumulated in the "good times" but that huge liabilities were. The most "interesting" present times constitute unique opportunities but also great challenges, for which we offer a few recommendations.

  1. Research of bubble flow characteristics in microfluidic chip (United States)

    Qiu, Chao; Cheng, Han; Chen, Shuxian


    Bubble is the heart of the microfluidic chip, which takes a significant role in drug release, biological detection and so on. In this case, bubble flow characteristics in microfluidic chip are the key to realize its function. In this paper, bubble flow characteristics in the microfluidic chip have been studied with high speed photography system by controlling the wettability and the heat flux of the microelectrode surface. The result shows that bubble flows faster on the electrode with hydrophobic surface. In addition, loading current to the electrode with hydrophilic surface could also speed up the movement of bubble, and the flow rate of bubble increases with the increasing heat flux of the electrode.

  2. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew


    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  3. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.


    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  4. Serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T after exercise stress test in stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Ruwald, Martin Huth; Dalsgaard, Morten


    The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim was to assess serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) post-exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  5. The stability of large oscillating bubbles (United States)

    Blake, John; Pearson, Antony


    In a most remarkable paper, in October 1942, Penney & Price developed a theory for the stability of large oscillating bubbles; in their case they were interested in underwater explosions. Much of our current understanding on the stability of oscillating bubbles can be traced to the theoretical and experimental insight shown in this paper. While interest in this particular area continues with regard ship survivability to underwater explosions, other newer areas include the oscillatory behaviour of of seismic airgun generated bubbles. Apart from large volume oscillations with a characteristic period, the other dominant parameter is associated with buoyancy. An appropriate parameter is chosen that provides a measure of the distance of migration of a bubble over one period. An analytical and computational analysis of this class of problem reveals that this pressure gradient driven instability, normally observed in the form of a high speed liquid jet threading the bubble, is the most dominant surface instability, a characteristic feature borne out in most experimental and practical applications due to the presence of an incipient pressure gradient associated with hydrostatics, dynamics or boundaries

  6. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development” and “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at beam power levels between 6 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was recorded. The previous report2 described the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis performed on the as-built solution vessel geometry. The CFD simulations in the current analysis were performed using Ansys Fluent, Ver. 17.2. The same power profiles determined from MCNP calculations in earlier work were used for the 12 and 15 kW simulations. The primary goal of the current work is to calculate the temperature profiles for the 12 and 15 kW cases using reasonable estimates for the gas generation rate, based on images of the bubbles recorded during the irradiations. Temperature profiles resulting from the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  7. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.


    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  8. The Quest for the Most Spherical Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Obreschkow, Danail; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Kobel, Philippe; de Bosset, Aurele; Farhat, Mohamed


    We describe a recently realized experiment producing the most spherical cavitation bubbles today. The bubbles grow inside a liquid from a point-plasma generated by a nanosecond laser pulse. Unlike in previous studies, the laser is focussed by a parabolic mirror, resulting in a plasma of unprecedented symmetry. The ensuing bubbles are sufficiently spherical that the hydrostatic pressure gradient caused by gravity becomes the dominant source of asymmetry in the collapse and rebound of the cavitation bubbles. To avoid this natural source of asymmetry, the whole experiment is therefore performed in microgravity conditions (ESA, 53rd and 56th parabolic flight campaign). Cavitation bubbles were observed in microgravity (~0g), where their collapse and rebound remain spherical, and in normal gravity (1g) to hyper-gravity (1.8g), where a gravity-driven jet appears. Here, we describe the experimental setup and technical results, and overview the science data. A selection of high-quality shadowgraphy movies and time-res...

  9. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon1 (France); Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LABSOLAR


    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  10. European multicenter analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I immunoassay. (United States)

    Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Boudry, Pascal; Capell, Nuria Estañ; Köller, Ursula; Lackner, Karl; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Lotz, Johannes; Herranz, Antonio Mora; Nybo, Mads; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Maria B; Schratzberger, Wolfgang; Shih, Jessie; Skadberg, Øyvind; Chargui, Ahmed Taoufik; Zaninotto, Martina; Sypniewska, Grazyna


    International recommendations highlight the superior value of cardiac troponins (cTns) for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction along with analytical requirements of improved precision and detectability. In this multicenter study, we investigated the analytical performance of a new high sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay and its 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL). Laboratories from nine European countries evaluated the ARCHITECT STAT high sensitive troponin I (hs-TnI) immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR/i1000SR immunoanalyzers. Imprecision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) linearity of dilution, interferences, sample type, method comparisons, and 99th percentile URLs were evaluated in this study. Total imprecision of 3.3%-8.9%, 2.0%-3.5% and 1.5%-5.2% was determined for the low, medium and high controls, respectively. The lowest cTnI concentration corresponding to a total CV of 10% was 5.6 ng/L. Common interferences, sample dilution and carryover did not affect the hs-cTnI results. Slight, but statistically significant, differences with sample type were found. Concordance between the investigated hs-cTnI assay and contemporary cTnI assay at 99th percentile cut-off was found to be 95%. TnI was detectable in 75% and 57% of the apparently healthy population using the lower (1.1 ng/L) and upper (1.9 ng/L) limit of the LoD range provided by the ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI package insert, respectively. The 99th percentile values were gender dependent. The new ARCHITECT STAT hs-TnI assay with improved analytical features meets the criteria of high sensitive Tn test and will be a valuable diagnostic tool.

  11. A high sensitivity time-resolved microfluorimeter for real-time cell biology (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, M. L.; Tobin, M. J.; Clarke, D. T.; Gregory, C. M.; Jones, G. R.


    We describe an instrument based on the novel combination of synchrotron radiation, a high sensitivity time-resolved microfluorimeter, and a multiframe single photon counting data acquisition system. This instrument has been designed specifically to measure kinetic events in live cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and is capable of rapidly collecting multiple consecutive decay profiles from a small number of fluorophores. The low irradiance on the samples (measurements over periods of hours. A very low limit of detection (measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer are used to monitor the degree of clustering of epidermal growth factor receptors during endocytosis, over a period of about 1 h, with a 5 s resolution.

  12. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies. (United States)

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R


    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Highly sensitive devices for primary signal processing of the micromechanical capacitive transducers (United States)

    Konoplev, B.; Ryndin, E.; Lysenko, I.; Denisenko, M.; Isaeva, A.


    A method of signal processing devices design for micromechanical accelerometers with capacitive transducers is proposed. This method provides the complex solution of the sensibility increasing and noise immunity problems by finding of the difference frequency of signals, which are formed by two identical generators with micromechanical capacitive transducers in frequency control circuits. In this study the analog and digital versions of the highly sensitive signal processing devices circuits with frequency output were developed. The breadboards of these devices are fabricated and studied and the project of their integral realization is designed.

  14. Development of a highly-sensitive Penning ionization electron spectrometer using the magnetic bottle effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Yuki; Nakajima, Yutaro; Miyauchi, Naoya; Yamakita, Yoshihiro, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Science, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering The University of Electro-Communications 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)


    This paper reports on a highly-sensitive retarding-type electron spectrometer for a continuous source of electrons, in which the electron collection efficiency is increased by utilizing the magnetic bottle effect. This study demonstrates an application to Penning ionization electron spectroscopy using collisional ionization with metastable He*(2{sup 3}S) atoms. Technical details and performances of the instrument are presented. This spectrometer can be used for studies of functional molecules and assemblies, and exterior electron densities are expected to be selectively observed by the Penning ionization.

  15. Highly sensitive antenna using inkjet overprinting with particle-free conductive inks. (United States)

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Otsuka, Kanji


    Printed antennas with low signal losses and fast response in high-frequency bands have been required. Here we reported on highly sensitive antennas using additive patterning of particle-free metallo-organic decomposition silver inks. Inkjet overprinting of metallo-organic decomposition inks onto copper foil and silver nanowire line produced antenna with mirror surfaces. As a result, the overprinted antennas decreased their return losses at 0.5-4.0 GHz and increased the speed of data communication in WiFi network.

  16. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng


    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  17. Creating geometrically robust designs for highly sensitive problems using topology optimization: Acoustic cavity design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Lazarov, Boyan S.; Jensen, Jakob S.


    Resonance and wave-propagation problems are known to be highly sensitive towards parameter variations. This paper discusses topology optimization formulations for creating designs that perform robustly under spatial variations for acoustic cavity problems. For several structural problems, robust...... and limitations are discussed. In addition, a known explicit penalization approach is considered for comparison. For near-uniform spatial variations it is shown that highly robust designs can be obtained using the double filter approach. It is finally demonstrated that taking non-uniform variations into account...

  18. High sensitivity contrast enhanced optical coherence tomography for functional in vivo imaging (United States)

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam


    In this study, we developed and applied highly-scattering large gold nanorods (LGNRs) and custom spectral detection algorithms for high sensitivity contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We were able to detect LGNRs at a concentration as low as 50 pM in blood. We used this approach for noninvasive 3D imaging of blood vessels deep in solid tumors in living mice. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed imaging of spectrally-distinct LGNRs that enabled observations of functional drainage in lymphatic networks. This method, which we call MOZART, provides a platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution.

  19. High energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles. (United States)

    Lunardini, Cecilia; Razzaque, Soebur


    Recently the Fermi-LAT data have revealed two gamma-ray emitting bubble-shaped structures at the Galactic center. If the observed gamma rays have hadronic origin (collisions of accelerated protons), the bubbles must emit high energy neutrinos as well. This new, Galactic, neutrino flux should trace the gamma-ray emission in spectrum and spatial extent. Its highest energy part, above 20-50 TeV, is observable at a kilometer-scale detector in the northern hemisphere, such as the planned KM3NeT, while interesting constraints on it could be obtained by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The detection or exclusion of neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles will discriminate between hadronic and leptonic models, thus bringing unique information on the still mysterious origin of these objects and on the time scale of their formation.

  20. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  1. Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.

    Dholakia and Turcan present their interdisciplinary metatheory of bubbles with short case studies of minor and major bubbles. They comprehensively identify and exemplify constructs of the theory, set its temporal and contextual boundaries, and examine the underlying economic, psychological......, and social dynamics assumptions, explaining how these elements are related. By doing so, they provide a partial window into the precarious nature of contemporary finance-driven capitalism and suggest some possible ways of overcoming the wrenching ups and downs of the prevalent system. The case studies...... and original research in Toward a Metatheory of Economic Bubbles have far-reaching implications for the study and practice of entrepreneurship and marketing, public and corporate finance, and public policies towards innovation, economy, and finance. It contributes to the defining issues for economic sociology...

  2. Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen


    Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.

  3. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies (United States)

    Fry, John


    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  4. Topological vacuum bubbles by anyon braiding. (United States)

    Han, Cheolhee; Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H-S


    According to a basic rule of fermionic and bosonic many-body physics, known as the linked cluster theorem, physical observables are not affected by vacuum bubbles, which represent virtual particles created from vacuum and self-annihilating without interacting with real particles. Here we show that this conventional knowledge must be revised for anyons, quasiparticles that obey fractional exchange statistics intermediate between fermions and bosons. We find that a certain class of vacuum bubbles of Abelian anyons does affect physical observables. They represent virtually excited anyons that wind around real anyonic excitations. These topological bubbles result in a temperature-dependent phase shift of Fabry-Perot interference patterns in the fractional quantum Hall regime accessible in current experiments, thus providing a tool for direct and unambiguous observation of elusive fractional statistics.

  5. Moving with bubbles: a review of the interactions between bubbles and the microorganisms that surround them. (United States)

    Walls, Peter L L; Bird, James C; Bourouiba, Lydia


    Bubbles are ubiquitous in biological environments, emerging during the complex dynamics of waves breaking in the open oceans or being intentionally formed in bioreactors. From formation, through motion, until death, bubbles play a critical role in the oxygenation and mixing of natural and artificial ecosystems. However, their life is also greatly influenced by the environments in which they emerge. This interaction between bubbles and microorganisms is a subtle affair in which surface tension plays a critical role. Indeed, it shapes the role of bubbles in mixing or oxygenating microorganisms, but also determines how microorganisms affect every stage of the bubble's life. In this review, we guide the reader through the life of a bubble from birth to death, with particular attention to the microorganism-bubble interaction as viewed through the lens of fluid dynamics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email:

  6. A fully integrated microfluidic platform for highly sensitive analysis of immunochemical parameters. (United States)

    Lutz, Sascha; Lopez-Calle, Eloisa; Espindola, Pamela; Boehm, Christoph; Brueckner, Thorsten; Spinke, Juergen; Marcinowski, Moritz; Keller, Thomas; Tgetgel, Armin; Herbert, Nicolas; Fischer, Thomas; Beiersdorf, Erik


    We present a novel fully integrated centrifugal microfluidic platform for highly sensitive immunoassays in point-of-care settings. The platform consists of a disposable cartridge containing structures for assay processing, a porous membrane and all dried reagents required for the analysis. Additionally, a blister containing a washing buffer is connected to a new aliquoting structure enabling the serial aliquoting of washing buffer for repetitive bound-free separation steps. The proof-of-concept for two immunoassays is shown in the cartridge with each requiring only 30 μL of whole blood or plasma as the sample material. The detection of the cardiac marker Troponin T with a functional sensitivity of 7.55 ng L -1 (cv = 10%) within 11 minutes is shown based on samples from ten donors which were measured with six breadboard instruments to prove the platform capability for highly sensitive measurements at diagnostic relevant concentrations. Furthermore an assay for the cardiac marker NT-proBNP (five donors, six instruments) with a time-to-result of 12 minutes demonstrates that high-titer analytes (43 to 16.566 ng L -1 ) can be measured as well. A method comparison of our platform with a state-of-the-art laboratory analyzer proves an excellent correlation of the measured analyte concentrations. All results are obtained from injection moulded cartridges and all components of the platform are compatible for mass production.

  7. Rational design of highly sensitive fluorescence probes for protease and glycosidase based on precisely controlled spirocyclization. (United States)

    Sakabe, Masayo; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Iwatate, Ryu J; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru


    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of hydroxymethyl rhodamine derivatives and found an intriguing difference of intramolecular spirocyclization behavior: the acetylated derivative of hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (Ac-HMRG) exists as a closed spirocyclic structure in aqueous solution at physiological pH, whereas HMRG itself takes an open nonspirocyclic structure. Ac-HMRG is colorless and nonfluorescent, whereas HMRG is strongly fluorescent. On the basis of these findings, we have developed a general design strategy to obtain highly sensitive fluorescence probes for proteases and glycosidases, by replacing the acetyl group of Ac-HMRG with a substrate moiety of the target enzyme. Specific cleavage of the substrate moiety in the nonfluorescent probe by the target enzyme generates a strong fluorescence signal. To confirm the validity and flexibility of our strategy, we designed and synthesized fluorescence probes for leucine aminopeptidase (Leu-HMRG), fibroblast activation protein (Ac-GlyPro-HMRG), and β-galactosidase (βGal-HMRG). All of these probes were almost nonfluorescent due to the formation of spirocyclic structure, but were converted efficiently to highly fluorescent HMRG by the target enzymes. We confirmed that the probes can be used in living cells. These probes offer great practical advantages, including high sensitivity and rapid response (due to regulation of fluorescence at a single reactive site), as well as resistance to photobleaching, and are expected to be useful for a range of biological and pathological investigations.

  8. High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices. (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan


    In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Sensitive and Selective VOC Sensor Systems Based on Semiconductor Gas Sensors: How to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze


    Full Text Available Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is of increasing importance in many application fields such as environmental monitoring, indoor air quality, industrial safety, fire detection, and health applications. The challenges in all of these applications are the wide variety and low concentrations of target molecules combined with the complex matrix containing many inorganic and organic interferents. This paper will give an overview over the application fields and address the requirements, pitfalls, and possible solutions for using low-cost sensor systems for VOC monitoring. The focus lies on highly sensitive metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors, which show very high sensitivity, but normally lack selectivity required for targeting relevant VOC monitoring applications. In addition to providing an overview of methods to increase the selectivity, especially virtual multisensors achieved with dynamic operation, and boost the sensitivity further via novel pro-concentrator concepts, we will also address the requirement for high-performance gas test systems, advanced solutions for operating and read-out electronic, and, finally, a cost-efficient factory and on-site calibration. The various methods will be primarily discussed in the context of requirements for monitoring of indoor air quality, but can equally be applied for environmental monitoring and other fields.

  10. A high sensitivity field effect transistor biosensor for methylene blue detection utilize graphene oxide nanoribbon. (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Chun; Li, Yan-Sheng; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Pei, Zingway


    In this work, we developed a field effect transistor (FET) biosensor utilizing solution-processed graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) for methylene blue (MB) sensing. MB is a unique material; one of its crucial applications is as a marker in the detection of biomaterials. Therefore, a highly sensitive biosensor with a low detection limit that can be fabricated simply in a noncomplex detection scheme is desirable. GONR is made by unzipping multiwall carbon nanotubes, which can be mass-produced at low temperature. The GONR-FET biosensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 12.5μA/mM (determined according to the drain current difference caused by the MB concentration change). The Raman spectra indicate that the materials quality of the GONR and the domain size for the C=C sp 2 bonding were both improved after MB detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the GONR were removed by the reductive MB. According to XPS and Raman, the positive charge is proposed to transfer from MB to GONR during sensing. This transfer causes charge in-neutrality in the GONR which is compensated by releasing •OH functional groups. With high sensitivity, a low detection limit, and a simple device structure, the GONR-FET sensor is suitable for sensing biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor fabricated by modified electrode of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods. (United States)

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Shin, Hyung Shik


    A highly sensitive, reliable and reproducible hydrazine chemical sensor was fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) electrode. The low temperature hydrothermal process was adopted to synthesize the vertically aligned ZnO NRs on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The morphological characterizations revealed the vertical arrangement of highly dense ZnO NRs on FTO substrates. The ultraviolet diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) of aligned ZnO NRs electrode obtained the band gap of ~3.29eV which was close to that of bulk ZnO nanomaterials. The synthesized aligned ZnO NRs electrode was directly used to elucidate the chemical sensing performance towards the detection of hydrazine by simple current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The aligned ZnO NRs electrode based hydrazine chemical sensor presented a significantly high sensitivity of ~4.42446×10(-5) A mM(-1) cm(-2) and the detection limit of ~515.7 μM with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.73297 and a short response time (10s). The electrochemical analysis of vertically aligned ZnO NRs electrode in the presence of hydrazine showed the increased current with high height of anodic peak which confirmed the involvement of high electron transfer process via high electrocatalytic activity of the electrode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Symmetry-Breaking as a Paradigm to Design Highly-Sensitive Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palacios


    Full Text Available A large class of dynamic sensors have nonlinear input-output characteristics, often corresponding to a bistable potential energy function that controls the evolution of the sensor dynamics. These sensors include magnetic field sensors, e.g., the simple fluxgate magnetometer and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, ferroelectric sensors and mechanical sensors, e.g., acoustic transducers, made with piezoelectric materials. Recently, the possibilities offered by new technologies and materials in realizing miniaturized devices with improved performance have led to renewed interest in a new generation of inexpensive, compact and low-power fluxgate magnetometers and electric-field sensors. In this article, we review the analysis of an alternative approach: a symmetry-based design for highly-sensitive sensor systems. The design incorporates a network architecture that produces collective oscillations induced by the coupling topology, i.e., which sensors are coupled to each other. Under certain symmetry groups, the oscillations in the network emerge via an infinite-period bifurcation, so that at birth, they exhibit a very large period of oscillation. This characteristic renders the oscillatory wave highly sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects, thus leading to a new detection mechanism. Model equations and bifurcation analysis are discussed in great detail. Results from experimental works on networks of fluxgate magnetometers are also included.

  13. Highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction-free quantum dot-based quantification of forensic genomic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Eunyoung [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Jong Jin [Forensic DNA Center, National Forensic Service, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wook [Department of Biological Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun [DNA Link, VICHEN CITY Building 3F, Seoul 121-850 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Myong, E-mail: [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genomic DNA quantification were performed using a quantum dot-labeled Alu sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qdot-labeled Alu probe-hybridized genomic DNAs had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qdot-labeled Alu sequence was used to assess DNA samples for human identification. - Abstract: Forensic DNA samples can degrade easily due to exposure to light and moisture at the crime scene. In addition, the amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. The accurately quantified extracted genomic DNA is then used as a DNA template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for short tandem repeat (STR) human identification. Accordingly, highly sensitive and human-specific quantification of forensic DNA samples is an essential issue in forensic study. In this work, a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled Alu sequence was developed as a probe to simultaneously satisfy both the high sensitivity and human genome selectivity for quantification of forensic DNA samples. This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA and had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit due to the strong emission and photostability of the Qdot. The Qdot-labeled Alu sequence has been used successfully to assess 18 different forensic DNA samples for STR human identification.

  14. A SERS-based lateral flow assay biosensor for highly sensitive detection of HIV-1 DNA. (United States)

    Fu, Xiuli; Cheng, Ziyi; Yu, Jimin; Choo, Priscilla; Chen, Lingxin; Choo, Jaebum


    User-friendly lateral flow (LF) strips have been extensively used for point-of-care (POC) self-diagnostics, but they have some limitations in their detection sensitivity and quantitative analysis because they only identify the high cut-off value of a biomarker by utilizing color changes that are detected with the naked eye. To resolve these problems associated with LF strips, we developed a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LF assay for the quantitative analysis of a specific biomarker in the low concentration range. Herein, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA was chosen as the specific biomarker. Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were employed as SERS nano tags for targeting and detecting the HIV-1 DNA marker, as opposed to using bare AuNPs in LF strips. It was possible to quantitatively analyze HIV-1 DNA with high sensitivity by monitoring the characteristic Raman peak intensity of the DNA-conjugated AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of our SERS-based lateral flow assay was 0.24 pg/mL, which was at least 1000 times more sensitive compared to colorimetric or fluorescent detection methods. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the proposed SERS-based lateral flow assay to quantitatively detect a broad range of genetic diseases with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensor Based on a PDMS Foam Coated with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rinaldi


    Full Text Available The demand for high performance multifunctional wearable devices is more and more pushing towards the development of novel low-cost, soft and flexible sensors with high sensitivity. In the present work, we describe the fabrication process and the properties of new polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS foams loaded with multilayer graphene nanoplatelets (MLGs for application as high sensitive piezoresistive pressure sensors. The effective DC conductivity of the produced foams is measured as a function of MLG loading. The piezoresistive response of the MLG-PDMS foam-based sensor at different strain rates is assessed through quasi-static pressure tests. The results of the experimental investigations demonstrated that sensor loaded with 0.96 wt.% of MLGs is characterized by a highly repeatable pressure-dependent conductance after a few stabilization cycles and it is suitable for detecting compressive stresses as low as 10 kPa, with a sensitivity of 0.23 kPa−1, corresponding to an applied pressure of 70 kPa. Moreover, it is estimated that the sensor is able to detect pressure variations of ~1 Pa. Therefore, the new graphene-PDMS composite foam is a lightweight cost-effective material, suitable for sensing applications in the subtle or low and medium pressure ranges.

  16. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  17. High-performance and high-sensitivity applications of graphene transistors with self-assembled monolayers. (United States)

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Kumar, Vinod; Moyano, David Ricardo; Wen, Shao-Hsuan; Parashar, Vyom; Hsiao, She-Hsin; Srivastava, Anchal; Saxena, Preeti S; Huang, Kun-Ping; Chang, Chien-Chung; Chiu, Po-Wen


    Charge impurities and polar molecules on the surface of dielectric substrates has long been a critical obstacle to using graphene for its niche applications that involve graphene's high mobility and high sensitivity nature. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been found to effectively reduce the impact of long-range scatterings induced by the external charges. Yet, demonstrations of scalable device applications using the SAMs technique remains missing due to the difficulties in the device fabrication arising from the strong surface tension of the modified dielectric environment. Here, we use patterned SAM arrays to build graphene electronic devices with transport channels confined on the modified areas. For high-mobility applications, both rigid and flexible radio-frequency graphene field-effect transistors (G-FETs) were demonstrated, with extrinsic cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency enhanced by a factor of ~2 on SiO2/Si substrates. For high sensitivity applications, G-FETs were functionalized by monoclonal antibodies specific to cancer biomarker chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, enabling its detection at a concentration of 0.01 fM, five orders of magnitude lower than that detectable by a conventional colorimetric assay. These devices can be very useful in the early diagnosis and monitoring of a malignant disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng


    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.

  19. A facile and high sensitive micro fluorimeter based on light emitting diode and photodiode. (United States)

    Geng, Xuhui; Gao, Yan; Feng, Chunbo; Guan, Yafeng


    A facile and high sensitive micro fluorimeter was developed and evaluated. It employed light emitting diode (LED) as light source, cuvette as detection cell, and photodiode (PD) as optoelectronic detector. Optical and electronic parameters were optimized and demonstrated. A high power LED was chosen, which could irradiate the inner area of the cuvette completely at the same time with divergence angle as small as possible. The optimum LED brought 2.5 times signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement. Using reflector at the opposite direction of excitation light path doubled SNR. The amplifier circuit of PD was deeply investigated to achieve high sensitivity, low noise, and good stability. The limit of detection (LOD) of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and chlorophyll at SNR = 3 were 10pM ~ 0.004 ppb and 0.05 ppb, respectively. Basing on the principle structure, a portable fluorimeter for fungimycin detection was developed using a low power UV LED as light source. The LOD for aflatoxin B1 was 0.1 ppb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer by grating inscription in specific core dip fiber. (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Guo, Tuan; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Qiao, Xueguang


    A highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer based on detecting the power output of resonances from the core dip is demonstrated. The sensing probe comprises a compact structure, hereby a short section of specific core (with a significant core dip) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating is spliced to another single-mode fiber via a core self-alignment process. The femtosecond laser side-illumination technique was utilized to ensure that the grating inscription region is precisely positioned and compact in size. Two well-defined core resonances were achieved in reflection: one originates from the core dip and the other originates from fiber core. The key point is that only one of these two reflective resonances exhibits a high sensitivity to fiber bend (and vibration), whereas the other is immune to it. For low frequency (core mode reflection. Moreover, the sensor simultaneously provides an inherent power reference to eliminate unwanted power fluctuations from the light source and transmission lines, thus providing a means of evaluating weak seismic wave at low frequency.

  1. Highly Sensitive Flexible NH3 Sensors Based on Printed Organic Transistors with Fluorinated Conjugated Polymers. (United States)

    Nketia-Yawson, Benjamin; Jung, A-Ra; Noh, Yohan; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Tabi, Grace Dansoa; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Kim, BongSoo; Noh, Yong-Young


    Understanding the sensing mechanism in organic chemical sensors is essential for improving the sensing performance such as detection limit, sensitivity, and other response/recovery time, selectivity, and reversibility for real applications. Here, we report a highly sensitive printed ammonia (NH3) gas sensor based on organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with fluorinated difluorobenzothiadiazole-dithienosilole polymer (PDFDT). These sensors detected NH3 down to 1 ppm with high sensitivity (up to 56%) using bar-coated ultrathin (NH3 interactions comprise hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between the PDFDT polymer backbone and NH3 gas molecules, thus lowering the highest occupied molecular orbital levels, leading to hole trapping in the OTFT sensors. Additionally, density functional theory calculations show that gaseous NH3 molecules are captured via cooperation of fluorine atoms and dithienosilole units in PDFDT. We verified that incorporation of functional groups that interact with a specific gas molecule in a conjugated polymer is a promising strategy for producing high-performance printed OTFT gas sensors.

  2. Highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction-free quantum dot-based quantification of forensic genomic DNA. (United States)

    Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Han, Eunyoung; Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Jong Jin; Kim, Wook; Lee, Jong Eun; Song, Joon Myong


    Forensic DNA samples can degrade easily due to exposure to light and moisture at the crime scene. In addition, the amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. The accurately quantified extracted genomic DNA is then used as a DNA template in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for short tandem repeat (STR) human identification. Accordingly, highly sensitive and human-specific quantification of forensic DNA samples is an essential issue in forensic study. In this work, a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled Alu sequence was developed as a probe to simultaneously satisfy both the high sensitivity and human genome selectivity for quantification of forensic DNA samples. This probe provided PCR-free determination of human genomic DNA and had a 2.5-femtogram detection limit due to the strong emission and photostability of the Qdot. The Qdot-labeled Alu sequence has been used successfully to assess 18 different forensic DNA samples for STR human identification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Next Generation Flow for highly sensitive and standardized detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Flores-Montero, J; Sanoja-Flores, L; Paiva, B; Puig, N; García-Sánchez, O; Böttcher, S; van der Velden, V H J; Pérez-Morán, J-J; Vidriales, M-B; García-Sanz, R; Jimenez, C; González, M; Martínez-López, J; Corral-Mateos, A; Grigore, G-E; Fluxá, R; Pontes, R; Caetano, J; Sedek, L; Del Cañizo, M-C; Bladé, J; Lahuerta, J-J; Aguilar, C; Bárez, A; García-Mateo, A; Labrador, J; Leoz, P; Aguilera-Sanz, C; San-Miguel, J; Mateos, M-V; Durie, B; van Dongen, J J M; Orfao, A


    Flow cytometry has become a highly valuable method to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluate the depth of complete response (CR) in bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) after therapy. However, current flow-MRD has lower sensitivity than molecular methods and lacks standardization. Here we report on a novel next generation flow (NGF) approach for highly sensitive and standardized MRD detection in MM. An optimized 2-tube 8-color antibody panel was constructed in five cycles of design-evaluation-redesign. In addition, a bulk-lysis procedure was established for acquisition of ⩾107 cells/sample, and novel software tools were constructed for automatic plasma cell gating. Multicenter evaluation of 110 follow-up BM from MM patients in very good partial response (VGPR) or CR showed a higher sensitivity for NGF-MRD vs conventional 8-color flow-MRD -MRD-positive rate of 47 vs 34% (P=0.003)-. Thus, 25% of patients classified as MRD-negative by conventional 8-color flow were MRD-positive by NGF, translating into a significantly longer progression-free survival for MRD-negative vs MRD-positive CR patients by NGF (75% progression-free survival not reached vs 7 months; P=0.02). This study establishes EuroFlow-based NGF as a highly sensitive, fully standardized approach for MRD detection in MM which overcomes the major limitations of conventional flow-MRD methods and is ready for implementation in routine diagnostics.

  4. Highly sensitive ratiometric detection of heparin and its oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant by fluorescent peptidyl probe. (United States)

    Mehta, Pramod Kumar; Lee, Hyeri; Lee, Keun-Hyeung


    The selective and sensitive detection of heparin, an anticoagulant in clinics as well as its contaminant oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) is of great importance. We first reported a ratiometric sensing method for heparin as well as OSCS contaminants in heparin using a fluorescent peptidyl probe (Pep1, pyrene-GSRKR) and heparin-digestive enzyme. Pep1 exhibited a highly sensitive ratiometric response to nanomolar concentration of heparin in aqueous solution over a wide pH range (2~11) and showed highly selective ratiometric response to heparin among biological competitors such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Pep1 showed a linear ratiometric response to nanomolar concentrations of heparin in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. The detection limit for heparin was calculated to be 2.46nM (R2=0.99) in aqueous solutions, 2.98nM (R2=0.98) in 1% serum samples, and 3.43nM (R2=0.99) in 5% serum samples. Pep1 was applied to detect the contaminated OSCS in heparin with heparinase I, II, and III, respectively. The ratiometric sensing method using Pep1 and heparinase II was highly sensitive, fast, and efficient for the detection of OSCS contaminant in heparin. Pep1 with heparinase II could detect as low as 0.0001% (w/w) of OSCS in heparin by a ratiometric response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High sensitivity plasmonic biosensor based on nanoimprinted quasi 3D nanosquares for cell detection. (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Li, Hualin; Yang, Mengsu; Pang, Stella W


    Quasi three-dimensional (3D) plasmonic nanostructures consisting of Au nanosquares on top of SU-8 nanopillars and Au nanoholes on the bottom were developed and fabricated using nanoimprint lithography with simultaneous thermal and UV exposure. These 3D plasmonic nanostructures were used to detect cell concentration of lung cancer A549 cells, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Nanoimprint technology has the advantage of producing high uniformity plasmonic nanostructures for such biosensors. Multiple resonance modes were observed in these quasi 3D plasmonic nanostructures. The hybrid coupling of localized surface plasmon resonances and Fabry-Perot cavity modes in the quasi 3D nanostructures resulted in high sensitivity of 496 nm/refractive index unit. The plasmonic resonance peak wavelength and sensitivity could be tuned by varying the Au thickness. Resonance peak shifts for different cells at the same concentration were distinct due to their different cell area and confluency. The cell concentration detection limit covered a large range of 5 × 10(2) to 1 × 10(7) cells ml(-1) with these new plasmonic nanostructures. They also provide a large resonance peak shift of 51 nm for as little as 0.08 cells mm(-2) of RPE cells for high sensitivity cell detection.

  6. Novel Reversible Mechanochromic Elastomer with High Sensitivity: Bond Scission and Bending-Induced Multicolor Switching. (United States)

    Wang, Taisheng; Zhang, Na; Dai, Jingwen; Li, Zili; Bai, Wei; Bai, Ruke


    Although the rational designed mechanochromic polymer (MCP) materials have evoked major interest and experienced significant progress recently, it is still a great challenge to develop a facile and effective strategy for preparation of reversible broad-spectrum MCPs with a combination of wide-range color switch ability and high sensitivity, which thus make it possible to mimic gorgeous color change as in nature. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel rhodamine-based mechanochromic elastomer. Our results demonstrated that the elastomer exhibited very promising and unique properties. Three primary fluorescence colors were presented during continuous uniaxial extension and relaxing process, and reversible broad-spectrum fluorescence color change could be achieved consequently. The fluorescence quantum yield of the opened zwitterion of this new mechanophore was as high as 0.67. In addition, the elastomer showed very high sensitivity to stress with a detectable activation strain of ∼0.24, which was much smaller than those reported in the previous literature reports. Meantime, the easy-to-obtain material, facile preparation, and good mechanical property also made it suitable for potential practical applications.

  7. Highly sensitive detection of protein biomarkers via nuclear magnetic resonance biosensor with magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles. (United States)

    Jeun, Minhong; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Hakho; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    Magnetic-based biosensors are attractive for on-site detection of biomarkers due to the low magnetic susceptibility of biological samples. Here, we report a highly sensitive magnetic-based biosensing system that is composed of a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) device and magnetically engineered nanoferrite particles (NFPs). The sensing performance, also identified as the transverse relaxation (R2) rate, of the NMR device is directly related to the magnetic properties of the NFPs. Therefore, we developed magnetically engineered NFPs (MnMg-NFP) and used them as NMR agents to exhibit a significantly improved R2 rate. The magnetization of the MnMg-NFPs was increased by controlling the Mn and Mg cation concentration and distribution during the synthesis process. This modification of the Mn and Mg cation directly contributed to improving the R2 rate. The miniaturized NMR system, combined with the magnetically engineered MnMg-NFPs, successfully detected a small amount of infectious influenza A H1N1 nucleoprotein with high sensitivity and stability.

  8. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  9. High Sensitivity Gas Detection Using a Macroscopic Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Network (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel; Chen, Zongping; Thomas, Abhay V.; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil


    Nanostructures are known to be exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment and offer ultra-high sensitivity for gas-sensing. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. By contrast, conventional solid-state and conducting-polymer sensors offer excellent reliability but suffer from reduced sensitivity at room-temperature. Here we report a macro graphene foam-like three-dimensional network which combines the best of both worlds. The walls of the foam are comprised of few-layer graphene sheets resulting in high sensitivity; we demonstrate parts-per-million level detection of NH3 and NO2 in air at room-temperature. Further, the foam is a mechanically robust and flexible macro-scale network that is easy to contact (without Lithography) and can rival the durability and affordability of traditional sensors. Moreover, Joule-heating expels chemisorbed molecules from the foam's surface leading to fully-reversible and low-power operation.

  10. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors. (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng


    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 μM and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.

  11. "Bubble-on-demand" generator with precise adsorption time control. (United States)

    Zawala, J; Niecikowska, A


    The paper presents the principles of our new single bubble generator, which allows a precise control of bubble formation in pure liquids and surfactant solutions, i.e., their detachment frequency and the adsorption time at their motionless surface. We show that the bubbles with equilibrium size can be produced at the capillaries of various orifice diameters (0.022-0.128 mm) on demand and with outstanding reproducibility. Moreover, it is shown that a fully automatized and programmable bubble trap, synchronized with bubble detachment frequency, can be used to (i) control the radius of the released bubble and (ii) precisely adjust the initial adsorption coverage over the surface of detaching bubble, and hence to study the influence of adsorption coverage degree on kinetics of dynamic adsorption layer formation at the rising bubble surface.

  12. Simulations of Bubble Motion in an Oscillating Liquid (United States)

    Kraynik, A. M.; Romero, L. A.; Torczynski, J. R.


    Finite-element simulations are used to investigate the motion of a gas bubble in a liquid undergoing vertical vibration. The effect of bubble compressibility is studied by comparing "compressible" bubbles that obey the ideal gas law with "incompressible" bubbles that are taken to have constant volume. Compressible bubbles exhibit a net downward motion away from the free surface that does not exist for incompressible bubbles. Net (rectified) velocities are extracted from the simulations and compared with theoretical predictions. The dependence of the rectified velocity on ambient gas pressure, bubble diameter, and bubble depth are in agreement with the theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. "Bubble-on-demand" generator with precise adsorption time control (United States)

    Zawala, J.; Niecikowska, A.


    The paper presents the principles of our new single bubble generator, which allows a precise control of bubble formation in pure liquids and surfactant solutions, i.e., their detachment frequency and the adsorption time at their motionless surface. We show that the bubbles with equilibrium size can be produced at the capillaries of various orifice diameters (0.022-0.128 mm) on demand and with outstanding reproducibility. Moreover, it is shown that a fully automatized and programmable bubble trap, synchronized with bubble detachment frequency, can be used to (i) control the radius of the released bubble and (ii) precisely adjust the initial adsorption coverage over the surface of detaching bubble, and hence to study the influence of adsorption coverage degree on kinetics of dynamic adsorption layer formation at the rising bubble surface.

  14. Cavitation Bubble Dynamics in Ammoniacal Fluids Transferred by Centrifugal Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Cruz


    Full Text Available An experiment with water and ammoniacal liquor at 27% and 34% concentrations of ammonia was carried out in order to determine the pressure dynamics during the formation of bubbles and their movement when causing cavitations in centrifugal pumps. The dynamics of bubbles was calculated numerically by applying the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using the bubble radius and the bubble build-up time. It is concluded that the pressure to form the bubbles at 22 ºC is 10,135.103 Pa for water and 45,468.103 Pa for the ammoniacal liquor at a concentration of 34 %. The radius of the bubbles found in ammoniacal liquor is in the range of 30 to 120 times the original bubble radius while the bubbles formed in water are only in the range of 15 times the original radius value.

  15. Bubble Dynamics in a Two-Phase Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaprakash, Arvind; Chahine, Georges


    The spherical dynamics of a bubble in a compressible liquid has been studied extensively since the early work of Gilmore. Numerical codes to study the behavior, including when large non-spherical deformations are involved, have since been developed and have been shown to be accurate. The situation is however different and common knowledge less advanced when the compressibility of the medium surrounding the bubble is provided mainly by the presence of a bubbly mixture. In one of the present works being carried out at DYNAFLOW, INC., the dynamics of a primary relatively large bubble in a water mixture including very fine bubbles is being investigated experimentally and the results are being provided to several parallel on-going analytical and numerical approaches. The main/primary bubble is produced by an underwater spark discharge from two concentric electrodes placed in the bubbly medium, which is generated using electrolysis. A grid of thin perpendicular wires is used to generate bubble distributions of vary...

  16. A note on effects of rational bubble on portfolios (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-yan


    In general, demand increases in wealth and decreases in price in microeconomics. We thereby propose a completely different perspective. By establishing expected utility function of investors, this article introduces one rational bubble asset and one bubble free asset in portfolios and focuses on the effects of bubble on investment portfolios from wealth and price perspectives. All conclusions are obtained by theoretical analysis with microeconomics theory. We argue that inferior goods and Giffen behavior can occur for the bubble free asset in microeconomic fields. The results can help investors to recognize bubble assets and bubble free assets more scientifically. Both bubble and bubble free assets can be inferior goods under some conditions, so we cannot to say which asset better than the other one absolutely.

  17. Surface magnetostatic oscillations in elliptical bubble domains (United States)

    Popov, M. A.; Zavislyak, I. V.


    A theory of surface magnetostatic oscillations in magnetic bubble domains with an elliptical cross section is presented. The dependences of the eigenfrequencies of resonant modes on the applied magnetic field are analyzed for a barium hexaferrite sample with allowance made for the change in the domain size due to a variation in the bias magnetic field. The range of frequency tuning in response to a magnetic field ranging from the elliptical instability field to the collapse field is estimated. It is demonstrated that elliptical bubble domains can be used as microminiature resonators operating in the millimeter range.

  18. Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, F. H.


    The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second

  19. Impact of money supply on stock bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Širůček


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect and implications of changes in money supply in the US on stock bubble rise on the US capital market, which is represented by the Dow Jones Industrial Average index. This market was chosen according to the market capitalization. The attention of the paper is drawn to issues – if according to the results of empirical analysis, the money supply is a significant factor which causes the bubbles and if during the time the significance and impact of this macroeconomic factor on stock index increase.

  20. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro


    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  1. Stochastic modelling for financial bubbles and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fry


    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw upon the close relationship between statistical physics and mathematical finance to develop a suite of models for financial bubbles and crashes. By modifying previous approaches, we are able to derive novel analytical formulae for evaluation problems and for the expected timing of future change points. In particular, we help to explain why previous approaches have systematically overstated the timing of changes in market regime. The list of potential empirical applications is deep and wide ranging, and includes contemporary housing bubbles, the Eurozone crisis and the Crash of 2008.

  2. Intraalveolar bubbles and bubble films: III. Vulnerability and preservation in the laboratory. (United States)

    Scarpelli, E M; Mautone, A J; Chinoy, M R; Defouw, D O; Clutario, B C


    Having confirmed (Scarpelli et al. 1996. Anat. Rec. 244:344-357 and 246:245-270) the discovery of intraalveolar bubbles and films as the normal anatomical infrastructure of aerated alveoli at all ages, we now address three questions. Why have these structures been so elusive? Visible in fresh lungs from the in vivo state, can they be preserved by known laboratory methods? Can they be preserved intact for study in tissue sections? Lungs of adult rabbits and pups were examined in thorax directly from the in vivo state to confirm normal bubbles both at functional residual capacity and at maximal volume; other lungs were permitted to deflate naturally to minimal volume. The fate of bubbles in situ (either intact, transected, or diced lung tissue) and of isolated bubbles was assessed (1) during conventional histopreparative processing, (2) during inflation-deflation after degassing, (3) after drying in air, (4) during and after quick freezing in liquid N2, and (5) after preservation in fixed and stained tissue sections prepared by a new double-impregnation procedure in which glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue was preembedded in agar, dehydrated and clarified chemically, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained. Control studies included both blocking of bubble formation by rinsing the air spaces with Tween 20 prior to double impregnation and preparation of normal tissue without preembedding in agar. (1) Each of the following procedures in conventional processing dislocated and disrupted bubbles and films: osmium tetroxide and glutaraldehyde:formaldehyde:tannic acid mixture fixation; chemical dehydration (70-100% ethanol) and clarification (xylene and acetone); and embedding in paraffin or epoxy resin. Transection and dicing of the tissue aggravated the untoward effects. In contrast, bubbles and films remained stable in either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde, which, however, did not protect against the other agents. (2) Degassing destroyed all bubbles as expected; however

  3. Microstructure, morphology and lifetime of armored bubbles exposed to surfactants


    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Mejean, Cecile; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.


    We report the behavior of particle-stabilized bubbles (armored bubbles) when exposed to various classes and concentrations of surfactants. The bubbles are non-spherical due to the jamming of the particles on the interface and are stable to dissolution prior to the addition of surfactant. We find that the dissolving bubbles exhibit distinct morphological, microstructural, and lifetime changes, which correlate with the concentration of surfactant employed. For low concentrations of surfactant a...

  4. Measurement of Entrained Air Bubbles and Vortices in Breaking Waves


    大塚, 淳一; 渡部, 靖憲; Junichi, Otsuka; Yasunori, Watanabe; 北海道大学大学院工学研究科; School of Engineering, Hokkaido University


    Breaking waves produce numbers of vortices through a jet splashing process and also entrain many air bubbles, forming complicated air-water two-phase turbulent flow field in a surf zone. In this research, a simultaneous velocity measurement technique of water and bubble flows in breaking waves is developed for characterizing water-bubble interactions within vortices in a surf zone. The bubbles and neutral buoyant tracers are separately recorded by two different digital video cameras on the ba...



    Bala Arshanapalli; William Nelson


    Housing prices in the US rose rapidly from 2000-2007Q3. Based on this evidence, the financial and general press concluded the US experienced a housing bubble. The efficient market theory denies the possibility of a bubble. This paper applies the statistical technique of cointegration to substantiate the presence of a housing bubble. The paper finds the statistical evidence consistent with the presence of a housing bubble in the period 2000-2007Q3 and not the underlying economic conditions.

  6. Air bubble migration is a random event post embryo transfer. (United States)

    Confino, E; Zhang, J; Risquez, F


    Air bubble location following embryo transfer (ET) is the presumable placement spot of embryos. The purpose of this study was to document endometrial air bubble position and migration following embryo transfer. Multicenter prospective case study. Eighty-eight embryo transfers were performed under abdominal ultrasound guidance in two countries by two authors. A single or double air bubble was loaded with the embryos using a soft, coaxial, end opened catheters. The embryos were slowly injected 10-20 mm from the fundus. Air bubble position was recorded immediately, 30 minutes later and when the patient stood up. Bubble marker location analysis revealed a random distribution without visible gravity effect when the patients stood up. The bubble markers demonstrated splitting, moving in all directions and dispersion. Air bubbles move and split frequently post ET with the patient in the horizontal position, suggestive of active uterine contractions. Bubble migration analysis supports a rather random movement of the bubbles and possibly the embryos. Standing up changed somewhat bubble configuration and distribution in the uterine cavity. Gravity related bubble motion was uncommon, suggesting that horizontal rest post ET may not be necessary. This report challenges the common belief that a very accurate ultrasound guided embryo placement is mandatory. The very random bubble movement observed in this two-center study suggests that a large "window" of embryo placement maybe present.

  7. Optical measurement of bubbles: System design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw,; Cohen, L.H.


    Affordable high quality charge-coupled device (CCD) video cameras and image processing software are powerful tools for bubble measurements. Because of the wide variation between bubble populations, different bubble measurement systems (BMSs) are required depending upon the application. Two BMSs are

  8. Rhetoric, Risk, and Markets: The Dot-Com Bubble (United States)

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Green, Sandy Edward, Jr.


    Post-conventional economic theories are assembled to inquire into the contingent, mimetic, symbolic, and material spirals unfolding the dot-com bubble, 1992-2002. The new technologies bubble is reconstructed as a rhetorical movement across the practices of the hybrid market-industry risk culture of communications. The legacies of the bubble task…

  9. Modeling of flow in microchannel with bubbles layer on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluzdov Dmitriy


    Full Text Available Results of 2D numerical solution of liquid flow in microchannel with bubbles layers on surface are presented. Bubbles layers are modeled by setting of bubble size and Navier slip condition. Calculations have been done using OpenFoam PISO method. The results of modeling compared with analytical solution.

  10. Bubble size reduction in a fluidized bed by electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn van Willigen, F.; Van Turnhout, J.; Van Ommen, J.R.; Van den Bleek, C.


    The reduction of the size of bubbles can improve both selectivity and conversion in gas-solid fluidized beds. Results are reported of the reduction of bubble size by the application of electric fields to uncharged, polarizable particles in fluidized beds. It is shown how average bubble diameters can

  11. Nanoemulsions obtained via bubble bursting at a compound interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, J.; Roche, M.; Vigolo, D.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Gurkov, T.D.; Tsutsumanova, G.G.; Stone, H.A.


    Bursting of bubbles at an air/liquid interface is a familiar occurrence relevant to foam stability, cell cultures in bioreactors and ocean–atmosphere mass transfer. In the latter case, bubble-bursting leads to the dispersal of sea-water aerosols in the surrounding air. Here we show that bubbles

  12. Bubbles as a means for the deaeration of water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuhang; Zhou, Gedi; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Occasional dissolved-air supersaturation - such as may occur, for instance, downstream of dams - is harmful to fish because it causes gas bubble disease. A counterintuitive but effective means of reducing dissolved air content is the injection of bubbles in the supersaturated water. The bubbles

  13. Shape oscillation of bubbles in the acoustic field


    Matsumoto, Keishi; Ueno, Ichiro


    The authors introduce dynamics of multiple air bubbles exposed to ultrasonic wave while ascending in water in the present fluid dynamics video. The authors pay attention to the shape oscillation and the transition from the volume to the shape oscillations of the bubble. Correlation between the bubble size and the mechanism of the excitation of the shape oscillation is introduced.

  14. Variability Of Plasma Bubble In The Equatorial Ionosphere At Midnight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are various types of ionospheric irregularities. Among these is the plasma bubble occurrence. They are most prominent at night time in the equatorial ionosphere. Many of the bubbles drift with approximately the velocity of the background plasma, but it is possible to infer that most bubbles have moved upward at some ...

  15. Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid-drop impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Keij, D.L.; Winkels, K.G.; Peters, I.R.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef


    At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface, an air bubble can be entrapped. Here, we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: for large drop impact velocity and large droplets, the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for

  16. Drag an lift forces on bubbles in a rotating flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Ernst A.; Luther, S.; Bluemink, J.J.; Magnaudet, Jacques; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef


    The motion of small air bubbles in a horizontal solid-body rotating flow is investigated experimentally. Bubbles with a typical radius of 1mm are released in a liquid-filled horizontally rotating cylinder. We measure the transient motion of the bubbles in solid-body rotation and their final

  17. Calibrating optical bubble size by the displaced-mass method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.; Cohen, L.H.


    Bubble sizing by optical means is very common, but requires calibration by non-optical means. This is particularly important since apparent bubble size increases with decreasing threshold intensity. A calibration experiment was conducted comparing the displaced water mass from captured bubbles with

  18. Risk stratification in patients with acute chest pain using three high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. (United States)

    Haaf, Philip; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Hoeller, Rebeca; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Zellweger, Christa; Moehring, Berit; Fischer, Catherine; Meller, Bernadette; Wildi, Karin; Freese, Michael; Stelzig, Claudia; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Mueller, Mira; Hochgruber, Thomas; Sou, Seoung Mann; Murray, Karsten; Minners, Jan; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian


    Several high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have recently been developed. It is unknown which hs-cTn provides the most accurate prognostic information and to what extent early changes in hs-cTn predict mortality. In a prospective, international multicentre study, cTn was simultaneously measured with three novel [high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), Roche Diagnostics; hs-cTnI, Beckman-Coulter; hs-cTnI, Siemens] and a conventional assay (cTnT, Roche Diagnostics) in a blinded fashion in 1117 unselected patients with acute chest pain. Patients were followed up 2 years regarding mortality. Eighty-two (7.3%) patients died during the follow-up. The 2-year prognostic accuracy of hs-cTn was most accurate for hs-cTnT [area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73-0.83) and outperformed both hs-cTnI (Beckman-Coulter, 0.71 (95% CI: 0.65-0.77; P = 0.001 for comparison), hs-cTnI (Siemens) 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64-0.76; P < 0.001 for comparison)] and cTnT 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001 for comparison). Absolute changes of hs-cTnT were more accurate than relative changes in predicting mortality, but inferior to presentation values of hs-cTnT. Combining changes of hs-cTnT within the first 6 h with their presentation values did not further improve prognostic accuracy. Similar results were obtained for both hs-cTnI assays regarding the incremental value of changes. Hs-cTn concentrations remained predictors of death in clinically challenging subgroups such as patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease, impaired renal function, and patients older than 75 years. High-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T is more accurate than hs-cTnI in the prediction of long-term mortality. Changes of hs-cTn do not seem to further improve risk stratification beyond initial presentation values.

  19. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of the Forced Bubble Dynamics Associated with Bubble Fusion Phenomena. Final Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahey, Jr., Richard T. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Multiphase Research and Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Nuclear Engineering; Jansen, Kenneth E. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Multiphase Research and Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Nuclear Engineering; Nagrath, Sunitha [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Multiphase Research and Dept. of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Nuclear Engineering


    A new adaptive grid, 3-D FEM hydrodynamic shock (ie, HYDRO )code called PHASTA-2C has been developed and used to investigate bubble implosion phenomena leading to ultra-high temperatures and pressures. In particular, it was shown that nearly spherical bubble compressions occur during bubble implosions and the predicted conditions associated with a recent ORNL Bubble Fusion experiment [Taleyarkhan et al, Science, March, 2002] are consistent with the occurrence of D/D fusion.

  20. Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on destruction of encapsulated microbubbles under ultrasound. (United States)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Lee, Judy; Tuziuti, Toru; Towata, Atsuya; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Iida, Yasuo


    Influence of the bubble-bubble interaction on the pulsation of encapsulated microbubbles has been studied by numerical simulations under the condition of the experiment reported by Chang et al. [IEEE Trans. Ultrason Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 161 (2001)]. It has been shown that the natural (resonance) frequency of a microbubble decreases considerably as the microbubble concentration increases to relatively high concentrations. At some concentration, the natural frequency may coincide with the driving frequency. Microbubble pulsation becomes milder as the microbubble concentration increases except at around the resonance condition due to the stronger bubble-bubble interaction. This may be one of the reasons why the threshold of acoustic pressure for destruction of an encapsulated microbubble increases as the microbubble concentration increases. A theoretical model for destruction has been proposed.

  1. Is Education Facing a "Tech Bubble"? (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.


    Educational technology companies and entrepreneurs may face the risk of a "tech bubble," similar to the massive boom-and-bust that rocked the technology market in the late 1990s, according to market analysts and a recently released paper. A relatively new focus on K-12 educational technology as an investment vehicle, a surge of investors looking…

  2. Ultrasound contrast agents : dynamics of coated bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.


    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging relies on the nonlinear scattering of microbubbles suspended in an ultrasound contrast agent. The bubble dynamics is described by a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation, and the success of harmonic imaging using contrast agents has always been attributed to the

  3. Bubble growth on an impulsively powered microheater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.; Prosperetti, Andrea; Kim, J.


    The dynamics of single vapor bubbles in FC-72 generated by a transient heat pulse applied to a square 260 × 260 μm2 microheater are investigated for different heat fluxes between 3 and 44 MW/m2. It is found that in all cases the growth consists of two steps, a first relatively violent one, followed

  4. Inert gas accumulation in sonoluminescing bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha


    In this paper we elaborate on the idea [Lohse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1359-1362 (1997)] that (single) sonoluminescing air bubbles rectify argon. The reason for the rectification is that nitrogen and oxygen dissociate and their reaction products dissolve in water. We give further experimental

  5. Radiolytic and thermolytic bubble gas hydrogen composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report describes the development of a mathematical model for the estimation of the hydrogen composition of gas bubbles trapped in radioactive waste. The model described herein uses a material balance approach to accurately incorporate the rates of hydrogen generation by a number of physical phenomena and scale the aforementioned rates in a manner that allows calculation of the final hydrogen composition.

  6. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  7. Non-Abelian bubbles in microstate geometries (United States)

    Ramírez, Pedro F.


    We find the first smooth bubbling microstate geometries with non-Abelian fields. The solutions constitute an extension of the BPS three-charge smooth microstates. These consist in general families of regular supersymmetric solutions with non-trivial topology, i.e. bubbles, of {N}=d , d = 5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, having the asymptotic charges of a black hole or black ring but with no horizon. The non-Abelian fields make their presence at the very heart of the microstate structure: the physical size of the bubbles is affected by the non-Abelian topological charge they carry, which combines with the Abelian flux threading the bubbles to hold them up. Interestingly the non-Abelian fields carry a set of adjustable continuous parameters that do not alter the asymptotics of the solutions but modify the local geometry. This feature can be used to obtain a classically infinite number of microstate solutions with the asymptotics of a single black hole or black ring.

  8. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views (United States)

    Costu, Bayram


    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  9. Four-bubble clusters and Menelaus' theorem (United States)

    Fischer, Fred


    We discuss a relatively easy way to construct a stable cluster of four soap bubbles using the radii of four selected spherical films out of a total of ten. To this end, we extend Menelaus' theorem, a geometrical relation between a triangle and a straight line in the plane, to three and higher dimensions.

  10. Soap-bubble Optimization of Gaits (United States)

    Ramasamy, Suresh; Hatton, Ross

    We present a geometric gait optimizer that applies Lie bracket theory to identify optimal cost-of-transport (displacement divided by effort) gaits. This optimizer builds on our previous work, where we have shown that for drag-dominated systems, the efficiency of a gait corresponds to a ratio between ``metric-weighted perimeter length of the cycle and the area integral of the Lie bracket it encloses. In this work, we encode this geometric insight into a variational gait optimizer. For a system with two shape variables, the dynamics of this optimizer are similar to the dynamics of a soap bubble, with the Lie bracket providing internal pressure which causes the boundary of the bubble to expand, the metric-weighted path length providing surface tension constraining the growth of the soap bubble, and a pace-balancing term corresponding to the concentration gradient that evenly distributes soap across the surface of the bubble. In systems with three shape variables, the dynamics are more akin to a windsock, capturing maximum flux through a loop. The variational form of the optimizer allows us to extend it to higher dimensional shape spaces beyond these physical analogies.

  11. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.


    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  12. BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C.


    The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...

  13. Non-Abelian bubbles in microstate geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Pedro F. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera, 13-15, C.University Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers bâtiment 774, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    We find the first smooth bubbling microstate geometries with non-Abelian fields. The solutions constitute an extension of the BPS three-charge smooth microstates. These consist in general families of regular supersymmetric solutions with non-trivial topology, i.e. bubbles, of N=1, d=5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, having the asymptotic charges of a black hole or black ring but with no horizon. The non-Abelian fields make their presence at the very heart of the microstate structure: the physical size of the bubbles is affected by the non-Abelian topological charge they carry, which combines with the Abelian flux threading the bubbles to hold them up. Interestingly the non-Abelian fields carry a set of adjustable continuous parameters that do not alter the asymptotics of the solutions but modify the local geometry. This feature can be used to obtain a classically infinite number of microstate solutions with the asymptotics of a single black hole or black ring.

  14. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection. (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  15. A method for indication and improving the position stability of the bubble in single-bubble cavitation experiments (United States)

    Plocek, Jaroslav


    A newly developed method for indication of the bubble state in classical single-bubble cavitation experiments is introduced. The method is based on processing the signal from a sensor, positioned on the flask from outside. The technical means of the method are further explored to improve the position stability of the bubble.

  16. Modeling of mass transfer and chemical reactions in a bubble column reactor using a discrete bubble model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmana, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    A 3D discrete bubble model is adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reactions in a gas-liquid bubble column reactor. In this model a continuum description is adopted for the liquid phase and additionally each individual bubble is tracked in a

  17. Detailed modeling of hydrodynamics mass transfer and chemical reactions in a bubble column using a discrete bubble model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmana, D.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    A 3D discrete bubble model is adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics, mass transfer and chemical reactions in a gas¿liquid bubble column reactor. In this model a continuum description is adopted for the liquid phase and additionally each individual bubble is tracked in a

  18. Real-time brain activity measurement and signal processing system using highly sensitive MI sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewang Wang


    Full Text Available Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs are the most used sensor to detect the extremely weak magnetic field of brain. However, the sensor heads need to be kept at very low temperature to maintain superconductivity, and that makes the devices large-scale and inconvenient. In order to measure brain activity in normal environment, we had constructed a measurement system based on highly sensitive Magneto-Impedance (MI sensor, and reported the study of measuring Auditory Evoked Field (AEF brain waves. In this study, the system was improved, and the sensor signals can be processed in real-time to monitor brain activity. We use this system to measure the alpha rhythm in the occipital region and the Event-Related Field (ERF P300 in the frontal, the parietal and both the temporal regions.

  19. Nanoplatforms for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of cancer-related proteases. (United States)

    Wang, Hongwang; Udukala, Dinusha N; Samarakoon, Thilani N; Basel, Matthew T; Kalita, Mausam; Abayaweera, Gayani; Manawadu, Harshi; Malalasekera, Aruni; Robinson, Colette; Villanueva, David; Maynez, Pamela; Bossmann, Leonie; Riedy, Elizabeth; Barriga, Jenny; Wang, Ni; Li, Ping; Higgins, Daniel A; Zhu, Gaohong; Troyer, Deryl L; Bossmann, Stefan H


    Numerous proteases are known to be necessary for cancer development and progression including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue serine proteases, and cathepsins. The goal of this research is to develop an Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based system for clinical diagnostics, which has the potential to measure the activity of cancer-associated proteases in biospecimens. Nanoparticle-based "light switches" for measuring protease activity consist of fluorescent cyanine dyes and porphyrins that are attached to Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles via consensus sequences. These consensus sequences can be cleaved in the presence of the correct protease, thus releasing a fluorescent dye from the Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticle, resulting in highly sensitive (down to 1 × 10(-16) mol l(-1) for 12 proteases), selective, and fast nanoplatforms (required time: 60 min).

  20. The diagnostic utility of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T in acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mohsen


    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated highly significant absolute and relative kinetic changes in hs-TnT levels in patients with AMI. The hs-TnT can be used for early rule in patients with MI as it could detect 97% of cases with MI whose Troponin I was negative and could detect 100% of cases of MI after 6–8 h compared to Troponin I which could detect only 21.2% of cases. This can be of great importance in the future introduction and use of the new high sensitive assay as a non-invasive reliable diagnostic tool to replace the currently used invasive diagnostic techniques for patients with ACS.

  1. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE (United States)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.


    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a minFisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  2. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung


    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor.

  3. Highly sensitive iridium(iii) complex-based phosphorescent probe for thiophenol detection. (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Yang, Lin; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Yan; Lu, Zhiyun


    A cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex (Ir-DNBS) was designed and synthesized as a high-performance phosphorescent thiophenol probe. Ir-DNBS displays a distinct phosphorescence "off-on" response toward thiophenol with high selectivity, high sensitivity (detection limit: 2.5 nM) and fast response (10 min). It is noteworthy that the signaling phosphore of Ir-DNBS possesses relatively high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (ΦPL = 0.21) together with relatively long lifetime (τ = 2.07 μs), indicative of its potential in achieving high temporal resolution. Ir-DNBS is also applicable to the detection of thiophenol in actual water samples with high recovery rate. Photophysical and spectral characterization results revealed that the probing mechanism of Ir-DNBS toward thiophenol lies in the thiolate-mediated cleavage reaction, resulting in suppressed photo-induced excited state electron transfer process in the reaction product.

  4. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C.


    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds’ benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system’s high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  5. Highly Sensitive Local Surface Plasmon Resonance in Anisotropic Au Nanoparticles Deposited on Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Saigusa


    Full Text Available This paper reports the facile and high-throughput fabrication method of anisotropic Au nanoparticles with a highly sensitive local surface plasmon resonance (LPR using cylindrical nanofibers as substrates. The substrates consisting of nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF. The Au nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of electrospun nanofibers by vacuum evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a curved Au island structure on the surface of cylindrical nanofibers. Polarized UV-visible extinction spectroscopy showed anisotropy in their LPR arising from the high surface curvature of the nanofiber. The LPR of the Au nanoparticles on the thinnest nanofiber with a diameter of ~100 nm showed maximum refractive index (RI sensitivity over 500 nm/RI unit (RIU. The close correlation between the fiber diameter dependence of the RI sensitivity and polarization dependence of the LPR suggests that anisotropic Au nanoparticles improve RI sensitivity.

  6. High finesse hollow-core fiber resonating cavity for high sensitivity gas sensing application (United States)

    Tan, Yanzhen; Jin, Wei; Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut


    We present all-fiber resonating Fabry-Perot gas cells made with a piece of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HCPBF) sandwiched by two single mode fibers with mirrored ends. A HC-PBF cavity made of 6.75-cm-long HC-1550-06 fiber achieved a cavity finesse of 128, corresponding to an effective optical path length of 5.5 m. Such HC-PBF cavities can be used as absorption cells for high sensitivity gas detection with fast response. Preliminary experiment with a 9.4-cm-long resonating gas cell with a finesse of 68 demonstrated a detection limit better than 7.5 p.p.m. acetylene.

  7. A highly sensitive hexachromium monitor using water core optical fiber with UV LED. (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Winstead, Christopher B; Xian, Hui; Soni, Krunal


    A simply structured, cheap hexachromium monitor was developed. The monitor is based on UV/VIS absorption technique. A 2-m long water core optical fiber was employed as a long path length sample cell and a UV light emitting diode (LED) was used as a light source. The emission profile of the UV LED fits very well with the absorption spectrum of chromate ions in water. Therefore, the light-dispersing element, which is usually used in an optical spectrometer, is not necessary in this monitor design. The water core fiber as a long path length makes the monitor highly sensitive for hexachromium detection. This monitor is specific for hexachromium detection without interference from tri-valence chromium ions. A detection limit of 0.1 ng Cr(VI) ml(-1) was obtained with this simple monitor.

  8. High-sensitivity thermometer based on singlemode-multimode FBG-singlemode fiber (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Yang, Biyao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Xuejing; Dai, Lingling; Hu, Yanhui; Zhang, Bingxin


    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing configuration for temperature measurement based on singlemode-multimode FBG-singlemode fiber was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The configuration was formed by fabricating an FBG in a multimode fiber, which was sandwiched between two singlemode fibers. Both theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. An average sensitivity of 266.25 pm/ °C and a resolvable index change of 3.75 × 10-2 °C were obtained in the temperature range from -40 °C to +40 °C . The proposed thermometer could find useful applications in biology, medicine, and material science because of its superior properties such as high sensitivity, compact size, easy fabrication, linear response, ease of interconnection with other in-fiber optical components, and low cost.

  9. Malaria pigment crystals as magnetic micro-rotors: key for high-sensitivity diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Butykai, A; Kocsis, V; Szaller, D; Bordacs, S; Tatrai-Szekeres, E; Kiss, L F; Bota, A; Vertessy, B G; Zelles, T; Kezsmarki, I


    The need to develop new methods for the high-sensitivity diagnosis of malaria has initiated a global activity in medical and interdisciplinary sciences. Most of the diverse variety of emerging techniques are based on research-grade instruments, sophisticated reagent-based assays or rely on expertise. Here, we suggest an alternative optical methodology with an easy-to-use and cost-effective instrumentation, which takes advantage of the unique properties of malaria pigment revealed in the present study. Malaria pigment, also called hemozoin, is an insoluble microcrystalline form of heme. We found that these crystallites show remarkable magnetic and optical anisotropy distinctly from any other components of blood. In suspensions they can simultaneously act as magnetically driven micro-rotors and spinning polarizers. These properties can gain fundamental importance not only in the diagnosis of malaria and in therapies, where hemozoin is considered as drug target or immune modulator, but generally in the magnetic ...

  10. High-sensitivity monitoring of micromechanical vibration using optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliesser, A; Anetsberger, G; Riviere, R; Arcizet, O; Kippenberg, T J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail:


    The inherent coupling of optical and mechanical modes in high finesse optical microresonators provides a natural, highly sensitive transduction mechanism for micromechanical vibration. Using homodyne and polarization spectroscopy techniques, we achieve shot-noise limited displacement sensitivities of 10{sup -19} m Hz{sup -1/2}. In an unprecedented manner, this enables the detection and study of a variety of mechanical modes, which are identified as radial breathing, flexural and torsional modes using three-dimensional finite element modeling. Furthermore, a broadband equivalent displacement noise is measured and found to agree well with models for thermorefractive noise in silica dielectric cavities. Implications for ground-state cooling, displacement sensing and Kerr squeezing are discussed.

  11. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah


    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz frequency range. This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz t...

  12. High sensitivity optical fiber strain sensor using twisted multimode fiber based on SMS structure (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Liu, Deming; Lu, Ping; Sun, Qizhen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Shun; Liu, Li; Ni, Wenjun


    A low-cost way of achieving a high sensitivity optical fiber strain sensor by introducing higher-order interference modes using a torsional multimode fiber (MMF) instead of normal MMF based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) structure is proposed and the coupling mechanism of twist fiber is investigated theoretically. The sensor is fabricated by simple process of heating and twisting a small region of MMF. According to this method, the shift of multimode interference spectrum caused by an axial strain will be greatly magnified. Different strain sensitivities can be easily realized by controlling the torsional number of circles. The experimental results indicated a high strain sensitivity of 42.5 pm/ με at most.

  13. MOF-Bacteriophage Biosensor for Highly Sensitive and Specific Detection of Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash


    To produce a sensitive and specific biosensor for Staphylococcus aureus, bacteriophages have been interfaced with a water-dispersible and environmentally stable metal-organic framework (MOF), NH 2 -MIL-53(Fe). The conjugation of the MOF with bacteriophages has been achieved through the use of glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Highly sensitive detection of S. aureus in both synthetic and real samples was realized by the proposed MOF-bacteriophage biosensor based on the photoluminescence quenching phenomena: limit of detection (31 CFU/mL) and range of detection (40 to 4 × 10 8 CFU/mL). This is the first report exploiting the use of an MOF-bacteriophage complex for the biosensing of S. aureus. The results of our study highlight that the proposed biosensor is more sensitive than most of the previous methods while exhibiting some advanced features like specificity, regenerability, extended range of linear detection, and stability for long-term storage (even at room temperature).

  14. High sensitive translational temperature measurement using characteristic curve of second harmonic signal in wavelength modulation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Matsui, Makoto; Yamada, Tohru


    A high sensitive measurement system of translational temperature of plasma was developed. In this system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy, a peak value of second harmonic signal was measured as a function of modulation depth. The translational temperature was estimated by fitting the theoretically calculated curve to the measured characteristic curve. The performance of this system was examined using microwave discharge plasma. As a result of comparison with conventional laser absorption spectroscopy, both results show good agreement in the measurable region of the laser absorption spectroscopy. Next, the measurable limit of this system was investigated by decreasing the target number density. The detectable fractional absorption was as low as 3.7 × 10-5 in which condition the signal to noise ratio was the order of single digit at the averaging number of 40. This value is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the laser absorption spectroscopy.

  15. Elucidation of high sensitivity of δ-HMX: New insight from first principles simulations (United States)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Sharia, Onise


    Understanding of a significant difference in sensitivities of β and δ phases of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) has been long one of the challenges in the field of high energy density materials. Despite many experimental and theoretical efforts to explain the high sensitivity of the δ phase, convincing reasons behind the HMX behavior remained unclear. We established that the presence of a polar surface in δ-HMX has fundamental implications for stability and overall chemical behavior of the material. A comparative quantum-chemical analysis of decomposition mechanisms in polar δ-HMX and nonpolar β-HMX discovered a considerable difference in dominating dissociation reactions, activation barriers, and reaction rates. The polarization-induced charge transfer offered a logical explanation for different sensitivity of β-HMX and δ-HMX polymorphs to detonation initiation. Our conclusions also removed long-standing contradictions and explained a large range of experimental data on thermal decomposition of HMX.

  16. A High Sensitivity Three-Dimensional-Shape Sensing Patch Prepared by Lithography and Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yao Lo


    Full Text Available A process combining conventional photolithography and a novel inkjet printing method for the manufacture of high sensitivity three-dimensional-shape (3DS sensing patches was proposed and demonstrated. The supporting curvature ranges from 1.41 to 6.24 ´ 10−2 mm−1 and the sensing patch has a thickness of less than 130 μm and 20 ´ 20 mm2 dimensions. A complete finite element method (FEM model with simulation results was calculated and performed based on the buckling of columns and the deflection equation. The results show high compatibility of the drop-on-demand (DOD inkjet printing with photolithography and the interferometer design also supports bi-directional detection of deformation. The 3DS sensing patch can be operated remotely without any power consumption. It provides a novel and alternative option compared with other optical curvature sensors.

  17. High-Sensitive Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on ZnO Nanorods/CdS Heterostructures. (United States)

    Lam, Kin-Tak; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Ji, Liang-Wen; Fang, Te-Hua; Hsiao, Kai-Hua; Chu, Tung-Te


    The ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors with ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS thin film heterostructures on glass substrates have been fabricated and characterized. It can be seen that the UV photoresponsivity of such a device became higher as the ZnO NR length was increased in the investigation. With an incident wavelength of 350 nm and 5 V applied bias, the responsivity of photodetectors based on ZnO NR/CdS heterostructures with the ZnO NR length at 500, 350, and 200 nm and traditional CdS film were at 12.86, 3.83, 0.91, and 0.75 A/W, respectively. The measurement results of the fabricated photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods (NRs)/CdS heterostructures have shown a significant high sensitivity in the range of UV light, which can be useful for the application of UV detection.

  18. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wang


    Full Text Available A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM. Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33–1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  19. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice. (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Yan, Xin; Li, Shuguang; An, Guowen; Zhang, Xuenan


    A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM). Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33-1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit) when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  20. Super high sensitive plate acoustic wave humidity sensor based on graphene oxide film. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Iren E; Anisimkin, Vladimir I; Gubin, Sergei P; Tkachev, Sergei V; Kolesov, Vladimir V; Kashin, Vadim V; Zaitsev, Boris D; Shikhabudinov, Alexander M; Verona, Enrico; Sun, Shaorong


    The changes of density and elastic modules due to water vapor adsorption are measured for graphene oxide film at room temperature. Dominant mechanism for acoustic wave humidity sensing by the film is shown to be related with variation of its electric conductivity. Basing on the data, super high sensitive humidity sensor employing high-order Lamb wave with large coupling constant, standard lithium niobate plate, and graphene oxide sorbent film is developed. The minimal detectable level of the sensor is as low 0.03% RH, response times are 60/120s, and reproducibility is ±2.5%. The sensor is completely selective towards H2, CO, CH4, NO, O2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance. (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran; Pan, Fukui


    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log(Deltaf) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  2. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Lienhart


    Full Text Available High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  3. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahé, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Plaçais, B.; Fève, G.


    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  4. Highly sensitive nanostructure SnO2 based gas sensor for environmental pollutants (United States)

    Korgaokar, Sushil; Moradiya, Meet; Prajapati, Om; Thakkar, Pranav; Pala, Jay; Savaliya, Chirag; Parikh, Sachin; Markna, J. H.


    A major quantity of pollutants are produced from industries and vehicles in the form of gas. New approaches are needed to solve well-known environmental pollutants like CO, CO2, NO2, SOx. Therefore detection with effective gas sensors is a vital part of pollution prevention efforts. There is a need to develop fast, rapid, cost-effective, highly sensitive, low power, and non-intrusive rugged sensors that can be easily installed. In the present study, nanostructured SnO2 used as a sensitive material in the devices and synthesized using hydrothermal process. The detailed development of the fabrication of SnO2 nanostructures gas sensor is described, which shows the remarkable change in the sensing properties with varying particle size. Additionally, we have used X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterization and carefully examined the relative parameters like response magnitude (sensitivity) and selectivity of SnO2 nano structures with different particle size.

  5. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang


    Full Text Available A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate.

  6. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rui Li


    Full Text Available During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  7. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers. (United States)

    Li, Yan-Rui; Su, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Jin; Chang, Shuo-Hung


    During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness.

  8. 3D Printed Stretchable Capacitive Sensors for Highly Sensitive Tactile and Electrochemical Sensing. (United States)

    Li, Kai; Wei, Hong; Liu, Wenguang; Meng, Hong; Zhang, Peixin; Yan, Chaoyi


    Developments of innovative strategies for the fabrication of stretchable sensors are of crucial importance for their applications in wearable electronic systems. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of stretchable capacitive sensors using a novel 3D printing method for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing applications. Unlike conventional lithographic or templated methods, the programmable 3D printing technique can fabricate complex device structures in a cost-effective and facile manner. We designed and fabricated stretchable capacitive sensors with interdigital and double-vortex designs and demonstrated their successful applications as tactile and electrochemical sensors. Especially, our stretchable sensors exhibited a detection limit as low as 1×10-6 M for NaCl aqueous solution, which could have significant potential applications when integrated in electronics skins. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Highly Sensitive Flexible Human Motion Sensor Based on ZnSnO3/PVDF Composite (United States)

    Yang, Young Jin; Aziz, Shahid; Mehdi, Syed Murtuza; Sajid, Memoon; Jagadeesan, Srikanth; Choi, Kyung Hyun


    A highly sensitive body motion sensor has been fabricated based on a composite active layer of zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) nano-cubes and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The thin film-based active layer was deposited on polyethylene terephthalate flexible substrate through D-bar coating technique. Electrical and morphological characterizations of the films and sensors were carried out to discover the physical characteristics and the output response of the devices. The synergistic effect between piezoelectric ZnSnO3 nanocubes and β phase PVDF provides the composite with a desirable electrical conductivity, remarkable bend sensitivity, and excellent stability, ideal for the fabrication of a motion sensor. The recorded resistance of the sensor towards the bending angles of -150° to 0° to 150° changed from 20 MΩ to 55 MΩ to 100 MΩ, respectively, showing the composite to be a very good candidate for motion sensing applications.

  10. Iridium Oxide Nanotube Electrodes for Highly Sensitive and Prolonged Intracellular Measurement of Action Potentials (United States)

    Lin, Ziliang Carter; Xie, Chong; Osakada, Yasuko; Cui, Yi; Cui, Bianxiao


    Intracellular recording of action potentials is important to understand electrically-excitable cells. Recently, vertical nanoelectrodes have been developed to achieve highly sensitive, minimally invasive, and large scale intracellular recording. It has been demonstrated that the vertical geometry is crucial for the enhanced signal detection. Here we develop nanoelectrodes made up of nanotubes of iridium oxide. When cardiomyocytes are cultured upon those nanotubes, the cell membrane not only wraps around the vertical tubes but also protrudes deep into the hollow center. We show that this geometry enhances cell-electrode coupling and results in measuring much larger intracellular action potentials. The nanotube electrodes afford much longer intracellular access and are minimally invasive, making it possible to achieve stable recording up to an hour in a single session and more than 8 days of consecutive daily recording. This study suggests that the electrode performance can be significantly improved by optimizing the electrode geometry. PMID:24487777

  11. Ultra-High Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Post-Processed Optical Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Ferreira


    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitive strain sensor is proposed. The sensing head, based on the post-processing of a fiber Bragg grating, is used to perform passive and active strain measurements. Both wavelength and full width half maximum dependences with the applied strain are studied for the passive sensor, where maximum sensitivities of 104.1 pm/µε and 61.6 pm/µε are respectively obtained. When combining the high performance of this sensor with a ring laser cavity configuration, the Bragg grating will act as a filter and high resolution measurements can be performed. With the proposed sensor, a resolution of 700 nε is achieved.

  12. Highly sensitive and flexible strain sensors based on patterned ITO nanoparticle channels (United States)

    Lee, Do Hoon; Park, Jonghyurk; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Heo, Kwang; Lee, Dong-Jin; Rim Lee, Ye; Lee, Byung Yang


    We demonstrate a highly sensitive and flexible bending strain sensor using tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) assembled in line patterns on flexible substrates. By utilizing transparent ITO NPs without any surface modifications, we could produce strain sensors with adjustable gauge factors and optical transparency. We were able to control the dimensional and electrical properties of the sensors, such as channel height and resistance, by controlling the NP assembly speed. Furthermore, we were able to generate controlled gauge factor with values ranging from 18 to 157, which are higher than previous cases using metallic Cr NPs and Au NPs. The alignment of the ITO NPs in parallel lines resulted in low crosstalk between the transverse and longitudinal bending directions. Finally, our sensor showed high optical transmittance, up to ∼93% at 500 nm wavelength, which is desirable for flexible electronic applications.

  13. Real-time brain activity measurement and signal processing system using highly sensitive MI sensor (United States)

    Wang, Kewang; Cai, Changmei; Yamamoto, Michiharu; Uchiyama, Tsuyoshi


    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are the most used sensor to detect the extremely weak magnetic field of brain. However, the sensor heads need to be kept at very low temperature to maintain superconductivity, and that makes the devices large-scale and inconvenient. In order to measure brain activity in normal environment, we had constructed a measurement system based on highly sensitive Magneto-Impedance (MI) sensor, and reported the study of measuring Auditory Evoked Field (AEF) brain waves. In this study, the system was improved, and the sensor signals can be processed in real-time to monitor brain activity. We use this system to measure the alpha rhythm in the occipital region and the Event-Related Field (ERF) P300 in the frontal, the parietal and both the temporal regions.

  14. Design of a Piezoelectric Accelerometer with High Sensitivity and Low Transverse Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Tian


    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of cable fault detection, a new structure of piezoelectric accelerometer was designed and analyzed in detail. The structure was composed of a seismic mass, two sensitive beams, and two added beams. Then, simulations including the maximum stress, natural frequency, and output voltage were carried out. Moreover, comparisons with traditional structures of piezoelectric accelerometer were made. To verify which vibration mode is the dominant one on the acceleration and the space between the mass and glass, mode analysis and deflection analysis were carried out. Fabricated on an n-type single crystal silicon wafer, the sensor chips were wire-bonged to printed circuit boards (PCBs and simply packaged for experiments. Finally, a vibration test was conducted. The results show that the proposed piezoelectric accelerometer has high sensitivity, low resonance frequency, and low transverse effect.

  15. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensor Chips with Graphene-Oxide Linking Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stebunov, Yury V.; Aftenieva, Olga A.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.


    The development of sensing interfaces can significantly improve the performance of biological sensors. Graphene oxide provides a remarkable immobilization platform for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors due to its excellent optical and biochemical properties. Here, we describe a novel sen......, the demonstrated sensor chips are bioselective with more than 25 times reduced binding for nonspecific interaction and can be used multiple times. We consider the results presented here of importance for any future applications of highly sensitive SPR biosensing....... sensor chip for SPR biosensors based on graphene-oxide linking layers. The biosensing assay model was based on a graphene oxide film containing streptavidin. The proposed sensor chip has three times higher sensitivity than the carboxymethylated dextran surface of a commercial sensor chip. Moreover...

  16. Highly Sensitive and Ultrastable Skin Sensors for Biopressure and Bioforce Measurements Based on Hierarchical Microstructures. (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhuang, Jiaqing; Venkatesh, Shishir; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Wu, Wei; Kong, Ka-Wai; Li, Wen-Jung; Chen, Xianfeng; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, Vellaisamy A L


    Piezoresistive microsensors are considered to be essential components of the future wearable electronic devices. However, the expensive cost, complex fabrication technology, poor stability, and low yield have limited their developments for practical applications. Here, we present a cost-effective, relatively simple, and high-yield fabrication approach to construct highly sensitive and ultrastable piezoresistive sensors using a bioinspired hierarchically structured graphite/polydimethylsiloxane composite as the active layer. In this fabrication, a commercially available sandpaper is employed as the mold to develop the hierarchical structure. Our devices exhibit fascinating performance including an ultrahigh sensitivity (64.3 kPa-1), fast response time (100 000 cycles), and high ambient stability (>1 year). The applications of these devices in sensing radial artery pulses, acoustic vibrations, and human body motion are demonstrated, exhibiting their enormous potential use in real-time healthcare monitoring and robotic tactile sensing.

  17. A highly sensitive sensor for ethyl acetate by changing fluorescent colour of lanthanide complex. (United States)

    Zhao, Lina


    A lanthanide complex, namely, [La 2 (L-DBTA) 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]∙2H2O has been synthesized using a simple reaction of L-O,O´-dibenzoyl tartaric acid with LaCl 3 ∙6H 2 O under ambient temperature. The luminescence spectrum in the solid state at room temperature revealed that the complex exhibited blue-light emission that originated from ligand. In addition, the lanthanide complex is developed as a fluorescent probe for sensing small molecules. Luminescence studies reveal that the lanthanide complex could detect ethyl acetate sensitively through fluorescence colour change from blue to yellow. Furthermore, the complex exhibited appealing features including high sensitivity and an ultrafast response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Dingqu; Liu, Xiaoli


    A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS) with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT) strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt) HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate. PMID:22399913

  19. Highly sensitive fiber loop ringdown strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity (United States)

    Ghimire, Maheshwar; Wang, Chuji


    We report a highly sensitive strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity based on the fiber loop ringdown technique. An innovative approach that employs a micro air-gap as the strain sensor head is described. The sensor has demonstrated the static strain sensitivity of 0.26 µs/µɛ, corresponding to the detection limit of 65 nɛ with the low temperature cross sensitivity of 37 nɛ/°C. This is the highest static strain sensitivity achieved without using a combination of fiber optic sensing components, such as fiber Bragg gratings or Fabry-Perot interferometers. Moreover, the sensor design allows the strain sensitivity and measuring range to be adjusted by changing the length of the sensor.

  20. Development of highly sensitive handheld device for real-time detection of bacteria in food (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Zhang, Anxue; Fu, Liling; Chin, Bryan A.; Cheng, Z.-Y.


    To ensure the safety of food, a detection device, which can detect/monitor the present of bacteria in a real-time manner and can be easily used for in-field tests, is highly desirable. Recently, magnetostrictive particles (MSPs) as a new type of high-performance biosensor have been developed. The detection of various bacteria and spores in food with high sensitivity has already been experimentally demonstrated. To fully use the technique for food safety, two miniaturized interrogation systems based on frequency-domain and time-domain technique are developed to fabricate a handheld detection device. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) in liquid using a time-domain based interrogation system was demonstrated.

  1. An integrated low 1/f noise and high-sensitivity CMOS instrumentation amplifier for TMR sensors (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Luan, Bo; Zhao, Jincai; Liu, Xiaowei


    In this paper, a very low 1/f noise integrated Wheatstone bridge magnetoresistive sensor ASIC based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology is presented for high sensitivity measurements. The present CMOS instrumentation amplifier employs the gain-boost folded-cascode structure based on the capacitive-feedback chopper-stabilized technique. By chopping both the input and the output of the amplifier, combined with MTJ magnetoresistive sensitive elements, a noise equivalent magnetoresistance 1 nT/Hz1/2 at 2 Hz, the equivalent input noise spectral density 17 nV/Hz1/2(@2Hz) is achieved. The chip-scale package of the TMR sensor and the instrumentation amplifier is only about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm, while the whole DC current dissipates only 2 mA.

  2. High-sensitivity detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and its precursor acetone (United States)

    Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Tsekoun, Alexei; Prasanna, Manu; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.


    Triacetone triperoxide (C9H18O6, molecular mass of 222.24 g/mol) (TATP) is a powerful explosive that is easy to synthesize using commonly available household chemicals, acetone, and hydrogen peroxide 1 2. Because of the simplicity of its synthesis, TATP is often the explosive of choice for terrorists, including suicide bombers. For providing safety to the population, early detection of TATP and isolation of such individuals are essential. We report unambiguous, high-sensitivity detection of TATP and its precursor, acetone, using room-temperature quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (QCL-PAS). The available sensitivity is such that TATP, carried on a person (at a nominal body temperature of 37 °C), should be detectable at some distance. The combination of demonstrated detection of TATP and acetone should be ideal for screening at airports and other public places for providing increased public safety.

  3. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Mikkelsen, Dennis; Hancox, Robert


    Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP...... decline was 6.2 mL.yr(-1) in the highest CRP quintile versus an increase of 1.8 mL.yr(-1) in the lowest CRP quintile. In a multiple regression analysis adjusted for sex, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking, asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness and serum eosinophil cationic protein, higher...... levels of CRP at age 20 yrs were associated with a greater reduction in both FEV(1) and forced vital capacity between ages 20 and 29 yrs. The findings show that higher levels of C-reactive protein in young adults are associated with subsequent decline in lung function, suggesting that low-grade systemic...

  4. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensor Chips with Graphene-Oxide Linking Layer. (United States)

    Stebunov, Yury V; Aftenieva, Olga A; Arsenin, Aleksey V; Volkov, Valentyn S


    The development of sensing interfaces can significantly improve the performance of biological sensors. Graphene oxide provides a remarkable immobilization platform for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors due to its excellent optical and biochemical properties. Here, we describe a novel sensor chip for SPR biosensors based on graphene-oxide linking layers. The biosensing assay model was based on a graphene oxide film containing streptavidin. The proposed sensor chip has three times higher sensitivity than the carboxymethylated dextran surface of a commercial sensor chip. Moreover, the demonstrated sensor chips are bioselective with more than 25 times reduced binding for nonspecific interaction and can be used multiple times. We consider the results presented here of importance for any future applications of highly sensitive SPR biosensing.

  5. High-sensitivity attenuated total internal reflection continuous-wave terahertz imaging (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiang; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Wu, Limin; Yan, Chao; Yan, Dexian; Tang, Longhuang; He, Yixin; Feng, Hua; Yao, Jianquan


    We demonstrate an attenuated total internal reflection imaging system. The surface information of the sample on top of a prism can be acquired by two-dimensionally scanning this prism moving in the vertical plane with horizontally incident continuous terahertz waves at a fixed height. The principles and feasibility of this method are investigated. The effective imaging area on the prism, image resolution and polarization dependence of contrast enhancement and stability improvement are analyzed. Examples including solid agar, distilled water and porcine tissue are presented, demonstrating the method’s advantages of high sensitivity and simple sample preparation. The experimental and theoretical results consistently show that p-polarization contributes to enhanced image contrast and more stable intensity of the attenuated total internal reflected signal.

  6. A high-sensitivity thromboplastin reagent prepared from cultured human cells. (United States)

    Valdes-Camin, R; Callahan, J B; Ebert, R F


    High-sensitivity thromboplastin reagents suitable for use in the prothrombin time (PT) assay are typically prepared from human brain and placenta, tissues that are in limited supply and subject to viral contamination. Cloning and expression of recombinant human tissue factor (TF) has enabled production of a new generation of thromboplastin reagents whose performance and utility are under active investigation. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing a sensitive human thromboplastin reagent from a non-recombinant source: cultured human cells. Several human cell lines with apparently high constitutive TF synthesis were identified, and a viable thromboplastin reagent (Humaplastin) was produced from a human lung cell line via a non-conventional process that did not require reconstitution or rehydration of TF in cell membranes. When calibrated against BCT/253, a human brain international reference thromboplastin, Humaplastin exhibited a mean normal prothrombin time of 12.6 +/- 0.7 s (mean +/- SD: n = 20) and an International Sensitivity Index of 1.09 +/- 0.019. The performance of this reagent was well correlated (r = 0.983) with Thromborel S, a commercially available human placental thromboplastin reagent. Orthogonal least squares regression of the log PT values from the placental thromboplastin reagent versus Humaplastin and two recombinant TF-based thromboplastin reagents suggested that the latter three reagents are somewhat more sensitive than the placental thromboplastin reagent, although such differences should not be expected to have a significant impact on clinical utility. It is concluded that cultured human lung cells represent a suitable source of tissue thromboplastin for production of a high-sensitivity non-recombinant thromboplastin reagent.

  7. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Ulf


    Background Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3′UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5′ completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Methodology Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Conclusions Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ~46%, ~41% and ~27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is

  8. High sensitivity TSS prediction: estimates of locations where TSS cannot occur. (United States)

    Schaefer, Ulf; Kodzius, Rimantas; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B


    Although transcription in mammalian genomes can initiate from various genomic positions (e.g., 3'UTR, coding exons, etc.), most locations on genomes are not prone to transcription initiation. It is of practical and theoretical interest to be able to estimate such collections of non-TSS locations (NTLs). The identification of large portions of NTLs can contribute to better focusing the search for TSS locations and thus contribute to promoter and gene finding. It can help in the assessment of 5' completeness of expressed sequences, contribute to more successful experimental designs, as well as more accurate gene annotation. Using comprehensive collections of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and other transcript data from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly unlikely to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs). The properties of the immediate genomic neighborhood of 98,682 accurately determined mouse and 113,814 human TSSs are used to determine features that distinguish genomic transcription initiation locations from those that are not likely to initiate transcription. In our algorithm we utilize various constraining properties of features identified in the upstream and downstream regions around TSSs, as well as statistical analyses of these surrounding regions. Our analysis of human chromosomes 4, 21 and 22 estimates ∼46%, ∼41% and ∼27% of these chromosomes, respectively, as being NTLs. This suggests that on average more than 40% of the human genome can be expected to be highly unlikely to initiate transcription. Our method represents the first one that utilizes high-sensitivity TSS prediction to identify, with high accuracy, large portions of mammalian genomes as NTLs. The server with our algorithm implemented is available at

  9. Design of a Matching Network for a High-Sensitivity Broadband Magnetic Resonance Sounding Coil Sensor. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Teng, Fei; Li, Suhang; Wan, Ling; Lin, Tingting


    The magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) technique is a non-invasive geophysical method that can provide unique insights into the hydrological properties of groundwater. The Cu coil sensor is the preferred choice for detecting the weak MRS signal because of its high sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and low cost. The tuned configuration was traditionally used for the MRS coil sensor design because of its high sensitivity and narrowband filtering. However, its narrow bandwidth may distort the MRS signals. To address this issue, a non-tuned design exhibiting a broad bandwidth has emerged recently, however, the sensitivity decreases as the bandwidth increases. Moreover, the effect of the MRS applications is often seriously influenced by power harmonic noises in the developed areas, especially low-frequency harmonics, resulting in saturation of the coil sensor, regardless of the tuned or non-tuned configuration. To solve the two aforementioned problems, we propose a matching network consisting of an LC broadband filter in parallel with a matching capacitor and provide a design for a coil sensor with a matching network (CSMN). The theoretical parameter calculations and the equivalent schematic of the CSMN with noise sources are investigated, and the sensitivity of the CSMN is evaluated by the Allan variance and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Correspondingly, we constructed the CSMN with a 3 dB bandwidth, passband gain, normalized equivalent input noise and sensitivity (detection limit) of 1030 Hz, 4.6 dB, 1.78 nV/(Hz)(1/2) @ 2 kHz and 3 nV, respectively. Experimental tests in the laboratory show that the CSMN can not only improve the sensitivity, but also inhibit the signal distortion by suppressing power harmonic noises in the strong electromagnetic interference environment. Finally, a field experiment is performed with the CSMN to show a valid measurement of the signals of an MRS instrument system.

  10. A high sensitivity assay for the inflammatory marker C-Reactive protein employing acoustic biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Matthew A


    Full Text Available Abstract C-Reactive Protein (CRP is an acute phase reactant routinely used as a biomarker to assess either infection or inflammatory processes such as autoimmune diseases. CRP also has demonstrated utility as a predictive marker of future risk of cardiovascular disease. A new method of immunoassay for the detection of C-Reactive Protein has been developed using Resonant Acoustic Profiling™ (RAP™ with comparable sensitivity to a high sensitivity CRP ELISA (hsCRP but with considerable time efficiency (12 minutes turnaround time to result. In one method, standard solutions of CRP (0 to 231 ng/mL or diluted spiked horse serum sample are injected through two sensor channels of a RAP™ biosensor. One contains a surface with sheep antibody to CRP, the other a control surface containing purified Sheep IgG. At the end of a 5-minute injection the initial rate of change in resonant frequency was proportional to CRP concentration. The initial rates of a second sandwich step of anti-CRP binding were also proportional to the sample CRP concentration and provided a more sensitive method for quantification of CRP. The lower limit of detection for the direct assay and the homogenous sandwich assay were both 20 ng/mL whereas for the direct sandwich assay the lower limit was 3 ng/mL. In a step towards a rapid clinical assay, diluted horse blood spiked with human CRP was passed over one sensor channel whilst a reference standard solution at the borderline cardiovascular risk level was passed over the other. A semi-quantities ratio was thus obtained indicative of sample CRP status. Overall, the present study revealed that CRP concentrations in serum that might be expected in both normal and pathological conditions can be detected in a time-efficient, label-free immunoassay with RAP™ detection technology with determined CRP concentrations in close agreement with those determined using a commercially available high sensitivity ELISA.

  11. Molecular structure and thermodynamic predictions to create highly sensitive microRNA biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkey, Nicholas E.; Brucks, Corinne N.; Lansing, Shan S.; Le, Sophia D.; Smith, Natasha M.; Tran, Victoria; Zhang, Lulu; Burrows, Sean M., E-mail:


    Many studies have established microRNAs (miRNAs) as post-transcriptional regulators in a variety of intracellular molecular processes. Abnormal changes in miRNA have been associated with several diseases. However, these changes are sometimes subtle and occur at nanomolar levels or lower. Several biosensing hurdles for in situ cellular/tissue analysis of miRNA limit detection of small amounts of miRNA. Of these limitations the most challenging are selectivity and sensor degradation creating high background signals and false signals. Recently we developed a reporter+probe biosensor for let-7a that showed potential to mitigate false signal from sensor degradation. Here we designed reporter+probe biosensors for miR-26a-2-3p and miR-27a-5p to better understand the effect of thermodynamics and molecular structures of the biosensor constituents on the analytical performance. Signal changes from interactions between Cy3 and Cy5 on the reporters were used to understand structural aspects of the reporter designs. Theoretical thermodynamic values, single stranded conformations, hetero- and homodimerization structures, and equilibrium concentrations of the reporters and probes were used to interpret the experimental observations. Studies of the sensitivity and selectivity revealed 5–9 nM detection limits in the presence and absence of interfering off-analyte miRNAs. These studies will aid in determining how to rationally design reporter+probe biosensors to overcome hurdles associated with highly sensitive miRNA biosensing. - Highlights: • Challenges facing highly sensitive miRNA biosensor designs are addressed. • Thermodynamic and molecular structure design metrics for reporter+probe biosensors are proposed. • The influence of ideal and non-ideal reporter hairpin structures on reporter+probe formation and signal change are discussed. • 5–9 nM limits of detection were observed with no interference from off-analytes.

  12. Enzyme-Mimetic Antioxidant Luminescent Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensing. (United States)

    Pratsinis, Anna; Kelesidis, Georgios A; Zuercher, Stefanie; Krumeich, Frank; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Sotiriou, Georgios A


    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an abundant molecule associated with biological functions and reacts with natural enzymes, such as catalase. Even though direct H2O2 measurement can be used to diagnose pathological conditions, such as infection and inflammation, H2O2 quantification further enables the detection of disease biomarkers in enzyme-linked assays (e.g., ELISA) in which enzymatic reactions may generate or consume H2O2. Such a quantification is often measured optically with organic dyes in biological media that suffer, however, from poor stability. Currently, the optical H2O2 biosensing without organic-dyes in biological media and at low, submicromolar, concentrations has yet to be achieved. Herein, we rationally design biomimetic artificial enzymes based on antioxidant CeO2 nanoparticles that become luminescent upon their Eu3+ doping. We vary systematically their diameter from 4 to 16 nm and study their catalase-mimetic antioxidant activity, manifested as catalytic H2O2 decomposition in aqueous solutions, revealing a strong nanoparticle surface area dependency. The interaction with H2O2 influences distinctly the particle luminescence rendering them highly sensitive H2O2 biosensors down to 0.15 μM (5.2 ppb) in solutions for biological assays. Our results link two, so far, unrelated research domains, the CeO2 nanoparticle antioxidant activity and luminescence by rare-earth doping. When these enzyme-mimetic nanoparticles are coupled with alcohol oxidase, biosensing can be extended to ethanol exemplifying how their detection potential can be broadened to additional biologically relevant metabolites. The enzyme-mimetic nanomaterial developed here could serve as a starting point of sophisticated in vitro assays toward the highly sensitive detection of disease biomarkers.

  13. Development and calibration of a high sensitive radon detector in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Machiko [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tasaka, Shigeki; Hori, Hidemitsu; Okumura, Kimihiro; Kajita, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Okazawa, Hiroko


    A high sensitive radon detector was developed in order to measure radon concentration for Super-Kamiokande. Super-Kamiokande is a large water Cerenkov detector located 1000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Gifu Prefecture. It consists of a cylindrical stainless steel tank (39-meter in diameter and 42-meter in height), 50000-ton of purified water, 11146 20-inch PMT, a water and air purification system, electronics systems, and so on. One of the main purposes of Super-Kamiokande is to observe solar neutrinos. The background events in the lower energy region are dominated by beta decay of radon daughters remaining in the water. The radon concentration in the water should be less than about 5 mBq/m{sup 3}. As a first step to monitor the radon concentration in water, a high sensitive detector for radon in air was developed. We adopted the electrostatic collection method and used a PIN photodiode to measure the energy of alpha particles from the daughter nuclei of {sup 222}Rn. To study the high voltage and absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector, a calibration system was also constructed. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence was clearly observed in the region less than 1.6 g/m{sup 3}. The calibration factors were 1.8{+-}0.1 (count/day)/(mBq/m{sup 3}) at 0.08 g/m{sup 3} and 0.75{+-}0.04 (count/day)/(mBq/m{sup 3}) at 11 g/m{sup 3}. As a result, the detection limit at 0.08 g/m{sup 3} is 13 mBq/m{sup 3}/day. (author)

  14. Identification of metalloporphyrins with high sensitivity using graphene-enhanced resonance Raman scattering. (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Kim, Daechul; Song, Sungho; Park, DongHyuk; Kang, Il-Suk; Jeong, Dae Hong; Jeon, Seokwoo


    Graphene-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (GERRS) was performed for the detection of three different metallo-octaethylporphyrins (M-OEPs; M = 2H, FeCl, and Pt) homogeneously thermal vapor deposited on a graphene surface. GERRS of M-OEPs were measured using three different excitation wavelengths, λ(ex) = 405, 532, and 633 nm, and characterized detail vibrational bands for the identification of M-OEPs. The GERRS spectra of Pt-OEP at λ(ex) = 532 nm showed ~29 and ~162 times signal enhancement ratio on graphene and on graphene with Ag nanoclusters, respectively, compared to the spectra from bare SiO2 substrate. This enhancement ratio, however, was varied with M-OEPs and excitation wavelengths. The characteristic peaks and band shapes of GERRS for each M-OEP were measured with high sensitivity (100 pmol of thermal vapor deposited Pt-OEP), and these facilitate the selectively recognition of molecules. Also, the peaks shift and broadening provide the evidence of the interaction between graphene and M-OEPs through the charge transfer and π-orbital interaction. The increase of graphene layer induced the decrease of signal intensity and GERRS effect was almost not observed on the thick graphite flakes. Further experiments with various substrates demonstrated that the interaction of single layer of graphene with molecule is the origin of the Raman signal enhancement of M-OEPs. In this experiment, we proved the graphene is a good alternative substrate of Raman spectroscopy for the selective detection of various metalloporphyrins with high sensitivity.

  15. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko


    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  16. A derivation of the stable cavitation threshold accounting for bubble-bubble interactions. (United States)

    Guédra, Matthieu; Cornu, Corentin; Inserra, Claude


    The subharmonic emission of sound coming from the nonlinear response of a bubble population is the most used indicator for stable cavitation. When driven at twice their resonance frequency, bubbles can exhibit subharmonic spherical oscillations if the acoustic pressure amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Although various theoretical derivations exist for the subharmonic emission by free or coated bubbles, they all rest on the single bubble model. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression of the subharmonic threshold for interacting bubbles in a homogeneous, monodisperse cloud. This theory predicts a shift of the subharmonic resonance frequency and a decrease of the corresponding pressure threshold due to the interactions. For a given sonication frequency, these results show that an optimal value of the interaction strength (i.e. the number density of bubbles) can be found for which the subharmonic threshold is minimum, which is consistent with recently published experiments conducted on ultrasound contrast agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.


    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  18. Relationship between Liquidity and Price Bubble in Tehran's Asset Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khodaparast SHIRAZI


    Full Text Available In this paper, according to Austrian school, the existence of bubbles in asset market of Tehran from 1998 to 2009 is attributed to the unexpected fluctuations of liquidity. To find out the process of bubble, the state space form and Kalman filter are used and bubble is brought out as unobserved variable of price series. In order to determine the long run relationship between liquidity and price bubble the VAR method proposed by Johanson and Jelisus is used. The result confirms that variation of liquidity has a significant effect on the creating of bubble in long run.

  19. Path instabilities of air bubbles rising in clean water

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, M; Wu, Mingming; Gharib, Moteza


    Experiments are conducted to study the path and shape of single air bubbles (diameter range 0.10- 0.20cm) rising freely in clean water. The experimental results demonstrate that the bubble shape has a bistable state, i. e. the bubble chooses to be in spherical or ellipsoidal shape depending on its generation mechanism. The path of a spherical/ellipsoidal bubble is found to change from a straight path to a zigzag/spiral path via a supercritical/subcritical bifurcation when the Reynolds number of the bubble exceeds a threshold.

  20. Champagne experiences various rhythmical bubbling regimes in a flute. (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José-Carlos


    Bubble trains are seen rising gracefully from a few points on the glass wall (called nucleation sites) whenever champagne is poured into a glass. As time passes during the gas-discharging process, the careful observation of some given bubble columns reveals that the interbubble distance may change suddenly, thus revealing different rhythmical bubbling regimes. Here, it is reported that the transitions between the different bubbling regimes of some nucleation sites during gas discharging is a process which may be ruled by a strong interaction between tiny gas pockets trapped inside the nucleation site and/or also by an interaction between the tiny bubbles just blown from the nucleation site.

  1. A note on the dynamics of two aligned bubbles perpendicular to and above a thin membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, A Hajizadeh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak 3818141167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoo, B C, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)


    The interaction of two perpendicular bubbles of a similar size (upper bubble and lower bubble) and the thin elastic membrane beneath them is studied experimentally. The dynamical behavior of the lower bubble (Bubble1), which is placed between the membrane and upper bubble (Bubble2), is rather complex. Observed phenomena such as the splitting of Bubble1 into the ‘mushroom shape’ and ‘masher shape’, the bubble-collapse induced jetting toward Bubble2 and even the coalescence effect are found and systematically categorized by the stated dimensionless parameters. (paper)

  2. The use of interactive stories to deal with awareness of high sensitivity in middle childhood / Durbach L.M.


    Durbach, Lisa-Mandi


    One in five children are born highly sensitive (HS), with nervous systems that are more sensitive to sensory subtleties. The highly sensitive child (HSC) presents with behaviour that is often a way of coping with sensory overload from their environment. The symptoms of HS are often mistaken for shyness, introversion, timidity and a low sensory threshold. Because of their lack of understanding, teachers mislabel and misdiagnose these children as being mentally ill, or as sufferi...

  3. Predawn plasma bubble cluster observed in Southeast Asia (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsunoda, Roland; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Ishii, Mamoru; Yatini, Clara


    Predawn plasma bubble was detected as deep plasma depletion by GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network and in situ measurement onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 (DMSPF15) satellite and was confirmed by sparse GPS network in Southeast Asia. In addition to the deep depletion, the GPS network revealed the coexisting submesoscale irregularities. A deep depletion is regarded as a primary bubble. Submesoscale irregularities are regarded as secondary bubbles. Primary bubble and secondary bubbles appeared together as a cluster with zonal wavelength of 50 km. An altitude of secondary bubbles happened to be lower than that of the primary bubble in the same cluster. The observed pattern of plasma bubble cluster is consistent with the simulation result of the recent high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model. This event is only a single event out of 76 satellite passes at nighttime during 3-25 March 2012 that significantly shows plasma depletion at plasma bubble wall. The inside structure of the primary bubble was clearly revealed from the in situ density data of DMSPF15 satellite and the ground-based GRBR total electron content.

  4. Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films. (United States)

    Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A


    Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal.

  5. Development of a highly sensitive three-dimensional gel electrophoresis method for characterization of monoclonal protein heterogeneity. (United States)

    Nakano, Keiichi; Tamura, Shogo; Otuka, Kohei; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Shigemura, Masahiko; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Moriyama, Takanori


    Three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (3-DE), which combines agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing/SDS-PAGE, was developed to characterize monoclonal proteins (M-proteins). However, the original 3-DE method has not been optimized and its specificity has not been demonstrated. The main goal of this study was to optimize the 3-DE procedure and then compare it with 2-DE. We developed a highly sensitive 3-DE method in which M-proteins are extracted from a first-dimension agarose gel, by diffusing into 150 mM NaCl, and the recovery of M-proteins was 90.6%. To validate the utility of the highly sensitive 3-DE, we compared it with the original 3-DE method. We found that highly sensitive 3-DE provided for greater M-protein recovery and was more effective in terms of detecting spots on SDS-PAGE gels than the original 3-DE. Moreover, highly sensitive 3-DE separates residual normal IgG from M-proteins, which could not be done by 2-DE. Applying the highly sensitive 3-DE to clinical samples, we found that the characteristics of M-proteins vary tremendously between individuals. We believe that our highly sensitive 3-DE method described here will prove useful in further studies of the heterogeneity of M-proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.


    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  7. Modelling of Air Bubble Rising in Water and Polymeric Solution (United States)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Subaschandar, N.


    This study investigates a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for a single air bubble rising in water and xanthan gum solution. The bubble rise characteristics through the stagnant water and 0.05% xanthan gum solution in a vertical cylindrical column is modelled using the CFD code Fluent. Single air bubble rise dispersed into the continuous liquid phase has been considered and modelled for two different bubble sizes. Bubble velocity and vorticity magnitudes were captured through a surface-tracking technique i.e. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method by solving a single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each fluid throughout the domain. The simulated results of the bubble flow contours at two different heights of the cylindrical column were validated by the experimental results and literature data. The model developed is capable of predicting the entire flow characteristics of different sizes of bubble inside the liquid column.

  8. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan


    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  9. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles. (United States)

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B


    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  10. Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)


    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.

  11. Dynamics of magnetic bubbles in acoustic and magnetic fields. (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Quinto-Su, Pedro A; Ohl, Claus-Dieter


    We report on shelled bubbles that can be manipulated with magnetic fields. The magnetic shell consists of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic susceptibility of the bubbles is proportional to the surface area, chi_{b}=(9+/-3x10;{-6} m)r;{2} where r is the radius. Magnetic bubbles are compressible in moderate acoustic fields. A bubble with a radius of 121 mum oscillates in resonance in a sound field of 27 kHz with a peak-to-peak radial amplitude of 1.7 mum. The bubble oscillations induce a microstreaming flow with a toroidal vortex at the upper pole of the bubble. Further findings are the longevity of the magnetic bubbles and the ease of manipulation with standard magnets.

  12. Lithotripter shock wave interaction with a bubble near various biomaterials (United States)

    Ohl, S. W.; Klaseboer, E.; Szeri, A. J.; Khoo, B. C.


    Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet. A few simulations are performed and compared with available experimental observations from Sankin and Zhong (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 046304). The collapses of cavitation bubbles (created by laser in the experiment) near an elastic membrane when hit by a lithotripter shock wave are correctly captured by the simulation. This is followed by a more systematic study of the effects involved concerning shockwave bubble biomaterial interactions. If a subsequent rarefaction wave hits the collapsed bubble, it will re-expand to a very large size straining the bio-materials nearby before collapsing once again. It is noted that, for hard bio-material like bone, reflection of the shock wave at the bone—water interface can affect the bubble dynamics. Also the initial size of the bubble has a significant effect. Large bubbles (˜1 mm) will split into smaller bubbles, while small bubbles collapse with a high speed jet in the travel direction of the shock wave. The numerical model offers a computationally efficient way of understanding the complex phenomena involving the interplay of a bubble, a shock wave, and a nearby bio-material.

  13. Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse (United States)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.


    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis for bubble proliferation when SWs are delivered at fast rate. Bubbles were studied using a high-speed camera (Imacon 200). Experiments were conducted in a test tank filled with nondegassed tap water at room temperature. Acoustic pulses were generated with an electromagnetic lithotripter (DoLi-50). In the focus of the lithotripter the pulses consisted of a ˜60 MPa positive-pressure spike followed by up to -8 MPa negative-pressure tail, all with a total duration of about 7 μs. Nonlinear propagation steepened the shock front of the pulses to become sufficiently thin (˜0.03 μm) to impose differential pressure across even microscopic bubbles. High-speed camera movies showed that the SWs forced preexisting microbubbles to collapse, jet, and break up into daughter bubbles, which then grew rapidly under the negative-pressure phase of the pulse, but later coalesced to re-form a single bubble. Subsequent bubble growth was followed by inertial collapse and, usually, rebound. Most, if not all, cavitation bubbles emitted micro-jets during their first inertial collapse and re-growth. After jetting, these rebounding bubbles could regain a spherical shape before undergoing a second inertial collapse. However, either upon this second inertial collapse, or sometimes upon the first inertial collapse, the rebounding bubble emerged from the collapse as a cloud of smaller bubbles rather than a single bubble. These daughter bubbles could continue to rebound and collapse for a few cycles, but did not coalesce. These observations show that the positive-pressure phase of SWs fragments preexisting bubbles but this initial

  14. Measurements of fast neutrons by bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F.; Martinez, H. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Leal, B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F (Mexico); Reyes, P. G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario 100, Col. Centro, 50000, Toluca Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Neutron bubble detectors have been studied using Am-Be and D-D neuron sources, which give limited energy information. The Bubble Detector Spectrometer (BDS) have six different energy thresholds ranging from 10 KeV to 10 Mev. The number of bubbles obtained in each measurement is related to the dose (standardized response R) equivalent neutrons through sensitivity (b / {mu}Sv) and also with the neutron flux (neutrons per unit area) through a relationship that provided by the manufacturer. Bubble detectors were used with six different answers (0.11 b/ {mu}Sv, 0093 b/{mu}Sv, 0.14 b/{mu}Sv, 0.17 b/{mu}Sv, 0051 b/{mu}Sv). To test the response of the detectors (BDS) radiate a set of six of them with different energy threshold, with a source of Am-Be, placing them at a distance of one meter from it for a few minutes. Also, exposed to dense plasma focus Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II FPD) of ICN-UNAM, apparatus which produces fusion plasma, generating neutrons by nuclear reactions of neutrons whose energy emitting is 2.45 MeV. In this case the detectors were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the pinch at 90 Degree-Sign this was done for a certain number of shots. In both cases, the standard response is reported (Dose in {mu}Sv) for each of the six detectors representing an energy range, this response is given by the expression R{sub i}= B{sub i} / S{sub i} where B{sub i} is the number of bubbles formed in each and the detector sensitivity (S{sub i}) is given for each detector in (b / {mu}Sv). Also, reported for both cases, the detected neutron flux (n cm{sup -2}), by a given ratio and the response involves both standardized R, as the average cross section sigma. The results obtained have been compared with the spectrum of Am-Be source. From these measurements it can be concluded that with a combination of bubble detectors, with different responses is possible to measure the equivalent dose in a range of 10 to 100 {mu}Sv fields mixed neutron and gamma, and pulsed generated fusion

  15. Optical monitoring of bubble size and shape in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. (United States)

    Seurynck, Shannon L; Brown, Nathan J; Wu, Cindy W; Germino, Kevin W; Kohlmeir, Ellen K; Ingenito, Edward P; Glucksberg, Matthew R; Barron, Annelise E; Johnson, Mark


    The pulsating bubble surfactometer (PBS) is often used for in vitro characterization of exogenous lung surfactant replacements and lung surfactant components. However, the commercially available PBS is not able to dynamically track bubble size and shape. The PBS therefore does not account for bubble growth or elliptical bubble shape that frequently occur during device use. More importantly, the oscillatory volume changes of the pulsating bubble are different than those assumed by the software of the commercial unit. This leads to errors in both surface area and surface tension measurements. We have modified a commercial PBS through the addition of an image-acquisition system, allowing real-time determination of bubble size and shape and hence the accurate tracking of surface area and surface tension. Compression-expansion loops obtained with the commercially available PBS software were compared with those provided by the image-analysis system for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, Infasurf, and Tanaka lipids (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-palmitoyloleoylphosphatidyl-glycerol-palmitic acid, 68:22:9) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml and at frequencies of 1 and 20 cycles/min. Whereas minimum surface tension as determined by the image-analysis system is similar to that measured by the commercially available software, the maximum surface tension and the shapes of the interfacial area-surface tension loops are quite different. Differences are attributable to bubble drift, nonsinusoidal volume changes, and variable volume excursions seen with the modified system but neglected by the original system. Image analysis reveals that the extent of loop hysteresis is greatly overestimated by the commercial device and that an apparent, rapid increase in surface tension upon film expansion seen in PBS loops is not observed with the image-analysis system. The modified PBS system reveals new dynamic characteristics of lung surfactant preparations that have not previously been

  16. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Eliza Davies Calvani


    Full Text Available Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples.A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76 was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic

  17. High Sensitivity Detection of Broadband Acoustic Vibration Using Optical Demodulation Method (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen

    Measuring the high frequency acoustic vibrations represents the fundamental interest in revealing the intrinsic dynamic characteristic of board range of systems, such as the growth of the fetus, blood flow in human palms, and vibrations of carbon nanotube. However, the acoustic wave detection capability is limited by the detection bandwidth and sensitivity of the commonly used piezoelectric based ultrasound detectors. To overcome these limitations, this thesis focuses on exploring the optical demodulation method for highly sensitive detection of broadband acoustic vibration. First, a transparent optical ultrasonic detector has been developed using micro-ring resonator (MRR) made of soft polymeric materials. It outperforms the traditional piezoelectric detectors with broader detection bandwidth, miniaturized size and wide angular sensitivity. Its ease of integration into photoacoustic microscopy system has resulted in the great improvement of the imaging resolution. A theoretic framework has been developed to establish the quantitative understanding of its unique distance and angular dependent detection characteristics and was subsequently validated experimentally. The developed theoretic framework provides a guideline to fully accounts for the trade-offs between axial and lateral resolution, working distance, and the field of view in developing optimal imaging performance for a wide range of biological and clinical applications. MRR-based ultrasonic detector is further integrated into confocal fluorescence microscopy to realize the simultaneous imaging of fluorescence and optical absorption of retinal pigment epithelium, achieving multi-contrast imaging at sub-cellular level. The needs to resolve the fine details of the biological specimen with the resolution beyond the diffraction limit further motivate the development of optical demodulated ultrasonic detection method based on near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). The nano-focusing probe was developed

  18. Self-reported cocaine use is not associated with elevations in high-sensitivity troponin I. (United States)

    Jordan, Candice D; Korley, Frederick K; Stolbach, Andrew I


    High-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assays detect 10 times lower concentrations of cardiac troponin than conventional assays. We examined the effects of self-reported cocaine use to determine whether those with acute cocaine use being evaluated for ACS are more likely to have elevated hsTnI than those nonusers being evaluated for ACS. We conducted a sub-analysis of a prospective cohort of ED patients evaluated for acute coronary syndrome. Recent cocaine use was determined by structured patient interviews. High-sensitivity troponin (Abbott) and conventional troponin I (Abbott, cTnI) were measured on samples drawn at presentation. Urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolite was obtained at the discretion of treating clinicians. Of 1862 patients enrolled, 444 reported prior cocaine use and 99 reported cocaine use within the preceding month. Median hsTn in patients with last cocaine use within 24 h, 2-7 days, 1 week-1 month, >1 month, and no prior cocaine use were: 9 (IQR: 3-17) ng/L, 6 (IQR: 3-24.3) ng/L, 6 (IQR: 3-89.5) ng/L, 3 (IQR: 3-18.5) ng/L and 3 (IQR: 3-17) ng/L, respectively. Urine toxicology assays (UTox) for cocaine were performed in 640 (34.4%) patients. The median hsTn for those who were UTox+, UTox - and those without a UTox were: 9 ng/L (IQR: 3-48.5), 9 ng/L (IQR: 3-40) and 3 ng/L (IQR: 3-12), respectively. There were no differences in the prevalence of new troponin elevations (hsTn >99th percentile but cTnI cocaine use compared to those without recent cocaine use. In this first investigation of hsTn in patients with self-reported recent cocaine use, we have determined that hsTn does not lead to an increase in the prevalence of troponin elevation in cocaine users.

  19. Scrambled eggs: A highly sensitive molecular diagnostic workflow for Fasciola species specific detection from faecal samples. (United States)

    Calvani, Nichola Eliza Davies; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Bush, Russell David; Šlapeta, Jan


    Fasciolosis, due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is a re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease of worldwide importance. Human and animal infections are commonly diagnosed by the traditional sedimentation and faecal egg-counting technique. However, this technique is time-consuming and prone to sensitivity errors when a large number of samples must be processed or if the operator lacks sufficient experience. Additionally, diagnosis can only be made once the 12-week pre-patent period has passed. Recently, a commercially available coprological antigen ELISA has enabled detection of F. hepatica prior to the completion of the pre-patent period, providing earlier diagnosis and increased throughput, although species differentiation is not possible in areas of parasite sympatry. Real-time PCR offers the combined benefits of highly sensitive species differentiation for medium to large sample sizes. However, no molecular diagnostic workflow currently exists for the identification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples. A new molecular diagnostic workflow for the highly-sensitive detection and quantification of Fasciola spp. in faecal samples was developed. The technique involves sedimenting and pelleting the samples prior to DNA isolation in order to concentrate the eggs, followed by disruption by bead-beating in a benchtop homogeniser to ensure access to DNA. Although both the new molecular workflow and the traditional sedimentation technique were sensitive and specific, the new molecular workflow enabled faster sample throughput in medium to large epidemiological studies, and provided the additional benefit of speciation. Further, good correlation (R2 = 0.74-0.76) was observed between the real-time PCR values and the faecal egg count (FEC) using the new molecular workflow for all herds and sampling periods. Finally, no effect of storage in 70% ethanol was detected on sedimentation and DNA isolation outcomes; enabling transport of samples from endemic to non

  20. Desensitization protocol for highly sensitized renal transplant patients: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek B Kute


    Full Text Available Highly sensitized patients are destined to remain untransplanted for long. Early transplantation results in cost-saving, reduced morbidity/mortality and improved quality of life. We carried out a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of desensitization protocol vis-à-vis patient/graft survival in living donor renal transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Between December 2008 and April 2010, 34 renal transplant (RTx patients underwent desensitization protocol. An anti-human globulin-enhanced lymphocytotoxicity crossmatch assay (AHG-CDC ≥25% and T-cell median channel shift (MCS >50, B-cell MCS >100 [flow crossmatch (FXM] were considered crossmatch (XM positive. All patients were administered bortezomib (1.3 mg/m 2 , days 1, 4, 8, 11, plasmapheresis, rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin (r-ATG, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg. LCXM and FXM were repeated post-protocol. In the event of persistent sensitization, additional bortezomib cycle was repeated along with plasmapheresis, IVIg, calcineurin inhibitors (CNI and rituximab. If the cross match (CMX was negative or acceptable, patients underwent RTx. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of prednisone, CNI and MMF. Biopsy was performed in the event of graft dysfunction and treated accordingly. There were 18 males and 16 females, with a mean age of 37.4 years. Mean dialysis duration was 14.9 ± 17.6 months. Average third party transfusions were 6.2 ± 4.5, 17.6% had autoimmune diseases, 20.6% were multi-para. Pre-protocol AHGXM was 55.3 ± 24.5%, T-cell crossmatch (TCXM was 122.4 ± 91.4 MCS and B-cell crossmatch (BCXM was 279 ± 142.9 MCS. Totally, 85.3% responded within 1 month with reduction in AHG-CDC to 19.9 ± 5.2%, TCXM to 24.7 ± 19.4 MCS and BCXM to 74.7 ± 34.8 MCS. Side effects noted in 38.2% were manageable. Over follow-up of 0.92 ± 0.8 years, patient/graft survival was 100%/88.2% and mean serum creatinine was 1.27 ± 0.32 mg

  1. Effect of treatment with rosiglitazone on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Salahuddin, Usman I; Pandey, Ambarish; Ayers, Colby R; See, Raphael; Neeland, Ian J; Gore, M Odette; Grinsfelder, D Bennett; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K


    To assess the impact of intermediate-term treatment with rosiglitazone on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or at high risk of coronary artery disease. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level was measured at baseline and after 6 months of study treatment in a randomized trial comparing rosiglitazone versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and prevalent cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of rosiglitazone versus placebo on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. The study included 150 randomized participants, of whom 106 had paired baseline and end-of-study blood samples for analysis (mean age: 56 ± 8 years, 42% women; 8.8 years average type 2 diabetes duration; mean haemoglobin A1c of 7.5). Almost all study participants (93%) had detectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (⩾ 3 ng/L) at baseline, including 23% with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels exceeding the threshold commonly used to diagnose myocardial infarction (⩾ 14 ng/L). Change in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels from baseline to follow-up was not significantly different between rosiglitazone and placebo groups (p = 0.316). Rosiglitazone did not impact high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels, adding to the growing body of literature suggesting that the incremental heart failure risk associated with rosiglitazone is not mediated by direct myocardial injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Performance of the high-sensitivity troponin assay in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ayman; Alazzoni, Ashraf; Al Shalash, Saleh; Ye, Chenglin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Jolly, Sanjit S.


    Background High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays have been adopted by many clinical centres worldwide; however, clinicians are uncertain how to interpret the results. We sought to assess the utility of these assays in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing high-sensitivity with conventional assays of cardiac troponin levels among adults with suspected acute MI in the emergency department. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases up to April 2013 and used bivariable random-effects modelling to obtain summary parameters for diagnostic accuracy. Results We identified 9 studies that assessed the use of high-sensitivity troponin T assays (n = 9186 patients). The summary sensitivity of these tests in diagnosing acute MI at presentation to the emergency department was estimated to be 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.97); for conventional tests, it was 0.72 (95% CI 0.63–0.79). The summary specificity was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64–0.81) for the high-sensitivity assay compared with 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for the conventional assay. The differences in estimates of the summary sensitivity and specificity between the high-sensitivity and conventional assays were statistically significant (p sensitivity troponin I assays and showed similar results. Interpretation Used at presentation to the emergency department, the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay has improved sensitivity, but reduced specificity, compared with the conventional troponin assay. With repeated measurements over 6 hours, the area under the curve is similar for both tests, indicating that the major advantage of the high-sensitivity test is early diagnosis. PMID:25295240


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, C. [Manchester University, Department of Physics, 604 E. College Ave., North Manchester, IN 46962 (United States); Devine, Kathryn [College of Idaho, Department of Physics, 2112 Cleveland Blvd, Caldwell, ID 83605 (United States); Quintanar, N. [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 401 Joe Routt Blvd, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Candelaria, T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Physics, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    We survey 44 young stellar objects located near the edges of mid-IR-identified bubbles in CS (1–0) using the Green Bank Telescope. We detect emission in 18 sources, indicating young protostars that are good candidates for being triggered by the expansion of the bubble. We calculate CS column densities and abundances. Three sources show evidence of infall through non-Gaussian line-shapes. Two of these sources are associated with dark clouds and are promising candidates for further exploration of potential triggered star formation. We obtained on-the-fly maps in CS (1–0) of three sources, showing evidence of significant interactions between the sources and the surrounding environment.

  4. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  5. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  6. The Recent Financial Bubble: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalassinos E.


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the recent financial crisis and to make recommendations how to handle it in the best possible way. Financial bubbles, since the great depression, have been analysed and some recommendations have been made taking into account the internationalization of the world economy which behaves like a domino. The recent financial crisis in the sub-prime mortgage market creates new problems in the world market with unforeseen continuances. Deflation has been referred to as a possible continuance after a financial bubble because often but not always deflation follows. Deflation often results in financial and economic crises. Financial and economic crises affect the architecture of the monetary system, while a change in the system may affect the role of the dollar, the euro and the yen.

  7. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Leitao


    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  8. A High Sensitivity IDC-Electronic Tongue Using Dielectric/Sensing Membranes with Solvatochromic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electronic tongue/taste sensor array containing different interdigitated capacitor (IDC sensing elements to detect different types of tastes, such as sweetness (glucose, saltiness (NaCl, sourness (HCl, bitterness (quinine-HCl, and umami (monosodium glutamate is proposed. We present for the first time an IDC electronic tongue using sensing membranes containing solvatochromic dyes. The proposed highly sensitive (30.64 mV/decade sensitivity IDC electronic tongue has fast response and recovery times of about 6 s and 5 s, respectively, with extremely stable responses, and is capable of linear sensing performance (R2 ≈ 0.985 correlation coefficient over the wide dynamic range of 1 µM to 1 M. The designed IDC electronic tongue offers excellent reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD of about 0.029. The proposed device was found to have better sensing performance than potentiometric-, cascoded compatible lateral bipolar transistor (C-CLBT-, Electronic Tongue (SA402-, and fiber-optic-based taste sensing systems in what concerns dynamic range width, response time, sensitivity, and linearity. Finally, we applied principal component analysis (PCA to distinguish between various kinds of taste in mixed taste compounds.

  9. A flexible thermal lens microscope for highly sensitive detection in microfluidic chips (United States)

    Liu, Mingqiang


    A flexible thermal lens microscope (TLM), which combines the advantages of both conventional thermal lens spectrometry and TLM, is reported in this paper. The flexibility lies in the fact that the TLM can be configured in diffraction-limited (DL) or non-DL excitation mode: in small micro spaces (LOD) of 2  ×  10‒5 cm‒1 in large micro spaces (50-1000 µm),the setup working in non-DL mode was demonstrated to be much more advantageous. Compared with the case in DL mode, the TLM in non-DL mode shows up to an eight times lower LOD under 100-1000-fold less intense excitation, and better resistivity to flow-induced signal reduction and fluctuation to beam misalignment and background scattering, making it particularly suitable for detecting photolabile samples in highly flowing scattering mediums. For photostable samples, excitation laser powers of watt scale (in contrast to 100 mW in DL mode) could be employed to further decrease the LOD. This flexible TLM can therefore be applied for highly sensitive on-chip analysis of a broad range of analytes in different mediums.

  10. Highly Sensitive Aluminum-Based Biosensors using Tailorable Fano Resonances in Capped Nanostructures (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Li; Hsu, Hsuan-Yeh; You, Meng-Lin; Chang, Chia-Chun; Pan, Ming-Yang; Shi, Xu; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki; Wei, Pei-Kuen


    Metallic nanostructure-based surface plasmon sensors are capable of real-time, label-free, and multiplexed detections for chemical and biomedical applications. Recently, the studies of aluminum-based biosensors have attracted a large attention because aluminum is a more cost-effective metal and relatively stable. However, the intrinsic properties of aluminum, having a large imaginary part of the dielectric function and a longer evanescent length, limit its sensing capability. Here we show that capped aluminum nanoslits fabricated on plastic films using hot embossing lithography can provide tailorable Fano resonances. Changing height of nanostructures and deposited metal film thickness modulated the transmission spectrum, which varied from Wood’s anomaly-dominant resonance, asymmetric Fano profile to surface plasmon-dominant resonance. For biolayer detections, the maximum surface sensitivity occurred at the dip of asymmetric Fano profile. The optimal Fano factor was close to -1.3. The wavelength and intensity sensitivities for surface thickness were up to 2.58 nm/nm and 90%/nm, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) of thickness reached 0.018 nm. We attributed the enhanced surface sensitivity for capped aluminum nanoslits to a reduced evanescent length and sharp slope of the asymmetric Fano profile. The protein-protein interaction experiments verified the high sensitivity of capped nanostructures. The LOD was down to 236 fg/mL.

  11. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev


    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  12. Cardiovascular risk assessment using high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with erectile dysfunction. (United States)

    Ferrandis-Cortes, Cristina; Martínez-Jabaloyas, José M; Díez-Calzadilla, Nelson A; Hernández-Medina, José A; Chuan-Nuez, Pascual


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular events. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a cardiovascular risk marker. The aim of this study is to determine whether hsCRP is useful in evaluating ED. In 121 patients with ED, age, ED type and severity, time since onset of ED, weight, height, BMI, body fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, hsCRP and hormone profile were studied. Patients were classified as low or moderate-high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels. A descriptive and univariate study was performed. A logistic regression was used to establish factors associated with low versus moderate-high cardiovascular risk and hsCRP. Most patients had moderate-severe ED (70%). 74% had a moderate-high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels, and 33.9 and 34.7% had hypogonadism according to total (TT) and free testosterone. In the univariate analysis, a relationship between hsCRP and TT and physical examination variables was observed (p cardiovascular risk was found in the hypogonadic group (OR: 5.51; 95% CI: 1.185-25.662) and waist- to-hip ratio (p = 0.008; OR: 1.361; 95% CI: 1.075-1.612). A majority of patients with ED have high cardiovascular risk based on hsCRP levels and there is an association with hypogonadism and obesity. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Highly Sensitive and Miniaturized Fluorescence Detection System with an Autonomous Capillary Fluid Manipulation Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, highly sensitive and ultra-small fluorescent detection system, including an autonomous capillary fluid manipulation chip. The optical detector integrates a LED light source, all necessary optical components, and a photodiode with preamplifier into one package of about 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm. Also, the low-cost and simple pumpless microfluidic device works well in sample preparation and manipulation. This chip consists of capillary stop valves and trigger valves which are fabricated by lithography and then bonded with a polydimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide polymer polydimethylsiloxane (PEO-PDMS cover. The contact angle of the PEO-PDMS can be adjusted by changing the concentration of the PEO. Hence, the fluidic chip can achieve functionalities such as timing features and basic logical functions. The prototype has been tested by fluorescence dye 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM dissolved into the solvent DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide. The results prove a remarkable sensitivity at a pico-scale molar, around 1.08 pM. The low-cost and miniaturized optical detection system, with a self-control capillary-driven microfluidic chip developed in this work, can be used as the crucial parts in portable biochemical detection applications and point of care testing.

  14. Novel Highly Sensitive Protein Sensors Based on Tapered Optical Fibres Modified with Au-Based Nanocoatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia


    Full Text Available Novel protein sensors based on tapered optical fibres modified with Au coatings deposited using two different procedures are proposed. Au-based coatings are deposited onto a nonadiabatic tapered optical fibre using (i a novel facile method composed of layer-by-layer deposition consisting of polycation (poly(allylamine hydrochloride, PAH and negatively charged SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs followed by the deposition of the charged Au NPs and (ii the sputtering technique. The Au NPs and Au thin film surfaces are then modified with biotin in order to bind streptavidin (SV molecules and detect them. The sensing principle is based on the sensitivity of the transmission spectrum of the device to changes in the refractive index of the coatings induced by the SV binding to the biotin. Both sensors showed high sensitivity to SV, with the lowest measured concentration levels below 2.5 nM. The calculated binding constant for the biotin-SV pair was 2.2×10-11 M−1 when a tapered fibre modified with the LbL method was used, with a limit of detection (LoD of 271 pM. The sensor formed using sputtering had a binding constant of 1.01×10-10 M−1 with a LoD of 806 pM. These new structures and their simple fabrication technique could be used to develop other biosensors.

  15. High-sensitivity Compton imaging with position-sensitive Si and Ge detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail:; Burks, M.; Cork, C.; Cunningham, M.; Chivers, D.; Hull, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Krings, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Manini, H.; Mihailescu, L.; Nelson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Protic, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Valentine, J.; Wright, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    We report on the development of high-sensitivity and compact Compton imaging systems built of large and position-sensitive Si(Li) and HPGe detectors. The primary goal of this effort is to provide improved capabilities in the passive detection of nuclear materials for homeland security. Our detectors are implemented in double-sided strip configuration, which-along with digital signal processing-provides energies and three-dimensional position information of individual {gamma}-ray interactions. {gamma}-Ray tracking algorithms then determine the scattering sequence of the {gamma}-ray, which in turn allows us-employing the Compton scattering formula-to reconstruct a cone of possible incident angles and ultimately an image. This Compton imaging concept enables large-field-of-view {gamma}-ray imaging without the use of a heavy collimator or aperture. The intrinsically high-energy resolution of the detectors used, the excellent position resolution we have demonstrated, both combined with the high efficiency of large-volume detectors is the basis for high Compton imaging sensitivity. These capabilities are being developed to identify and localize potential threat sources and to potentially increase the sensitivity in detecting weak sources out of the midst of natural, medical, or commercial sources. {gamma}-ray imaging provides a new degree of freedom to distinguish between spatial and temporal background fluctuations and compact threat sources.

  16. Use of high sensitivity GNSS receiver Doppler measurements for indoor pedestrian dead reckoning. (United States)

    He, Zhe; Renaudin, Valérie; Petovello, Mark G; Lachapelle, Gérard


    Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein.

  17. High sensitivity LPG Mach-Zehnder sensor for real-time fuel conformity analysis (United States)

    Osório, Jonas H.; Mosquera, L.; Gouveia, Carlos J.; Biazoli, Claudecir R.; Hayashi, Juliano G.; Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.


    A high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on the combination of mechanically induced long period gratings (LPG) and fiber tapers was developed for real-time fuel quality analysis. The sensor was built in a Mach-Zehnder configuration by employing a pair of in-series gratings. In order to enhance sensor sensitivity, the region between both LPGs was tapered down from 125 to 10 µm. The system was tested by measuring water concentration in ethanol and ethanol concentration in commercial gasoline. The tapered sensor has shown an average sensitivity of 930 nm/RIU, 18 times higher than the non-tapered version. The resolution limit of the system using spectral interrogation was estimated to be 0.06% of ethanol dissolved in gasoline. For the purpose of real-time monitoring, an interrogation system based on white light interferometry (WLI) and virtual instrumentation was employed to evaluate ethanol evaporation in water, avoiding the use of spectral analysis. The WLI system, using phase tracking techniques, enabled us to record the evolution of the ethanol concentration in water with a resolution of 0.005% (v/v).

  18. Inexpensive designer antigen for anti-HIV antibody detection with high sensitivity and specificity. (United States)

    Talha, Sheikh M; Salminen, Teppo; Chugh, Deepti A; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim; Khanna, Navin


    A novel recombinant multiepitope protein (MEP) has been designed that consists of four linear, immunodominant, and phylogenetically conserved epitopes, taken from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-encoded antigens that are used in many third-generation immunoassay kits. This HIV-MEP has been evaluated for its diagnostic potential in the detection of anti-HIV antibodies in human sera. A synthetic MEP gene encoding these epitopes, joined by flexible peptide linkers in a single open reading frame, was designed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant HIV-MEP was purified using a single affinity step, yielding >20 mg pure protein/liter culture, and used as the coating antigen in an in-house immunoassay. Bound anti-HIV antibodies were detected by highly sensitive time-resolved fluorometry, using europium(III) chelate-labeled anti-human antibody. The sensitivity and specificity of the HIV-MEP were evaluated using Boston Biomedica worldwide HIV performance, HIV seroconversion, and viral coinfection panels and were found to be comparable with those of commercially available anti-HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. The careful choice of epitopes, high epitope density, and an E. coli-based expression system, coupled with a simple purification protocol and the use of europium(III) chelate-labeled tracer, provide the capability for the development of an inexpensive diagnostic test with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity.

  19. Establishment of a new marginal plaque index with high sensitivity for changes in oral hygiene. (United States)

    Deinzer, Renate; Jahns, Stephan; Harnacke, Daniela


    Although several plaque indices exist, they rarely assess in detail the plaque adjacent to the gingival margin, an area most important for periodontal health. This study aims to develop a new marginal plaque index (MPI) and to assess its validity and treatment sensitivity compared to the internationally accepted Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Index (TQHI). Data from two studies with n = 64 and n = 67 participants, respectively, are reported here. Convergence of MPI with TQHI and concurrent and predictive validity with papillary bleeding index were assessed, as was treatment sensitivity to a treatment of proximal hygiene (study 1) or toothbrushing (study 2), respectively. Convergent validity with TQHI is very good. Concurrent and predictive validity parameters of the MPI are similar to the TQHI. The treatment sensitivity of MPI exceeds TQHI by far. This results in a reduction by >70% of the sample size needed to discover significant treatment effects. As expected, the largest treatment sensitivity was observed for proximal MPI measures in study 1, whereas study 2 showed largest effects for cervical measures. MPI appears to be a valid plaque-scoring system that assesses plaque at the gingival margin. It responds with high sensitivity to treatments aimed at plaque reduction at the gingival margin. Its treatment sensitivity and capacity to differentiate between proximal and cervical plaque make it a promising tool for periodontal research.

  20. A super highly sensitive glucose biosensor based on Au nanoparticles-AgCl@polyaniline hybrid material. (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Feng, Xiaomiao; Chen, Xiaojun; Hou, Wenhua; Zhu, Jun-Jie


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average diameter of 5nm were assembled on the surface of silver chloride@polyaniline (PANI) core-shell nanocomposites (AgCl@PANI). Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested that AuNPs were incorporated on AgCl@PANI through coordination bonds instead of electrostatic interaction. The resulting AuNPs-AgCl@PANI hybrid material exhibited good electroactivity at a neutral pH environment. An amperometric glucose biosensor was developed by adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an AuNPs-AgCl@PANI modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. AuNPs-AgCl@PANI could provide a biocompatible surface for high enzyme loading. Due to size effect, the AuNPs in the hybrid material could act as a good catalyst for both oxidation and reduction of H(2)O(2). As the measurement of glucose was based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2) generated by enzyme-catalyzed-oxidation of glucose, the biosensor exhibited a super highly sensitive response to the analyte with a detection limit of 4 pM. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility and operation stability. The effects of some factors, such as temperature and pH value, were also studied.