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Sample records for high-risk human papillomaviruses

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  2. Persistence and reappearance of high-risk human papillomavirus after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla Flarup; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Women with early cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2+) are treated by conization; however, they still have a higher risk for subsequent CIN2+ than the general female population. Persistence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key factor in the development...

  3. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  4. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

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    Ina Marie Angèle Traore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3±8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%, HPV 52 (16.7%, HPV 18 (14.8%, and HPV 35 (13.0%. HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  5. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Dembele, Adama; Djigma, Florencia W; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  6. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk ... on the STD Data and Statistics page . * HPV = human papillomavirus. NOTE: Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. ...

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Brown, Eulynis; Slater, Sherian; Holder, Yvette; Luciani, Silvana; Lewis, Merle; Irons, Beryl

    2017-06-08

    To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace). High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2%) in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6%) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies) and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study's results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  8. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glennis Andall-Brereton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Methods Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1 a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap test and (2 a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace. High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Results High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2% in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6% in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. Conclusions These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study’s results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  9. Association between high risk papillomavirus DNA and nitric oxide release in the human uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahkola, Paivi; Mikkola, Tomi S; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi

    2009-08-01

    Local cervical factors may determine the outcome of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Nitric oxide (NO) may be one such factor, since it is produced by uterine cervical cells and it takes part in both immunological and carcinogenic reactions. We studied the association between the presence of cervical high risk (hr) HPV DNA and NO in the cervical canal in women. High risk HPV DNA status was assessed from 328 women by using a specific DNA test and the release of cervical NO was assessed as nitrate/nitrite in cervical fluid. Cervical NO was then compared between women showing different status of hr HPV DNA and different cytological and histological findings. High risk HPV DNA was present in 175/328 (53%) women. The cervical NO release in women with hr HPV DNA was 90% higher compared to hr HPV DNA negative women (poral contraception, intrauterine devices, or signs of bacterial vaginosis or candida infection. Cytologically healthy epithelium and epithelium with mild cytological or histological changes showed elevated NO release if hr HPV DNA was present. The presence of hr HPV DNA is associated with an increased release of NO in the human uterine cervix. The clinical significance of this phenomenon remains open.

  10. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  11. Seroepidemiological Evaluation of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types Among Married and Unmarried Iranian Women in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abedini; Karimi; Shamsy; Mansour Ghanaie; Gholinejad

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that establishes productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. Objectives This study aimed to determine the frequency of two high-risk genotypes of HPV among married and unmarried Iranian women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional population-based study consisted of two groups of women: non-m...

  12. High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus infections among married women in Can Tho, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang

    2012-07-01

    The two currently licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are highly efficacious in preventing cervical pre-cancers related to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Before implementing a large-scale HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, information about the prevalence of infection with the HPV vaccine types is required. This study was done in Can Tho, the province with the highest prevalence of cervical cancer in the south of Viet Nam, to explore the distribution of other high-risk types of HPV among married women in this province. The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. A total of 1000 participants were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status and HPV genotyping test were completed for all participants. A broad spectrum of HPV types was reported in this study. The prevalence of cases infected with HPV 16 and/or 18 was 7%; the prevalence of cases infected with other high-risk HPV types was 6%. The highest prevalence for single and multiple infections, as well as for high-risk infections, was reported for the youngest age group (less than 30 years). While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam due to the high prevalence of infection with HPV 16 and/or 18, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protect against all types of high-risk HPV. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines.

  13. Role of high-risk human papillomavirus in the etiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancers in Thailand: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotipanich, Adit; Siriarechakul, Surattaya; Mungkung, On-Ong

    2018-01-01

    Among developing countries, Thailand shows no increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus-driven oropharyngeal cancer. The causal role of human papillomavirus infection in this pathology has not been researched thoroughly. A hospital-based, case-control study was performed which included 104 patients with newly diagnosed oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and 104 individuals without cancer. The Cervista high-risk human papillomavirus and 16/18 assays were used to detect human papillomavirus. Odds ratios were used to assess the association between high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the cancers. High-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 4 of 52 (7.7%) oral cancer cases, 6 of 52 (11.5%) oropharyngeal cancer cases, and 1 of 104 (0.96%) control subjects. Of 104 cancer patients in the study, 83 were smokers. High-risk human papillomavirus was significantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer (odds ratio = 13.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-114.8) but was nonsignificantly associated with oral cancer (odds ratio = 8.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-78.9). However, after adjustment for smoking, high-risk human papillomavirus was determined to be nonsignificantly associated with oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 5.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.8-43.5). Although low human papillomavirus prevalence was observed, the rate of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in the cancer group was still higher than that in the control group. Smoking may have an influence on the etiology of human papillomavirus-related cancers. However, the study is underpowered to clarify the role of human papillomavirus as the independent risk factor for oral and oropharyngeal cancers in the Thai population.

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences in metaplastic breast carcinomas of Mexican women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Vela-Chávez, Teresa; Carrillo-García, Adela; Lizano-Soberón, Marcela; Amador-Molina, Alfredo; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Hallmann, Rita Sotelo-Regil

    2013-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995–2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24–72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30–73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV– metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones

  15. INTERFERON IN THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN INFECTED WITH HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Владимировна Марочко

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 99 % of cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV. It can take over 10 years from the time of an initial human papillomavirus infection until a cervical cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are transient and go away within 1 year. There is evidence that cell mediated immune responses of the host, both systemic and local, are important determinants of the course of infection, thus, it is reasonable to use immunocorrective therapy. Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of interferon alpha in complex therapy of HPV infection. The aim – to determine the efficacy of interferon alpha-2b in reducing the viral load of high-risk HPV among infected women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. 60 high-risk HPV positive women were included in the study. Qualitative and quantitative determination of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 was carried out by PCR in real time. Patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 30 received alfa-interferon in the form of rectal suppositories; group 2 (n = 30 did not receive the drug. Control study was conducted 1 month later. The average age in group 1 was 31,7 ± 1,6 years, in group 2 – 35,0 ± 1,6 years (p = 0,08. In group 1 monoinfection diagnosed in 72,4 % of cases, mixed infection in 27,6 % of cases in group 2 – at 64,3 % and 35,7 %, respectively. Results. The average viral load was 3,5 ± 0,2 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 3,4 ± 0,3 in group 2 (p = 0,473. Сlinically significant viral load dominated in group 1 (41,4 %, insignificant viral load was dominated in group 2 (42,9 %. After 1 month the average viral load was 1,9 ± 0,3 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 2,8 ± 0,4 Lg in group 2 (р = 0,04. There were statistically significant difference in both groups before and after 1 month (p < 0

  16. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  17. Low- and high-risk human papillomavirus E7 proteins regulate p130 differently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow-Laing, Lisa; Chen Wei; Roman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The E7 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR HPVs) targets pRb family members (pRb, p107 and p130) for degradation; low-risk (LR) HPV E7 only targets p130 for degradation. The effect of HR HPV 16 E7 and LR HPV 6 E7 on p130 intracellular localization and half-life was examined. Nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation and immunofluorescence showed that, in contrast to control and HPV 6 E7-expressing cells, a greater amount of p130 was present in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 16 E7. The half-life of p130, relative to control cells, was decreased in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 6 E7 or HPV 16 E7, but only decreased by HPV 6 E7 in the nucleus. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation extended the half-life of p130, regardless of intracellular localization. These results suggest that there may be divergent mechanisms by which LR and HR HPV E7 target p130 for degradation.

  18. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is associated with premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GeumJoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Hye-Ri; Kim, SuhngWook; Hong, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, HaiJoong

    2013-09-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be more prevalent in spontaneous abortions than in elective terminations of pregnancy. More recently, placental infection with HPV was shown to be associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. However, no study has evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant Korean females and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 311 females who gave birth at Korea University Medical Center. Our sample included 45 preterm deliveries, 50 cases of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), 21 preeclampsia cases, and 8 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. We used the Hybrid Capture II system to detect high-risk (HR)-HPV infection at six weeks postpartum. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 14.1%. Women with HR-HPV infection had a higher incidence of PROM than those without HR-HPV. HR-HPV infection was associated with an increased risk of PROM (OR, 2.380; 95% CI, 1.103-5.134). The prevalence of preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or GDM was not different between the two groups. We observed a high prevalence of HR-HPV infection in pregnant women. Moreover, HR-HPV infection was associated with a risk of PROM at term. Further studies are needed to evaluate mechanisms by which HR-HPV infection induces PROM.

  19. First-void urine: A potential biomarker source for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Severien; Pattyn, Jade; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre; Vorsters, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Great interest has been directed towards the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing. Despite the high correlations established between urinary and cervical infections, human papillomavirus testing is unable to distinguish between productive and transforming high-risk infections that have the tendency to progress to cervical cancer. Thus far, investigations have been primarily confined to the identification of biomarkers for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women in cervicovaginal specimens and tissue biopsies. This paper reviews urinary biomarkers for cervical cancer and triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infections and elaborates on the opportunities and challenges that have emerged regarding the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for the analysis of both morphological- (conventional cytology and novel immunohistochemical techniques) and molecular-based (HPV16/18 genotyping, host/viral gene methylation, RNA, and proteins) biomarkers. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science for studies investigating the use of urine as a biomarker source for cervical cancer screening. Five studies were identified reporting on biomarkers that are still in preclinical exploratory or clinical assay development phases and on assessments of non-invasive (urine) samples. Although large-scale validation studies are still needed, we conclude that methylation of both host and viral genes in urine has been proven feasible for use as a molecular cervical cancer triage and screening biomarker in phase two studies. This is especially promising and underscores our hypothesis that human papillomavirus DNA and candidate human and viral biomarkers are washed away with the initial, first-void urine, together with exfoliated cells, debris and impurities that line the urethra opening. Similar to the limitations of self-collected cervicovaginal samples, first-void urine will likely not fulfil the

  20. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined...

  1. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid......-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. Samples were tested with a clinical test for 13 high-risk and five low-risk HPV types. The cohort (N=35,539; aged 14-90 years) was monitored in a nationwide pathology register for up...... cytology. Detection of low-risk HPV does not predict CIN 3 or worse. Cervical cancer screening should not include testing for low-risk HPV types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  2. What drives the number of high-risk human papillomavirus types in the anal canal in HIV-positive men who have sex with men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Amo, Julia; González, Cristina; Geskus, Ronald B.; Torres, Montse; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, Jose R.; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; Peña, Alejandro; García, Federico; Torres, Montserrat; Ocampo, Antonio; Da Silva, Alfredo Rodríguez; Miralles, Celia; Mauricio Iribarren, Gustavo; Madrid, Nadia; Dronda, Fernando; Benito, Amparo; Sanz, Itziar; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen; Martín Alegre, Carmen; Carlos Carrió, Juan; Raposo, Montse; Trastoy, Mónica; Fontillón, Maria; Robledano, Catalina; Gutierrez, Félix; Padilla, Sergio; Andrada, Encarna; Cervero, Miguel; Ramón Blanco, José; Pérez, Laura; Portilla, Joaquín; Portilla, Irene; Angel Vonwichmann, Miguel; Antonio Iribarren, José; Camino, Xabier; Sendagorta, Elena; Herranz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Patricia; Luis Gómez, Juan; Rosado, Dacil; Alejos, Belén; Angeles Rodríguez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the effect of sexual behavior, age, and immunodeficiency on the number of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the anal canal among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were genotyped with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test,

  3. Comparative performance of novel self-sampling methods in detecting high-risk human papillomavirus in 30,130 women not attending cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, R.P.; Verhoef, V.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Kuyper-de Ridder, G.M. de; Meijer, C.J.W.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Hout, J. in't; Kemenade, F.J. van; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether the participation rate for a brush-based cervicovaginal self-sampling device is noninferior to the participation rate for a lavage-based one for testing for hrHPV (high-risk human papillomavirus). Additionally, positivity rates for hrHPV, the detection rates for cervical

  4. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared with women from the general population (WGP). We assessed the prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk (hr) HPV infection and...

  5. Vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a cross-sectional study among women of six different ethnicities in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C. J.; Vos, R. A.; Borgdorff, H.; Vermeulen, W.; van Bergen, J.; Bruisten, S. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Snijder, M. B.; van Houdt, R.; Morré, S. A.; de Vries, H. J. C.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.; Prins, M. [= Maria; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands the incidence of cervical cancer is higher among ethnic minority populations compared with the general Dutch population. We investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in women of six different

  6. High risk human papillomavirus in the periodontium : A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilova, Anna; Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Gupta, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. It is thought that the periodontium could be a reservoir for HPV. 1. Detection of Human Papilloma virus (HPV) in periodontal pocket as well as gingival of patients having localized chronic periodontitis and gingival sulcus of periodontally healthy subjects. 2. Quantitative estimation of E6 and E7 mRNA in subjects showing presence of HPV3. To assess whether periodontal pocket is a reservoir for HPV. This case-control study included 30 subjects with localized chronic Periodontitis (cases) and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls). Two samples were taken from cases, one from periodontal pocket and one from gingival sulcus and one sample was taken from controls. Samples were collected in the form of pocket scrapings and gingival sulcus scrapings from cases and controls respectively. These samples were sent in storage media for identification and estimation of E6/E7 mRNA of HPV using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was done by using, mean, percentage and Chi Square test. A statistical package SPSS version 13.0 was used to analyze the data. P value oral cancer, periodontitis and HPV. However prospective studies are required to further explore this link.

  7. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sana; Murad, Sheeba; Javed, Aneela

    2015-05-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. The current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers, respectively. HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV18. HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. High risk human papillomavirus in the periodontium : A case control study

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    Anna Shipilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. It is thought that the periodontium could be a reservoir for HPV. Aims: 1. Detection of Human Papilloma virus (HPV in periodontal pocket as well as gingival of patients having localized chronic periodontitis and gingival sulcus of periodontally healthy subjects. 2. Quantitative estimation of E6 and E7 mRNA in subjects showing presence of HPV3. To assess whether periodontal pocket is a reservoir for HPV. Settings and Design: This case-control study included 30 subjects with localized chronic Periodontitis (cases and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls. Two samples were taken from cases, one from periodontal pocket and one from gingival sulcus and one sample was taken from controls. Methods and Materials: Samples were collected in the form of pocket scrapings and gingival sulcus scrapings from cases and controls respectively. These samples were sent in storage media for identification and estimation of E6/E7 mRNA of HPV using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using, mean, percentage and Chi Square test. A statistical package SPSS version 13.0 was used to analyze the data. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: pocket samples as well as sulcus samples for both cases and controls were found to contain HPV E6/E7 mRNAInterpretation and Conclusion: Presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in periodontium supports the hypothesis that periodontal tissues serve as a reservoir for latent HPV and there may be a synergy between oral cancer, periodontitis and HPV. However prospective studies are required to further explore this link.

  9. Risk Factors for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Detection Among HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women From Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Munk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. The prevalence is dependent on several known factors notably sexual behavior and age, and factors still under scrutiny....

  10. Expression of Mitochondrial Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) Is Modulated by High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Oncogenes*

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    Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A.; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L.; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O.

    2012-01-01

    The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis. PMID:22539350

  11. Expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is modulated by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villota, Claudio; Campos, América; Vidaurre, Soledad; Oliveira-Cruz, Luciana; Boccardo, Enrique; Burzio, Verónica A; Varas, Manuel; Villegas, Jaime; Villa, Luisa L; Valenzuela, Pablo D T; Socías, Miguel; Roberts, Sally; Burzio, Luis O

    2012-06-15

    The study of RNA and DNA oncogenic viruses has proved invaluable in the discovery of key cellular pathways that are rendered dysfunctional during cancer progression. An example is high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiological agent of cervical cancer. The role of HPV oncogenes in cellular immortalization and transformation has been extensively investigated. We reported the differential expression of a family of human mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) between normal and cancer cells. Normal cells express a sense mitochondrial ncRNA (SncmtRNA) that seems to be required for cell proliferation and two antisense transcripts (ASncmtRNAs). In contrast, the ASncmtRNAs are down-regulated in cancer cells. To shed some light on the mechanisms that trigger down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs, we studied human keratinocytes (HFK) immortalized with HPV. Here we show that immortalization of HFK with HPV-16 or 18 causes down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs and induces the expression of a new sense transcript named SncmtRNA-2. Transduction of HFK with both E6 and E7 is sufficient to induce expression of SncmtRNA-2. Moreover, E2 oncogene is involved in down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Knockdown of E2 in immortalized cells reestablishes in a reversible manner the expression of the ASncmtRNAs, suggesting that endogenous cellular factors(s) could play functions analogous to E2 during non-HPV-induced oncogenesis.

  12. Association of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus with Genital Tract Mucosal Immune Factors In HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Niall; Huber, Ashley; Lo, Yungtai; Castle, Philip E.; Kemal, Kimdar; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Problem High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is prevalent in HIV-infected women and may be associated with mucosal changes that promote HIV replication. Method of Study Innate immune molecules, antimicrobial activity, HIV RNA, and HPV DNA genotypes were measured in a cross-sectional study of 128 HIV-infected women categorized into HPV-16 (n=8), other HR-HPV (n=41), and non-HR-HPV controls (n=79). Results Compared to controls, HR-HPV groups had higher plasma viral loads (p=0.004), lower CD4 cells (p=0.02), more genital tract HIV RNA (p=0.03), greater number of different HPV types (p<0.001), higher cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) IL-1α (p=0.03) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) (p=0.049), and less anti-HIVBal activity (p=0.03). HPV-16 remained significantly associated with higher HBD2 (p=0.03), higher IL-1α (p=0.009), and lower anti-HIVBaL activity (p=0.03) compared to controls after adjusting for plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count. Conclusion HR-HPV is associated with mucosal changes in HIV-infected women that could adversely impact genital tract health. PMID:26685115

  13. An association between Trichomonas vaginalis and high-risk human papillomavirus in rural Tanzanian women undergoing cervical cancer screening.

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    Lazenby, Gweneth B; Taylor, Peyton T; Badman, Barbara S; McHaki, Emil; Korte, Jeffrey E; Soper, David E; Young Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginitis and its association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in rural Tanzania. For the purpose of cervical cancer screening, cytology and HR HPV polymerase chain reaction data were collected from 324 women aged between 30 and 60 years. Microscopy and gram stains were used to detect yeast and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical nucleic acid amplification test specimens were collected for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The majority of women were married (320 of 324) and reported having a single sexual partner (270 of 324); the median age of participants was 41 years. HR HPV was detected in 42 participants. Forty-seven percent of women had vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common infection (32.4%), followed by TV (10.4%), and yeast (6.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, TV was associated with an increased risk of HR HPV (odds ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7-10.3]). Patients with TV were 6.5 times more likely to have HPV type 16 than patients negative for TV (50% vs 13.3%) (odds ratio, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.1-37]). Among rural Tanzanian women who presented for cervical cancer screening, Trichomonas vaginitis was significantly associated with HR HPV infection (specifically type 16). © 2014 Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  14. High-risk papillomavirus infection among women living with human Immunodeficiency virus: Brazilian multicentric study.

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    Miranda, Angelica E; Silveira, Mariangela F; Travassos, Ana G; Tenório, Teresinha; Val, Isabel C C; Lannoy, Leonor; Mattos Junior, Hortensio S; Carvalho, Newton S

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer is an important health issue in Latin America. Although HPV infections can have spontaneous clearance, persistence of high-risk (HR) HPV is a risk factor for cervical cancer among women and it is even higher in HIV-infected women. To determine the prevalence of HR-HPV and risk factors among HIV-infected women attending reference services for HIV/AIDS in different regions of Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted among HIV-infected women attended at referral care centers for HIV/AIDS in nine states of Brazil. Women from 18 to 49 years that accept to participate and were not pregnant at the time of the approach were recruited for the study. The HPV screening was realized using qPCR in closed system, in vitro Diagnostic, COBAS ® -HPV Roche. The cytology results were available by the Bethesda System. A total of 802(89.1%) from the selected women agreed to participate in the study. Median age was 39(Inter quartile range [IQR34-46]) years and median education was 9(IQR6-11) years. General prevalence of HR-HPV was 28.4%(228/802). HPV-16 prevalence rate was 8.1%(65/802), HPV-18 was 3.7%(30/802) and other types of HR-HPV were 23.6% (189/802). Risk factors for HR-HPV infection in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were: age ranging from 18 to 34 years (OR = 1.43[95%CI:1.18-1.75]), illicit drugs use (OR = 1.61[95%CI:1.10-2.42]) and abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 1.56[95%CI:1.34-1.81]). Results showed a prevalence rate of 28.4% of HR-HPV infection in women living with HIV in Brazil. These infections were significantly associated with having less than 35 years old, illicit drug use and abnormal cervical cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  16. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  17. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV screening and detection in healthy patient saliva samples: a pilot study

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    Wang Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomaviruses (HPV are a large family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent epidemiologic evidence has suggested that HPV may be an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers. Evidence now suggests HPV may modulate the malignancy process in some tobacco- and alcohol-induced oropharynx tumors, but might also be the primary oncogenic factor for inducing carcinogenesis among some non-smokers. More evidence, however, is needed regarding oral HPV prevalence among healthy adults to estimate risk. The goal of this study was to perform an HPV screening of normal healthy adults to assess oral HPV prevalence. Methods Healthy adult patients at a US dental school were selected to participate in this pilot study. DNA was isolated from saliva samples and screened for high-risk HPV strains HPV16 and HPV18 and further processed using qPCR for quantification and to confirm analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results Chi-square analysis revealed the patient sample was representative of the general clinic population with respect to gender, race and age (p Conclusions The successful recruitment and screening of healthy adult patients revealed HPV16, but not HPV18, was present in a small subset. These results provide new information about oral HPV status, which may help to contextualize results from other studies that demonstrate oral cancer rates have risen in the US among both females and minorities and in some geographic areas that are not solely explained by rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The results of this study may be of significant value to further our understanding of oral health and disease risk, as well as to help design future studies exploring the role of other factors that influence oral HPV exposure, as well as the short- and long-term consequences of oral HPV infection.

  18. Presence of histopathological premalignant lesions and infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in patients with suspicious cytological and colposcopy results: A prospective study

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    Golubović Mileta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In patients with premalignant cervical lesions, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, at any moment, may be spontaneously eliminated, or may persist or transform cervical epithelium from a lower to a higher degree. Due to that, it is necessary to wisely select the patients who are at high risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to establish the interdependence between a suspicious Papanicolaou (Pap test and colposcopy with the infection caused by high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and the presence of premalignant cervical lesions. Methods. This prospective study used cytological, colposcopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR of high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus and histopathological analysis of cervical biopsy specimen. Out of 2,578 female patients sent to cytological analyses in Clinical Center of Montenegro, during 2012, 2013 and 2014, the study included 80 women who had to submit their biopsy specimens due to a suspicious Pap test and atypical colposcopy results. Results. In the group of 80 (3.1%; n = 80/2,578 of the selected female patients with suspicious Pap test and colposcopy, 2/3 or 56 (70% of them had cervicitis, and 1/3 or 24 (30% had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The most common type in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was HPV16 in 8 female patients, ie 61.53% out of the number of infected, or 33.33% out of the total number of premalignant lesions. Conclusion. Patients with suspicious Papanicolaou test, colposcopy results and infection which is caused by high-risk HPV infection (HPV 16 in particular often have premalignant cervical lesions. In these cases, histopathological confirmation of lesions is mandatory, since it serves as a definitive diagnostic procedure.

  19. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in the Vaginal Microbiota and Persistent High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.MethodsWe examined 194 Nigerian women who were tested for hrHPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10 and we identified Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in their vaginal microbiota established by sequencing the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We defined the prevalence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and hrHPV based on positive result of baseline tests, while persistence was defined as positive results from two consecutive tests. We used exact logistic regression models to estimate associations between Mycoplasma spp. and hrHPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 71% were HIV positive, 30% M. genitalium positive, 45% M. hominis positive, and 40% hrHPV positive at baseline. At follow-up, 16% of the women remained positive for M. genitalium, 30% for M. hominis, and 31% for hrHPV. There was a significant association between persistent M. hominis and persistent hrHPV (OR 8.78, 95% CI 1.49–51.6, p 0.01. Women who were positive for HIV and had persistent M. hominis had threefold increase in the odds of having persistent hrHPV infection (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.31–8.74, p 0.008, compared to women who were negative for both.ConclusionWe found significant association between persistent M. hominis in the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV in this study, but we could not rule out reverse causation. Our findings need to be replicated in larger, longitudinal studies and if confirmed

  20. Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening

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    Naryshkin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sonya Naryshkin,1 R Marshall Austin21Department of Pathology, Mercy Health System, Janesville, WI; 2Department of Pathology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjective: To increase awareness of the limitations of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV laboratory-developed testing (LDT widely used in US cervical cancer screening.Methods and results: A young woman in her 30s was diagnosed and treated for stage 1B1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma in which HPV 16 DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction testing. Both 1 month before and 42 months before cervical cancer diagnosis, the patient had highly abnormal cytology findings; however, residual SurePath™ (Becton, Dickson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ vial fluid yielded negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany hrHPV LDT results from each of the two specimens. This prompted questions to be asked concerning the performance characteristics of hrHPV LDT. A review of the available data indicates that (1 purification of DNA from SurePath specimens requires complex sample preparation due to formaldehyde crosslinking of proteins and nucleic acids, (2 HC2–SurePath hrHPV testing had not been Food and Drug Administration-approved after multiple premarket approval submissions, (3 detectible hrHPV DNA in the SurePath vial decreases over time, and (4 US laboratories performing HC2–SurePath hrHPV LDT testing are not using a standardized manufacturer-endorsed procedure.Conclusion: Recently updated cervical screening guidelines in the US recommend against the use of hrHPV LDT in cervical screening, including widely used HC2 testing from the SurePath vial. The manufacturer recently issued a technical bulletin specifically warning that use of SurePath samples with the HC2 hrHPV test may provide false negative results and potentially compromise patient safety. Co-collection using a Food and Drug Administration-approved hrHPV test

  1. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

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    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  2. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

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    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  3. The distribution of high-risk human papillomaviruses is different in young and old patients with cervical cancer.

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    Mariano Guardado-Estrada

    Full Text Available Despite numerous human papillomavirus (HPV frequency studies in women with cervical cancer (CC, little is known of HPV frequency trends according to patient age. In this work, we compare the mean age and frequency distribution by age of CC patients positive for different HPVs. This study included 462 CC patients. HPVs were detected by PCR and typed using DNA sequencing. A total of 456 patients (98.7% were positive for HPV: 418 (90.5% had single and 38 (8.2% had double HPV infections. HPV16 (46.5%, HPV18 (10.4%, HPV45 (6.7%, and HPV31 (4.1% were the most frequent viral types in single-infected patients. The mean ages of single-infected patients with HPV16 (49.2±13.3, HPV18 (47.9±12.2, HPV45 (47.9±11.7, or HPV39 (42.6±8.9 were significantly lower than the mean ages of patients singly (53.9±12.7; p70 years; 12.8% women. In contrast, the trend for the remaining HPVs increased from the youngest (15.8% to the oldest (46.2% women. Unlike other life-style factors, low-risk sexual behavior was associated with late onset of CC independent of low-oncogenic HPV types (p<0.05, Wald chi-square statistic. The data indicate that most CCs in young women depend on the presence of high-oncogenic HPVs. In contrast, almost half of CCs in older patients had low-oncogenic HPVs, suggesting they could depend on the presence of other factors.

  4. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

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    Darin Ruanpeng

    Full Text Available Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV-infected (HIV+ persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL using Papanicolau (Pap screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors.Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification.Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54. Overall, 86 (43.0% had ASIL: 28 (14.2% with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 1 (0.5% with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H, 56 (28.4% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 1 (0.5% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05 with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women, rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002 and HIV infection (p = 0.01.ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA, not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  5. Cytological Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Associated with Anal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Northern Thailand.

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    Ruanpeng, Darin; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Supindham, Taweewat; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Wongthanee, Antika

    2016-01-01

    Anal cancer, one of human papillomavirus (HPV) related malignancies, has increased in recent decades, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. We aimed to explore the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) using Papanicolau (Pap) screening among MSM in northern Thailand and its associated factors. Two hundreds MSM aged ≥18 years reporting receptive anal intercourse in the prior 6 months were recruited from July 2012 through January 2013. Medical history and behavioral data were collected by staff interview and computer-assisted self interview. Anal Pap smear, HPV genotyping, and HIV testing were performed. Two pathologists blinded to HPV and HIV status reported cytologic results by Bethesda classification. Mean age was 27.2 years (range 18-54). Overall, 86 (43.0%) had ASIL: 28 (14.2%) with atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 1 (0.5%) with atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), 56 (28.4%) with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 1 (0.5%) with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). ASIL was associated by univariate analysis (p ≤0.05) with older age, gender identity other than bisexual (i.e., gay men and transgender women), rectal douching, anal symptoms, genital warts, HIV positivity, and high-risk-HPV infection. However, on multiple logistic regression ASIL was associated only with high-risk HPV type (p = 0.002) and HIV infection (p = 0.01). ASIL is quite common in high-risk MSM in northern Thailand and is associated with high-risk HPV types and HIV infection. Routine anal Pap screening should be considered, given the high frequency of ASIL, particularly in the HIV+. High resolution anoscopy (HRA), not done here, should be to confirm PAP smears whose sensitivity and specificity are quite variable. Timely HPV vaccination should be considered for this population.

  6. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Mazanowska, Natalia; Ekiel, Alicja M; Durlik, Magdalena; Martirosian, Gayane; Wielgos, Mirosław; Kaminski, Pawel

    2012-06-18

    Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37). There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have developed in the cervical canal.

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  8. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  10. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  11. Molecular Docking Explains Atomic Interaction between Plant-originated Ligands and Oncogenic E7 Protein of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16

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    Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. In the last few decades, various compounds from plant origin such as Curcumin, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, Jaceosidin, Resveratrol etc. have been used as anti cancer therapeutic agents. Different studies have shown these plant-originated compounds are able to suppress HPV infection. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV play a key role in HPV related cancers. In this study, we explored these ligands from plants origin against E7 oncoprotein of high risk HPV 16, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor pRb protein. A robust homology model of HPV 16 E7 was built to foresee the interaction mechanism of E7 oncoprotein with these ligands using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking studies demonstrate the interaction of these ligands with pRb binding site of E7 protein by residues Tyr52, Asn53, Val55, Phe57, Cys59, Ser63, Thr64, Thr72, Arg77, Glu80 and Asp81 and help restoration of pRb functioning. This in silico based atomic interaction between these ligands and E7 protein may assist in validating the plant-originated ligands as effective drugs against HPV.

  12. Physical state & copy number of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in progression of cervical cancer

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    Shirish Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV infection and its integration in host genome is a key event in malignant transformation of cervical cells. HPV16 being a dominant HR-HPV type, we undertook this study to analyze if viral load and physical state of the virus correlated with each other in the absence of other confounding variables and examined their potential as predictors of progressive cervical lesions. Methods: Both, viral load and integration status of HPV16 were determined by real time URR PCR and estimation of E2:E6 ratio in a total of 130 PGMY-RLB -confirmed, monotypic HPV16-infected cervical DNA samples from biopsies of cytology-confirmed low grade (LSIL, 30 and high grade (HSIL, 30, and invasive carcinoma, (squamous cell carcinoma SCC, 70 cases. Results: Investigation of DNA samples revealed a gradual increase in HPV16 viral load over several magnitudes and increased frequency of integration from LSIL to HSIL and HSIL to invasive cancer in relation to the severity of lesions in monotypic HPV16-infected cervical tissues. In a substantial number of precancer (11/60 and cancer cases (29/70, HPV16 was detected in concomitant mixed form. The concomitant form of HPV16 genome carried significantly higher viral load. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, viral load and integration increased with disease severity and could be useful biomarkers in disease progression, at least, in HPV16-infected cervical pre-cancer and cancer lesions.

  13. Lack of Evidence for a Relationship between High Risk Human Papillomaviruses and Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Masoud; Bakhshesh, Mehran; Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Shayestehpour, Mohammad; Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Whether there is any relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and breast carcinoma is not clear. Some previous studies have indicated a possible role in oncogenesis in the breast. In this study, we therefore analyzed the presence of HPV infection in breast tissues of Iranian women from Yazd city. In a cross-sectional study, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 87 patients with breast cancer and 84 cases with breast fibrocystic lesions (control group) were selected from a tissue archive. Grade of tumors and fibrocystic tissues were determined by two pathologists. The nested-PCR method was performed for detection of HPVs in samples. HPV genotypes were determined by sequencing and the phylogenetic tree depicted by MEGA software. Of the 87 women with breast cancer, 22.9% (20 isolates) had positive results for HPV DNA. In the control group no HPV was detected. The HPV genotypes in positive samples were HPV-16 (35%) HPV-18 (15%), HPV-6 (45%) and HPV-11 (5%). The data did not approved a significant correlation between tissue pathology of breast cancer and the HPV genotype frequency. The data did not provide any evidence for a role of high risk HPV types in oncogenesis in the breast.

  14. Prevalence of anal infection due to high-risk human papillomavirus and analysis of E2 gene integrity among women with cervical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gómez-Carvallo, Jesús; Euán-López, Alejandra; Cisneros-Cutz, José I; Rosado-López, Ariel; Echeverría Salazar, Jesúa; Conde-Ferráez, Laura

    2018-04-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) infection has been associated with 90% of anal cancer cases. Women with abnormal cytology are a high-risk group to develop anal neoplasia. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and epidemiology of HR-HPV 16, 18, 45, and 58 anal infections in women with cervical abnormalities, as well as to assess E2 gene integrity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 311 cervical and 311 anal samples from patients with abnormal cytology in two colposcopy clinics in Yucatan, Mexico. A specific PCR for oncogenes was performed in order to identify HVP 16, 18, 45 and 58. Real time PCR was used to amplify the whole HPV 16, 18, and 58 E2 gene to verify its integrity in anal samples. High risk HPV 16, 18, 58, and/or 45 were found in 41.47% (129/311) of cervical samples, and in 30.8% (96/331) of anal samples, with 18% (57/311) of the patients being positive in both samples. The same genotypes in both anatomical sites were observed in 11.25% (35/311). The E2 gene was disrupted in 82% of all tested samples. The frequency of genome disruption viral integration in anal samples by genotype was: HPV 58 (97.2%); HPV 16 (72.4%), and HPV 18 (0%). Women with cervical disease have HR-HPV anal infections, and most of them have the E2 gene disrupted, which represents a risk to develop anal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

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    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  16. Epidemiological investigation of the relationship between common lower genital tract infections and high-risk human papillomavirus infections among women in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Zhang

    Full Text Available The incidence of lower genital tract infections in China has been increasing in recent years. The link between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs remains unclear.From March to October 2014, gynecological examinations and questionnaires were conducted on 1218 married women. Cervical secretions and vaginal swab specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, yeast, clue cells and HR-HPV.Laboratory results were available for 1195 of 1218 married women. HR-HPV was detected in 7.0% of participants. Forty-seven percent of women had lower genital tract infections (LGTIs. UU was the most common infection (35.5%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (BV (10.5%, yeast infection (3.7%, CT (2.2%, and Trichomonas vaginalis (1.7%. BV was associated with an increased risk of HR- HPV (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7-5.4]. There was a strong correlation between abnormal cervical cytology and HR-HPV infection (P < 0.0001.The prevalence of LGTIs in Beijing is at a high level. It is clinically important to screen for the simultaneous presence of pathogens that cause co-infections with HR-HPV.

  17. The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeline, Michael; Merle, Eric; Moroianu, Junona

    2003-01-01

    E7, the major transforming protein of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), type 16, binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and the Rb-related proteins p107 and p130. HPV16 E7 is a nuclear protein lacking a classical basic nuclear localization signal. In this study we investigated the nuclear import of HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. HPV16 E7 nuclear import was independent of pRb, as an E7 ΔDLYC variant defective in pRb binding was imported into the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized cells as efficiently as wild-type E7 in the presence of exogenous cytosol. Interestingly, we discovered that HPV16 E7 is imported into the nuclei via a novel pathway different from those mediated by Kap α2β1 heterodimers, Kap β1, or Kap β2. Nuclear accumulation of E7 required Ran and was not inhibited by the RanG19V-GTP variant, an inhibitor of Kap β mediated import pathways. Together the data suggest that HPV16 E7 translocates through the nuclear pores via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway, independent of the main cytosolic Kap β import receptors

  18. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador. PMID:28717342

  19. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dalgo Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108. Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador.

  20. Detection of human papillomavirus among women in Laos: feasibility of using filter paper card and prevalence of high-risk types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsavan, Keokedthong; Gustavsson, Inger; Marions, Lena; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Wahlström, Rolf; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-recognized cause of cervical cancer, but little is known about the situation in Laos. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV among Lao women and to evaluate the use of a filter paper card (FTA Elute Micro Card) for collection of cervical cells in the humid tropical climate. This is a cross-sectional study including 1922 women from 3 provinces in Laos. During a gynecological examination, cervical cells were collected and applied to the FTA card followed by HPV typing using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Overall, 213 of the 1922 women were positive for HR-HPV (11%). The most common type was the group HPV33/52/58 (3%), followed by the single type 16 (2%) and the group 18/45 (1%), respectively. Only 11 cards (0.6%) did not contain a sufficient amount of genomic DNA for polymerase chain reaction-based analysis. The prevalence of HR-HPV infections in Laos is similar to other Asian countries, and 40% of the women with an HR-HPV infection will be target of the present HPV vaccines. The FTA card is suitable for collection of cervical cells for HR-HPV typing in tropical conditions. This information is important for planning and establishing primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer in Laos.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  2. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus clearance in pregnant women: trends for lower clearance during pregnancy with a catch-up postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Nobbenhuis, M A E; Helmerhorst, T J M; van den Brule, A J C; Rozendaal, L; Bezemer, P D; Voorhorst, F J; Meijer, C J L M

    2002-01-01

    We followed 353 women referred with abnormal cervical cytology in a non-intervention cohort study. In 91 pregnant women we compared high-risk human papilloma virus rates in the subsequent trimesters and postpartum in comparison to 262 non-pregnant women. High-risk human papilloma virus clearance was compared with 179 high-risk human papilloma virus positive non-pregnant women. Our main questions were: (1) do high-risk human papilloma virus rates change during pregnancy?; and (2) is there any ...

  4. Persistent Low-Risk and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections of the Uterine Cervix in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence, persistence, and multiplicity of human papillomavirus (HPV infection appears different comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women. In this study, we examined prevalent, persistent, and multiple low- and high-risk cervical HPV infections in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women.MethodsWe studied 1,020 women involved in a study of HPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10. Two study visits were scheduled, at enrollment and 6 months afterward. At each study visit, research nurses used a cervical brush to collect samples of exfoliated cervical cells from the cervical os, from all the study participants. Exact logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between HIV and HPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 56% were HIV-negative and 44% were HIV-positive. Among HIV-negative women at baseline, single low-risk HPV (lrHPV infections occurred in 12%; multiple lrHPV in 2%; single high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infections in 9%, and multiple hrHPV infections in 2%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 6%, but there was no persistent multiple lrHPV infections. Single hrHPV infections were persistent in 4% while multiple hrHPV infections were persistent in 0.3%. Among HIV-positive women at baseline, single lrHPV infections occurred in 19%, multiple lrHPV in 6%, single hrHPV infections in 17%, and multiple hrHPV infections occurred in 12%. Single lrHPV infections were persistent in 9%, multiple lrHPV infections in 0.6%, single hrHPV infections in 13%, while multiple hrHPV were persistent in 3%. Prevalent, persistent, and multiple infections were more common in HIV-positive women, compared to HIV-negative women. In multivariate models adjusted for age, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at sexual initiation, and douching, the odds ratios comparing HIV-positive to HIV-negative women, were 2.09 (95% CI 1.47–2.97, p < 0.001 for prevalent lrHPV, 1.26 (95% CI

  5. Role of active and passive smoking in high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui Mei; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhao, Fang Hui; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Xun; Wallach, Asya Izraelit; Qiao, You Lin

    2017-09-01

    We performed a pooled analysis to examine cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+). Data were pooled from 12 cross-sectional studies for cervical cancer screenings from 10 provinces of China in 1999-2007. A total of 16,422 women were analyzed, along with 2,392 high-risk-HPV (hr-HPV) positive women and 381 CIN2+ cases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for sexual and non-sexual confounding factors. There was an excess risk between active smoking and hr-HPV infection and CIN2+. Adjusted OR for ever smokers vs. never smokers was 1.45 (95% CI=1.10-1.91), for hr-HPV infection and 1.89 (95% CI=1.03-3.44), for CIN2+. Passive smoking had a slightly increased risk on the hr-HPV infection with adjusted OR 1.11 (1.00-1.24), but no statistical association was observed between passive smoke exposure and CIN2+. Compared with the neither active nor passive smokers, both active and passive smokers had a 1.57-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.15) increased risk of HPV infection and a 1.99-fold (95% CI=1.02-3.88) risk of CIN2+. Our large multi-center cross-sectional study found active smoking could increase the risk of overall hr-HPV infection and CIN2+ adjusted by passive smoking and other factors. Passive smoking mildly increased the risk of HPV infection but not the CIN2+. An interaction existed between passive tobacco exposure and active smoking for hr-HPV infection and the CIN2+. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  6. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinuer Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.

  7. Vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a cross-sectional study among women of six different ethnicities in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, C J; Vos, R A; Borgdorff, H; Vermeulen, W; van Bergen, J; Bruisten, S M; Geerlings, S E; Snijder, M B; van Houdt, R; Morré, S A; de Vries, H J C; van de Wijgert, J H H M; Prins, M; Schim van der Loeff, M F

    2016-12-01

    In the Netherlands the incidence of cervical cancer is higher among ethnic minority populations compared with the general Dutch population. We investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in women of six different ethnicities living in Amsterdam. For this cross-sectional study we selected women aged 18-34 years old of six ethnicities from the large-scale multiethnic HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting study. Self-collected vaginal swabs were tested for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay (short PCR fragment (SPF)10-PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay/LiPA25-system version-1, delft diagnostic laboratory (DDL)). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographics and sexual behaviour. Logistic regression using generalised estimating equations was used to assess risk factors of hrHPV, and to investigate whether prevalence of hrHPV differed among ethnicities. The study population consisted of 592 women with a median age of 27 (IQR: 23-31) years. Dutch and African Surinamese women reported the highest sexual risk behaviour. HrHPV prevalence was highest in the Dutch (40%) followed by the African Surinamese (32%), Turkish (29%), Ghanaian (26%), Moroccan (26%) and South-Asian Surinamese (18%). When correcting for sexual risk behaviour, the odds to be hrHPV-positive were similar for all non-Dutch groups when compared with that of the Dutch group. We found an overall higher hrHPV prevalence and higher sexual risk behaviour in the native Dutch population. Further research is needed to unravel the complex problem concerning cervical cancer disparities, such as differences in participation in the cervical cancer screening programme, or differences in clearance and persistence of hrHPV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Type-specific detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in self-sampled cervicovaginal cells applied to FTA elute cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Inger; Sanner, Karin; Lindell, Monica; Strand, Anders; Olovsson, Matts; Wikström, Ingrid; Wilander, Erik; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2011-08-01

    Most procedures for self-sampling of cervical cells are based on liquid-based media for transportation and storage. An alternative is to use a solid support, such as dry filter paper media. To evaluate if self-sampling of cervicovaginal fluid using a cytobrush (Viba-brush; Rovers Medical Devices B.V., Oss, The Netherlands) and a solid support such as the Whatman Indicating FTA Elute cartridge (GE Healthcare, United Kingdom) can be used for reliable typing of human papillomavirus (HPV), as compared to cervical samples obtained by a physician using a cytobrush and the indicating FTA Elute Micro card and biopsy analysis. A total of 50 women with a previous high-risk (HR) HPV positive test were invited to perform self-sampling using the Viba-brush and the FTA cartridge and thereafter a physician obtained a cervical sample using the cytobrush and a FTA card, together with a cervical biopsy for histology and HPV typing. Detection of HR-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59 was performed using three multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. All samples contained sufficient amounts of genomic DNA and the self-samples yielded on average 3.5 times more DNA than those obtained by the physician. All women that were positive for HR-HPV in the biopsy sample also typed positive both by self-sampling and physician-obtained sampling. For women with a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (CIN 2-3) all three HPV samples showed 100% concordance. A higher number of women were HPV positive by self-sampling than by physician-obtained sampling or by biopsy analysis. The Viba-brush and the FTA cartridge are suitable for self-sampling of vaginal cells and subsequent HR-HPV typing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of KLF4 by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses Is Necessary for the Differentiation-Dependent Viral Life Cycle.

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    Vignesh Kumar Gunasekharan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are epithelial tropic viruses that link their productive life cycles to the differentiation of infected host keratinocytes. A subset of the over 200 HPV types, referred to as high-risk, are the causative agents of most anogenital malignancies. HPVs infect cells in the basal layer, but restrict viral genome amplification, late gene expression, and capsid assembly to highly differentiated cells that are active in the cell cycle. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV proteins regulate the expression and activities of a critical cellular transcription factor, KLF4, through post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Our studies show that KLF4 regulates differentiation as well as cell cycle progression, and binds to sequences in the upstream regulatory region (URR to regulate viral transcription in cooperation with Blimp1. KLF4 levels are increased in HPV-positive cells through a post-transcriptional mechanism involving E7-mediated suppression of cellular miR-145, as well as at the post-translational level by E6-directed inhibition of its sumoylation and phosphorylation. The alterations in KLF4 levels and functions results in activation and suppression of a subset of KLF4 target genes, including TCHHL1, VIM, ACTN1, and POT1, that is distinct from that seen in normal keratinocytes. Knockdown of KLF4 with shRNAs in cells that maintain HPV episomes blocked genome amplification and abolished late gene expression upon differentiation. While KLF4 is indispensable for the proliferation and differentiation of normal keratinocytes, it is necessary only for differentiation-associated functions of HPV-positive keratinocytes. Increases in KLF4 levels alone do not appear to be sufficient to explain the effects on proliferation and differentiation of HPV-positive cells indicating that additional modifications are important. KLF4 has also been shown to be a critical regulator of lytic Epstein Barr virus (EBV replication

  10. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  11. Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer Based on High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 Genotyping, in Comparison to Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18

  12. Unusual and unique distribution of anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV among men who have sex with men living in the Central African Republic.

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    Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa

    Full Text Available High-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection remains a great concern in relation to African men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those infected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV and associated risk factors was estimated in a cross-sectional observational study covering MSM living in Bangui, Central African Republic.MSM receiving care at the Centre National de Référence des Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles et de la Thérapie Antirétrovirale, Bangui, were included. HIV serostatus and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped on anal swabs using Anyplex™ II HPV28 test (Seegene, South Korea, and HSV DNA by in-house real-time PCR. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors associated with HPV outcomes.42 MSM (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 14-39 including 69.1% HIV-1-positive and 30.9% HIV-negative were prospectively enrolled. The prevalence of anal HPV was 69.1%, including 82.7% of HR-HPV which were multiple in 52.0%. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-35, HPV-58, HPV-59 and HPV-31. While, HPV-16 and HPV-18 were present in a minority of samples. Multiple HR-HPV infection was more frequent in HIV-positive MSM (41.4% with 2.7 genotypes per anal samples than in HIV-negative (7.7% with 1.5 genotypes per anal samples. HPV types included in the prophylactic Gardasil-9® vaccine were detected in 68.9% of specimens and HPV-58 was the most frequently detected. MSM infected by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were all infected by HIV-1. Few anal swabs (11.9% contained HSV-2 DNA without relationship with HPV detection. Condomless receptive anal intercourse was the main risk factor to being infected with any type of HPV and condomless insertive anal intercourse was significantly less associated with HPV contamination than receptive anal intercourse (Odd ratio = 0.02.MSM in Bangui are at-risk of HIV and HR-HPV anal infections. The unusual distribution of HPV-35 as

  13. Human papillomaviruses and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small oncogenic DNA viruses of which more than 200 types have been identified to date. A small subset of these is etiologically linked to the development of anogenital malignancies such as cervical cancer. In addition, recent studies established a causative relationship between these high-risk HPV types and tonsillar and oropharyngeal cancer. Clinical management of cervical cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is largely standardized and involves surgical removal of the tumor tissue as well as adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Notably, the response to therapeutic intervention of HPV-positive HNSCCs has been found to be better as compared to HPV-negative tumors. Although the existing HPV vaccine is solely licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer, it might also have prophylactic potential for the development of high-risk HPV-associated HNSCCs. Another group of viruses, which belongs to the beta-HPV subgroup, has been implicated in nonmelanoma skin cancer, however, the etiology remains to be established. Treatment of HPV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer is based on local excision. However, topically applied immune-modulating substances represent non-surgical alternatives for the management of smaller cutaneous tumors. In this review we present the current knowledge of the role of HPV in cancer development and discuss clinical management options as well as targets for the development of future intervention therapies

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  15. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  16. A cross-sectional study of high-risk human papillomavirus clustering and cervical outcomes in HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Jessica L.; Levi, José Eduardo; Luz, Paula M.; Cambou, Mary Catherine; Vanni, Tazio; Andrade, Angela de; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, the rate of cervical cancer remains high despite the availability of screening programs. With ongoing vaccine development and implementation, information on the prevalence of specific HPV types is needed, particularly among high-risk populations, such as HIV-infected women. We performed a study of HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who underwent cervical HPV genotype testing between 2005-2013. We examined the prevalence of high-risk HPV types and the patterns of high-risk HPV type clustering. Using logarithmic binomial regression, we estimated the risk of abnormal cytology by HPV genotype result. Of the 562 women included, 498 (89 %) had at least one HPV type detected. 364 women (65 %) had at least one high-risk HPV type detected and 181 (32 %) had more than one high-risk type detected. HPV 58 was the most frequent HPV type detected overall (prevalence 19.8 % [95 % confidence interval 16.4–23.1]), followed by HPV 53 (prevalence 15.5 % [12.5–18.5]) and HPV 16 (prevalence 13 % [10.2–15.8]). Women infected with more than one high-risk HPV type were younger, had lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and were more likely to be infected with HPV 16 or 18. In adjusted analyses, presence of more than one high-risk HPV type was associated with a two-fold increased risk of abnormal cytology after adjusting for presence of individual high-risk type, age, and CD4+ lymphocyte count (adjusted prevalence ratios 1.88–2.07, all p <0.001). No single high-risk HPV type was statistically associated with abnormal cytology after adjusting for the presence of more than one high-risk HPV type. In the largest study of cervical HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women in Latin America, infection by high-risk HPV types other than 16 or 18 and infection by more than one high-risk HPV types were common. Infection by more than one high-risk type was more strongly associated with abnormal cervical cytology than any individual high-risk HPV type, highlighting the need for

  17. Human papillomavirus detection using the Abbott RealTime high-risk HPV tests compared with conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing of amplification products in cervical smear specimens from a Gabonese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavou-Boundzanga, Pamela; Koumakpayi, Ismaël Hervé; Labouba, Ingrid; Leroy, Eric M; Belembaogo, Ernest; Berthet, Nicolas

    2017-12-21

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. However, screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular tests holds promise for reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. The performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV test (AbRT) was evaluated in 83 cervical smear specimens and compared with a conventional nested PCR coupled to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to identify the amplicons. The AbRT assay detected at least one HPV genotype in 44.57% of women regardless of the grade of cervical abnormalities. Except for one case, good concordance was observed for the genotypes detected with the AbRT assay in the high-risk HPV category determined with HTS of the amplicon generated by conventional nested PCR. The AbRT test is an easy and reliable molecular tool and was as sensitive as conventional nested PCR in cervical smear specimens for detection HPVs associated with high-grade lesions. Moreover, sequencing amplicons using an HTS approach effectively identified the genotype of the hrHPV identified with the AbRT test.

  18. Utility of the Roche Cobas 4800 for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettus, Jason R; Wilson, Terri L; Steinmetz, Heather B; Lefferts, Joel A; Tafe, Laura J

    2017-02-01

    Clinical laboratories are expected to reliably identify human papilloma virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) for prognostic and potential therapeutic applications. In addition to surrogate p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing, DNA-based HPV-specific testing strategies are widely utilized. Recognizing the efficiency of the Roche Cobas 4800 platform for testing gynecological cytology specimens for high-risk HPV, we elected to evaluate the potential utility of this platform for testing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OPSCC tissue. Using the Roche Linear Array assay for comparison, we tested twenty-eight samples (16 primary OPSCC, 2 lymph node metastases from primary OPSCC, 1 oral tongue carcinoma, 3 benign squamous papillomas, and 3 non-oropharyngeal carcinoma tissues). Excluding two invalid results, the Roche Cobas 4800 testing resulted in excellent inter-assay concordance (25/26, 96.2%) and 100% concordance for HPV-16/HPV-18 positive samples. This data suggests that the Roche Cobas 4800 platform may be a cost-effective method for testing OPSCC FFPE tissues in a clinical molecular pathology laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-risk Human Papillomavirus Determination in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Cervical Tissue Using the Roche Cobas 4800 System: A Comparative Study With Liquid-based Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Cambero, Olivia; Sánchez-Estévez, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Ana B; Angulo, Fernando; Moreno, Amalia

    2017-11-14

    Roche cobas 4800 human papillomavirus (HPV) test is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based system that allows the simultaneous detection of 14 human papillomavirus high-risk (HR-HPV) genotypes. This test is Food and Drug Administration approved since 2011 for HPV determination in liquid-based cytologic samples, but a clinically validated technique for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens is presently not commercially available. In our laboratory, we have developed an HPV detection procedure in FFPE tissue by cobas 4800 HPV test. In order to validate our method, we retrospectively studied 165 FFPE cervical biopsy and conization specimens with varied diagnoses from our files. In 50 of them, we contrasted the results with those obtained from simultaneous liquid-based cytologies from the same patients. Finally, seeking the possible complementary clinical usefulness of the procedure, we compared the HPV genotypes detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1)-diagnosed biopsies from 20 patients with a subsequent high-grade CIN (CIN2+) diagnosis with those from another group of 20 patients without a posterior CIN2+ diagnosis. Eighty-seven percent of the assays provided informative results. HR-HPV was detected in 28 of 32 (88%) invasive cervical squamous carcinomas. Coincidental HR-HPV genotypes were obtained in 32 of 50 (64%) cases with simultaneous cervical biopsy and liquid-based cytologic samples. A significant higher risk of progression to CIN2+ was found when HPV16 (P=0.022) or any HR-HPV genotype (P=0.037) was detected in CIN1 biopsies. The reported procedure provides an automated, technically time-saving, easy to integrate into laboratory routine, and reliable method of HR-HPV determination in FFPE specimens.

  20. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  1. Human papillomavirus associated oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanicka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is substantial epidemiological, molecular-pathological and experimental evidence indicating that some of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), especially HPV type 16, are etiologically related to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, in particular, those arising from the oropharynx. Incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in direct opposition to a decreasing incidence of all other head and neck cancers. The prognosis of patients with HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer is significantly better compare to patients with non associated oropharyngeal cancers. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer respond better to radiotherapy, surgery, chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, the presence of HPV in tumor is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal cancers. These findings have prompted the need for change of treatment strategies in these patients. The goal is selective de-intensified treatment stratified for HPV status. (author)

  2. Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2015-01-01

    with single hrHPV infections. The cohort was followed in a nationwide pathology register for up to 11.5 years. In women aged ≥30 years at baseline, the 8-year absolute risk for CIN3+ following baseline detection of HPV16 was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.0-25.6%). The corresponding risks for HPV18......In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During...... 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women...

  3. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

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    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  4. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  5. Evaluation of immunological cross-reactivity between clade A9 high-risk human papillomavirus types on the basis of E6-Specific CD4+ memory T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; Redeker, Anke; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Loraine M.; Welters, Marij J. P.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Kenter, Gemma G.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Offringa, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+) T cell responses against the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 5 closely related members of clade A9 (HPV31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) were charted in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy subjects and patients who underwent HPV16 E6/E7-specific vaccination.

  6. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, Eric; Lambert, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    Human papilllomaviruses (HPVs) are common human pathogens that infect cutaneous or mucosal epithelia in which they cause warts, self-contained benign lesions that commonly regress. The HPV life cycle is intricately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium it infects. Mucosotropic HPVs are the most common sexually transmitted pathogen known to mankind. A subset of the mucosotropic HPVs, so-called high risk HPVs, is etiologically associated with numerous cancers of the anogenital tract, most notably the cervix, as well as a growing fraction of head and neck cancers. In these cancers, the HPV genome, which normally exists an a double stranded, circular, nuclear plasmid, is commonly found integrated into the host genome and expresses two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, that are implicated in the development and maintainance of the cancers caused by these high risk HPVs. Numerous studies, primarily on the high risk HPV16, have documented that the methylation status of the viral genome changes not only in the context of the viral life cycle but also in the context of the progressive neoplastic disease that culminates in cancer. In this article, we summarize the knowledge gained from those studies. We also provide the first analysis of available ChIP-seq data on the occupancy of both epigentically modified histones as well as transcription factors on the high risk HPV18 genome in the context of HeLa cells, a cervical cancer-derived cell line that has been the subject of extensive analyses using this technique. - Highlights: • Methylation status of HPV genomes is dynamic. • Changes are seen in both the viral life cycle and neoplasia. • Histone modification status at LCR is predictive of transcription factor occupancy. • Novel transcription factor binding noted by ChIP-seq

  7. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Eric [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lambert, Paul F., E-mail: plambert@wisc.edu [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Human papilllomaviruses (HPVs) are common human pathogens that infect cutaneous or mucosal epithelia in which they cause warts, self-contained benign lesions that commonly regress. The HPV life cycle is intricately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium it infects. Mucosotropic HPVs are the most common sexually transmitted pathogen known to mankind. A subset of the mucosotropic HPVs, so-called high risk HPVs, is etiologically associated with numerous cancers of the anogenital tract, most notably the cervix, as well as a growing fraction of head and neck cancers. In these cancers, the HPV genome, which normally exists an a double stranded, circular, nuclear plasmid, is commonly found integrated into the host genome and expresses two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, that are implicated in the development and maintainance of the cancers caused by these high risk HPVs. Numerous studies, primarily on the high risk HPV16, have documented that the methylation status of the viral genome changes not only in the context of the viral life cycle but also in the context of the progressive neoplastic disease that culminates in cancer. In this article, we summarize the knowledge gained from those studies. We also provide the first analysis of available ChIP-seq data on the occupancy of both epigentically modified histones as well as transcription factors on the high risk HPV18 genome in the context of HeLa cells, a cervical cancer-derived cell line that has been the subject of extensive analyses using this technique. - Highlights: • Methylation status of HPV genomes is dynamic. • Changes are seen in both the viral life cycle and neoplasia. • Histone modification status at LCR is predictive of transcription factor occupancy. • Novel transcription factor binding noted by ChIP-seq.

  8. Automated Extraction of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Testing of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Using the Roche Cobas 4800 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Darcy A; Sweeney, Brenda; Arpin, Ronald N; Ring, Melissa; Pitman, Martha B; Wilbur, David C; Faquin, William C

    2016-08-01

    -Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is important for both prognostication and clinical management. Several testing platforms are available for HR-HPV; however, effective alternative automated approaches are needed. -To assess the performance of the automated Roche cobas 4800 HPV real-time polymerase chain reaction-based system on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HNSCC specimens and compare results with standard methods of in situ hybridization (ISH) and p16 immunohistochemistry. -Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of HNSCC were collected from archival specimens in the Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston), and prepared using the automated system by deparaffinization and dehydration followed by tissue lysis. Samples were integrated into routine cervical cytology testing runs by cobas. Corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were evaluated for HR-HPV by ISH and p16 by immunohistochemistry. Discrepant cases were adjudicated by polymerase chain reaction. -Sixty-two HNSCC samples were analyzed using the automated cobas system, ISH, and immunohistochemistry. Fifty-two percent (n = 32 of 62) of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors were positive for HR-HPV by cobas. Eighty-eight percent (n = 28 of 32) of cases were the HPV 16 subtype and 12% (n = 4 of 32) were other HR-HPV subtypes. Corresponding testing with ISH was concordant in 92% (n = 57 of 62) of cases. Compared with the adjudication polymerase chain reaction standard, there were 3 false-positive cases by cobas. -Concordance in HNSCC HR-HPV status between cobas and ISH was more than 90%. The cobas demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 91% for detection of HR-HPV. Advantages favoring cobas include its automation, cost efficiency, objective results, and ease of performance.

  9. Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika J Piyathilake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chandrika J Piyathilake1, Suguna Badiga1, Proma Paul2, Vijayaraghavan K3, Haripriya Vedantham3, Mrudula Sudula3, Pavani Sowjanya3, Gayatri Ramakrishna4, Keerti V Shah5, Edward E Partridge6, Patti E Gravitt21Department of Nutrition Sciences, The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3SHARE INDIA, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur, India; 4Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India; 5Department of Molecular biology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD USA; 6UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Studies conducted in the USA have demonstrated that micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 play a significant role in modifying the natural history of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs, the causative agent for developing invasive cervical cancer (CC and its precursor lesions.Objective: The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether these micronutrients have similar effects on HR-HPV infections in Indian women.Methods: The associations between serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 and HR-HPV infections were evaluated in 724 women who participated in a CC screening study in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by using a competitive radio-binding assay. Digene hybrid capture 2 (HC2 assay results were used to categorize women into two groups, positive or negative for HR-HPVs. Unconditional logistic regression models specified a binary indicator of HC2 (positive/negative as the dependent variable and serum folate concentrations combined with serum vitamin B12 concentrations as the independent predictor of primary interest. Models were fitted, adjusting for age, education, marital status, parity

  10. High-risk human papillomavirus detection in self-sampling compared to physician-taken smear in a responder population of the Dutch cervical screening: Results of the VERA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, P J W; Bosgraaf, R P; Siebers, A G; Massuger, L F A G; van der Linden, J C; Wauters, C A P; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van den Brule, A J C; IntHout, J; Melchers, W J G; Bekkers, R L M

    2017-08-01

    In 2017 the cervical cancer screening program in The Netherlands will be revised. Cervical smears will primarily be tested for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) instead of cytology, and vaginal self-sampling will be offered to non-responders. This includes a potential risk that part of the women who would otherwise opt for a cervical smear will wait for self-sampling. However, self-sampling for hrHPV in a responder population has never been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability and accuracy of self-sampling in detecting hrHPV in a screening responder population. A total of 2049 women, aged 30-60years, participating in the screening program in The Netherlands were included from April 2013 to May 2015. After they had their cervical smear taken, women self-collected a cervicovaginal sample with a brush-based device, the Evalyn Brush. Both the cervical smear and self-sample specimen were tested with the COBAS 4800 HPV platform. The hrHPV prevalence was 8.0% (95% CI 6.9-9.2) among the physician-taken samples, and 10.0% (95% CI 8.7-11.3) among the self-samples. There was 96.8% (95% CI 96.0-97.5) concordance of hrHPV prevalence between self-samples and physician-taken samples. Women in our study evaluated self-sampling as convenient (97.1%), user-friendly (98.5%), and 62.8% preferred self-sampling over a physician-taken sampling for the next screening round. In conclusion, self-sampling showed high concordance with physician-taken sampling for hrHPV detection in a responder screening population and highly acceptable to women. Implementation of HPV-self-sampling for the responder population as a primary screening tool may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.T.; Hirochika, H.; Nasseri, M.; Stoler, M.H.; Wolinsky, S.M.; Chin, M.T.; Hirochika, R.; Arvan, D.S.; Broker, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  12. [Human papillomavirus infection and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira

    2011-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination.

  13. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  15. Assessment of a New Lower-Cost Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus: Useful for Cervical Screening in Limited-Resource Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokom Domgue, Joel; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas H; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Xie, Yi; Miachon, Lais S; Dean, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Inexpensive and easy-to-perform human papillomavirus (HPV) tests are needed for primary cervical cancer screening in lower-resource regions. In a convenience sample of 516 residual exfoliative cervical specimens from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California and U.S. National Cancer Institute Persistence and Progression Study, we assessed the agreement and clinical performance of a simple, inexpensive real-time PCR assay for the detection of 13 carcinogenic HPV types (the H13 assay; Hybribio, Hong Kong) that is marketed in limited-resource settings compared to previous testing by the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and the Onclarity assay (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD). The test set was chosen to include many HPV-positive specimens. The reference standard was a combination of HC2 and Onclarity results for HPV detection and histologic diagnosis of controls (less than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 [

  16. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  18. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  19. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  20. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getvaxed about GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles ... free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations ...

  1. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  2. Public awareness of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, K S; Horne, A W; Szarewski, A; Cubie, H A

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review the evidence relating to the level of awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population and the implications for the potential introduction of HPV vaccination and HPV testing as part of screening. PubMed search performed on terms: 'HPV education', 'HPV awareness' 'Genital Warts Awareness' Results: Public awareness of HPV is generally very low, particularly with respect to its relation to abnormal smears and cervical cancer although knowledge levels vary to some extent according to sociodemographic characteristics. There is also much confusion around which types cause warts and the types that can cause cancer. The sexually transmissible nature of the infection is of major concern and confusion to women. Due to the lack of current awareness of HPV, significant education initiatives will be necessary should HPV vaccination and/or HPV testing be introduced. Organized edification of health-care workers and the media, who constitute the two most preferred sources of information, will be crucial.

  3. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  4. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  5. The Association of High Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Patients With Cervical Cancer: An Evidence Based Study on Patients With Squamous Cell Dysplasia or Carcinoma for Evaluation of 23 Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroozmand, Ahmad; Mostafavi Zadeh, Seyed Mostafa; Madani, Azita; Soleimani, Reza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Avan, Amir; Manian, Mostafa; Moradi, Mohammad; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in females. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the major risk factor of cervical cancer. Objectives The aim of the current study was to explore the frequency and role of 23 different HPVs in patients with cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Overall, 117 formalin-fix and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from cervical cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or dysplasia were collected from Mirza-Kochakkhan-Jangali hospital, Tehran, Iran during year 2013, to investigate the presence of HPV- HPV- 67, 68, 6, 11, 13, 16, 17, 30, 69, 39, 40, 42, 64, 66 and 51 to 59 genotypes. Results The Pap smear report illustrated the presence of malignancy in 71 cases, while 11 cases had no evidence of malignancy. Among the patients, 26 cases had sexually transmitted disease with relative frequency of 0.58. Infection with papilloma virus was observed in 83.6% of SCC patients and 45% of the dysplasia group. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were 18 with 31.62% and 16 with 27.35% of cases. Moreover the relative frequencies of HPV-33, -6, -58, -52, -35 and -51, genotypes were 15.38, 7.69, 5.98, 5.12 and 3.41%, respectively. Among the different genotypes of HPV, 31 had the lowest and 16 had the highest relative frequency. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that HPV-16 and -18 have a higher prevalence in our population than 31 and 51. Further investigations are required to evaluate the role of these genotypes in a larger multicenter setting for establishing their values for early detection of patients, which is useful for screening and vaccination programs of cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervical cancer. PMID:27279992

  6. Host control of human papillomavirus infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorbar, John

    2018-02-01

    Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  8. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  9. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  10. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. Aim: to determine the ...

  11. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  12. Human papillomavirus genotypes and clinical management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral disease in the world. HPV infection of the genital epithelium is associated with genital warts and malignancies of the lower genital tract. Objectives. To describe the distribution, phenotypic appearance and HPV type ...

  13. Functional Crosstalk between Human Papillomaviruses and Lentiviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Pryszlak, Anna Marta

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and human immunodeficiency virus‐1 (HIV‐1) are human pathogens of high biomedical significance worldwide. Interestingly, increasing epidemiological evidence indicates that individuals with active HPV infections possess an enhanced risk of being infected by HIV‐1. These findings raise the possibility that HPVs may directly or indirectly increase the pathogenicity of lentiviruses, such as HIV‐1. Using a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus‐G‐(VSV‐G)‐pseudotype...

  14. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  15. Activities of E7 promoters in the human papillomavirus type 16 genome during cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Nielsen, Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, one of the most common cancer forms diagnosed in women is cervical cancer induced by infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with HPV type 16 (HPV-16) being the most frequently identified. The oncogenicity is caused mainly by expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7 leadin...

  16. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...

  17. Risk of high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical precancerous lesions with past or current trichomonas infection: a pooled analysis of 25,054 women in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Mei; Z Wang, Margaret; Smith, Jennifer S; Dong, Li; Chen, Feng; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Xun; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhao, Fang-Hui

    Trichomonas vaginitis (TV) infection has obviously been implicated in gynecological morbidity but still unclear in cervical lesions. To evaluate the risk of hr-HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2 + ) by TV infection. The pooled study was conducted among 12 population-based, cervical cancer screening studies throughout China (N = 24,054). HPV was detected by Hybrid Capture ® 2 (HC2) test. Past TV infection was measured by self-reporting, current TV infection was diagnosed by liquid-based cytology (LBC), cervical lesions was diagnosed by histopathology. Respective prevalence of hr-HPV and CIN2+ were 17.4% and 3.3%. Out of 24,054 women, 14.6% reported past TV infection, and out of 11,853 women, 9.9% had current TV infection. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV (OR 1.31, 95%CI: 1.11-1.56). The risk of CIN2+ decreased for hr-HPV positive women with current TV infection (adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.84) and past TV infection (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.86). Among hr-HPV negative women, no significant associations were observed between past or current TV infection and risk of CIN2+. Women infected with HPV are more likely to be infected by other types of sexually transmitted diseases. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV infection compared to currently TV-negative women. Both past and current TV-positive women had a decreased risk for CIN2+, especially among high-risk HPV positive women. More direct investigation into the interaction between TV, HPV, inflammatory signals, and risk of carcinogenesis are further needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Association between visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid examination and high-risk human papillomavirus infection, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Andrew J; Toliman, Pamela J; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombuk, Benny; Kombati, Zure; Vallely, Lisa M; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M

    2018-01-30

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated burdens of cervical cancer globally but currently has no national cervical screening program. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is a low-cost screening strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization that has been adopted in many low-resource settings but not previously evaluated in PNG. To evaluate the association between VIA examination findings and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection; and the impact of concomitant genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis on the interpretation of VIA findings. A prospective clinical cohort study among women aged 30-59 years attending Well Woman Clinics in PNG. Main outcome measures were VIA examination findings and laboratory-confirmed hrHPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis. A total of 614 women were enrolled, of whom 87.5% (537/614) underwent VIA, and 12.5% (77/614) did not due to pre-existing cervicitis or inability to visualise the transformation zone. Among the 537 women who underwent VIA, 21.6% were VIA positive, 63.7% VIA negative, and 14.7% had indeterminate findings. The prevalence of hrHPV infection (n = 614) was 14.7%; C. trachomatis, 7.5%; N. gonorrhoeae, 8.0%; and T. vaginalis, 15.0%. VIA positive women were more likely to have HPV16 (odds ratio: 5.0; 95%CI: 1.6-15.6; P = 0.006) but there was no association between HPV18/45, all hrHPV types (combined), C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis. VIA positivity was associated with HPV16, but not with other hrHPV infections, nor with genital C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis in this setting. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage ra...

  1. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma using the Bradford Hill criteria. The strength of the association is supported by, detection of human papillomavirus infection and antibodies prior to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This is furthermore reinforced by the absence of human papillomavirus DNA in healthy tonsils...... incidence in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with sexual behaviour. These associations have been repeatedly observed and are in accordance with our current knowledge. The time relation between cause and effect remains the main challenge, due to the lack...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  3. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2 Baixa prevalência de papilomavírus humano de alto risco na mucosa oral normal através de Captura Híbrida 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Refugio González-Losa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2% was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HR-HPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies.Papilomavírus humano de alto risco (HR-HPV é um fator reconhecido como necessário para o desenvolvimento de câncer cervical. Na última década vários estudos encontraram HR-HPV em OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma e em mucosa oral normal, mas a associação entre HR-HPV e OSCC não é bem conhecida. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar DNA de HR-HPV na cavidade oral normal de adultos saudáveis. Realizou-se um estudo cross-sectional com amostras da cavidade oral normal de 77 pacientes da Escola de Odontologia da Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV foi detectado através de Captura Híbrida 2. Uma amostra em 77 (1,2% foi positiva para HR-PVH e era proveniente de um homem de 50 anos de idade. Concluiu-se que HR-HPV tem baixa prevalência na mucosa oral normal e a Captura Híbrida 2 pode ser um método adequado para estudos epidemiológicos.

  4. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  5. Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Among 1813 Men in Tanzania and the Relationship to HIV Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Iftner, Thomas; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with penile cancer in men, cervical cancer in women, and anal cancer and certain types of head and neck cancers in both sexes. Few studies have assessed the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among men in sub-Saharan Africa......, where the rates of HIV and penile and cervical cancer are high....

  6. Estimating progression rates for human papillomavirus infection from epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Gay, Nigel; Soldan, Kate; Hong Choi, Yoon; Edmunds, William John

    2010-01-01

    A Markov model was constructed in order to estimate type-specific rates of cervical lesion progression and regression in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). The model was fitted to age- and type-specific data regarding the HPV DNA and cytological status of women undergoing cervical screening in a recent screening trial, as well as cervical cancer incidence. It incorporates different assumptions about the way lesions regress, the accuracy of cytological screening, the specificity of HPV DNA testing, and the age-specific prevalence of HPV infection. Combinations of assumptions generate 162 scenarios for squamous cell carcinomas and 54 scenarios for adenocarcinomas. Simulating an unscreened cohort of women infected with high-risk HPV indicates that the probability of an infection continuing to persist and to develop into invasive cancer depends on the length of time it has already persisted. The scenarios and parameter sets that produce the best fit to available epidemiological data provide a basis for modeling the natural history of HPV infection and disease.

  7. Misconception: human papillomavirus vaccine and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Christine L; Hanley, Chassidy J; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to determine if parents of males express concerns about vaccine-associated infertility (VAI) with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and to understand the impact of those concerns. Parents of sons were surveyed to determine VAI concerns. Logistic regression was used to find if parents worried about VAI had lower knowledge of HPV disease, more concern for side effects, lacked information about vaccination, or had lower intention to vaccinate. In all, 39% of parents were worried about VAI. Parents worried about VAI had similar knowledge of HPV compared with other parents. Parents worried about VAI had twice the odds of agreeing the vaccine may cause side effects and agreeing they did not have enough information compared to their counterparts. Parents worried about VAI less often intended to vaccinate sons than other parents. These findings suggest many parents worry about VAI in sons with HPV vaccine.

  8. New treatments for human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, C; Pigem, R; Alsina, M

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus infection is very common. In this article, we review the latest developments in the treatment of lesions caused by this virus, with a particular focus on anogenital warts. Sinecatechins and new imiquimod formulations are among the most significant new developments. Others include photodynamic therapy and intralesional immunotherapy, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use. Finally, while therapeutic vaccines and inhibitory molecules appear to hold great promise, they are still in the early phases of investigation. More studies are needed, and these should have similar designs, larger samples, and sufficiently long follow-up periods to enable the direct comparison of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of different treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  10. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuovo, G.J.; Pedemonte, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  11. School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School-based human papillomavirus vaccination: An opportunity to increase knowledge about cervical cancer and improve uptake of ... Poor knowledge about cervical cancer plays a role in limiting screening uptake. HPV ... Article Metrics.

  12. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA with in situ hybridisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral squamous carcinoma in the west of the Northern ... Immunocytochemistry for viral antigen was negative in all the specimens. HPV-18 was ...

  13. Human Papillomavirus Infection Among 2460 Men in Denmark: Prevalence in Relation to Age Using 2 Human Papillomavirus DNA Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebnes, Julie Buchholt; Munk, Christian; Nøhr, Bugge; Nielsen, Ann; Jørgensen, Hans Ole; Iftner, Thomas; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2015-08-01

    It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross-sectional population-based study, we aimed to estimate genital HPV infection prevalence in Danish men using 2 different test methods. Penile swab samples from 2460 male employees and conscripts at military barracks in Denmark were tested for HPV DNA with the hybrid capture 2 (HC2) method, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, Inno-LiPA. The overall and age- and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and the correlation between the 2 assays was assessed. The overall HPV prevalence was 22.2% (95% CI, 20.6-23.9) in the HC2 test and 41.8% (95% CI, 39.9-43.8) with PCR. Of the PCR-positive samples, 50.9% were negative in the HC2 test. Of 183 PCR-positive samples that could not be genotyped (HPVX), 88.0% (95% CI, 83.2-92.7) were HC2 negative. The most prevalent types were HPV-51, HPV-16, HPV-66, HPV-53, and HPV-6. The prevalence of high-risk and low-risk HPV peaked among men aged 20 to 29 years, whereas the HPVX prevalence increased with age. Human papillomavirus is highly prevalent in the general male population of Denmark, with HPV-16 and HPV-51 being the most prevalent. Polymerase chain reaction detects twice as many positive samples as HC2 but includes HPVX, possibly representing cutaneous HPV types found on normal genital skin.

  14. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  15. The fanconi anemia pathway limits human papillomavirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Elizabeth E; Morreale, Richard J; Werner, Stephen P; Higginbotham, Jennifer M; Laimins, Laimonis A; Lambert, Paul F; Brown, Darron R; Gillison, Maura L; Nuovo, Gerard J; Witte, David P; Kim, Mi-Ok; Davies, Stella M; Mehta, Parinda A; Butsch Kovacic, Melinda; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; Wells, Susanne I

    2012-08-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) deregulate epidermal differentiation and cause anogenital and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The E7 gene is considered the predominant viral oncogene and drives proliferation and genome instability. While the implementation of routine screens has greatly reduced the incidence of cervical cancers which are almost exclusively HPV positive, the proportion of HPV-positive head and neck SCCs is on the rise. High levels of HPV oncogene expression and genome load are linked to disease progression, but genetic risk factors that regulate oncogene abundance and/or genome amplification remain poorly understood. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome characterized at least in part by extreme susceptibility to SCCs. FA results from mutations in one of 15 genes in the FA pathway, whose protein products assemble in the nucleus and play important roles in DNA damage repair. We report here that loss of FA pathway components FANCA and FANCD2 stimulates E7 protein accumulation in human keratinocytes and causes increased epithelial proliferation and basal cell layer expansion in the HPV-positive epidermis. Additionally, FANCD2 loss stimulates HPV genome amplification in differentiating cells, demonstrating that the intact FA pathway functions to restrict the HPV life cycle. These findings raise the possibility that FA genes suppress HPV infection and disease and suggest possible mechanism(s) for reported associations of HPV with an FA cohort in Brazil and for allelic variation of FA genes with HPV persistence in the general population.

  16. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. [Human papillomavirus nonavalent vaccine. Update 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F X; Moreno, D; Redondo, E; Torné, A

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of 5% of human cancers. HPV infection is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and is responsible of a variable percentage of cancers of anus, vulva, vagina, penis, and oropharynx. Since 2007, 2 vaccines against HPV have been commercially available in Spain: bivalent (HPV types 16/18), and tetravalent (HPV types 6/11/16/18). In order to extend the protection afforded by HPV vaccines, a clinical program was launched in 2006 for the new nonavalent vaccine, including 9 HPV types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). These types are responsible for 90% of cervical cancers, 82% of high-grade ano-genital pre-cancerous lesions, and 90% of genital warts. The purpose of this publication is to provide healthcare professionals with the scientific evidence that supports the new vaccine, as well as the clinical value that it offers in our environment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-05-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage rates are lower than expected. Vaccine safety represents one of the main concerns associated with the lack of acceptance of HPV vaccination both in the European Union/European Economic Area and elsewhere. Safety data published on bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines, both in pre-licensure and post-licensure phase, are reviewed. Based on the latest scientific evidence, both HPV vaccines seem to be safe. Nevertheless, public concern and rumors about adverse events (AE) represent an important barrier to overcome in order to increase vaccine coverage. Passive surveillance of AEs is an important tool for detecting safety signals, but it should be complemented by activities aimed at assessing the real cause of all suspect AEs. Improved vaccine safety surveillance is the first step for effective communication based on scientific evidence.

  19. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011-2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time.

  20. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  1. Human papillomavirus enigmas and persistent questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Edridge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s the association between cancer and the human papillomavirus (HPV has been known. Zur Hausen’s belatedly awarded Nobel prize bears testament to this. We know that HPV is associated with cervical cancer, vulval cancer, anal cancer, vulvovaginal warts, and other non-gynaecological cancers. The place of HPV in the modern management of gynaecology may at first seem clear. Vaccination with the bivalent vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK may prevent cervical, vulval and some anal cancers; vaccination with the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil, Merck may prevent those conditions plus warts. The 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9, Merck is currently recommended, as are the other two, by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG.[1] The UK initiated vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and now recommends the quadrivalent vaccine.[2] So far studies have demonstrated a significant decrease in dysplasia and warts, particularly in HPV- naive subjects. Whether these benefits translate to the prevention of cervical and other cancers has not yet been shown, but if one considers the natural history of the progression of dysplasia to cancer, this is quite reasonably presumed.

  2. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants...... were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV...

  3. Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a necessary cause of carcinoma of the cervix and other mucosal epithelia. Key events in high-risk HPV (HRHPV)-associated neoplastic progression include persistent infection, deregulated expression of virus early genes in basal epithelial cells and genomic instability causing secondary host genomic imbalances. There are multiple mechanisms by which deregulated virus early gene expression may be achieved. Integration of virus DNA into host chromosomes is observed in the majority of cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), although in ∼15% of cases the virus remains extrachromosomal (episomal). Interestingly, not all integration events provide a growth advantage to basal cervical epithelial cells or lead to increased levels of the virus oncogenes E6 and E7, when compared with episome-containing basal cells. The factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants, but not others, are complex and include virus and host contributions. Gene expression from integrated and episomal HRHPV is regulated through host epigenetic mechanisms affecting the virus long control region (LCR), which appear to be of functional importance. New approaches to treating HRHPV-associated mucosal neoplasia include knockout of integrated HRHPV DNA, depletion of virus transcripts and inhibition of virus early gene transcription through targeting or use of epigenetic modifiers. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Human papillomavirus variants among Inuit women in northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Barbara; Coutlée, Francois; Franco, Eduardo L; Brassard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inuit communities in northern Quebec have high rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer and cervical cancer-related mortality as compared to the Canadian population. HPV types can be further classified as intratypic variants based on the extent of homology in their nucleotide sequences. There is limited information on the distribution of intratypic variants in circumpolar areas. Our goal was to describe the HPV intratypic variants and associated baseline characteristics. We collected cervical cell samples in 2002-2006 from 676 Inuit women between the ages of 15 and 69 years in Nunavik. DNA isolates from high-risk HPVs were sequenced to determine the intratypic variant. There were 149 women that were positive for HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 56 or 58 during follow-up. There were 5 different HPV16 variants, all of European lineage, among the 57 women positive for this type. There were 8 different variants of HPV18 present and all were of European lineage (n=21). The majority of samples of HPV31 (n=52) were of lineage B. The number of isolates and diversity of the other HPV types was low. Age was the only covariate associated with HPV16 variant category. These frequencies are similar to what was seen in another circumpolar region of Canada, although there appears to be less diversity as only European variants were detected. This study shows that most variants were clustered in one lineage for each HPV type.

  5. The 3' region of Human Papillomavirus type 16 early mRNAs decrease expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, J.; Rosenstierne, M.W.; Kristiansen, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background: High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infects mucosal surfaces and HR-HPV infection is required for development of cervical cancer. Accordingly, enforced expression of the early HR-HPV proteins can induce immortalisation of human cells. In most cervical cancers and cervical cancer...... cell lines the HR-HPV double stranded DNA genome has been integrated into the host cell genome. Methods: We have used a retroviral GUS reporter system to generate pools of stably transfected HaCaT and SiHa cells. The HPV-16 early sequences that are deleted upon integration of the HPV-16 genome...

  6. Laryngeal squamous cell papilloma is highly associated with human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Yorihisa; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Ikegami, Kana; Marunaka, Hidenori; Makihara, Seiichiro; Yamashita, Yasuhiko; Miki, Kentaro; Makino, Takuma; Akisada, Naoki; Akagi, Yusuke; Kimura, Miyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-04-01

    To delineate the association between characteristics of adult-onset laryngeal squamous cell papilloma and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Clinical records and paraffin-embedded specimens of 77 papilloma patients who had been treated between 1998 and 2014 were collected. Of the 77 cases, 34 were identified in the larynx, 28 in the oral cavity and 15 in the oropharynx. Specimens were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52b and 58, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for anti-p16INK4a antibody. In 21 cases (61.8%) with laryngeal squamous cell papilloma, various types of HPV were detected: 14 cases (41.2%) were positive of high-risk HPV, 18 (52.9%) were positive of low-risk HPV and 11 (32.4%) were positive of both high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV. Younger patients (papilloma, no malignant transformation was observed during the study period. With IHC staining, positive expression of p16 was observed in 20 cases (58.8%). HPV infection and p16-expression were associated with the pathological finding of koilocytosis. Only four cases (14.3%) showed HPV-positivity in the oral cavity, and none of the 15 oropharyngeal cases were positive for HPV, and none of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal cases showed koilocytosis. Results of HPV-PCR and p16-IHC staining were significantly correlated each other. HPV infection is frequently associated with laryngeal squamous cell papilloma, and koilocytosis is a characteristic pathological finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which have described infections with multiple HPV types in laryngeal papilloma.

  7. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  8. Longitudinal Psychosocial Adjustment of Women to Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Fetzer, Susan Jane; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Keng-Fu

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment trajectory, focusing on psychological distress, sexual relationships and health care information, as well as factors which have an impact on adjustment on receiving a positive diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection. Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection in females. To date, knowledge of the longitudinal psychosocial response to the diagnosis of human papillomavirus is limited. A prospective longitudinal design was conducted with a convenience sample. Women aged 20-65 years old were followed at one, 6 and 12 months after a diagnosis of HPV. Participants completed measures of initial emotional distress and followed-up psychosocial adjustment. A mixed-effects model was applied to analyze the longitudinal changes in psychosocial adjustment. Seventy human papillomavirus positive women participated in the study with nearly 20% of the women reporting emotional distress during their first visit. Mixed-effects model analyses showed that a trajectory of psychosocial adjustment in health care orientation, sexual relationship and psychosocial distress occur from one to 6 months after HPV diagnosis. However, a declining trend from 6-12 months was significant in health care orientation. Initial emotional distress was associated with changes in psychological adjustment. Psychosocial adjustment to human papillomavirus was worse at one month compared with 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Healthcare providers should offer health information and psychosocial support to women according to their disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  10. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous human papillomavirus in Moroccan breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal ElAmrani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to recent technical improvements and some encouraging new results, there has been a resurgence of interest in the possibility that a substantial proportion of breast cancers (BCs may be caused by viral infections, including Human papillomavirus (HPV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in tumours from Moroccan BC patients. Materials and methods: Frozen tumours from 76 BC cases and 12 controls were evaluated for the presence of 62 HPV-types using highly sensitive assays that combine multiplex polymerase chain reaction and bead-based Luminex technology. Results: HPV DNA was found in 25.0% of BC tumours and only 8.3% of controls. Beta and gamma HPV types were found in 10.5% and 6.6% of BC tumours, respectively. High-risk mucosal types HPV16 and 18 were not detected in the subjects, but other probable/possible high-risk or high-risk -HPV types (HPV51, 52, 58, 59, and 66 were found in 5.3% of BC tumours. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between, controls, BC cases and the inflammatory status (p > 0.05. Conclusion: HPV DNA was found 3 times as frequently in the BC tumours as in the controls. However, this difference requires confirmation in a larger sample. Keywords: Breast cancer, Human papillomavirus, Inflammatory breast cancer, Type-specific multiplex genotyping, Morocco

  12. Biology and natural history of human papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes JV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available José Veríssimo Fernandes,1 Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo,1 Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes21Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases and Cancer, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil; 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Rio Grande do Norte State, Mossoró, BrazilAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. It has been proposed that the great majority of women and men have been infected with HPV at least once during their lifetime. HPV infection is associated with a variety of clinical conditions, ranging from benign lesions to cervical cancer. In most cases, the infection is transient, where most of the individuals are healing, eliminating the virus without the presence of any clinical manifestation. Actually, more than 120 HPV types have been cataloged, of which approximately 40 can infect the mucosa of the anogenital tract and are collectively known as mucosal HPV, which are classified based on their oncogenic potential as either low- or high-risk HPV types. The low-risk HPV type causes benign hyperproliferative lesions or genital warts, with a very limited tendency for malignant progression, while the high-risk HPV type is strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. The HPV cycle initiates when the virus gains access to undifferentiated cells of the basement membrane of the squamous columnar junction epithelium of the ectocervix, after these regions are exposed to mechanical or chemical trauma. The basal cells in the transformation zone retain the ability to differentiate, a property required for virion production. Cervical infection with high-risk HPV typically lasts from 12 to 18 months and in most cases is cleared spontaneously. However, in some women the immune response is insufficient to eliminate the virus, resulting in a persistent, long-term infection that may progress to a

  13. Human papillomavirus infection in Beijing, People's Republic of China: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Zhang, W Y; Wu, M H; Zhang, S W; Pan, J; Zhu, L; Zhang, Y P; Li, H; Gu, Y S; Liu, X Z

    2009-01-01

    Background: No recent data exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Materials and method We interviewed and examined a representative, randomly selected sample of 5552 sexually active women aged 25–54 years. Cervical cell samples were analysed for HPV DNA by a MY09/11-based PCR assay. Results: Human papillomavirus prevalence was 6.7% overall and 4.8% among women without cervical abnormalities. Of the 21 subtypes identified, HPV16 was the commonest type (2.6% overall; 39.1% of HPV-positive women), followed by HPV 58 (1.0%), 33 (0.8%), 43 (0.7%) and 56 (0.7%). High-risk HPV types predominated in all age groups. Human papillomavirus prevalence was highest in young to middle-aged women. Marital status, number of husband's sexual partners, age at sexual debut and nulligravidity were all associated with being HPV positive. Conclusions: In our survey, HPV 16, HPV 58 and HPV 33 were the most prevalent HPV types in Beijing, indicating the potential for the prophylactic HPV 16/18 vaccine in China. PMID:19862002

  14. Development of electrochemical biosensors and solid-phase amplification methods for the detection of human papillomavirus genes

    OpenAIRE

    Civit Pitarch, Laia

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reliable diagnosis is crucial for the identification of a disease, like cancer, where an early detection can improve patient survival outcomes. Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. It is well known that persistent infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the primary cause of cervical cancer. Electrochemical DNA biosensors have received important attention owing to their characterist...

  15. De-stigmatising human papillomavirus in the context of cervical cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar-Fai; Lee, Peter W H; Lo, Sue S T; Chan, Karen K L; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2010-12-01

    To identify the components of a human papillomavirus (HPV) message contributing to reducing the stigma of HPV in cervical cancer. 294 ethnic Chinese women attending a community-based clinic in Hong Kong were randomly allocated to read one of three written HPV messages: Group 'lr+hrHPV': low-risk and high-risk HPVs facts, Group 'hrHPV': high-risk HPV facts only and Group 'ds+hrHPV': high-risk HPV facts and de-stigmatising components, namely being anti-stereotypical, motivational and low in complexity. Main outcome measures were high-risk HPV-related sexual stigma, knowledge, attitude towards message, and intention to be HPV-tested measured by self-administered questionnaires immediately before and after reading. Message allocation had a significant effect on sexual stigma (F = 5.219, p = 0.006). Participants who read message ds+hrHPV showed the least stigma, and were significantly less likely to believe that high-risk HPV infection implicated promiscuity, non-monogamy or that monogamy offered complete protection against high-risk HPV. The genital HPV-focused message was more stigmatising than cervical cancer-focused messages. Of all participants, 93% (237/254) and 97% (260/269) indicated a positive intention to be HPV-tested before and after reading, respectively. There were no between-group differences noted in terms of knowledge and intention to be HPV-tested before or after reading. Our findings show that an HPV message containing specific de-stigmatising components may reduce public stigma towards high-risk HPV. Also, focusing solely on high-risk HPV in the context of cervical cancer helps to avoid the stigmatising effect of genital warts from tainting perceptions about high-risk HPV infection. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Prevention of carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarasana, S; Kalasapudi, R S; Rao, T D; Thirumala, S

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer found among the women of India. Though cervical cytology screening was effective in preventing carcinoma of cervix in developed nations, it is considered unsuitable in developing countries. Recent research has established an etiological link between human papillomavirus infection and carcinoma of cervix. In this review, an attempt is made to answer the question, 'whether carcinoma of cervix can be prevented with human papillomavirus vaccine?' Literature search using Pubmed and Medline was carried out and relevant articles were reviewed. There is ample experimental evidence to show that DNA of human papillomavirus integrates with cervical cell genome. Viral genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 and 18 inactivate p53 function and Rb gene, thus immortalize the cervical epithelial cells. Recombinant vaccines blocked the function of E6 and E7 genes preventing development of papillomas in animals. Vaccination with HPV-VLPs encoding for genes of E6 and E7 neutralizes HPV integrated genome of malignant cells of uterine cervix. Based on experimental evidence, it is possible to prevent carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine, Further research is necessary to identify a effective and safe HPV vaccine, routes of administration and characteristics of potential beneficiaries.

  17. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers: A growing global problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers.

  18. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesions.[7,8] Among these, at least 15 are considered high‑risk. HPV (HR‑HPV) and are strongly associated with progression. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Women With or Without Cervical Lesions in. Northeast Brazil. Fernandes JV, Carvalho MGF1, de Fernandes TAAM2, Araújo JMG, Azevedo PRM3,.

  19. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  20. Age-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study describes the age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological abnormalities among this urban and peri-urban population. Method. Over the period March 2009 - September 2011, 1 524 women attending public sector primary healthcare clinics were invited to

  1. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Acceptability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and has been implicated in over 70% of cases of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge of HPV infection and acceptability of HPV vaccination among nursing students in Benin City. Methodology: A ...

  2. An Overview of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vichnin, Michelle; Bonanni, Paolo; Klein, Nicola P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) type 6/11/16/18 vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD®) has been licensed in many countries around the world for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers and precancers, as well as external genital warts causally related to HPV types 6...

  3. Human papillomavirus and tar hypothesis for squamous cell cervical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Keywords. Cervical cancer; co-factors; human papillomavirus; tar-based vaginal douche; tobacco smoke; wood smoke. Author Affiliations. Christina Bennett1 Allen E Kuhn2 Harry W Haverkos3. Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5149, USA; Suite 300, Hamilton Mason Road ...

  4. Molecular testing of human papillomavirus in cervical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzaz, Faten Salah B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to improve the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia by early detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in uterine cervix, by adding molecular testing of HPV using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to Papanicoalou (Pap) test. One hundred women were enrolled in this study. The mean age (mean+-SD) was 41.97+- 8.76 years and range was 27-65 years. All women had undergone cervical cytological screening with cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing by HC2 and PCR, during the period from January to December 2006, at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) and King Fahd research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results were obtained by HC2 for detection of HPV were 5(5%) high-risk HPV, one low-risk HPV (1%) and 94(94%) negative cases. The PCR detected only 4(4%) cases. Using the HC2 test as a reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive values and accuracy of base line Pap were 50, 85, 17.7, 96.4 and 83%; of final Pap smear were 100, 96.8, 66.7, 100, and 97% and for PCR were 66.7, 100, 100, 97.9 and 98%. The Pap test was repeated within a year for patients with abnormal Pap test with positive HPV DNA. Combined screening by cytology and HPV testing using both HC2 and PCR sensitively detects women with existing disease. The absence of HPV DNA provides reassurance that patients are unlikely to develop cancer for several years. We suggest using Pap with HC2 and PCR in screening programs to ensure that women with the double negative result at baseline might safely be screened at longer intervals. (author)

  5. Human papillomavirus infection in women in four regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, El Hadji Seydou; Gheit, Tarik; Dem, Ahmadou; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Toure-Kane, Ndeye Coumba; Mboup, Souleymane; Tommasino, Massimo; Sylla, Bakary S; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in Senegal. However, there are few data concerning the human papillomavirus (HPV) types inducing neoplasia and cervical cancers and their prevalence in the general population of Senegal. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in Senegalese women aged 18 years and older in Dakar Region and three other regions. Cervical samples were collected from 498 women aged 18-80 years (mean, 42.1 years) in Dakar Region. Also, 438 samples were collected from three other regions: Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga. The samples were screened for 21 HPV genotypes using an HPV type-specific E7 PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping assay (TS-MPG). The prevalence of high risk (HR)-HPV in Dakar Region was 17.4%. HPV 52 (3.2%) was the most prevalent HPV type, followed by HPV 31 (3.0%) and HPV 16, 45, and 53 (all 2.8%). In the Thiès, Saint-Louis, and Louga Regions, the prevalence of HR-HPV was 23.2%, 13.1%, and 19.4%, respectively. The study revealed the specificity of HPV prevalence in Dakar Region and other regions of Senegal. The observed patterns show some differences compared with other regions of the world. These findings raise the possibility that, in addition to HPV 16 and HPV 18, other HPV types should be considered for a vaccination program in Senegal. However, additional studies to determine the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer specimens in Senegal are required to further corroborate this hypothesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evidence that human papillomavirus causes inverted papilloma is sparse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Jeb M; Davis, Kern M; Saenz, Daniel A; Lanza, Donald C

    2014-12-01

    Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis of inverted papilloma as it relates to the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV). The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence of HPV in nondysplastic, "early inverted papilloma" and to summarize HPV detection rates in the general population and in other HPV related neoplasia. This case series report characterizes consecutive inverted papilloma patients from January 2005 to August 2012 with regard to smoking history, dysplasia, and HPV detection rates. Presence or absence of low/high risk HPV was determined by standardized in situ hybridization DNA probes. Medline literature review was performed to determine the prevalence of HPV in inverted papilloma without moderate or severe dysplasia. Thirty-six consecutive patients were identified with an average age of 63.6 (range, 40-84) years; gender: 23 men, 13 women. More than half (55%) were active or former smokers (14% active and 41% former). High/low risk HPV was present in 1 in 36 (2.7%) patients and 1 in 36 (2.7%) had mild dysplasia. In the literature review: (1) HPV was detected in 16.4% of inverted papilloma without dysplasia; (2) oral cavity HPV detection was 4.2% to 11.4% in the normal population; and (3) HPV was normally detected in 85% to 95% of HPV-related neoplasia. Given histological features of inverted papilloma and comparatively low detection rates of HPV in inverted papilloma without dysplasia (2.7%), as well as the summary of the world literature, HPV is not related to the initial pathogenesis of inverted papilloma or inverted papilloma's tendency to persist or recur. It is postulated that since inverted papilloma is more an inflammatory polyp, it is susceptible to secondary HPV infection because of its metaplasia. Tobacco and other causes of respiratory epithelium remodeling are more plausible explanations for the initial tissue transformation to inverted papilloma. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Nucleic acid tests for the detection of alpha human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Iftner, Thomas; Dillner, Joakim; Arbyn, Marc

    2012-11-20

    Testing for high-risk types of alpha human papillomaviruses (HPV) is an invaluable part of clinical guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening, management and treatment. In this comprehensive inventory of commercial tests for detection of alpha-HPV, we identified at least 125 distinct HPV tests and at least 84 variants of the original tests. However, only a small subset of HPV tests has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. For more than 75% of HPV tests currently on the market, no single publication in peer-reviewed literature can be identified. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated in the lab, it is essential that the whole procedure of HPV testing is subject to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Manufacturers of HPV tests are urged to put more effort into evaluating their current and future products analytically, using international standards, and for clinical applications, using clinically validated endpoints. To assist with analytical validation, the World Health Organization is developing international standards for HPV types other than HPV16 and HPV18 and is planning development of external quality control panels specifically designed to be used for performance evaluation of current and future HPV tests. There is a need for more competitively priced HPV tests, especially for resource-poor countries, and uniform test validation criteria based on international standards should enable issuing more competitive and fair tender notices for purchasing. Automation systems allowing large-scale testing, as well as further increases in clinical performance, are the main needs in the further improvement of HPV tests. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine

  8. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  9. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Cano-Contreras, A D; Sánchez-Maza, Y J; Espinosa-González, J M; Vázquez-Prieto, M Á; Valdés-de la O, E J; Díaz-Roesch, F; Carrasco-Arroniz, M Á; Cruz-Palacios, A; Grube-Pagola, P; Sumoza-Toledo, A; Vivanco-Cid, H; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Silva-Cañetas, C S; Carrillo-Toledo, M G; Lagunes-Torres, R; Amieva-Balmori, M; Gómez-Castaño, P C; Reyes-Huerta, J U; Remes-Troche, J M

    2018-02-15

    Cancer is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has recently been related to viral infections, one of which is human papillomavirus. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with digestive system cancers. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on patients with gastrointestinal cancer at 2public healthcare institutes in Veracruz. Two tumor samples were taken, one for histologic study and the other for DNA determination of human papillomavirus and its genotypes. Anthropometric variables, risk factors, sexual habits, tumor location, and histologic type of the cancer were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined using the SPSS version 24.0 program. Fifty-three patients were studied. They had gastrointestinal cancer located in: the colon (62.26%), stomach (18.87%), esophagus (7.55%), rectum (7.55%), and small bowel (3.77%). Human papillomavirus was identified in 11.32% of the patients, 66.7% of which corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma and 33.3% to adenocarcinoma. Only genotype 18 was identified. Mean patient age was 61.8±15.2 years, 56.60% of the patients were men, and 43.40% were women. A total of 15.8% of the patients had a family history of cancer and 31.6% had a personal history of the disease, 38.6% were tobacco smokers, and 61.4% consumed alcohol. Regarding sex, 5.3% of the patients said they were homosexual, 3.5% were bisexual, 29.8% engaged in oral sex, and 24.6% in anal sex. Our study showed that human papillomavirus infection was a risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancer, especially of squamous cell origin. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7-specific CD4+ T-helper 1 immunity in relation to health versus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, Marij J. P.; van der Logt, Pauline; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Kenter, Gemma G.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Offringa, Rienk

    2006-01-01

    The most common high-risk human papillomavirus types, HPV16 and 18, differ markedly with respect to their interaction with the host. Clearance of HPV18 infections generally takes longer and HPV18-positive cancers have a poorer prognosis. We therefore evaluated Th1-type immunity against the E6 and E7

  11. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma : induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6

  12. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Levi

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  13. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi José E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  14. Role of human papillomavirus testing and cytology in follow-up after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Huusom, Lene D; Deltour, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) after conization. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: 667 women attending for conization. METHODS: Cervical specimens were collected during 2002-2006 at first visit after conization for cytological examination and Hybrid Capture 2......OBJECTIVE: Adequate follow-up of women who have undergone conization for high-grade cervical lesions is crucial in cervical cancer screening programs. We evaluated the performance of testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, cytology alone, and combined testing in predicting cervical...... detection of high-risk HPV. The women were passively followed until 2 years after first follow-up visit by linkage to the nationwide Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: At first visit after conization (median time, 3.4 months), 20.4% were HPV-positive and 17.2% had atypical squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  15. Incidence of low risk human papillomavirus in oral cancer: a real time PCR study on 278 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, A; Scapoli, L; Martinelli, M; Pezzetti, F; Girardi, A; Spinelli, G; Lucchese, A; Carinci, F

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignant tumour of the oral cavity. It is widely known that tobacco and alcohol consumption are the major causes of the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The human papilloma virus infection has also been postulated as a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, although conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of high-risk and low-risk type human papillomavirus in a large sample of squamous cell carcinoma limited to the oral cavity by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were obtained from 278 squamous cell carcinoma limited to oral cavity proper. Sequencing revealed that 5 samples were positive for HPV type 16, 5 for HPV type 11, and 1 for HPV type 6. Human papillomavirus 11 was detected in 5 tumours out of the 278 examined. The prevalence rate for Human papillomavirus 11 was 1.8% (C.I. 0.7-3.9). The matched case-controls analysis indicated that the prevalence among controls did not significantly differ with respect to cases and that Human papillomavirus 11 alone did not correlate with squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral warts using in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Orsini Machado de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus is a group of DNA epitheliotrophic viruses associated with the etiology of benign and malignant oral warts. More than 100 types have been identified and among them, 24 have been found into the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze human papillomavirus prevalence and its subtypes in 50 oral warts, of which 20 were squamous papillomas, 17 condylomaacuminatum and 13 verruca vulgaris. Method: In situ hybridization was used with biotinylated DNA probes for wide-spectrum HPV and with specific probes for human papillomavirus 6/11, human papillomavirus 16/18 and human papillomavirus 31/33. Results: Human papillomavirus was present in ten (20% of the 50 oral wart cases, 03 (3/20 squamous papillomas, 05 (5/17 condyloma acuminatum and 02 (2/13 verruca vulgaris. Of these, 8 (16% were positive to the HPV probe 6/11 being 5 condyloma acuminatum, 1 squamous papilloma and 2 verruca vulgaris. Three cases (6% demonstrated positivity to the human papillomavirus probe 16/18, with 2 being cases of condyloma and the other a case of squamous papilloma. Of the six positive cases to the human papillomavirus probe 31/33, (12% 4 were condyloma acuminatum and 2 squamous papillomas. Conclusion: The human papillomavirus expression (20% found in this study was low, but within the average found in the literature. Nonetheless, in addition to in situ hybridization, other methods may be necessary for confirming the presence of human papillomavirus.

  17. High-Risk Human Papillomaviral Oncogenes E6 and E7 Target Key Cellular Pathways to Achieve Oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo-Teh, Nicole S L; Ito, Yoshiaki; Jha, Sudhakar

    2018-06-08

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to several human cancers, the most prominent of which is cervical cancer. The integration of the viral genome into the host genome is one of the manners in which the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 achieve persistent expression. The most well-studied cellular targets of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are p53 and pRb, respectively. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of these two viral factors to target many more cellular factors, including proteins which regulate epigenetic marks and splicing changes in the cell. These have the ability to exert a global change, which eventually culminates to uncontrolled proliferation and carcinogenesis.

  18. Risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in relation to smoking among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    were also conducted. Hazard ratios (HRs) for a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (CIN3+) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the 2 groups. RESULTS: Among high-risk HPV positive women......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview......, and subsequently cervical cells were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV infection and no prevalent cervical disease at baseline (n=1,353) were followed through the Pathology Data Bank for cervical lesions for up to 13 years. Separate analyses of women with persistent high-risk HPV infection...

  19. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288

  20. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus among women with hepatitis C virus before liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, P A; Smolowitz, J; Carriero, D; Tarallo, J; Siegel, A; Jia, H; Emond, J C

    2013-08-01

    We sought to assess the prevalence and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among female liver transplant (LT) candidates. Traditional health screening before LT listing has included Pap smear and is typically carried out by the patient's local provider. The prevalence of high-risk HPV in this population has not been studied. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 LT candidates received a liquid-based Pap smear with high-risk HPV testing as part of their pre-transplant evaluation by a single provider. Clinical variables included age, ethnicity, insurance status, prior Pap smear, and HPV results, HPV risk factors including age of first intercourse, number of lifetime partners, last sexual activity, smoking, birth control pill use, history of sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus status, immunosuppressive medication, medical diagnoses, prescribed medications, and history of hepatitis A, B, C, or D. The 62 women had a median age of 56 years, and 39% had high-risk behavior known to be associated with HPV. Ten of 62 patients (16.1%) had high-risk HPV at baseline screening, 5 of whom had atypical cytology. All of the patients who were positive for high-risk HPV had an etiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the underlying cause of liver disease, with the majority (90%) having no history of high-risk behavior for HPV. In contrast, all patients with high-risk behavior who were HCV negative were HPV negative. Fisher's exact test demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between HPV and HCV; odds ratio = 24.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 438.7, P-value = 0.0013. None of the other potential risk factors were associated with HPV in this cohort. In this study, we provide evidence of a strong association between HCV and HPV in LT candidates, which has not been previously reported. HPV positivity was observed in non-sexually active women, suggesting a reactivation of dormant HPV. An association between

  1. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    malignant cervical samples ... low- and high-risk HPV genotypes without identifying ... Since these samples were not from “healthy .... major capsid protein, any variation in its coding sequence is .... worldwide: a meta-analysis; Br. J. Cancer 88 63–73.

  2. The human papillomavirus immunisation programme and sexual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has caused some parents to report concern that their daughters may change their sexual behaviour following vaccination. This concern consistently relates to vaccination acceptance, but had not been investigated in detail. Accordingly, five studies addressed the thesis objective: to explore parents’ concern about adolescent sexual behaviour following HPV vaccination in the context of the UK immunisation programme and to ...

  3. Variables associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance by men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer L; Miller, Jeremiah; Patel, Pratik; Price, George A; Jackson, Lanier; Wilson, Courtesia

    2009-01-01

    To determine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance for men. A convenience sample of men aged 18 to 45 years read a one-page information sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, then completed a 29-item questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to determine whether differences in demographic, sexual, and vaccine-related variables existed between levels of wanting the HPV vaccine. Positive correlates of HPV vaccine acceptance included higher education (P acceptance of the HPV vaccine by men.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about human papillomavirus in educated adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...

  5. Knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus and vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Priscila Mendonça Carneiro da; Silva, Izabele Maria Barbosa; Interaminense, Iris Nayara da Conceição Souza; Linhares, Francisca Márcia Pereira; Serrano, Solange Queiroga; Pontes, Cleide Maria

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Uncover knowledge and attitudes of girls, mothers, teachers and health professionals about human papillomavirus and vaccination. Method: A qualitative study carried out by means of focus groups in public elementary schools and health units of Sanitary District IV from Recife-PE, Brazil, between June and July 2015. The sample was six schoolchildren, ten adolescents, nine mothers, ten teachers, thirteen health professionals and seven community health agents. Speeches were ...

  6. Transmissioon of and infektion with human papillomavirus in the oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anne; Grønhøj, Christian; Lajer, Christel

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer is rising in the Western world, but little is known about transmission of the infection and the premalignant phase of the disease. In this article there is an overview of current knowledge with focus on transmission of HP...... and risk factors which may lead to persistent infection and eventually cancer. Furthermore, there is a discussion about issues concerning the ability to measure and detect infection and the premalignant stadium in the oropharyngeal tissue....

  7. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  8. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  9. Multivalent human papillomavirus l1 DNA vaccination utilizing electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihyuck Kwak

    Full Text Available Naked DNA vaccines can be manufactured simply and are stable at ambient temperature, but require improved delivery technologies to boost immunogenicity. Here we explore in vivo electroporation for multivalent codon-optimized human papillomavirus (HPV L1 and L2 DNA vaccination.Balb/c mice were vaccinated three times at two week intervals with a fusion protein comprising L2 residues ∼11-88 of 8 different HPV types (11-88×8 or its DNA expression vector, DNA constructs expressing L1 only or L1+L2 of a single HPV type, or as a mixture of several high-risk HPV types and administered utilizing electroporation, i.m. injection or gene gun. Serum was collected two weeks and 3 months after the last vaccination. Sera from immunized mice were tested for in-vitro neutralization titer, and protective efficacy upon passive transfer to naive mice and vaginal HPV challenge. Heterotypic interactions between L1 proteins of HPV6, HPV16 and HPV18 in 293TT cells were tested by co-precipitation using type-specific monoclonal antibodies.Electroporation with L2 multimer DNA did not elicit detectable antibody titer, whereas DNA expressing L1 or L1+L2 induced L1-specific, type-restricted neutralizing antibodies, with titers approaching those induced by Gardasil. Co-expression of L2 neither augmented L1-specific responses nor induced L2-specific antibodies. Delivery of HPV L1 DNA via in vivo electroporation produces a stronger antibody response compared to i.m. injection or i.d. ballistic delivery via gene gun. Reduced neutralizing antibody titers were observed for certain types when vaccinating with a mixture of L1 (or L1+L2 vectors of multiple HPV types, likely resulting from heterotypic L1 interactions observed in co-immunoprecipitation studies. High titers were restored by vaccinating with individual constructs at different sites, or partially recovered by co-expression of L2, such that durable protective antibody titers were achieved for each type

  10. Biological relevance of human papillomaviruses in vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Quiros, Beatriz; Clavero, Omar; Höfler, Daniela; Alejo, Maria; Quint, Wim; Pawlita, Michael; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    The carcinogenic role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the increasing subset of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar cancer in young women has been established. However, the actual number of vulvar cancer cases attributed to HPV is still imprecisely defined. In an attempt to provide a more precise definition of HPV-driven vulvar cancer, we performed HPV-type-specific E6*I mRNA analyses available for 20 HR-/possible HR (pHR)-HPV types, on tissue samples from 447 cases of vulvar cancer. HPV DNA genotyping was performed using SPF10-LiPA 25 assay due to its high sensitivity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Data on p16 INK4a expression was available for comparative analysis via kappa statistics. The use of highly sensitive assays covering the detection of HPV mRNA in a broad spectrum of mucosal HPV types resulted in the detection of viral transcripts in 87% of HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers. Overall concordance between HPV mRNA+ and p16 INK4a upregulation (strong, diffuse immunostaining in >25% of tumor cells) was 92% (K=0.625, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.531-0.719). Among these cases, 83% were concordant pairs of HPV mRNA+ and p16 INK4a + and 9% were concordant pairs of HPV mRNA- and p16 INK4a -. Our data confirm the biological role of HR-/pHR-HPV types in the great majority of HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers, resulting in an HPV-attributable fraction of at least 21% worldwide. Most HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers were associated with HPV16 (85%), but a causative role for other, less frequently occurring mucosal HPV types (HPV26, 66, 67, 68, 70 and 73) was also confirmed at the mRNA level for the first time. These findings should be taken into consideration for future screening options as HPV-associated vulvar preneoplastic lesions have increased in incidence in younger women and require different treatment than vulvar lesions that develop from rare autoimmune-related mechanisms in older women.

  11. Comparative transforming potential of different human papillomaviruses associated with non-melanoma skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massimi, Paola; Thomas, Miranda; Bouvard, Veronique; Ruberto, Irene; Campo, M. Saveria; Tommasino, Massimo; Banks, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect mucosal epithelia are the causative agents of cervical cancer. In contrast, the association of cutaneo-tropic HPV types with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is less well defined. In this study, we have analysed the in vitro transforming potential of various cutaneous HPV types. Using oncogene cooperation assays with activated ras, we have shown that diverse cutaneous types, including 12, 14, 15, 24, 36 and 49, have significant transforming potential. Interestingly, most of this activity appears to be encoded by the E6 gene product. In contrast, the common HPV-10 exhibits no significant transforming potential in these assays. This difference may be a reflection of different patterns of cellular localization, with transforming E6s being nuclear and non-transforming being cytoplasmic. These results provide molecular support for a role of these viruses in the development of certain human malignancies

  12. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer in Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani-Navai, Versa; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Yahyapour, Yousef; Hedayatizadeh-Omran, Akbar; Abediankenari, Saeid; Janbabaei, Ghasem; Toghani, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most common cancers and account for nearly half of all cancer-related deaths in Iran. There was a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and urogenital cancers, in particular the cervix. However, there is no clear causal relationship in all types of cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers. Therefore, the present study as a systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to evaluate the prevalence and relation of HPV in GI cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis study assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus in GI cancers in Iran. Data were collected by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID and Iranmedex by English and Persian key words up to August 2016. Key words included: Human Papillomavirus, HPV, Cancer, Neoplasm, Carcinoma, Esophageal, colorectal, Gastrointestinal and Iran articles were entered in the EndNote software and duplicate papers were excluded. Data were extracted and analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software, Version 2 (CMA.V2) and random effects model. Finally, we included 17 studies in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of HPV in Iranian patients with GI cancers was 16.4% (CI95%: 10.4-24.9). Considering all HPV types, the odds ratio of GI cancers in positive patients was 3.03 (CI95%: 1.42-6.45) while in patients with HPV-16 was 3.62 (CI: 1.43-4.82). The results show a strong relationship between HPV infection especially high-risk HPV type 16 and GI cancers in Iranian population.

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Shichao; Gong, Bo; Cai, Xushan; Yang, Xiaoer; Gan, Xiaowei; Tong, Xinghai; Li, Haichuan; Zhu, Meijuan; Yang, Fengyun; Zhou, Hongrong; Hong, Guofan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing. In parallel, split samples were subjected to a Digene HC2 HPV test which has been widely used for “cervical cancer risk” screen. Of the 1826 specimens, 1655 contained sufficient materials for analysis and 657 were truly negative. PCR/DNA sequencing showed 674 infected by a single high-risk HPV, 188 by a single low-risk HPV, and 136 by multiple HPV genotypes with up to five HPV genotypes in one specimen. In comparison, the HC2 test classified 713 specimens as infected by high-risk HPV, and 942 as negative for HPV infections. The high-risk HC2 test correctly detected 388 (57.6%) of the 674 high-risk HPV isolates in clinical specimens, mislabeled 88 (46.8%) of the 188 low-risk HPV isolates as high-risk genotypes, and classified 180 (27.4%) of the 657 “true-negative” samples as being infected by high-risk HPV. It was found to cross-react with 20 low-risk HPV genotypes. We conclude that nested PCR detection of HPV followed by short target DNA sequencing can be used for screening and genotyping to formulate a paradigm in clinical management of HPV-related disorders in a rapidly developing economy

  15. [Genetics and susceptibility to human papillomaviruses: epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a disease model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Gérard

    2010-06-01

    The outcomes of infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV), both oncogenic and non oncogenic, show major interindividual variability The underlying genetic factors and mechanisms are poorly known, but their complexity is illustrated by epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis associated with a high risk of non melanoma skin cancer. This model disease is characterized by abnormal susceptibility to widespread betapapillomaviruses, including HPV-5, a virus associated with EV cancers. Most cases of EV are caused by a mutation that inactivates either of two related genes, EVER1 and EVER2. This inactivation likely compensates for the absence of a viral gene (E5 or E8) essential for HPV pathogenicity. Proteins E5 and E8 interfere with the interaction between EVER proteins and ZnT1, a zinc transporter EV is thus likely to represent a primary defect of intrinsic (constitutive) immunity or innate immunity to betapapillomaviruses, involving modulation of zinc homeostasis upon keratinocyte infection. It remains to be established which cellular genes are involved in intrinsic, innate or acquired immune responses to other human papillomaviruses, including oncogenic genital types.

  16. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Gary M.; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undete...

  17. Human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins as risk factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 34(1), March 2009. 1. Introduction. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that ..... contact and loss of cell polarity (Watson et al 2003; Thomas ..... Arrand JR 1995 Translation of the human papillomavirus type 16.

  18. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  19. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women......Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30-65 years (n=2859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same...

  20. Genetic variations in the DNA replication origins of human papillomavirus family correlate with their oncogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gulden; Biswas-Fiss, Esther E; Biswas, Subhasis B

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) encompass a large family of viruses that range from benign to highly carcinogenic. The crucial differences between benign and carcinogenic types of HPV remain unknown, except that the two HPV types differ in the frequency of DNA replication. We have systematically analyzed the mechanism of HPV DNA replication initiation in low-risk and high-risk HPVs. Our results demonstrate that HPV-encoded E2 initiator protein and its four binding sites in the replication origin play pivotal roles in determining the destiny of the HPV-infected cell. We have identified strain-specific single nucleotide variations in E2 binding sites found only in the high-risk HPVs. We have demonstrated that these variations result in attenuated formation of the E2-DNA complex. E2 binding to these sites is linked to the activation of the DNA replication origin as well as initiation of DNA replication. Both electrophoretic mobility shift assay and atomic force microscopy studies demonstrated that binding of E2 from either low- or high-risk HPVs with variant binding sequences lacked multimeric E2-DNA complex formation in vitro. These results provided a molecular basis of differential DNA replication in the two types of HPVs and pointed to a correlation with the development of cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region

    OpenAIRE

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Brown, Darron; Cuzick, Jack; Ferris, Daron G.; Joura, Elmar A.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Giuliano, Anna R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Huh, Warner; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Luna, Joaquin; Monsonego, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region Methods: Women ages 15–26 and 24–45 years from 5 regions were enrolled in qHPV vaccine clinical trials. Among 10,706 women (placebo arms), 1539 CIN1, 945 CIN2/3, and 24 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) cases were diagnosed by pathology panel consensus. Results: Pred...

  2. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A; Bosch, F Xavier; Brown, Darron; Cuzick, Jack; Ferris, Daron G; Joura, Elmar A; Garland, Suzanne M; Giuliano, Anna R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Huh, Warner; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Kjaer, Susanne K; Luna, Joaquin; Monsonego, Joseph; Muñoz, Nubia; Myers, Evan; Paavonen, Jorma; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Steben, Marc; Wheeler, Cosette M; Perez, Gonzalo; Saah, Alfred; Luxembourg, Alain; Sings, Heather L; Velicer, Christine

    2016-12-01

    We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region METHODS: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were enrolled in qHPV vaccine clinical trials. Among 10,706 women (placebo arms), 1539 CIN1, 945 CIN2/3, and 24 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) cases were diagnosed by pathology panel consensus. Predominant HPV types were 16/51/52/56 (anogenital infection), 16/39/51/52/56 (CIN1), and 16/31/52/58 (CIN2/3). In regions with largest sample sizes, minimal regional variation was observed in 9vHPV type prevalence in CIN1 (~50%) and CIN2/3 (81-85%). Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 25-30% of CIN1 in Latin America and Europe, but 14-18% in North America and Asia. Types 31/33/45/52/58 accounted for 33-38% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (younger women), Europe, and Asia, but 17-18% of CIN2/3 in Latin America (older women) and North America. Non-vaccine HPV types 35/39/51/56/59 had similar or higher prevalence than qHPV types in CIN1 and were attributed to 2-11% of CIN2/3. The 9vHPV vaccine could potentially prevent the majority of CIN1-3, irrespective of geographic region. Notwithstanding, non-vaccine types 35/39/51/56/59 may still be responsible for some CIN1, and to a lesser extent CIN2/3. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A; Bosch, F Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region. Methods: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were...

  4. Porokeratoma: A Possible Association with Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Caseiro Silverio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratoma is a rare, relatively newly described and still unclear entity. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old male patient who presented with four well-defined, verrucous and hyperkeratotic lesions. Microscopically, one of the lesions showed acanthopapillomatosis overlying compact orthokeratosis. Prominent broad and confluent cornoid lamellae were present, with no granular layer and some dyskeratotic keratinocytes. PCR sequencing and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 in the lesion. The association of porokeratoma and HPV infection has not previously been reported.

  5. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  6. Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the pros and cons of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines. There is enough evidence to suggest that the prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing various benign and malignant conditions (including cervical cancers caused by HPV. Even though the vaccine is costly, hypothetical analysis has shown that HPV vaccination will be cost effective in the long run. Therapeutic HPV vaccines used to treat established disease are still undergoing evaluation in clinical studies, and results seem to be encouraging. Although several countries have started mandatory vaccination programs with the prophylactic HPV vaccines, conservatives have voiced concerns regarding the moral impact of such vaccination programs.

  7. Human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Raquel dos Santos; de França, Talita Ribeiro Tenório; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Ribeiro, Camila Maria Beder; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify studies conducted on the oral Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in children. An electronic database search was performed using the terms 'oral HPV' and 'children'. The studies on the prevalence of oral HPV in children worldwide, descriptive studies, case reports, studies on the association of oral HPV and risk factors and transmission of HPV were included. The presence of HPV in oral mucosa of children should be investigated in virtue of the various forms of transmission, and the possibility of sexual abuse eliminated, and also of its possible relation with oral carcinoma pathogenesis in children. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Overview of the Global Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the current status of the vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV in the world. It describes different approaches to expanding the coverage with HPV vaccination at different national levels by inclusion of the vaccine in National Immunization Programmes. Moreover, the principal ways of project financing in different regions of the world are referred to. The results of the implemented vaccination against HPV in the pioneer countries provide the conclusions on the current situation of HPV vaccination in the world and strategies demonstrating its effectiveness.

  9. Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...

  10. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental approval and readiness for HPV vaccine uptake were found to be significantly associated (p =0.000). Since knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination is quite low, there is need to increase awareness about the Vaccination among female adolescents and their mothers. Also, peer educators in schools ...

  11. HUMAN CAPITAL: Meeting the Governmentwide High-Risk Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... An organization s people its human capital are its most critical asset in managing for results. However, the federal government has often acted as if federal employees were costs to be cut rather than assets to be valued...

  12. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  13. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Edmunds, W John

    2008-07-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls against human papillomavirus infection in the United Kingdom. Economic evaluation. UK. Population Schoolgirls aged 12 or older. Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios for a range of vaccination options. Vaccinating 12 year old schoolgirls with a quadrivalent vaccine at 80% coverage is likely to be cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of pound30,000 (euro37,700; $59,163) per QALY gained, if the average duration of protection from the vaccine is more than 10 years. Implementing a catch-up campaign of girls up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective. Vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost effective. A bivalent vaccine with the same efficacy against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 costing pound13- pound21 less per dose (depending on the duration of vaccine protection) may be as cost effective as the quadrivalent vaccine although less effective as it does not prevent anogenital warts. Routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls combined with an initial catch-up campaign up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective in the UK. The results are robust to uncertainty in many parameters and processes. A key influential variable is the duration of vaccine protection.

  14. hpvPDB: An Online Proteome Reserve for Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.

  15. Human papillomavirus type 45 propagation, infection, and neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Wilson, Susan; Mullikin, Brian; Suzich, JoAnn; Meyers, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The organotypic (raft) culture system has allowed the study of the entire differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including virion morphogenesis. We introduced linearized HPV45 genomic DNA into primary keratinocytes, where it recircularized and maintained episomally at a range of 10-50 copies of HPV genomic DNA. Following epithelial stratification and differentiation in organotypic culture, virion morphogenesis occurred. HPV45 virions were purified from raft cultures and were able to infect keratinocytes in vitro. By testing a panel of HPV VLP antisera, we were able to demonstrate that the infection was neutralized not only with human HPV45 VLP-specific antiserum, but also with human HPV18 VLP-specific antiserum, demonstrating serological cross-reactivity between HPV18 and HPV45

  16. Tumor Cell Anaplasia and Multinucleation Are Predictors of Disease Recurrence in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Including Among Just the Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, James S.; Scantlebury, Juliette B.; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L.

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all su...

  17. Evasion of host immune defenses by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Joseph A; Warren, Cody J; Pyeon, Dohun

    2017-03-02

    A majority of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving in the absence of medical interventions. Various innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as physical barriers, have been implicated in controlling early HPV infections. However, if HPV overcomes these host immune defenses and establishes persistence in basal keratinocytes, it becomes very difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. The HPV oncoproteins E5, E6, and E7 are important in regulating host immune responses. These oncoproteins dysregulate gene expression, protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and cellular trafficking of critical host immune modulators. In addition to the HPV oncoproteins, sequence variation and dinucleotide depletion in papillomavirus genomes has been suggested as an alternative strategy for evasion of host immune defenses. Since anti-HPV host immune responses are also considered to be important for antitumor immunity, immune dysregulation by HPV during virus persistence may contribute to immune suppression essential for HPV-associated cancer progression. Here, we discuss cellular pathways dysregulated by HPV that allow the virus to evade various host immune defenses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anal cancer is relatively rare; however, its incidence has increased in recent years. Several risk factors are associated with the development of anal cancer, including age older than 50 years, low-fiber diet, chronic anal fistulas, smoking, multiple partners, anal intercourse practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immunosuppression. However, the presence of human papillomavirus represents the main risk factor for the development of anal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of a series of patients with anal carcinomas diagnosed in Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia-Goiás, as well as the prevalence of human papillomavirus genome in these tumors. Clinical, pathological and socio-demographic data were collected from the respective medical files and paraffin blocks containing anal carcinomas specimens were used for DNA extraction and detection of human papillomavirus, by means of polymerase chain reaction, using short PCR fragment primers. Forty-three cases were selected and had the data analyzed, while 38 cases were tested for human papillomavirus genome detection. Among the evaluated patients, 62.8% were women; 53.4% of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 46.5% of the patients were aged between 60 and 75 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (39.5% and alcoholism (20.9% were recorded in the studied group. Lymph node metastases were detected in 30.2% of cases and 7.0% had distant metastasis. The detection of human papillomavirus DNA was positive in 76% of cases assessed and this was significantly associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Aggressive behavior and advanced stage of anal cancer described in this study highlight the need for preventive measures that contemplate these tumors, including vaccination against human papillomavirus. Resumo: O câncer anal é relativamente raro, entretanto, sua incidência aumentou nos últimos anos. Vários fatores de risco são associados ao

  19. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,

  20. Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C.; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581

  1. Ethyl alcohol: high risk toxin for human healt socially accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Téllez Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most widely used drugs in World wide so it is in Colombia too. The United Nations Organization (UN report on substance abuse 2004, esteem that 2.6000 millions of persons used alcohol occasional, habitual, abuse or addictive way. In Colombia, RUMBOS, the presidential office for drugs addictions esteem that 89.7 % of the students in universities were habitual consumer of alcohol. Alcohol is the first psicoactivas substances use for people than after use illegal substances. When ethyl alcohol is used in permanent and frequent way produced acute and chronic adverses effect on the health. The long run alcohol abusers has adverse effect in the nutricions, neurological, hepatic and teratogenic. The neurological, gastrointestinal, endocrine and acid-base equilibrium area affected in acute ways principally. The social aspects in quite important too alcohol has been related to interfamiliar violence, traffic accidents and violence in general. The high incidence in use and consumption, its toxic effect over human health, its negative social effect and the fact that it´s a legal and social accept substance made alcohol and real public health problem. Its necessary to say "be careful with alcohol in general"

  2. Burden and trends of type-specific human papillomavirus infections and related diseases in the latin america and Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, D Maxwell; Almonte, Maribel; Bruni, Laia; Clifford, Gary; Curado, Maria-Paula; Piñeros, Marion

    2008-08-19

    We present the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital region, oral cavity and pharynx) in terms of incidence and mortality, for the countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region. The region is a high-risk area for cancer of the cervix and, although incidence has declined since the 1960s, projected demographic changes imply that the actual burden of new cases will increase by more than 75% in the next 20 years, while the average and at diagnosis will increase. Approximately 65% of cervical cancer cases and 50% of the high risk lesions are associated with HPV-16 and 18. Incidence rates of other HPV-related cancers are significantly lower. The paper also describes the estimated impact of genital warts and the limited data available on the occurrence of HPV infections of the upper aerodigestive tract in the region.

  3. Human papillomavirus in tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas from Guatemala and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Alicia Rumayor; Jimenez, Laísa Simakawa; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Carlos, Román; Altemani, Albina; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2016-04-01

    A subgroup of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Nevertheless, the prevalence of HPV seems to be variable in different regions and ethnic groups. There are no reports of HPV in tonsillar carcinomas in Guatemala, and data from Brazil are scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare HPV presence in samples of tonsillar SCC from these countries. This study describes the histologic features, expression of p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and HPV by in situ hybridization (ISH) in 13 Guatemalan and 13 Brazilian patients. All cases of tonsillar SCC from Guatemala were positive for p16, 92% expressed HPV by ISH, and 75% corresponded to the high-risk genotype 16/18. From the Brazilian patients, only four expressed p16, and all were negative for HPV. Cases from Guatemala, which were mostly nonkeratinizing SCC and originated from the crypt/reticular epithelium of the tonsil, had high-risk integrated HPV, whereas in Brazilian cases, which were mostly keratinizing SCC that originated from the surface epithelium, there was no association with HPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

  5. Safety and Efficacy Data on Vaccines and Immunization to Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Kash

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, efforts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine to prevent high-risk HPV infections have been at the forefront of modern medical research. HPV causes 530,000 cervical cancer cases worldwide, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in women; a worldwide collaboration among epidemiologists, molecular biologists, vaccinologists, virologists, and clinicians helped lead to the development of two highly effective prophylactive HPV vaccines. The first, Gardasil, is a quadrivalent vaccine made up of recombinant HPV L1 capsid proteins from the two high-risk HPV types (16/18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases as well as two low-risk HPV types (6/11 which are the causative agent for genital warts. The second, Cervarix, is a bivalent vaccine that was FDA approved three years after Gardasil and is also composed of L1 capsid proteins from HPV types 16/18. This review article focuses on the safety and efficacy data of both FDA-approved vaccines, as well as highlighting a few advances in future HPV vaccines that show promise in becoming additional treatment options for this worldwide disease.

  6. High-risk regions and outbreak modelling of tularemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars-Larrive, A; Liu, X; Hjertqvist, M; Sjöstedt, A; Johansson, A; Rydén, P

    2017-02-01

    Sweden reports large and variable numbers of human tularemia cases, but the high-risk regions are anecdotally defined and factors explaining annual variations are poorly understood. Here, high-risk regions were identified by spatial cluster analysis on disease surveillance data for 1984-2012. Negative binomial regression with five previously validated predictors (including predicted mosquito abundance and predictors based on local weather data) was used to model the annual number of tularemia cases within the high-risk regions. Seven high-risk regions were identified with annual incidences of 3·8-44 cases/100 000 inhabitants, accounting for 56·4% of the tularemia cases but only 9·3% of Sweden's population. For all high-risk regions, most cases occurred between July and September. The regression models explained the annual variation of tularemia cases within most high-risk regions and discriminated between years with and without outbreaks. In conclusion, tularemia in Sweden is concentrated in a few high-risk regions and shows high annual and seasonal variations. We present reproducible methods for identifying tularemia high-risk regions and modelling tularemia cases within these regions. The results may help health authorities to target populations at risk and lay the foundation for developing an early warning system for outbreaks.

  7. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) E6/E7 mRNA Testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer for Detection of Cervical High-Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cancer among hrHPV DNA-Positive Women with Normal Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Brink, A. A. T. P.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Skomedal, H.; Karlsen, F.; Morland, E.; Snijders, P. J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether high-risk HPV (hrHPV) mRNA detection by PreTect HPV-Proofer can be used to stratify hrHPV DNA-positive women of different cytology classes for risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (cervical precancer or cancer, i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher [≥CIN2]). A total of 375 women participating in population-based screening, with a GP5+/6+-PCR hrHPV DNA-positive cervical scrape with normal cytology (n = 202), borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) (n = 88), or moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) (n = 85), were enrolled. Cervical scrapes were additionally subjected to HPV16/18/31/33/45 E6/E7 mRNA analysis by PreTect HPV-Proofer (mRNA test). Referral and follow-up policies were based on cytology, hrHPV DNA, and mRNA testing. The primary study endpoint was the number of ≥CIN2 detected within 3 years of follow-up. The mRNA positivity increased with the severity of cytological abnormality, ranging from 32% (64/202) in hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology to 47% (41/88) in BMD and 68% (58/85) in >BMD groups (P cytology, i.e., 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34 to 0.76) in mRNA-positive versus 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.33) in mRNA-negative women. In hrHPV DNA-positive women with BMD or >BMD, the result of the mRNA test did not influence the ≥CIN2 risk. In conclusion, mRNA testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer might be of value to select hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology in need of immediate referral for colposcopy. PMID:22553244

  8. Immune evasion mechanisms of human papillomavirus: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Alina; Riemer, Angelika B

    2018-01-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently sexually transmitted agent in the world. It can cause cervical and other anogenital malignancies, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV has the unique ability to persist in the host's epithelium for a long time-longer than most viruses do-which is necessary to complete its replication cycle. To this end, HPV has developed a variety of immune evasion mechanisms, which unfortunately also favor the progression of the disease from infection to chronic dysplasia and eventually to cancer. This article summarizes the current knowledge about HPV immune evasion strategies. A special emphasis lies in HPV-mediated changes of the antigen processing machinery, which is generating epitopes for T cells and contributes to the detectability of infected cells. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  10. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... 11 RNA was demonstrated in two papillomas. CONCLUSIONS: By analysing 11 epithelial lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas using PCR, DNA ISH and RNA ISH, we found HPV DNA in all investigated transitional epithelium tumours of the lacrimal sac. HPV RNA was present in two of eight epithelial lacrimal...... sac tumours positive for HPV DNA. As RNA degrades fast in paraffin-embedded tissue, only a small fraction of DNA-positive tumours can be expected to be RNA-positive. We therefore suggest that HPV infection is associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas....

  12. Social representations of human papillomavirus in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Carolina; Acosta, Jesús; Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Tovar, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Identifying DNA of Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as a new screening method for cervical cancer control. Conventionally, health education for screening programs is based on scientific information without considering any community cognitive processes. We examine HPV social representations of 124 men and women from diverse educational status living in Bogotá, Colombia. The social representation of HPV involves a series of figurative nuclei derived from meanings linked to scientific information. While women focused on symbols associated to contagion, men focused on its venereal character. Figurative nuclei also included long-term uncertainty, need or urgent treatment, and feelings of imminent death associated with cancer and chronic sexually transmitted infections. The social representation of HPV impeded many participants from clearly understanding written information about HPV transmission, clearance, and cancer risk; they are built into a framework of values, which must be deconstructed to allow women full participation in HPV screening programs.

  13. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  14. Health awareness among young women vaccinated against human papillomavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.

  15. Clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus 16 and 18 antibodies in cervical neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Doo Byung; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Bo Wook; Kang, Eun Suk; Song, Eunseop; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies and high-risk cervical HPV DNA in cervical neoplasia. The study population comprised patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=64), CIN 2 and 3 (n=241), cervical cancer (n=170), and normal control participants (n=975). Cervical HPV DNA tests were performed through nucleic acid hybridization assay tests, and serum anti-HPV 16 and 18 antibodies were measured by competitive immunoassay. The associations of HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibodies were evaluated with demographic characteristics and compared according to the levels of disease severity. Anti-HPV antibodies were also investigated with clinicopathologic parameters, including survival data. Among various demographic characteristics, factors involving sexual behavior had a higher tendency of HPV DNA positivity and HPV seropositivity. Human papillomavirus DNA mean titer and positivity were both increased in patients with cervical neoplasia compared with those with normal control participants, but there was no statistical difference among types of cervical neoplasia. Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies were also able to differentiate cervical neoplasia from a normal control participant and furthermore distinguished CIN 1 from CIN 2 and 3 (odd ratio 2.87 [1.43-5.78], P=.002). In cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity was associated with prolonged disease-free survival according to the univariable analysis (hazard ratio=0.12 [0.01-0.94], P=.044). Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies can distinguish cervical neoplasia from a normal control and has the advantage of identifying high-grade CIN. Moreover, in cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity may be associated with a more favorable prognosis. II.

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  17. HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  19. Laboratory production in vivo of infectious human papillomavirus type 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Leure-Dupree, A.E.; Zaino, R.J.; Weber, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce among patients natural lesions which produce small amounts of virus. Infection of human cell cultures does not lead to the multiplication of virus, which also does not replicate in experimental animals. The authors have developed a unique system for the laboratory production of HPV type 11 (HPV-11). Fragments of human neonatal foreskin were infected with an extract of naturally occurring human vulvar condylomata and grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Later (3 to 5 months), condylomatous cysts developed from those grafts. Nuclei of koilocytotic cells contained large amounts of capsid antigen and intranuclear virions. The experimentally induced condylomata were homogenized, and the virions were extracted and used to infect another generation of human foreskin grafts in athymic mice. The HPV-11 DNA content and infectivity of the natural and experimental condylomata were similar. Extracts of experimental condylomata were subjected to differential ultracentrifugation and sedimentation in CsCl density gradients. A single, opalescent band was visible at a density of 1.34 g/ml. It contained HPV virions with HPV-11 DNA. This report is the first demonstration of the laboratory production of an HPV

  20. History of human papillomavirus, warts and cancer: what do we know today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onon, Toli S

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus has been a cause of infection in humans for thousands of years. The history of papillomaviruses, knowledge of their causative role in benign and malignant disease, and their structural characteristics have led to the development of vaccines to prevent cervical and anogenital cancers. Many questions remain unanswered before HPV vaccines can be optimised; however, the concept of virtual eradication of cervical cancer is not impossible, and remains a realistic aspiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-risk human papilloma virus associated oropharynx squamous cells carcinomas: Clinical, biological implications and therapeutical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihard, S.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The infection of the head and neck epithelium by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a risk factor for cancer onset and development. The incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is currently increasing. These lesions display distinct clinical features. HPV positive patients are often younger and have a smaller history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, but have a history of virus-transmitting sex practices. HPV-related tumours are mainly found in the oropharynx, are more associated to a local lymph node invasion and display a poorly differentiated morphology. Despite these more aggressive features, HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas correlate with an improved local control, disease-free and global survival. It is thought that HPV-driven specific biologic abnormalities underlie higher tumour sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiations. The expression of the HPV E6 and E7 onco-proteins induce cell transformation by interfering with cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis and induce the overexpression of the CDKN2A gene. Therefore, alternative treatments based on therapies targeting these pathways in combination with radiation dose de-escalation could be proposed to HPV-positive patients, if they are properly and reliably identified. (authors)

  2. Human papillomavirus and tumours of the eye region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution......ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution...

  3. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Kaur, M; Gupta, N; Kumar, A; Goyal, K; Sharma, A; Majumdar, M; Gupta, M; Ratho, R K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs) due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) approach. The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01). The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5%) FSW versus 23/98 (23.5%) HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  5. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  6. The role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma: myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Thiele, Oliver; Freier, Kolja

    2014-06-01

    As the traditional risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma, especially tobacco, decline, new potential causative agents become the focus of research. Since the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its importance in carcinogenesis in cervical cancer, a lot of research has been undertaken to define its role in different types of cancer. In the present study, we evaluate the role of high-risk HPV types in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using a systematic review of the current literature. A literature research with the search term "HPV oral squamous cell carcinoma" was performed via PubMed. Results were screened systematically for relevance and classified into the following categories: molecular biology, genetics, clinical aspects, and prevalence. Articles were then further analyzed to assess quality. The literature research led to 527 results, with an overall HPV prevalence of 30.1 % in OSCCs. The most frequently identified subtypes were HPV-16 and HPV-18 (25.4 and 18.1 %, respectively). Prognostic relevance of HPV was discussed controversially. HPV detection via polymerase chain reaction is the most established method today. Molecular changes according to carcinogenic pathways described for cervix carcinoma were not routinely found in OSCC. In general, no definite role of high-risk HPV is currently deducible from the literature. High-risk subtypes 16 and 18 are present in the genome in approximately one third of OSCC. Its role as a causative agent is less clear than the role in oropharyngeal tumors. The infection might not be the cause of carcinogenesis in a significant number of patients but may become proportionally more important with the decrease of the classical risk factors of tobacco and alcohol.

  7. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus in a community setting: feasibility in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alba, Israel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Hubbell, F Allan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hess, James R; Bracho, America; Arias, Caleb; Manetta, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was (a) to assess sensitivity and specificity of self-sampling in a community setting for identifying high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and (b) to assess satisfaction with this collection method among Hispanic women. Lay health workers distributed self-collection kits to Hispanic women in the community. Participants collected an unsupervised vaginal sample at home or in the place and time of their preference. A total of 1,213 Hispanics were included and provided a self-sample for HPV testing and were invited for a Pap smear; 662 (55%) of them had a Pap smear and the first 386 of these also had a physician-collected sample for HPV retesting. Using physician collection as the gold standard, unsupervised self-collection had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 88% for identifying high-risk HPV. Compared with physician sampling, self-sampling in a community setting had comparable sensitivity for identifying a low-grade lesions or greater in the Pap smear (50% versus 55%; P = 0.45) but lower specificity (94% versus 79%). Overall experience with self-sampling was reported as excellent or very good by 64% and only 2.6% reported a poor or fair experience. Unsupervised self-collection of vaginal samples for HPV testing in a community setting has a high sensitivity for identifying high-risk HPV and a high satisfaction among Hispanics. This approach may benefit populations with limited access to health care or with cultural barriers to cervical cancer screening.

  8. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and γδ T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1β, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Risk of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cancer-Prone Individuals: What We Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Ruby; Sauter, Sharon; Butsch Kovacic, Melinda; Nelson, Adam S.; Myers, Kasiani C.; Mehta, Parinda A.; Davies, Stella M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause a significant proportion of cancers worldwide, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the mucosas and skin. High-risk HPV types are associated with SCCs of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV oncogene activities and the biology of SCCs have been intensely studied in laboratory models and humans. What remains largely unknown are host tissue and immune-related factors that determine an individual’s susceptibility to infection and/or carcinogenesis. Such susceptibility factors could serve to identify those at greatest risk and spark individually tailored HPV and SCC prevention efforts. Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder that is in part characterized by extreme susceptibility to SCCs. An increased prevalence of HPV has been reported in affected individuals, and molecular and functional connections between FA, SCC, and HPV were established in laboratory models. However, the presence of HPV in some human FA tumors is controversial, and the extent of the etiological connections remains to be established. Herein, we discuss cellular, immunological, and phenotypic features of FA, placed into the context of HPV pathogenesis. The goal is to highlight this orphan disease as a unique model system to uncover host genetic and molecular HPV features, as well as SCC susceptibility factors. PMID:29361695

  10. Suppression of Antitumor Immune Responses by Human Papillomavirus through Epigenetic Downregulation of CXCL14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Cicchini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs are causally associated with multiple human cancers. Previous studies have shown that the HPV oncoprotein E7 induces immune suppression; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To understand the mechanisms by which HPV deregulates host immune responses in the tumor microenvironment, we analyzed gene expression changes of all known chemokines and their receptors using our global gene expression data sets from human HPV-positive and -negative head/neck cancer and cervical tissue specimens in different disease stages. We report that, while many proinflammatory chemokines increase expression throughout cancer progression, CXCL14 is dramatically downregulated in HPV-positive cancers. HPV suppression of CXCL14 is dependent on E7 and associated with DNA hypermethylation in the CXCL14 promoter. Using in vivo mouse models, we revealed that restoration of Cxcl14 expression in HPV-positive mouse oropharyngeal carcinoma cells clears tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice, but not in Rag1-deficient mice. Further, Cxcl14 reexpression significantly increases natural killer (NK, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cell infiltration into the tumor-draining lymph nodes in vivo. In vitro transwell migration assays show that Cxcl14 reexpression induces chemotaxis of NK, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that CXCL14 downregulation by HPV plays an important role in suppression of antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide a new mechanistic understanding of virus-induced immune evasion that contributes to cancer progression.

  11. Quality Improvement to Demonstrate the Lack of Reliability of the Human Papillomavirus mRNA Assay to Identify Women With Latent Human Papillomavirus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sarah; Brown, Robert E; Nugent, Elizabeth K; Robazetti, Sonia C; Berens, Pamela D; Smith, Judith A

    2018-04-01

    To assess the consistency between human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA testing in women with a history of previous HPV infections diagnosed by HPV DNA assay and the potential effects on follow-up HPV screening. This was a quality improvement study that used data from a pathology laboratory software database reviewed from November 2014 to June 2016 to identify female patients aged 30 years or older with greater than one HPV-positive result, including one or more HPV mRNA assay results and one or more documented HPV DNA assay results for comparison. Previous correlative cytology and colposcopic histopathology were also documented. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' cervical cancer screening guidelines were used to compare potential differences in follow-up recommendations. Four hundred twenty-five charts for female patients 30 years of age or older were identified with one or more prior high-risk HPV infections by DNA assay. There was a 69.3% difference in HPV mRNA results compared with previous HPV DNA-positive results. There was a potential change in follow-up for 71.7% of patients with one prior high-risk-HPV-positive result and 60.0% of patients with two or more prior high-risk HPV-positive results. There were 231 colposcopy reports evaluated in this study. Of these, 62 (26.8%) were abnormal colposcopy reports, including 45 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and two cancers. Twenty-five (40.3%) abnormal colposcopy findings were in patients with a history of at least than two prior HPV DNA-positive results and a report of currently being HPV-negative with the mRNA assay. The HPV mRNA assays are less sensitive for detection of latent HPV infections compared with HPV DNA assays. Based on these data and the potential change in follow-up care, the HPV mRNA assay should not be used for a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. Many pathology laboratories have shifted to using the HPV mRNA assay

  12. The anti-papillomavirus activity of human and bovine lactoferricin.

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    Mistry, Nitesh; Drobni, Peter; Näslund, Jonas; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Jenssen, Håvard; Evander, Magnus

    2007-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. We have previously found that lactoferrin has antiviral activity against HPV-16 and others have demonstrated that lactoferricin, an N-terminal fragment of lactoferrin, has inhibitory activities against several viruses. Two cell lines and two virus types, HPV-5 and HPV-16, were used to study if lactoferrin and lactoferricin could inhibit HPV pseudovirus (PsV) infection. We demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) were both potent inhibitors of HPV-5 and -16 PsV infections. Among the four lactoferricin derivatives we analyzed, a 15 amino acid peptide from bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin) 17-31 was the most potent inhibitor of both HPV-5 and HPV-16 PsV infection. Among the other derivatives, the human lactoferricin (hLfcin) 1-49 showed some antiviral activity against HPV PsV infection while bLfcin 17-42 inhibited only HPV-5 PsV infection in one of the cell lines. When we studied initial attachment of HPV-16, only bLfcin 17-42 and hLfcin 1-49 had an antiviral effect. This is the first time that lactoferricin was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on HPV infection and the antiviral activity differed depending on size, charge and structures of the lactoferricin.

  13. Prevalence and concordance of high-risk papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of women diagnosed with high grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Diez, Elena; Pérez, Sonia; Iñarrea, Amparo; de la Orden, Angel; Castro, Máximo; Almuster, Sheila; Tortolero, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Moises; Montero, Ruben; Ojea, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in men. The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (a) to investigate HR-HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in men, sexual partners of women presenting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN), according to epidemiological characteristics, and (b) to assess type-specific concordance between partners. A total of 125 men were recruited within the first 6 months after HG-CIN diagnosis of their partner. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis shaft, and scrotum were tested with linear array HPV genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Type-specific concordance within 120 couples was studied. Epidemiological factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. SPSS 19 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in males was 50.4% (63/125). HPV16/53/52/51/66/31 were the most frequent genotypes (24/10.4/9.6/8.8/8/7.2%, respectively). Current smoking was associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection in men (38.2% (21/55) vs 60% (42/70), OR 2.4, p=0.025). Among 60 infected couples, 62% shared at least one genotype: 41.7% couples were concordantly HPV16 positive and 18.3% were HPV16 negative (kappa value: 0.21). The proportion of women with the same genotype as their male partner was higher than the proportion of men sharing the same genotype as their female partner: 58.7% (37/63) vs 30.8% (37/120), p<0.0001. Sexual partners of women with HG-CIN are a significant reservoir and vector of HPV infection, a fact that could contribute to making viral clearance more difficult to achieve in their partners after treatment of their HG-CIN lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine

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    Horng-Jyh Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV, a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population, and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  15. Daily self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-12-01

    Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [The change of vaginal lactobacillus in patients with high-risk human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Cui, Y; Wu, F L; Deng, W H

    2016-07-05

    To study the distribution characteristics of lactobacillus in the vaginal mucosa of patients with HPV infection. The planting density of lactobacillus in vaginal secretions of 95 cases with HPV16/18 infection and 90 cases of normal women of childbearing age were observed by oil microscope. And the strains of vaginal lactobacilli in two groups were analyzed using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (Species-specific PCR) and the distribution of vaginal lactobacilli in patients with HPV16/18 infection were investigated. In HPV16/18 infective groups, the planting density of lactobacillus in the vaginal mucosa was 104 (68-186)/HP. It was significantly lower than that of the normal group (234 (161-326)/HP, Pinfection group (Pinfection is associated with the decreased number of lactobacillus and the imbalance of vaginal flora; Lactobacillus iners, lactobacillus crispatus, and lactobacillus gasseri may play a key role in maintaining the vaginal micro ecological environment.

  17. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensen, Signe; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2016-01-01

    of pregnancies or births or use of a hormonal intrauterine device, hormonal therapy or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with risk for HR HPV persistence. A history of genital warts and current use of oral contraceptives or systemic glucocorticoids increased the risk, potentially indicating...

  18. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  19. Modulation of microRNA-mRNA Target Pairs by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoproteins

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    Mallory E. Harden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The E6 and E7 proteins are the major oncogenic drivers encoded by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs. While many aspects of the transforming activities of these proteins have been extensively studied, there are fewer studies that have investigated how HPV E6/E7 expression affects the expression of cellular noncoding RNAs. The goal of our study was to investigate HPV16 E6/E7 modulation of cellular microRNA (miR levels and to determine the potential consequences for cellular gene expression. We performed deep sequencing of small and large cellular RNAs in primary undifferentiated cultures of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs with stable expression of HPV16 E6/E7 or a control vector. After integration of the two data sets, we identified 51 differentially expressed cellular miRs associated with the modulation of 1,456 potential target mRNAs in HPV16 E6/E7-expressing HFKs. We discovered that the degree of differential miR expression in HFKs expressing HPV16 E6/E7 was not necessarily predictive of the number of corresponding mRNA targets or the potential impact on gene expression. Additional analyses of the identified miR-mRNA pairs suggest modulation of specific biological activities and biochemical pathways. Overall, our study supports the model that perturbation of cellular miR expression by HPV16 E6/E7 importantly contributes to the rewiring of cellular regulatory circuits by the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins that contribute to oncogenic transformation.

  20. The Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Gene Alone Is Sufficient To Induce Carcinomas in Transgenic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiyu; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of certain human cancers. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the papillomavirus most frequently associated with cervical cancer in women. The E6 and E7 genes of HPV are expressed in cells derived from these cancers and can transform cells in tissue culture. Animal experiments have demonstrated that E6 and E7 together cause tumors. We showed previously that E6 and E7 together or E7 alone could induce skin tumors in mice when these genes were expressed in the basal epithelia of the skin. In this study, we investigated the role that the E6 gene plays in carcinogenesis. We generated K14E6 transgenic mice, in which the HPV16 E6 gene was directed in its expression by the human keratin 14 promoter (hK14) to the basal layer of the epidermis. We found that E6 induced cellular hyperproliferation and epidermal hyperplasia and caused skin tumors in adult mice. Interestingly, the tumors derived from E6 were mostly malignant, as opposed to the tumors from E7 mice, which were mostly benign. This result leads us to hypothesize that E6 may contribute differently than E7 to HPV-associated carcinogenesis; whereas E7 primarily contributes to the early stages of carcinogenesis that lead to the formation of benign tumors, E6 primarily contributes to the late stages of carcinogenesis that lead to malignancy. PMID:10364340

  1. Optimization of multimeric human papillomavirus L2 vaccines.

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    Subhashini Jagu

    Full Text Available We sought to define the protective epitopes within the amino terminus of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 minor capsid protein L2. Passive transfer of mice with rabbit antisera to HPV16 L2 peptides 17-36, 32-51 and 65-81 provided significant protection against vaginal HPV16 challenge, whereas antisera to 47-66, 108-120 or 373-392 did not. Vaccination with L1 virus-like particles induces a high titer, but generally type-restricted neutralizing antibody response. Conversely, vaccination with L2 11-88, especially multimers thereof, induces antibodies that neutralize a broad range of papillomavirus types, albeit at lower titers than for L1 VLP. With the intent of enhancing the immunogenicity and the breadth of protection by focusing the immune response to the key protective epitopes, we designed L2 fusion proteins consisting of residues ∼11-88 of eight divergent mucosal HPV types 6, 16, 18, 31, 39, 51, 56, 73 (11-88×8 or residues ∼13-47 of fifteen HPV types (13-47×15. The 11-88×8 was significantly more immunogenic than 13-47×15 in Balb/c mice regardless of the adjuvant used, suggesting the value of including the 65-81 protective epitope in the vaccine. Since the L2 47-66 peptide antiserum failed to elicit significant protection, we generated an 11-88×8 construct deleted for this region in each subunit (11-88×8Δ. Mice were vaccinated with 11-88×8 and 11-88×8Δ to determine if deletion of this non-protective epitope enhanced the neutralizing antibody response. However, 11-88×8Δ was significantly less immunogenic than 11-88×8, and even the addition of a known T helper epitope, PADRE, to the construct (11-88×8ΔPADRE failed to recover the immunogenicity of 11-88×8 in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that while L2 47-66 is not a critical protective or T helper epitope, it nevertheless contributes to the immunogenicity of the L2 11-88×8 multimer vaccine.

  2. Differences in incidence and co-occurrence of vaccine and nonvaccine human papillomavirus types in Finnish population before human papillomavirus mass vaccination suggest competitive advantage for HPV33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikukka, Marko; Kaasila, Marjo; Namujju, Proscovia B; Palmroth, Johanna; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To understand likelihood of type replacement after vaccination against the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, we evaluated competition of the seven most common genital HPV types in a population sample of unvaccinated, fertile-aged Finnish women. First trimester sera from two consecutive pregnancies were retrieved from 3,183 Finnish women (mean age, 23.1 years) of whom 42.3% had antibodies to at least one HPV type (6/11/16/18/31/33/45) at the baseline. Antibody positivity to more than one HPV types by the second pregnancy was common among the baseline HPV seropositives. However, compared to baseline HPV-seronegative women, significantly increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs), indicating an increased risk to seroconvert for another HPV type, were consistently noted only for HPV33 among baseline HPV16 or HPV18 antibody (ab)-positive women: HPV(16ab only) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-5.4] and HPV(18ab only) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-6.0), irrespectively of the presence of antibodies to other HPV types at baseline: HPV(16ab) (→) (16&33ab) IRR 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.2) and HPV(18ab) (→) (18&33ab) IRR 3.6 (95% CI 2.1-5.9). Our findings suggest a possible competitive advantage for HPV33 over other genital HPV types in the unvaccinated population. HPV33 should be monitored for type replacement after HPV mass vaccination. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  3. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

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    Mariarosa Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa, whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67% patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS (median 4.59 years compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P=0.0381. In multivariate analysis age (P<0.001, Gleason score (P<0.001, nuclear grading (P=0.002, and HPV status (P=0.034 were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis.

  4. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  5. Characteristics of Adolescents Lacking Provider-Recommended Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Beavis, Anna; Cosides, Olivia; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-01

    To characterize subgroups of teens in the United States for whom provider recommendation is less likely to impact human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation. We analyzed provider-verified vaccination data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen. Poisson regression models identified characteristics associated with the lack of HPV vaccine initiation among teens who received a provider recommendation (n = 12,742). Top qualitative reasons for nonvaccination among teens who received a provider recommendation were summarized (n = 1,688). Among teens with provider recommendations, males, younger teens, and white teens were less likely to initiate vaccination, compared to peers. Believing the vaccine was unnecessary, concerns about safety and lack of vaccine knowledge were common reasons parents did not initiate the vaccine, despite receiving provider recommendations. These key subgroups and barriers to HPV vaccination should be targeted with interventions that complement provider recommendation to achieve broad vaccine uptake in the United States. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

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    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  7. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

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    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  8. Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients

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    Nicosia Rosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. Methods Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV, bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by strand displacement amplification (SDA and the other microorganisms were detected by conventional methods. Results In this cross-sectional study on 857 enrolled outpatients, statistical analyses revealed a significant association of HPV with C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (at high density detection, whereas no correlation was found between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis, Streptococcus agalactiae, yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated only in a few cases both in HPV positive and negative women and no patient was infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Conclusion Although bacterial vaginosis was not significantly associated with HPV, it was more common among the HPV positive women. A significant association between HPV and C. trachomatis was found and interestingly also with U. urealyticum but only at a high colonization rate. These data suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganisms which may have synergistic pathological effects.

  9. [Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Soria, M Josefa; Hernández-González, Amalia; Carrasco-García de León, Sira; del Real-Francia, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Alcañiz, M José; López-Gómez, José L

    2011-04-16

    Primary prevention by prophylactic vaccination against the major cause of cervical cancer, the carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, is now available worldwide. Postlicensure adverse neurological effects have been described. The studies realized after the license are descriptive and limited by the difficulty to obtain the information, despite most of the statistical indexes show that the adverse effects by the vaccine of the HPV are not upper compared with other vaccines, the substimation must be considered. We describe the cases of four young women that developed demyelinating disease after the vaccination of the HPV, with a rank of time between the administration of the dose and the development of the clinical of seven days to a month, with similar symptoms with the successive doses. We have described six episodes coinciding after the vaccination. Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.

  10. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6...... objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6....../11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of ≥12 months' duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those ≥16 years) was ∼1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to ≥1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1...

  11. Challenging 'girls only' publicly funded human papillomavirus vaccination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Victoria G; Gustafson, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    This analysis examines the 'girls only' policy for publicly funded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. Current funding policy in most Canadian provinces covers 'girls only' with the goal of reducing mortality and morbidity rates of HPV-related cervical cancer. Recent studies indicate increasing rates of other HPV-related cancers among cisgender men and women. The HPV vaccine is proving effective against some of these cancers. Statistics on HPV vaccine uptake among individuals with different gender expressions are scarce. Critics argue that a 'girls only' HPV vaccine policy is inequitable. We add to this critique by reflecting on the gender binary embedded in such policies and produced through epidemiological studies that attend differentially to females, reinforcing exclusionary practices that leave out those who form their gender identities across the spectrum. We then draw on deontological (duties-based) and utilitarian (utility-based) frameworks to show that these gendered policies are also unethical. These challenges to the assumptions underlying 'girls only' immunization programmes have implications for nurses and the healthcare system. If we are to advance equitable and ethical health outcomes, we entreat nurses as a collective to mobilize the public to lobby federal, provincial and territorial governments to fund more inclusive HPV vaccination policies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Target cell cyclophilins facilitate human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Patel, Hetalkumar D; Sapp, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB) facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.

  13. Target cell cyclophilins facilitate human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

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    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.

  14. Trends in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer in Israel.

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    Amit, Moran; Ilana, Kaplan; Avraham, Sharon Pelles; Binenbaum, Yoav; Bachar, Gideon; Billan, Salem; Zaarura, Suliman; Czerninski, Rakefet; Bar-Tov, Matan; Maly, Alexander; Akrish, Sharon; Gil, Ziv

    2016-04-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal cancer (SCC) is well established. The annual incidence of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel is considerably lower than that in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of HPV-related oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. The cohort included patients with oropharyngeal SCC who were treated during 1999 to 2011 in Israel. HPV typing was carried out using reverse hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Of the 74 patients analyzed, 25 (33.7%) had detectable HPV DNA. Patients in the HPV-positive group tended to be younger, with a higher rate of nodal metastases, and no history of smoking (p Israel as approximately 3-fold lower than in Western countries. Low exposure to HPV-16, a lower rate of transformation, to cancer or protective genetic factors may contribute to the lower rate of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E274-E278, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

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    Nigel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  16. Maternal Support for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Honduras

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    Langrish, Sarah M.; Cotton, Deborah J.; Simon, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death for women in Latin America, and vaccinating against human papillomavirus (HPV) has the potential to limit this disease. We sought to determine Honduran women's awareness of HPV vaccination and interest in vaccinating their daughters against HPV. Methods We interviewed mothers aged ≥17 at primary care clinics in Honduras. First, we collected demographic information and assessed knowledge related to cervical cancer prevention and awareness of HPV and HPV vaccination. Because most participants were not familiar with HPV, education about the relationships among HPV, sexual activity, and cervical cancer was provided before we asked participants if they would accept HPV vaccination for a 9-year-old daughter. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of vaccine acceptance. Results We interviewed 632 mothers. Only 13% had heard of HPV vaccination before the interview. After education, 91% would accept HPV vaccination for a 9-year-old daughter. Mothers who intended to vaccinate knew more at baseline about cervical cancer prevention than did those who did not endorse vaccination. Demographic characteristics did not predict vaccine acceptance. Conclusions Few Honduran mothers were aware of HPV or HPV vaccination. However, most Honduran mothers would accept HPV vaccination for their daughters after receiving education about the relationship between HPV infection and cervical cancer. Baseline cervical cancer knowledge was associated with vaccine acceptance. PMID:21091226

  17. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

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    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parents, adolescents, children and the human papillomavirus vaccine: a review.

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    Walhart, T

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. It is also the most common STI in adolescents. This highlights a great clinical and public health concern that must be addressed. Parents are typically involved in the clinical decision-making process of vaccine administration to children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding the acceptability of the HPV vaccination as a method to prevent STIs and certain cancers is critical.   To present the three primary themes that emerged from the literature: parental attitudes, parental beliefs and parental barrier towards vaccinating children and adolescents with the HPV vaccine. A literature search using Scopus to determine parents' attitudes and beliefs towards vaccinating children and adolescents with the HPV vaccine. The initial search included the key search terms of 'children' and 'HPV vaccine'. The publication year was limited from 2006 to present. The three themes greatly influence parents' decisions to vaccinate their children. In the future, more attention needs to be paid to specific subgroups. Future research should include groups that are currently under-represented: fathers, urban populations, low socio-economic status and ethnic minorities. Since nurses worldwide are often sought as healthcare resources by parents in the clinical decision-making process, their understanding of the attitude, beliefs and barriers parents have towards the HPV vaccine is paramount. © 2012 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Establishment of human papillomavirus infection requires cell cycle progression.

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    Dohun Pyeon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are DNA viruses associated with major human cancers. As such there is a strong interest in developing new means, such as vaccines and microbicides, to prevent HPV infections. Developing the latter requires a better understanding of the infectious life cycle of HPVs. The HPV infectious life cycle is closely linked to the differentiation state of the stratified epithelium it infects, with progeny virus only made in the terminally differentiating suprabasal compartment. It has long been recognized that HPV must first establish its infection within the basal layer of stratified epithelium, but why this is the case has not been understood. In part this restriction might reflect specificity of expression of entry receptors. However, this hypothesis could not fully explain the differentiation restriction of HPV infection, since many cell types can be infected with HPVs in monolayer cell culture. Here, we used chemical biology approaches to reveal that cell cycle progression through mitosis is critical for HPV infection. Using infectious HPV16 particles containing the intact viral genome, G1-synchronized human keratinocytes as hosts, and early viral gene expression as a readout for infection, we learned that the recipient cell must enter M phase (mitosis for HPV infection to take place. Late M phase inhibitors had no effect on infection, whereas G1, S, G2, and early M phase cell cycle inhibitors efficiently prevented infection. We conclude that host cells need to pass through early prophase for successful onset of transcription of the HPV encapsidated genes. These findings provide one reason why HPVs initially establish infections in the basal compartment of stratified epithelia. Only this compartment of the epithelium contains cells progressing through the cell cycle, and therefore it is only in these cells that HPVs can establish their infection. By defining a major condition for cell susceptibility to HPV infection, these

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in salivary gland diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Chen, Pei-Liang; Tsao, Tang-Yi; Li, Chia-Ru; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Tsai, Stella Chin-Shaw

    2014-10-01

    The roles of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in head and neck neoplasms have been well reported, but little is known about their relationship with salivary gland tumours. This study investigated the presence of HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. The presence of HPV 16/18 and EBV was analysed in archival pathological specimens collected from patients who had undergone surgery for salivary gland diseases. HPV 16/18 DNA was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further confirmed with immunohistochemistry. EBV DNA was detected using real-time PCR. A total of 61 pathological specimens were examined: 39.5% (15/38) of pleomorphic adenomas, 33.3% (3/9) of Warthin's tumours, 33.3% (one of 3) of mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 25.0% (one of 4) of benign lymphoepithelial lesions were positive for high-risk HPV 16/18. Only two Warthin's tumours were positive for EBV. The infectious nature of salivary gland neoplasms was revealed by the high prevalence of HPV infection, and the specific presence of EBV in Warthin's tumours, suggesting a potential role for HPV and EBV in salivary gland diseases. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Human papillomavirus infection among women attending health facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain

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    Hajjaj, Aida A.; Senok, Abiola C.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Issa, Abdulla A.; Arzes, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population. This study was carried out between March to December 2004, which includes cervical scrapings for Pap smear and HPV-DNA testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, obtained from 100 women attending the Gynecology Clinic at Salmaniya Medical Center and Sheikh Sabah Health Center in the Kingdom of Bahrain. We distributed questionnaires that include the sociodemographic data as well as information on risk factors such as smoking, parity, and the contraceptive used. Eleven women (11%) with normal cytology were HPV-positive. The RFLP analysis detected HPV-types 16, 18, 45, 62 and 53. Positive women were significantly older (43.3+-10.1 years) than negatives (36.5+-9.9 years; p=0.04), however, there was no difference in age of first sexual contact (positive: 18.1+-5.7 years versus negative: 20.6 +- 4.4 years). Polygamy, smoking and hormonal contraception was not identified as risk factors, but positive women showed higher parity. In this study on HPV infection in Behrain, the 11% positivity with high risk HPV types, in the presence of normal cytology suggests that in addition to the cervical cancer screening program, offer of HPV testing deserves consideration. (author)

  2. Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in female cervical lesions from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    S. M. B. Cavalcanti

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred-sixty paraffin-embedded specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections by non-isotopic in situ hybridization. The data were compared with histologic diagnosis. Eighty-eight (55 biopsies contained HPV DNA sequences. In low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I, HPV infection was detected in 78.7 of the cases, the benign HPV 6 was the most prevalent type. HPV DNA was detected in 58 of CIN II and CIN III cases and in 41.8 of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Histologically normal women presented 20 of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV was found in 10 of these cases, what may indicate a higher risk of developing CINs and cancer. Twenty-five percent of the infected tissues contained mixed infections. HPV 16 was the most common type infecting the cervix and its prevalence raised significantly with the severity of the lesions, pointing its role in cancer pathogenesis. White women presented twice the cervical lesions of mulatto and African origin women, although HPV infection rates were nearly the same for the three groups (approximately 50. Our results showed that HPV typing by in situ hybridization is a useful tool for distinguishing between low and high risk cervical lesions. Further studies are required to elucidate risk factors associated with HPV infection and progression to malignancy in Brazilian population.

  3. Human papillomavirus genotyping using an automated film-based chip array.

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    Erali, Maria; Pattison, David C; Wittwer, Carl T; Petti, Cathy A

    2009-09-01

    The INFINITI HPV-QUAD assay is a commercially available genotyping platform for human papillomavirus (HPV) that uses multiplex PCR, followed by automated processing for primer extension, hybridization, and detection. The analytical performance of the HPV-QUAD assay was evaluated using liquid cervical cytology specimens, and the results were compared with those results obtained using the digene High-Risk HPV hc2 Test (HC2). The specimen types included Surepath and PreservCyt transport media, as well as residual SurePath and HC2 transport media from the HC2 assay. The overall concordance of positive and negative results following the resolution of indeterminate and intermediate results was 83% among the 197 specimens tested. HC2 positive (+) and HPV-QUAD negative (-) results were noted in 24 specimens that were shown by real-time PCR and sequence analysis to contain no HPV, HPV types that were cross-reactive in the HC2 assay, or low virus levels. Conversely, HC2 (-) and HPV-QUAD (+) results were noted in four specimens and were subsequently attributed to cross-contamination. The most common HPV types to be identified in this study were HPV16, HPV18, HPV52/58, and HPV39/56. We show that the HPV-QUAD assay is a user friendly, automated system for the identification of distinct HPV genotypes. Based on its analytical performance, future studies with this platform are warranted to assess its clinical utility for HPV detection and genotyping.

  4. The CD63-Syntenin-1 Complex Controls Post-Endocytic Trafficking of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses.

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    Gräßel, Linda; Fast, Laura Aline; Scheffer, Konstanze D; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Spoden, Gilles A; Tenzer, Stefan; Boller, Klaus; Bago, Ruzica; Rajesh, Sundaresan; Overduin, Michael; Berditchevski, Fedor; Florin, Luise

    2016-08-31

    Human papillomaviruses enter host cells via a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway involving tetraspanin proteins. However, post-endocytic trafficking required for virus capsid disassembly remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the early trafficking pathway of internalised HPV particles involves tetraspanin CD63, syntenin-1 and ESCRT-associated adaptor protein ALIX. Following internalisation, viral particles are found in CD63-positive endosomes recruiting syntenin-1, a CD63-interacting adaptor protein. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence experiments indicate that the CD63-syntenin-1 complex controls delivery of internalised viral particles to multivesicular endosomes. Accordingly, infectivity of high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 31 as well as disassembly and post-uncoating processing of viral particles was markedly suppressed in CD63 or syntenin-1 depleted cells. Our analyses also present the syntenin-1 interacting protein ALIX as critical for HPV infection and CD63-syntenin-1-ALIX complex formation as a prerequisite for intracellular transport enabling viral capsid disassembly. Thus, our results identify the CD63-syntenin-1-ALIX complex as a key regulatory component in post-endocytic HPV trafficking.

  5. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

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    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  6. Detection of sexually transmitted infection and human papillomavirus in negative cytology by multiplex-PCR

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    Chung Hyun-Jae

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and 15 species that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs in negative cytology. In addition, we compared the diagnostic performance of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR with widely available techniques used to detect HPV. Methods We recruited 235 women of reproductive age who had negative cytology findings in a liquid-based cervical smear. STIs were identified by multiplex PCR, and HPV genotypes by multiplex PCR, hybrid capture 2, and DNA microaray; discordant results were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Approximately 96.6% of patients with negative cytology results were positive for pathogens that cause STIs. The pathogens most frequently detected were Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. The incidence of HPV in negative cytology was 23.3%. Low-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Chalmaydia trachomatis, and high-risk HPV infection was significantly correlated with Group β streptococcus. The analytical sensitivities of the multiplex PCR and DNA microarray were higher than 80%, and the analytical specificity was nearly 100% for all tests. Conclusions Multiplex PCR yielded results that most of patients with negative cytology were positive for pathogens that cause STIs, and were more similar to that of DNA microarray, than that of hybrid capture 2 in terms of analytical sensitivity and prediction value of HPV infection.

  7. Low prevalence of human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in Queensland, Australia.

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    Emmett, Sarah; Jenkins, Glenn; Boros, Samuel; Whiteman, David C; Panizza, Benedict; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-09-01

    While human papillomavirus (HPV) is an accepted risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), its aetiological role in oral cavity SCC remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the HPV prevalence in an Australian population. DNA was extracted from 63 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour specimens histologically confirmed as SCC of the oral cavity, diagnosed during 2006-2012. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. HPV presence was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were typed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess p16 INK4A , p53, pRB, Ki67, Cyclin D1 and p21 WAF1 expression. Five of the 63 tumours (8%) were positive for HPV DNA (three HPV-16 positive and two HPV-18 positive). Two tumours overexpressed p16 INK4A (3%) and one of these was also HPV positive. Overexpression of Cyclin D1 correlated significantly with tumour recurrence (P = 0.029) and death (P = 0.002). This study has identified a low prevalence of high-risk HPV in Queensland, Australia. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. [Usefulness of human papillomavirus testing in anal intraepithelial neoplasia screening in a risk behaviour population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Frieyro-Elicegui, Marta; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Redondo, Maximino; de-Troya Martín, Magdalena

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of intraepithelial anal neoplasia is increasing in certain risk behaviour groups, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is involved in its pathogenesis. The systematic use of anal cytology, and more recently HPV detection by hybrid capture and genotyping, have been introduced into screening programs in recent decades. A retrospective cohort study was carried out on individuals with risk behaviours of developing intraepithelial anal neoplasia and who attended Sexually Transmitted Infections clinics in the Dermatology area of the Hospital Costa del Sol from January 2010 to December 2012. The intraepithelial anal neoplasia screening was performed using anal cytology and HPV genotyping. Half (50%) of the study population were HIV positive. A high frequency of anal dysplasia and presence of HPV in cytology (82.1%) and genotype (79%) was found. A statistically significant association (P<.005) was obtained between the presence of high-risk HPV genotypes and the presence of high-grade dysplasia in the second directed cytology. HPV genotyping enabled 17 cases (22%) of severe dysplasia to be identified that were under-diagnosed in the first cytology. Cases of high-grade dysplasia can be under-diagnosed by a first anal cytology. Detection of HPV can supplement this procedure, leading to the identification of those patients most at risk of developing high-grade anal dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study

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    M.O.O Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788, ranging from 25% (NORMAL to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  10. Analisis Filogenetik Gen L1 Human Papillomavirus 16 pada Penderita Kanker Serviks di Bandung

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    Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV can lead to cervical cancer. Various hrHPV genotypes have been identified and HPV genotype 16 is the most common genotypes that infect cervical cancer. HPV L1 fragment can identify the origin of HPV. The purpose of this study was to explore the origins of HPV-16 by making a phylogenetic tree. This study used analytical descriptive method and was was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Health Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung in the period of February to August 2013. Biopsy from cervical cancer patient was donated by the Department of Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Isolation of DNA was prepared from tissue biopsies of cervical cancer and L1 fragment was amplified with the specific primer. Infection with HPV-16 was confirmed by Linear Array test (Roche design. The sequence then was constructed using the phylogenetic program (MEGA5. Results showed that the isolate from patient with cervical cancer from Bandung was in one subgroup with HPV from Asia and East Asia. In conclusion, cluster HPV of Bandung is in the same strain as the strain in Asia and East Asia

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infections and Cancer Stem Cells of Tumors from the Uterine Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jacqueline; Ruíz, Graciela; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Gariglio, Patricio; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Different rate of development of productive infections (as low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), or high grade lesions and cervical malignant tumors associated with infections of the Transformation zone (TZ) by High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), could suggest that different epithelial host target cells could exist. If there is more than one target cell, their differential infection by HR-HPV may play a central role in the development of cervical cancer. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support in several solid tumors, including cervical cancer (CC). According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, CC can now be considered a disease in which stem cells of the TZ are converted to cervical cancer stem cells by the interplay between HR-HPV viral oncogenes and cellular alterations that are thought to be finally responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Current studies of CSC could provide novel insights regarding tumor initiation and progression, their relation with viral proteins and interplay with the tumor micro-environment. This review will focus on the biology of cervical cancer stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cervical tumor development. PMID:23341858

  12. Co-carcinogenesis: Human Papillomaviruses, Coal Tar Derivatives, and Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

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    Harry W. Haverkos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the fourth most common cancers among women worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs play a major role in the etiology of CC, with several lines of epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting a role for non-viral (co-carcinogens and host genetic factors in controlling the risk for progression to neoplasia among HPV-infected individuals. The role of co-carcinogens in the development of CC is significant in the developing world where poor sanitation and other socio-economic conditions increase the infectious cancer burden. Here, we discuss how exposure to environmental factors such as coal tar derivatives from cigarette smoking, tar-based sanitary products, and inhaled smoke from biomass-burning stoves, could activate host pathways involved in development of HPV-associated squamous cell cancers in resource-limited settings. Understanding interactions between these pathways with certain oncogenic HPV genotypes may guide implementation of strategies for control and treatment of HPV-associated cancers that develop in populations at high risk of exposure to various co-carcinogens.

  13. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  14. Detection and analysis of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 homologous DNA sequences in oral lesions.

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    Wen, S; Tsuji, T; Li, X; Mizugaki, Y; Hayatsu, Y; Shinozaki, F

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 was investigated in oral lesions of the population of northeast China including squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), candida leukoplakias, lichen planuses and papillomas, by southern blot hybridization with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified HPV16 and 18 E6 DNA was analyzed by cycle sequence. HPV DNA was detected in 14 of 45 SCCs (31.1%). HPV18 E6 DNA and HPV16 E6. DNA were detected in 24.4% and 20.0% of SCCs. respectively. Dual infection of both HPV 16 and HPV 18 was detected in 6 of 45 SCCs (13.3%), but not in other oral lesions. HPV 18 E6 DNA was also detected in 2 of 3 oral candida leukoplakias, but in none of the 5 papillomas. Our study indicated that HPV 18 infection might be more frequent than HPV 16 infection in oral SCCs in northeast Chinese, dual infection of high risk HPV types was restricted in oral SCCs, and that HPV infection might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candida leukoplakia.

  15. Papillomavirus E6 proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howie, Heather L.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2009-01-01

    The papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses that encode approximately eight genes, and require the host cell DNA replication machinery for their viral DNA replication. Thus papillomaviruses have evolved strategies to induce host cell DNA synthesis balanced with strategies to protect the cell from unscheduled replication. While the papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes are directly involved in viral replication by binding to and unwinding the origin of replication, the E6 and E7 proteins have auxillary functions that promote proliferation. As a consequence of disrupting the normal checkpoints that regulate cell cycle entry and progression, the E6 and E7 proteins play a key role in the oncogenic properties of human papillomaviruses with a high risk of causing anogenital cancers (HR HPVs). As a consequence, E6 and E7 of HR HPVs are invariably expressed in cervical cancers. This article will focus on the E6 protein and its numerous activities including inactivating p53, blocking apoptosis, activating telomerase, disrupting cell adhesion, polarity and epithelial differentiation, altering transcription and reducing immune recognition

  16. The PTPN14 Tumor Suppressor Is a Degradation Target of Human Papillomavirus E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalmás, Anita; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Basukala, Om; Massimi, Paola; Mittal, Suruchi; Kónya, József; Banks, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways ensuring cell growth is essential for the proliferative competence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells. Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are key regulators of cellular growth control pathways. A recently identified potential cellular target of HPV E7 is the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, which is a potential tumor suppressor and is linked to the control of the Hippo and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we show that the E7 proteins of both high-risk and low-risk mucosal HPV types can interact with PTPN14. This interaction is independent of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and involves residues in the carboxy-terminal region of E7. We also show that high-risk E7 induces proteasome-mediated degradation of PTPN14 in cells derived from cervical tumors. This degradation appears to be independent of cullin-1 or cullin-2 but most likely involves the UBR4/p600 ubiquitin ligase. The degree to which E7 downregulates PTPN14 would suggest that this interaction is important for the viral life cycle and potentially also for the development of malignancy. In support of this we find that overexpression of PTPN14 decreases the ability of HPV-16 E7 to cooperate with activated EJ-ras in primary cell transformation assays. IMPORTANCE This study links HPV E7 to the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathways. PTPN14 is classified as a potential tumor suppressor protein, and here we show that it is very susceptible to HPV E7-induced proteasome-mediated degradation. Intriguingly, this appears to use a mechanism that is different from that employed by E7 to target pRb. Therefore, this study has important implications for our understanding of the molecular basis for E7 function and also sheds important light on the potential role of PTPN14 as a tumor suppressor. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767

  18. Clinical Effect of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Patients With Cervical Cancer Undergoing Primary Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chao, Angel; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: A total of 1,010 patients with cervical cancer after radiotherapy between 1993 and 2000 were eligible for this study. The HPV genotypes were determined by a genechip, which detects 38 types of HPV. The patient characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed using the Cox regression hazard model and classification and regression tree decision tree method. Results: A total of 25 genotypes of HPV were detected in 992 specimens (98.2%). The leading 8 types were HPV16, 58, 18, 33, 52, 39, 31, and 45. These types belong to two high-risk HPV species: alpha-7 (HPV18, 39, 45) and alpha-9 (HPV16, 31, 33, 52, 58). Three HPV-based risk groups, which were independent of established prognostic factors, such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, age, pathologic features, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, and lymph node metastasis, were associated with the survival outcomes. The high-risk group consisted of the patients without HPV infection or the ones infected with the alpha-7 species only. Patients co-infected with the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species belonged to the medium-risk group, and the others were included in the low-risk group. Conclusion: The results of the present study have confirmed the prognostic value of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. The different effect of the alpha-7 and alpha-9 species on the radiation response deserves additional exploration.

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein bodies cause tumour regression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Mark; Öhlschläger, Peter; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alloza, Leonor; Marzábal, Pablo; Meyers, Ann E; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize γ-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs

  20. Etiological role of human papillomavirus infection for inverted papilloma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Doorbar, John; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Maeda, Yuji; Miyagi, Tohru; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2011-02-01

    The status of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in urothelial inverted papilloma was examined in the present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from eight cases of inverted papilloma of the bladder were studied. The presence of HPV-DNA was examined by modified GP5/6+PCR using archival tissue sections by microdissection. HPV genotype was determined with a Hybri-Max HPV genotyping kit. Immunohistochemical analysis for p16-INK4a, mcm7, HPV-E4, and L1, and in situ hybridization for the HPV genome were performed. HPV was detected in seven of eight cases (87.5%) of inverted papilloma. Three cases were diagnosed as inverted papilloma with atypia, while the remaining five were typical cases. HPV-18 was detected in two cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia, and HPV-16 was detected in four cases, including one inverted papilloma with atypia. Multiple HPV type infection was detected in one typical case and one atypical case. High-risk HPV was present in all HPV-positive cases. Cellular proteins, p16-INK4a and mcm7, which are surrogate markers for HPV-E7 expression, were detected in all HPV-positive cases, and their levels were higher in inverted papilloma with atypia than in typical cases. In contrast, HPV-E4 and L1, which are markers for HPV propagation, were observed in some parts of the typical inverted papilloma tissue. High-risk HPV infection may be one of the causes of urothelial inverted papilloma, and inverted papilloma with atypia may have malignant potential. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%, being 38 (54.2% reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71% neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5% ASC-US and 8 (11.41% ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol, respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%, 19 (27.1%, 3 (27.1%, 16 (22.8%, and 1 (1.4%. A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P=.0021. High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P=.031. Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 3846 HIV-negative (89.6%) ICC, but HIV-positive ICC harbored significantly more multiple HPV infections (PR = 1.75, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18 to 2.58), which were significantly more prevalent in ICC tested from cells than from biopsies. HPV16 was the most frequently detected type in HIV-positive ICC (42.5%), followed by HPV18 (22.2%), HPV45 (14.4%), and HPV35 (7.1%). Nevertheless, HIV-positive ICC were significantly less frequently infected with HPV16 than HIV-negative ICC (PR = 0.88, 95% confidence intervals: 0.79 to 0.99). Other high-risk types were significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive ICC, but only for HPV18 was there a significantly higher prevalence of both single and multiple infections in HIV-positive ICC. Increases for other high-risk types were primarily accounted for by multiple infections. The proportion of HPV-positive ICC estimated attributable to HPV16/18 (71.8% in HIV positive, 73.4% in HIV negative) or HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (88.8%, 89.5%) was not affected by HIV. Conclusions: HIV alters the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types, but prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines may nevertheless prevent a similar proportion of ICC, irrespective of HIV infection. PMID:27331659

  4. The role of human papillomavirus in p16-positive oral cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrov, Simone; Cornall, Alyssa M; Young, Richard J; Koo, Kendrick; Angel, Christopher; Wiesenfeld, David; Rischin, Danny; Garland, Suzanne M; McCullough, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), to assess whether the virus was transcriptionally active and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16-negative tumours. Laser capture microdissection of the FFPE OSCC tissues was undertaken to isolate invasive tumour tissue. DNA was extracted and tested for high-risk HPV types using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 SPF10 consensus primers, and a real-time PCR method targeting HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 region. Genotyping of HPV-positive cases was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay (Inno-LiPA). RNAScope ® (a chromogenic RNA in situ hybridization assay) was utilized to detect E6/E7 mRNA of known high-risk HPV types for detection of transcriptionally active virus. HPV DNA was found in 3 OSCC cases, all of which were p16 IHC-positive. Two cases were genotyped as HPV-16 and one as HPV-33. Only one of the HPV-16 cases was confirmed to harbour transcriptionally active virus via HPV RNA ISH. We have shown that the presence of transcriptionally active HPV rarely occurs in OSCC and that p16 is not an appropriate surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC cases. We propose that non-viral mechanisms are responsible for the majority of IHC p16 overexpression in OSCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human papillomavirus genome integration in squamous carcinogenesis: what have next-generation sequencing studies taught us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with ∼5% of all human cancers, including a range of squamous cell carcinomas. Persistent infection by high-risk HPVs (HRHPVs) is associated with the integration of virus genomes (which are usually stably maintained as extrachromosomal episomes) into host chromosomes. Although HRHPV integration rates differ across human sites of infection, this process appears to be an important event in HPV-associated neoplastic progression, leading to deregulation of virus oncogene expression, host gene expression modulation, and further genomic instability. However, the mechanisms by which HRHPV integration occur and by which the subsequent gene expression changes take place are incompletely understood. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of both RNA and DNA has allowed powerful interrogation of the association of HRHPVs with human disease, including precise determination of the sites of integration and the genomic rearrangements at integration loci. In turn, these data have indicated that integration occurs through two main mechanisms: looping integration and direct insertion. Improved understanding of integration sites is allowing further investigation of the factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants during disease progression. Furthermore, advanced approaches to the generation of genome-wide samples have given novel insights into the three-dimensional interactions within the nucleus, which could act as another layer of epigenetic control of both virus and host transcription. It is hoped that further advances in NGS techniques and analysis will not only allow the examination of further unanswered questions regarding HPV infection, but also direct new approaches to treating HPV-associated human disease. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John

  6. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  7. Adenocarcinoma in situ and associated human papillomavirus type distribution observed in two clinical trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ault, Kevin A; Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2011-01-01

    , we include all women who had at least one follow-up visit postenrollment. Healthy women (17,622) aged 15-26 with no history of HPV disease and a lifetime number of less than five sex partners (average follow-up of 3.6 years) were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at day 1, months 2......The primary objective of this report is to describe the detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and associated human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution that was observed in the context of two phase 3 clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. In this intention-to-treat analysis......, and 6. Women underwent colposcopy and biopsy according to a Papanicolaou triage algorithm. All tissue specimens were tested for 14 HPV types and were adjudicated by a pathology panel. During the trials, 22 women were diagnosed with AIS (six vaccine and 16 placebo). There were 25 AIS lesions in total...

  8. Preventing human papillomavirus-related cancers: we are all in this together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Sarah; Scarinci, Isabel; Kimberlin, David; Straughn, J Michael

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus-related cancers, which include cervical, vulvovaginal, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, are on the rise in the United States. Although the human papillomavirus vaccine has been on the market for 10 years, human papillomavirus vaccination rates are well below national goals. Research identified many barriers and facilitators to human papillomavirus vaccination, and provider recommendation remains the most important factor in parental and patient decisions to vaccinate. While much of the burden of human papillomavirus vaccine provision falls on pediatricians and primary care providers, they cannot do it alone. As clinicians who care for a large proportion of human papillomavirus-related conditions, obstetrician-gynecologists and other women's health care providers must share the responsibility for vaccination of eligible patients. Obstetrician-gynecologists can support the efforts to eradicate human papillomavirus-related disease in their patients and their families via multiple avenues, including providing the human papillomavirus vaccine and being community leaders in support of vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Unselected SurePath Samples Using the APTIMA HPV mRNA Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte M

    2013-01-01

    The APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay detects E6/E7 mRNA from 14 human papillomavirus genotypes. Horizon was a population-based split-sample study among well-screened women, with an aim to compare APTIMA, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and liquid-based cytology (LBC) using SurePath samples. APTIMA...

  10. Human papillomavirus infects placental trophoblast and Hofbauer cells, but appears not to play a causal role in miscarriage and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Lea M M; Leonhard, Anne K; Widen Zakhary, Carina; Jørgensen, Annemette; Blaakaer, Jan; Dybkaer, Karen; Baandrup, Ulrik; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Suzette

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an association between human papillomavirus infection and both spontaneous abortion and spontaneous preterm delivery was suggested. However, the reported human papillomavirus prevalence in pregnant women varies considerably and reliable conclusions are difficult. We aimed to investigate human papillomavirus infection in placental tissue of a Danish study cohort. Furthermore, we studied the cellular localization of human papillomavirus. In this prospective case-control study, placental tissue was analyzed for human papillomavirus infection by nested PCR in the following four study groups: full-term delivery (n = 103), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 69), elective abortion (n = 54), and spontaneous abortion (n = 44). Moreover, human papillomavirus cellular target was identified using in situ hybridization. Human papillomavirus prevalence in placental tissue was 8.7% in full-term deliveries, 8.8% in spontaneous preterm deliveries, 10.9% in spontaneous abortions, and 20.4% in elective abortions. Twelve different human papillomavirus types were detected, and placental human papillomavirus infection was associated to a disease history of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus DNA was identified in trophoblast cells, cells of the placental villi mesenchyme including Hofbauer cells, and in parts of the encasing endometrium. Placental human papillomavirus infections are not likely to constitute a risk factor for spontaneous preterm labor or spontaneous abortions in the Danish population, although an effect of human papillomavirus DNA in placental cells cannot be excluded. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Herpes simplex virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Woodham, Andrew W; Jang, Julie K; Taylor, Julia R; Brand, Heike E; Kelly, Thomas J; Jung, Jae U; Da Silva, Diane M; Yuan, Weiming; Kast, W Martin

    2016-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was originally implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer, and although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is now the accepted causative agent, the epidemiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers persists. The annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) has been shown to mediate infectious HPV type 16 (HPV16) uptake by human keratinocytes, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous A2t ligand, inhibits HPV16 uptake and infection. Interestingly, HSV infection induces a sustained downregulation of SLPI in epithelial cells, which we hypothesized promotes HPV16 infection through A2t. Here, we show that in vitro infection of human keratinocytes with HSV-1 or HSV-2, but not with an HSV-1 ICP4 deletion mutant that does not downregulate SLPI, leads to a >70% reduction of SLPI mRNA and a >60% decrease in secreted SLPI protein. Consequently, we observed a significant increase in the uptake of HPV16 virus-like particles and gene transduction by HPV16 pseudovirions (two- and 2.5-fold, respectively) in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected human keratinocyte cell cultures compared with uninfected cells, whereas exogenously added SLPI reversed this effect. Using a SiMPull (single-molecule pulldown) assay, we demonstrated that endogenously secreted SLPI interacts with A2t on epithelial cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These results suggested that ongoing HSV infection and resultant downregulation of local levels of SLPI may impart a greater susceptibility for keratinocytes to HPV16 infection through the host cell receptor A2t, providing a mechanism that may, in part, provide an explanation for the aetiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers.

  12. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygard, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  13. Role of Human Papillomavirus in Penile Carcinomas Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Laia; Cubilla, Antonio; Halec, Gordana; Kasamatsu, Elena; Quirós, Beatriz; Masferrer, Emili; Tous, Sara; Lloveras, Belén; Hernández-Suarez, Gustavo; Lonsdale, Ray; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Alejo, Maria; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Laco, Jan; Guimerà, Nuria; Poblet, Enrique; Lombardi, Luis E; Bergeron, Christine; Clavero, Omar; Shin, Hai-Rim; Ferrera, Annabelle; Felix, Ana; Germar, Julieta; Mandys, Vaclav; Clavel, Christine; Tzardi, Maria; Pons, Luis E; Wain, Vincent; Cruz, Eugenia; Molina, Carla; Mota, Jose D; Jach, Robert; Velasco, Julio; Carrilho, Carla; López-Revilla, Ruben; Goodman, Marc T; Quint, Wim G; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bravo, Ignacio; Pawlita, Michael; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Invasive penile cancer is a rare disease with an approximately 22 000 cases per year. The incidence is higher in less developed countries, where penile cancer can account for up to 10% of cancers among men in some parts of Africa, South America, and Asia. To describe the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence, HPV type distribution, and detection of markers of viral activity (ie, E6*I mRNA and p16(INK4a)) in a series of invasive penile cancers and penile high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSILs) from 25 countries. A total of 85 penile HGSILs and 1010 penile invasive cancers diagnosed from 1983 to 2011 were included. After histopathologic evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping were performed using the SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system, v.1 (Laboratory Biomedical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands). HPV DNA-positive cases were additionally tested for oncogene E6*I mRNA and all cases for p16(INK4a) expression, a surrogate marker of oncogenic HPV activity. HPV DNA prevalence and type distributions were estimated. HPV DNA was detected in 33.1% of penile cancers (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2-36.1) and in 87.1% of HGSILs (95% CI, 78.0-93.4). The warty-basaloid histologic subtype showed the highest HPV DNA prevalence. Among cancers, statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed only by geographic region and not by period or by age at diagnosis. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both HPV-positive cancers (68.7%) and HGSILs (79.6%). HPV6 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.7%). The p16(INK4a) upregulation and mRNA detection in addition to HPV DNA positivity were observed in 69.3% of HGSILs, and at least one of these HPV activity markers was detected in 85.3% of cases. In penile cancers, these figures were 22.0% and 27.1%, respectively. About a third to a fourth of penile cancers were related to HPV when considering HPV DNA detection alone or adding an HPV

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Variant Analysis of Human Papillomavirus 16 Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Pascal; Meijer, Chris J L M; King, Audrey J

    2017-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a strongly conserved DNA virus, high-risk types of which can cause cervical cancer in persistent infections. The most common type found in HPV-attributable cancer is HPV16, which can be subdivided into four lineages (A to D) with different carcinogenic properties. Studies have shown HPV16 sequence diversity in different geographical areas, but only limited information is available regarding HPV16 diversity within a population, especially at the whole-genome level. We analyzed HPV16 major variant diversity and conservation in persistent infections and performed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) comparison between persistent and clearing infections. Materials were obtained in the Netherlands from a cohort study with longitudinal follow-up for up to 3 years. Our analysis shows a remarkably large variant diversity in the population. Whole-genome sequences were obtained for 57 persistent and 59 clearing HPV16 infections, resulting in 109 unique variants. Interestingly, persistent infections were completely conserved through time. One reinfection event was identified where the initial and follow-up samples clustered differently. Non-A1/A2 variants seemed to clear preferentially ( P = 0.02). Our analysis shows that population-wide HPV16 sequence diversity is very large. In persistent infections, the HPV16 sequence was fully conserved. Sequencing can identify HPV16 reinfections, although occurrence is rare. SNP comparison identified no strongly acting effect of the viral genome affecting HPV16 infection clearance or persistence in up to 3 years of follow-up. These findings suggest the progression of an early HPV16 infection could be host related. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is the predominant type found in cervical cancer. Progression of initial infection to cervical cancer has been linked to sequence properties; however, knowledge of variants circulating in European populations, especially with longitudinal follow-up, is

  15. Smoking and subsequent human papillomavirus infection: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Ronald C; Pawlita, Michael; Wilson, Lauren; Castle, Philip E; Waterboer, Tim; Gravitt, Patti E; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection advancing to cervical precancer and cancer, but its role earlier in the natural history is less clear. Smoking is inversely associated with possessing HPV antibodies from a past infection suggesting that smoking may influence acquiring subsequent infections. In a cohort of 1976 U.S. women, we evaluate whether reduced antibodies to HPV-16 is a mechanism for smoking's role on acquiring a subsequent HPV-16 infection, through the analytic technique of causal mediation analysis. We posit a causal model and estimate two counterfactually defined effects: a smoking impaired antibody-mediated indirect effect and a nonmediated direct effect representing all other potential mechanisms of smoking. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had increased odds of HPV-16 infection by the antibody-mediated indirect effect (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.73); the estimated direct effect was very imprecise (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.26-1.13). We observed a stronger estimated indirect effect among women who smoked at least half a pack of cigarettes daily (OR = 1.61, 95% CI, 1.27-2.15) than among women who smoked less than that threshold (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.94-1.44). This is the first study to directly test the mechanism underlying smoking as an HPV cofactor. The results support current smoking as a risk factor earlier in the natural history of HPV and are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking increases the risk of a subsequent infection by reducing immunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Oral human papillomavirus is common in individuals with Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Sharon L; Wells, Susanne I; Zhang, Xue; Hoskins, Elizabeth E; Davies, Stella M; Myers, Kasiani C; Mueller, Robin; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R; Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Brown, Darron R; Mehta, Parinda A; Butsch Kovacic, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disorder resulting in a loss of function of the Fanconi anemia-related DNA repair pathway. Individuals with Fanconi anemia are predisposed to some cancers, including oropharyngeal and gynecologic cancers, with known associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population. As individuals with Fanconi anemia respond poorly to chemotherapy and radiation, prevention of cancer is critical. To determine whether individuals with Fanconi anemia are particularly susceptible to oral HPV infection, we analyzed survey-based risk factor data and tested DNA isolated from oral rinses from 126 individuals with Fanconi anemia and 162 unaffected first-degree family members for 37 HPV types. Fourteen individuals (11.1%) with Fanconi anemia tested positive, significantly more (P = 0.003) than family members (2.5%). While HPV prevalence was even higher for sexually active individuals with Fanconi anemia (17.7% vs. 2.4% in family; P = 0.003), HPV positivity also tended to be higher in the sexually inactive (8.7% in Fanconi anemia vs. 2.9% in siblings). Indeed, having Fanconi anemia increased HPV positivity 4.9-fold (95% CI, 1.6-15.4) considering age and sexual experience, but did not differ by other potential risk factors. Our studies suggest that oral HPV is more common in individuals with Fanconi anemia. It will be essential to continue to explore associations between risk factors and immune dysfunction on HPV incidence and persistence over time. HPV vaccination should be emphasized in those with Fanconi anemia as a first step to prevent oropharyngeal cancers, although additional studies are needed to determine whether the level of protection it offers in this population is adequate. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Genome Integration and Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinatti, L M; Walline, H M; Carey, T E

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens. Studies of large numbers of early cervical lesions revealed frequent viral integration into gene-poor regions of the host genome with comparatively rare integration into cellular genes, suggesting that integration is a stochastic event and that site of integration may be largely a function of chance. However, more recent studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) suggest that integration may represent an additional oncogenic mechanism through direct effects on cancer-related gene expression and generation of hybrid viral-host fusion transcripts. In HNSCC cell lines as well as primary tumors, integration into cancer-related genes leading to gene disruption has been reported. The studies have shown that integration-induced altered gene expression may be associated with tumor recurrence. Evidence from several studies indicates that viral integration into genic regions is accompanied by local amplification, increased expression in some cases, interruption of gene expression, and likely additional oncogenic effects. Similarly, reported examples of viral integration near microRNAs suggest that altered expression of these regulatory molecules may also contribute to oncogenesis. Future work is indicated to identify the mechanisms of these events on cancer cell behavior.

  18. Prevalence of tonsillar human papillomavirus infections in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Henriksen, J J; Bonde, J H; Fuursted, K; Ovesen, T

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of tonsillar carcinomas associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased dramatically over the last three decades. In fact, currently in Scandinavia, HPV-associated cases account for over 80 % of tonsillar carcinoma cases. Yet, the epidemiology and natural history of tonsillar HPV infections remains poorly characterized. Our aim was to characterize such infections in the Danish population in tumor-free tonsillar tissue. Unlike previous studies, we considered both palatine tonsils. We examined both tonsils from 80 patients with peritonsillar abscess (n = 25) or chronic tonsillar disease (n = 55). HPV was detected by nested PCR with PGMY 09/11 and GP5+/GP6+L1 consensus primers, and typed by sequencing. Samples were also analyzed using a higher-throughput method, the CLART HPV 2 Clinical Array Assay. The overall prevalence of HPV tonsillar infection was 1.25 % (1/80, 95 % CI 0.03-6.77 %) by nested PCR, and 0 % by CLART HPV2 Clinical Array. The HPV-positive patient was a 16-year-old female with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. The type detected was HPV6. HPV was not detected in the contralateral tonsil of this patient. Compared to cervical HPV infections in Denmark, tonsillar HPV infections are 10- to 15-fold less frequent. In the HPV-positive patient in this study, HPV was detected in only one of the tonsils. This raises the possibility that prior studies may underestimate the prevalence of HPV infections, as they do not consider both palatine tonsils.

  19. [Acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccine in mothers from Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Illana, P; Caballero, P; Tuells, J; Puig-Barberá, J; Diez-Domingo, J

    2015-11-01

    In October 2008, Valencian Community started its human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination schedules for 14 year-old girls. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccine among the mothers of these girls, and to identify factors associated with the willingness to vaccinate their daughters. Cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire to mothers of girls born in 1995, and attending secondary schools in the province of Valencia during 2010-2011. Cluster stratified random sample (n=1279). percentages, confidence intervals, OR, Chi-squared and multivariate logistic regression contrasts. A total of 833 (65.1%) questionnaires were completed. The results obtained showed that, 76.6% of mothers had vaccinated their daughters against HPV; 93.8% knew about the vaccine, particularly through television (71.5%); and 78.5% received positive advice from a health professional which increased the vaccination of their daughters (OR: 2.4). There was low overall knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination. Confidence of the mothers in vaccines as a preventative method increases the HPV vaccination (OR: 3.8). The first reason for refusal was the fear of adverse events (45.6%). Apparently, the media does not influence the willingness to vaccinate. It would be desirable to minimize the perception of risk of the vaccine. Positive health advice from a health professional can have a positive effect on vaccination. There is a gap between the level of knowledge and decision-making to vaccinate. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Papillomavirus and Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Ramqvist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 was recognized as a risk factor by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, where tonsillar and base of tongue cancer (TSCC and BOTSCC dominate. Furthermore, patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC, had a much better clinical outcome than those with corresponding HPV-negative cancer and other head and neck cancer. More specifically, survival was around 80% for HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC vs. 40% five-year disease free survival, for the corresponding HPV-negative tumors with conventional radiotherapy and surgery, while this could not be observed for HPV-positive OSCC at other sites. In addition, the past 20–40 years in many Western Countries, the incidence of HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC has risen, and >70% are men. This has resulted in a relative increase of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC that may not need the intensified chemo-radiotherapy (with many more severe debilitating side effects often given today to patients with head and neck cancer. However, before tapering therapy, one needs to enable selection of patients for such treatment, by identifying clinical and molecular markers that together with HPV-positive status will better predict patient prognosis and response to therapy. To conclude, there is a new increasing group of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC with good clinical outcome, where options for better-tailored therapy are needed. For prevention, it would be of benefit to vaccinate both girls and boys against HPV16 infection. For potential future screening the ways to do so need optimizing.

  1. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-02-14

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) are relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region. Data on cervical cancer, cervical screening programs, childhood immunization and HPV vaccination programs for Nordic countries were searched via PubMed and various organizations. We furthermore contacted selected experts for information. The incidence of cervical cancer is highest in Greenland (25 per 100,000, age standardized, World Standard Population, ASW) and lowest in Finland (4 per 100,000 ASW) and rates in the other Nordic countries vary between 7 and 11 per 100,000 ASW. Greenland and Denmark were first to introduce HPV vaccination, followed by Norway. Vaccination programs are underway in Sweden and Iceland, while Finland has just recently recommended introduction of vaccination. HPV vaccination has been intensively debated, in particular in Denmark and Norway. In Nordic countries with a moderate risk of cervical cancer and a publicly paid health care system, the introduction of HPV vaccination was a priority issue. Many players became active, from the general public to health professionals, special interest groups, and the vaccine manufacturers. These seemed to prioritize different health care needs and weighed differently the uncertainty about the long-term effects of the vaccine. HPV vaccination posed a pressure on public health authorities to consider the evidence for and against it, and on politicians to weigh the wish for cervical cancer protection against other pertinent health issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular

  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314

  4. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Espinosa, Benjamín; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Álvarez-Fernández, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited

  5. Cervical Cancer Incidence in Young U.S. Females After Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Cofie, Leslie E; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-30

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus vaccine has been recommended for young females in the U.S. This study aimed to compare cervical cancer incidence among young women before and after the human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Program for Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Incidence-U.S. Cancer Statistics 2001-2014 database for U.S. females aged 15-34 years. This study compared the 4-year average annual incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the 4 years before human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced (2003-2006) and the 4 most recent years in the vaccine era (2011-2014). Joinpoint regression models of cervical incidence from 2001 to 2014 were fitted to identify the discrete joints (year) that represent statistically significant changes in the direction of the trend after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in 2006. Data were collected in 2001-2014, released, and analyzed in 2017. The 4-year average annual incidence rates for cervical cancer in 2011-2014 were 29% lower than that in 2003-2006 (6.0 vs 8.4 per 1,000,000 people, rate ratio=0.71, 95% CI=0.64, 0.80) among females aged 15-24 years, and 13.0% lower among females aged 25-34 years. Joinpoint analyses of cervical cancer incidence among females aged 15-24 years revealed a significant joint at 2009 for both squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. Among females aged 25-34 years, there was no significant decrease in cervical cancer incidence after 2006. A significant decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer among young females after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine may indicate early effects of human papillomavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Balatay, Amer A; Assafi, Mahde S; AlMufty, Tamara Abdulezel

    2016-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.

  7. An enhanced heterologous virus-like particle for human papillomavirus type 16 tumour immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairunadwa Jemon

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk, cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPV and is the second highest cause of cancer deaths in women globally. The majority of cervical cancers express well-characterized HPV oncogenes, which are potential targets for immunotherapeutic vaccination. Here we develop a rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccine designed for immunotherapy against HPV16 positive tumours. An RHDV-VLP, modified to contain the universal helper T cell epitope PADRE and decorated with an MHC I-restricted peptide (aa 48-57 from the HPV16 E6, was tested for its immunotherapeutic efficacy against the TC-1 HPV16 E6 and E7-expressing tumour in mice. The E6-RHDV-VLP-PADRE was administered therapeutically for the treatment of a pre-existing TC-1 tumour and was delivered with antibodies either to deplete regulatory T cells (anti-CD25 or to block T cell suppression mediated through CTLA-4. As a result, the tumour burden was reduced by around 50% and the median survival time of mice to the humane endpoint was almost doubled the compared to controls. The incorporation of PADRE into the RHDV-VLP was necessary for an E6-specific enhancement of the anti-tumour response and the co-administration of the immune modifying antibodies contributed to the overall efficacy of the immunotherapy. The E6-RHDV-VLP-PADRE shows immunotherapeutic efficacy, prolonging survival for HPV tumour-bearing mice. This was enhanced by the systemic administration of immune-modifying antibodies that are commercially available for use in humans. There is potential to further modify these particles for even greater efficacy in the path to development of an immunotherapeutic treatment for HPV precancerous and cancer stages.

  8. Health-economic modelling of human Papillomavirus vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke Arend

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinatie van 12-jarige meisjes tegen het humaan papillomavirus (HPV) dat baarmoederhalskanker kan veroorzaken, blijkt effectief en kosteneffectief te zijn. UMCG-onderzoeker Tjalke Westra rekende met behulp van modellen de lange termijn effecten door van verschillende HPV-vaccinatiescenario’s

  9. Prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes in patients diagnosed with anogenital malignancies in Botswana

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    Patricia S. Rantshabeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV associated malignancies are the leading cause of cancer death in Botswana. We sought to determine causative HPV types in patients with anogenital malignancies in Botswana to inform vaccine strategy. Methods We used formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue blocks from patients diagnosed with anal, penile and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas between the years, 2014 and 2016. Presence of HPV 16, 18, or other high-risk (HR types was detected using Abbott m2000 real-time PCR platform. Tissues with other high-risk types were subsequently analysed using a multiplex qPCR assay that includes 15 validated fluorophore probes. Results A total of 126 tissue specimens, comprising of 21 anal (9 males, 12 females, 31 penile and 74 vulvar were studied. Ninety-three (73.8% patients had their HIV status documented in the records while the rest did not. Eighty-three (83 out of 93 were HIV positive, a prevalence of 89.4% (95% CI: 81–94. HPV was detected in 68/126 (54% tissues, of which 69% (95% CI: 54–79 had HPV 16 only, 28% (95% CI: 19–40 had other hr.-HPV types and 2.9% (95% CI, 3.5–10.1 were co-infected with HPV 16 and other hr.-types. Other high-risk types detected included HPV 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 66 and 68. HPV 18 was not detected. Multiple-type HPV infection was detected in 44 of 47 (93.6% HIV positive participants co-infected with HPV. In HIV-negative individuals, only HPV 16 was detected. Conclusion In our study, anogenital carcinomas were associated with HPV 16 and other hr.-HPV types besides HPV 16 and 18. HIV co-infected patients had multiple hr.-HPV types detected whereas in HIV-negative patients only HPV 16 was detected. Our study suggests that multivalent vaccines may be more suitable in this setting, especially for HIV-infected individuals.

  10. Direct Human Papillomavirus E6 Whole-Cell Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Objective Measurement of E6 Oncoproteins in Cytology Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi-Shan; Smith-McCune, Karen; Darragh, Teresa M.; Lai, Yvonne; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Chang, Ting-Chang; Guo, Hsiao-Yun; Kesler, Tiea; Carter, Alicia; Castle, Philip E.; Cheng, Shuling

    2012-01-01

    A novel, whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a non-type-specific anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 antibody was tested on 182 residual cytological specimens. For samples with a designation of more severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3+), 83% tested positive for E6; in a subset with paired testing for E6 ELISA and HPV DNA, 72% tested E6 positive and 92% tested high-risk (HR)-HPV DNA positive (P = 0.2). Among the women with a less than CIN3 diag...

  11. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (PHuman immunodeficiency virus-negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. II.

  12. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. The role of sexual behavior and human papillomavirus persistence in predicting repeated infections with new human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Jonte, Janet; Miller-Benningfield, Susanna; Hanson, Evelyn; Jay, Julie; Godwin de Medina, Cheryl; Farhat, Sepideh; Clayton, Lisa; Shiboski, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in young women, the rate of and risk for repeated new infections are not well documented. We examined the rate of and risks for new HPV detection in young women. We used data from an ongoing study of HPV, initiated in 1990. Sexually active women ages 12 to 22 years were eligible. Interviews on behaviors and HPV testing were done at 4-month intervals; sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing was annual or if symptomatic. Starting with first HPV detection, time to the next (second) visit (event) with detection of new HPV types, and then the second event to time to third event was calculated. Risks were determined using Cox proportional hazard model. Sixty-nine percent of 1,125 women had a second event, and of those with a second event, 63% had a third event by 3 years, respectively. Women with HPV persistence from initial visit to second event [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.51 (3.78-5.37)], an STI [HR = 1.47 (1.00-2.17)], bacterial vaginosis [HR = 1.60 (1.07-2.39)], and number of new sex partners [HR = 1.10 (1.05-1.15 per partner/mo)] were independent associations for HPV. Risks for third event were similar. This study documents the repeated nature of HPV infections in young women and their association with sexual risk behaviors. This finding underscores the lack of clinical utility of HPV testing in young women. Further studies are needed to examine host factors that lead to HPV acquisition and persistence. (c)2010 AACR.

  14. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  15. In vivo transformation of human skin with human papillomavirus type 11 from condylomatot acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.W.; Howett, M.K.; Lill, N.L.; Bartlett, G.L.; Zaino, R.J.; Sedlacek, T.V.; Mortel, R.

    1986-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, but direct tests of their involvement have not been possible. The authors describe a system in which human skin from various skin from various sites was infected with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) extracted from vulvar condylomata and was grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mice. Most of the skin grafts so treated underwent morphological transformation, resulting in the development of condylomata identical to those which occur spontaneously in patients. Foreskins responded with the most vigorous proliferative response to HPV-11. The lesions produced the characteristic intranuclear group-specific antigen of papillomaviruses. Both dot blot and Southern blot analysis of DNA from the lesions revealed the presence of HPV-11 DNA in the transformed grafts. These results demonstrate the first laboratory system for the study of the interaction of human skin with an HPV. The method may be useful in understanding the mechanisms of HPV transformation and replication and is free of the ethical restraints which have impeded study. This system will allow the direct study of factors which permit neoplastic progression of HPV-induced cutaneous lesions in human tissues

  16. Human papillomaviruses associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. II. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of human papillomavirus 3a, 8, 10, and 12 genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremsdorf, D; Jablonska, S; Favre, M; Orth, G

    1983-01-01

    The DNAs of four human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that were found in the benign lesions of three patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis have been characterized. The flat wart-like lesions and the macular lesions of patient 1 contained two viruses, HPV-3a and HPV-8, respectively, whose genomes had previously been only partially characterized. The flat wart-like lesions of patient 2 and the macular lesions of patient 3 each contained a virus previously considered as belonging to t...

  17. HLA-G and vertical mother-to-child transmission of human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvanto, Karolina; Roger, Michel; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Syrjänen, Kari; Grenman, Seija; Syrjänen, Stina

    2018-06-01

    Role of host factors in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection from mother to her offspring is not known. Our aim was to study whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G allele concordance among the mother-child pairs could facilitate vertical transmission of HPV, because HLA-G may contribute to immune tolerance in pregnancy. Altogether, 310 mother-child pairs were included from the Finnish Family HPV study. Overall, nine different HLA-G alleles were identified. The HLA-G genotype concordance of G ∗ 01:01:01/01:04:01 increased the risk of high risk (HR)-HPV genotype positivity in cord blood and infant's oral mucosa. The mother-child concordance of G ∗ 01:01:02/01:01:02 increased the risk of oral HPV positivity with HR-HPV genotypes both in the mother and offspring; OR 2.45 (95%CI 1.24-4.85). Discordant HLA-G allele for G ∗ 01:04:01 and for G ∗ 01:06 was significantly associated with infant's oral low risk (LR)-HPV at birth, OR 3.07 (95%CI 1.01-9.36) and OR 5.19 (95%CI 1.22-22.03), respectively. HLA-G had no association with HPV genotype-specific concordance between the mother and child at birth nor influence on perinatal HPV status of the child. Taken together, our results show that HLA-G molecules have a role in predicting the newborn's likelihood for oral HPV infection at birth. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infection with the oncogenic human papillomavirus type 59 alters protein components of the cornified cell envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Elizabeth; Brown, Darron R.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the genital tract with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) leads to proliferative and dysplastic epithelial lesions. The mechanisms used by the virus to escape the infected keratinocyte are not well understood. Infection of keratinocytes with HPV does not cause lysis, the mechanism used by many viruses to release newly formed virions. For HPV 11, a type associated with a low risk of neoplastic disease, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) of infected keratinocytes is thin and fragile, and transcription of loricrin, the major CCE protein, is reduced. The effects of high-risk HPV infection on components of the CCE have not been previously reported. HPV 59, an oncogenic genital type related to HPV types 18 and 45 was identified in a condylomata acuminata lesion. An extract of this lesion was used to infect human foreskin fragments, which were grown in athymic mice as xenografts. Continued propagation using extracts of xenografts permitted growth of additional HPV 59-infected xenografts. CCEs purified from HPV 59-infected xenografts displayed subtle morphologic abnormalities compared to those derived from uninfected xenografts. HPV 59-infected xenografts revealed dysplastic-appearing cells with mitotic figures. Detection of loricrin, involucrin, and cytokeratin 10 was reduced in HPV 59-infected epithelium, while small proline-rich protein 3 (SPR3) was increased. Reduction in loricrin was most apparent in regions of epithelium containing abundant HPV 59 DNA. Compared to uninfected epithelium, loricrin transcription was decreased in HPV 59-infected epithelium. We conclude that HPV 59 shares with HPV 11 the ability to alter CCE components and to specifically reduce transcription of the loricrin gene. Because loricrin is the major CCE protein, a reduction in this component could alter the physical properties of the CCE, thus facilitating virion release

  19. Small molecule inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer prevent human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodham, Andrew W; Taylor, Julia R; Jimenez, Andrew I; Skeate, Joseph G; Schmidt, Thomas; Brand, Heike E; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to the development of several human cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the most common of the cancer-causing genotypes and gains entry to the basal cells of the epithelium through a non-canonical endocytic pathway that involves the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). A2t is composed of two annexin A2 monomers bound to an S100A10 dimer and this interaction is a potential target to block HPV16 infection. Here, recently identified small molecule inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) were investigated for their ability to prevent HPV16 infection in vitro. A2ti were added to HeLa cells in increasing concentrations prior to the addition of HPV16. Cytotoxicity was evaluated via trypan blue exclusion. HPV16 pseudovirion infection and fluorescently labelled HPV16 capsid internalization was measured with flow cytometry. A2ti blocked HPV16 infection by 100% without substantial cellular toxicity or reduction in cell growth. Furthermore, A2ti blocked HPV16 entry into epithelial cells by 65%, indicating that the observed inhibition of HPV16 infection is in part due to a block in entry and that non-infectious entry may occur in the absence of A2t binding. These results demonstrate that targeting A2t may be an effective strategy to prevent HPV16 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  1. Human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among individuals with systemic inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace H Feldman

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is safe and efficacious in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (SID who have higher rates of persistent HPV infection. We compared HPV vaccine uptake among SID and non-SID patients.Using a U.S. insurance claims database (2006-2012, we identified individuals 9-26 years with ≥2 SID diagnosis codes ≥7 days apart with ≥12 months of continuous enrollment prior to the second code (index date. We matched SID patients by age, sex and index date to randomly selected non-SID subjects and selected those with ≥24 months of post-index date continuous follow-up. We also identified a non-SID subcohort with ≥1 diagnosis code for asthma. We defined initiation as ≥1 HPV vaccination claim after 2007, and completion as 3 claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess uptake in females 11-26 years comparing SID, non-SID and asthma cohorts, adjusting for demographics, region, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization.We identified 5,642 patients 9-26 years with SID and 20,643 without. The mean age was 18.1 years (SD 4.9. We identified 1,083 patients with asthma; the mean age was 17.2 (SD 5.1. Among females, 20.6% with SID, 23.1% without SID and 22.9% with asthma, received ≥1 HPV vaccine. In our adjusted models, the odds of receipt of ≥1 vaccine was 0.87 times lower in SID (95% CI 0.77-0.98 compared to non-SID and did not differ for 3 vaccines (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.83-1.26. The odds of initiation and completion were not statistically different between SID and non-SID asthma cohorts.In this nationwide cohort, HPV vaccine uptake was extremely low. Despite the heightened risk of persistent HPV infection among those with SID, no increase in HPV vaccine uptake was observed. Public health efforts to promote HPV vaccination overall are needed, and may be particularly beneficial for those at higher risk.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake among Individuals with Systemic Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Candace H.; Hiraki, Linda T.; Lii, Huichuan; Seeger, John D.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is safe and efficacious in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (SID) who have higher rates of persistent HPV infection. We compared HPV vaccine uptake among SID and non-SID patients. Methods Using a U.S. insurance claims database (2006–2012), we identified individuals 9–26 years with ≥2 SID diagnosis codes ≥7 days apart with ≥12 months of continuous enrollment prior to the second code (index date). We matched SID patients by age, sex and index date to randomly selected non-SID subjects and selected those with ≥24 months of post-index date continuous follow-up. We also identified a non-SID subcohort with ≥1 diagnosis code for asthma. We defined initiation as ≥1 HPV vaccination claim after 2007, and completion as 3 claims. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess uptake in females 11–26 years comparing SID, non-SID and asthma cohorts, adjusting for demographics, region, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization. Results We identified 5,642 patients 9–26 years with SID and 20,643 without. The mean age was 18.1 years (SD 4.9). We identified 1,083 patients with asthma; the mean age was 17.2 (SD 5.1). Among females, 20.6% with SID, 23.1% without SID and 22.9% with asthma, received ≥1 HPV vaccine. In our adjusted models, the odds of receipt of ≥1 vaccine was 0.87 times lower in SID (95% CI 0.77–0.98) compared to non-SID and did not differ for 3 vaccines (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.83–1.26). The odds of initiation and completion were not statistically different between SID and non-SID asthma cohorts. Conclusions In this nationwide cohort, HPV vaccine uptake was extremely low. Despite the heightened risk of persistent HPV infection among those with SID, no increase in HPV vaccine uptake was observed. Public health efforts to promote HPV vaccination overall are needed, and may be particularly beneficial for those at higher risk. PMID:25692470

  3. Vimentin Modulates Infectious Internalization of Human Papillomavirus 16 Pseudovirions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Graham, Lisa M; Lang, Dirk M; Blumenthal, Melissa J; Bergant Marušič, Martina; Katz, Arieh A

    2017-08-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, with virtually all cases of cervical cancer being attributable to infection by oncogenic HPVs. However, the exact mechanism and receptors used by HPV to infect epithelial cells are controversial. The current entry model suggests that HPV initially attaches to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface, followed by conformational changes, cleavage by furin convertase, and subsequent transfer of the virus to an as-yet-unidentified high-affinity receptor. In line with this model, we established an in vitro infection system using the HSPG-deficient cell line pgsD677 together with HPV16 pseudovirions (HPV16-PsVs). While pgsD677 cells were nonpermissive for untreated HPV16-PsVs, furin cleavage of the particles led to a substantial increase in infection. Biochemical pulldown assays followed by mass spectrometry analysis showed that furin-precleaved HPV16-PsVs specifically interacted with surface-expressed vimentin on pgsD677 cells. We further demonstrated that both furin-precleaved and uncleaved HPV16-PsVs colocalized with surface-expressed vimentin on pgsD677, HeLa, HaCaT, and NIKS cells, while binding of incoming viral particles to soluble vimentin protein before infection led to a substantial decrease in viral uptake. Interestingly, decreasing cell surface vimentin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in HeLa and NIKS cells significantly increased HPV16-PsV infectious internalization, while overexpression of vimentin had the opposite effect. The identification of vimentin as an HPV restriction factor enhances our understanding of the initial steps of HPV-host interaction and may lay the basis for the design of novel antiviral drugs preventing HPV internalization into epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Despite HPV being a highly prevalent sexually transmitted virus causing significant disease burden worldwide, particularly cancer of the cervix, cell surface

  4. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 16 pseudovirus containing histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kwag, Hye-Lim; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-08-27

    Pseudoviruses (PsVs) that encapsidate a reporter plasmid DNA have been used as surrogates for native human papillomavirus (HPV), whose continuous production is technically difficult. HPV PsVs have been designed to form capsids made up of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid proteins L2. HPV PsVs have been produced in 293TT cells transfected with plasmid expressing L1 and L2 protein and plasmid containing the reporter gene. Several studies have suggested that naturally occurring HPV virions contain cellular histones, and histones have also been identified in mature HPV PsVs. However, the effect of the histones on the properties of the PsVs has not been investigated. Using heparin chromatography, we separated mature HPV type 16 PsVs into three fractions (I, II, and III) according to their heparin-binding affinities. The amounts of cellular histone and cellular nucleotides per PsV were found to increase in the order fraction I, II and III. It appeared that PsVs in fraction I contains just small amount of cellular histone in Western blot analysis. The proportions of the three fractions in PsV preparations were 83.4, 7.5, and 9.1 % for fraction I, II, and III PsVs, respectively. In the electron microscope PsVs in fraction I appeared to have a more condensed structure than those in fractions II and III. Under the electron microscope fraction II and III PsVs appeared to be covered by substantial amounts of cellular histone while there was no visible histone covering PsVs of fraction I. Also the levels of reporter gene expression in infections of fraction II and III PsVs to 293TT cells were significantly lower than those in infections of fraction I PsV, and fraction II and III particles had significantly reduced immunogenicity. Our findings suggest that the involvement of large amounts of cellular histones during PsV formation interferes with the structural integrity of the PsVs and affects their immunogenicity. The fraction I particle therefore has the most

  5. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  6. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  7. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-a...

  8. Frequent detection of human papillomavirus 16 E2-specific T-helper immunity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Annemieke; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Geluk, Annemieke; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Kenter, Gemma; Vermeij, Pieter; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Offringa, Rienk

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is high in young, sexually active individuals. Most infections are cleared within 1 year after infection. The targets for the cellular immune response in this process of viral clearance remain to be identified, but the expression pattern

  9. Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intention Among Female Sex Workers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, E.; Dam, L. van; Kroone, N.; Alberts, C.J.; Craanen, M.; Zimet, G.D.; Heijmam, T.; Hogewoning, A.A.; Sonder, G.J.B.; Vries, H.J.C. de; Alberts, C.J.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced diseases but are currently not targeted by the HPV vaccination program in the Netherlands. We explored determinants of their intention to get vaccinated against HPV in case vaccination would be offered to

  10. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Moukhtari, N.; Bloemena, E.; Brink, A.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and

  11. Knowledge about Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Predictors of HPV Vaccination among Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Fang Num, Kelly Sze; How Koh, Raymond Chee

    2017-06-25

    Background: The objective of this study is to determine the influence of dental students’ knowledge and attitude regarding human papillomavirus infection of cervical cancer on willingness to pay for vaccination. Basic research design: A convenience sampling method was used. The minimal sample size of 136 was calculated using the Raosoft calculator with a 5 % margin of error and 95% confidence level. Participants: The study population were all final year dental students from the School of Dentistry. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge levels and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus vaccination. Contingent valuation was conducted for willingness to pay for vaccination. Main outcome measures: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that human papillomavirus are associated with oropharynx cancer and the American Dental Association insist on expanding public awareness of the oncogenic potential of some HPV infections. Thus, as future dental practitioners, dental students should be aware of human papillomavirus and their links with cancer and the benefits of vaccination. Results: Knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer did not impact on attitudes towards vaccines. However, significant correlation existed between knowledge and willingness to pay for vaccination. Conclusions: Dental students’ knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer has no influence on their attitude towards HPV vaccines. However, their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination is influenced by their knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  13. Opportunities for Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Provision in School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Feld, Ashley L.; O'Malley, Brittany; Entzel, Pamela; Smith, Jennifer S.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine remains low among adolescents in the United States. We sought to assess barriers to HPV vaccine provision in school health centers to inform subsequent interventions. Methods: We conducted structured interviews in the fall of 2010 with staff from all 33 school health centers in North…

  14. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  15. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in

  16. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    All human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early mRNAs are polyadenylated at the poly(A) signal within the early 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). The 3'end of the early E5 open reading frame and the 3'UTR of HPV-16 is very AU-rich, with five regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (...

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  18. Attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination among Arab ethnic minority in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraiq, Lina; Nielsen, Dorthe; Sodemann, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minorities is poorly explored in Denmark. The objective of this study was to explore attitudes and knowledge towards HPV vaccination among Arab mothers and their daughters. Methods: Five Arabic-speaking...

  19. Correlation between human papillomavirus and p16 overexpression in oropharyngeal tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, C; Gyldenløve, M; Jensen, D H

    2014-01-01

    A significant proportion of squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (OP-SCC) are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16 overexpression. This subgroup proves better prognosis and survival but no evidence exists on the correlation between HPV and p16 overexpression based on diag...

  20. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...

  1. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 ...

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  3. [Effectiveness of human papillomavirus genotyping for detection of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia compared to anal cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-España, Laura; Repiso-Jiménez, Juan Bosco; Fernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Pereda, Teresa; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Fernández-Morano, Teresa; de la Torre-Lima, Javier; Palma, Fermín; Redondo, Maximino; de Troya-Martín, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) -with an aetiological based on high-risk types of human papillomavirus- is increasing in some high-risk groups. Screening for HGAIN includes routine anal cytology and, more recently, HPV genotyping. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and HPV genotyping for the detection of HGAIN. This is a study to determine the correlation of cytological and microbiological findings with anal biopsy findings in a cohort of patients at high risk of developing AIN referred to the department of sexually transmitted infections of the Hospital Costa del Sol, Spain, between January 2008 and December 2014. Of the 151 patients subjected to screening, a total of 92 patients, all of them with the result of three screening test (anal cytology, genotyping and biopsy) were included in the study. Just under two-thirds (62%) of them were HIV-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology to detect HGAIN were 52.8 and 85.7%, respectively (k: 0.328), and 78 and 62.8% to detect two or more HPV oncogenic genotypes (k: 0.417). The detection of oncogenic HPV genotypes allowed the identification of 23 new cases of HGAIN that had been underdiagnosed with anal cytology, with 14 cases containing at least three high-risk genotypes. Anal cytology did not show enough sensitivity in HGAIN screening. HPV genotyping has shown to be a useful tool to detect HGAIN cases, although it could lead to an over-diagnosis as a solitary screening procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine; Lacey, Charles J; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Bruni, Laia; Vignat, Jerome; Ferlay, Jacques; Bray, Freddie; Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-11-20

    The worldwide prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) in women without cervical abnormalities is 11-12% with higher rates in sub-Saharan Africa (24%), Eastern Europe (21%) and Latin America (16%). The two most prevalent types are HPV16 (3.2%) and HPV18 (1.4%). Prevalence increases in women with cervical pathology in proportion to the severity of the lesion reaching around 90% in women with grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer. HPV infection has been identified as a definite human carcinogen for six types of cancer: cervix, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Estimates of the incidence of these cancers for 2008 due to HPV infection have been calculated globally. Of the estimated 12.7 million cancers occurring in 2008, 610,000 (Population Attributable Fraction [PAF]=4.8%) could be attributed to HPV infection. The PAF varies substantially by geographic region and level of development, increasing to 6.9% in less developed regions of the world, 14.2% in sub-Saharan Africa and 15.5% in India, compared with 2.1% in more developed regions, 1.6% in Northern America and 1.2% in Australia/New Zealand. Cervical cancer, for which the PAF is estimated to be 100%, accounted for 530,000 (86.9%) of the HPV attributable cases with the other five cancer types accounting for the residual 80,000 cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common female malignancy and shows a strong association with level of development, rates being at least four-fold higher in countries defined within the low ranking of the Human Development Index (HDI) compared with those in the very high category. Similar disparities are evident for 5-year survival-less than 20% in low HDI countries and more than 65% in very high countries. There are five-fold or greater differences in incidence between world regions. In those countries for which reliable temporal data are available, incidence rates appear to be

  5. Human papillomavirus type-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Zhang, S K; Liu, S Z; Chen, Q; Zhang, M; Quan, P L; Lu, J B; Sun, X B

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the prevalence of oesophageal cancer cases is particularly high in China. Since 1982, oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been hypothesized as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, but no firm evidence of HPV infection in oesophageal cancer has been established to date. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the high-risk HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population. Eligible studies published from 1 January 2005 to 12 July 2014 were retrieved via computer searches of English and Chinese literature databases (including Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform). A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2556 oesophageal cancer cases from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled HPV-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer cases was 4·1% (95% CI 2·7-5·5) in China, 6·1% (95% CI 2·9-9·3) in fresh or frozen biopsies and 4·0% (95% CI 2·3-5·8) in paraffin-embedded fixed biopsies, 8·2% (95% CI 4·6-11·7) by the E6/E7 region and 2·2% (95% CI 0·9-3·6) by the L1 region of the HPV gene. This meta-analysis indicated that China has a moderate HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer compared to cervical cancer, although there is variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in oesophagus carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of HPV status in oesophageal cancer.

  6. Human papillomavirus cervical infection in Guarani Indians from the rainforest of Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sergio Andrés; Picconi, María Alejandra; Zinovich, Jorge Bruno; Nardari, Wanda; Mampaey, Mariana; Badano, Inés; Di Lello, Federico; Galuppo, Juan Antonio; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Teyssie, Angélica Rita

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical infection in women from the South American Guarani Indian tribe located in the rain forest of Misiones, north-eastern Argentina; a region with a high incidence of cervical carcinoma. A cross-sectional cytological and HPV screening of sexually active Guarani women from nine Indian settlements was conducted. Demographic data, information about sexual behavior, and gynaecological history were recorded. Fresh cervical specimens from 239 patients were collected, of which 207 were included in this study. Cytology and microbiological detection were carried out by the Papanicolaou and Gram stain methods, respectively. HPV detection and typing were analyzed by PCR and RFLP. Pap smears in 96% of all patients showed an inflammatory pattern. A possible etiologic agent was found in 58% of cases: 52% Trichomonas vaginalis, 35% Gardnerella vaginalis and 13% Candida sp. Seven cases had cytological changes compatible with Low Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (LGSIL), one with High Grade Intraepithelial Lesion (HGSIL) and one in situ cervical cancer. The prevalence for generic HPV infection was 64% (133/207). Genotyping gave a 26% prevalence for HPV types 16/18, 13% for types 6/11 and 30% for other types, with nine mixed infections. This work reports for the first time the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in Guarani women. Nearly all Guarani women had some grade of cervical disease. Generic HPV infection prevalence was elevated (64%), with predominance of high risk types 16/18. A large variety of viral types was detected, including high to intermediate risk types not found previously in the region.

  7. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in women in some cities and regions of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, Stefan; Slavov, Victor; Slavova, Kremena

    2013-09-01

    This aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections among women (aged 15-55 years) in four of the biggest cities and regions in Bulgaria (viz., Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas), as well as in two other smaller cities (viz., Pleven and Vidin). Furthermore, study aimed to identify the prevalence of the 12 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in 2012, and to predict the benefits of a future national vaccination campaign for 12-year-old girls in Bulgaria. This HPV genotypes prevalence study covered 2,331,341 women from these cities and regions, representing 61.7% of the female population of Bulgaria. DNA-sorb-AM nucleic acid extraction kit was used to analyze the HPV status in cervical samples collected during a 4-year period (2008-2011) from 1,120 women aged 15-55 years (divided into four age groups) who had visited 47 gynecological clinics across the study sites. HR-HPV infections were confirmed in 435 (38.8%) of the women examined. The remaining 685 (61.2%) women were found to be HR-HPV negative. The most common genotype in all 435 infected women was HPV16, which was found in 200 women (46%), followed by HPV56 in 86 women (19.8%), HPV31 in 53 women (12.2%), and HPV33 in 50 women (11.5%). This is the first study to have established the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the larger Bulgarian regions and cities (including the capital), and to have drawn attention to the unusually high proportion of the different HR-HPV genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Differences between African-American adolescent females with and without human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Rose, Eve S; Sales, Jessica M

    2011-03-01

    An important policy question is whether high-risk populations can be identified and prioritised for human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation. Data collection included an audio computer-assisted survey interview and testing of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HPV among 295 African-American adolescent females. The results indicated that 43.1% tested positive for HPV. Logistic regression analyses indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with other sexually transmissible infections (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.51-1.41), unprotected vaginal sex (PR=1.04, 95% CI=0.56-1.92), having sex with an older male partner (PR=1.12, 95% CI=0.64-1.96), and having a casual partner (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.54-1.48). Additionally, t-tests indicated that HPV prevalence was not associated with frequency of vaginal sex (t=0.17, P=0.87), protected sex (t=-0.16, P=0.87), number of recent (t=0.40, P=0.69) or lifetime (t=1.45, P=0.15) sexual partners. However, those testing positive for HPV were younger (t=1.97, P=0.05) and reported current use of birth control pills (PR=2.38, 95% CI=1.00-5.63). It may not be possible to identify those with elevated risk of HPV acquisition. Thus, HPV vaccination, regardless of risk indicators, may be the most efficacious public health strategy.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus in a self referred group of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.

  10. A new cell culture model to genetically dissect the complete human papillomavirus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Myers, Julia E; Keiffer, Timothy R; DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Polk, Paula; Bodily, Jason M; Scott, Rona S; Sapp, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we describe a novel infection model that achieves highly efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). This cell culture model does not depend on immortalization and is amenable to extensive genetic analyses. In monolayer cell culture, the early but not late promoter was active and yielded a spliced viral transcript pattern similar to HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. However, relative levels of the E8^E2 transcript increased over time post infection suggesting the expression of this viral repressor is regulated independently of other early proteins and that it may be important for the shift from the establishment to the maintenance phase of the viral life cycle. Both the early and the late promoter were strongly activated when infected cells were subjected to differentiation by growth in methylcellulose. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, HPV16-infected cells expressed late E1^E4 and L1 proteins and replication foci were detected, suggesting that they supported the completion of the viral life cycle. As a proof of principle that the infection system may be used for genetic dissection of viral factors, we analyzed E1, E6 and E7 translation termination linker mutant virus for establishment of infection and genome maintenance. E1 but not E6 and E7 was essential to establish infection. Furthermore, E6 but not E7 was required for episomal genome maintenance. Primary keratinocytes infected with wild type HPV16 immortalized, whereas keratinocytes infected with E6 and E7 knockout virus began to senesce 25 to 35 days post infection. The novel infection model provides a powerful genetic tool to study the role of viral proteins throughout the viral life cycle but especially for immediate early events and enables us to compare low- and high-risk HPV types in the context of infection.

  11. A new cell culture model to genetically dissect the complete human papillomavirus life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe a novel infection model that achieves highly efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16. This cell culture model does not depend on immortalization and is amenable to extensive genetic analyses. In monolayer cell culture, the early but not late promoter was active and yielded a spliced viral transcript pattern similar to HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. However, relative levels of the E8^E2 transcript increased over time post infection suggesting the expression of this viral repressor is regulated independently of other early proteins and that it may be important for the shift from the establishment to the maintenance phase of the viral life cycle. Both the early and the late promoter were strongly activated when infected cells were subjected to differentiation by growth in methylcellulose. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, HPV16-infected cells expressed late E1^E4 and L1 proteins and replication foci were detected, suggesting that they supported the completion of the viral life cycle. As a proof of principle that the infection system may be used for genetic dissection of viral factors, we analyzed E1, E6 and E7 translation termination linker mutant virus for establishment of infection and genome maintenance. E1 but not E6 and E7 was essential to establish infection. Furthermore, E6 but not E7 was required for episomal genome maintenance. Primary keratinocytes infected with wild type HPV16 immortalized, whereas keratinocytes infected with E6 and E7 knockout virus began to senesce 25 to 35 days post infection. The novel infection model provides a powerful genetic tool to study the role of viral proteins throughout the viral life cycle but especially for immediate early events and enables us to compare low- and high-risk HPV types in the context of infection.

  12. Human papillomavirus infection and the malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted papilloma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ren-Wu; Guo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ru-Xin

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the malignancy of sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP). However, the results remain inconclusive. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess this association. Case-control studies investigating SNIP tissues for presence of HPV DNA were identified. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. An assessment of publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. We calculated a pooled OR of 2.16 (95% CI=1.46-3.21, P<0.001) without statistically significant heterogeneity or publication bias. Stratification by HPV type showed a stronger association for patients with high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types, HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-16/18 infection (OR=8.8 [95% CI: 4.73-16.38], 8.04 [95% CI: 3.34-19.39], 18.57 [95% CI: 4.56-75.70], and 26.24 [4.35-158.47], respectively). When only using PCR studies, pooled ORs for patients with hrHPV, HPV-16, and HPV18 infection still reached statistical significance. However, Egger's test reflected significant publication bias in the HPV-16 sub-analysis (P=0.06), and the adjusted OR was no longer statistically significant (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 0.58-4.63). These results suggest that HPV infection, especially hrHPV (HPV-18), is significantly associated with malignant SNIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Cervical Screening Test That Provides Expanded HPV Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Maria; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Hyun, Noorie; Castle, Philip E; He, Xin; Dallal, Cher M; Chen, Jie; Gage, Julia C; Befano, Brian; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-05-01

    As cervical cancer screening shifts from cytology to human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, a major question is the clinical value of identifying individual HPV types. We aimed to validate Onclarity (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), a nine-channel HPV test recently approved by the FDA, by assessing (i) the association of Onclarity types/channels with precancer/cancer; (ii) HPV type/channel agreement between the results of Onclarity and cobas (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA), another FDA-approved test; and (iii) Onclarity typing for all types/channels compared to typing results from a research assay (linear array [LA]; Roche). We compared Onclarity to histopathology, cobas, and LA. We tested a stratified random sample ( n = 9,701) of discarded routine clinical specimens that had tested positive by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD). A subset had already been tested by cobas and LA ( n = 1,965). Cervical histopathology was ascertained from electronic health records. Hierarchical Onclarity channels showed a significant linear association with histological severity. Onclarity and cobas had excellent agreement on partial typing of HPV16, HPV18, and the other 12 types as a pool (sample-weighted kappa value of 0.83); cobas was slightly more sensitive for HPV18 and slightly less sensitive for the pooled high-risk types. Typing by Onclarity showed excellent agreement with types and groups of types identified by LA (kappa values from 0.80 for HPV39/68/35 to 0.97 for HPV16). Onclarity typing results corresponded well to histopathology and to an already validated HPV DNA test and could provide additional clinical typing if such discrimination is determined to be clinically desirable. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  14. Type-specific human papillomavirus biological features: validated model-based estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Baussano

    Full Text Available Infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV16 and 18 types, which are responsible of about 75% of cervical cancer worldwide, is expected to have a major global impact on cervical cancer occurrence. Valid estimates of the parameters that regulate the natural history of hrHPV infections are crucial to draw reliable projections of the impact of vaccination. We devised a mathematical model to estimate the probability of infection transmission, the rate of clearance, and the patterns of immune response following the clearance of infection of 13 hrHPV types. To test the validity of our estimates, we fitted the same transmission model to two large independent datasets from Italy and Sweden and assessed finding consistency. The two populations, both unvaccinated, differed substantially by sexual behaviour, age distribution, and study setting (screening for cervical cancer or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Estimated transmission probability of hrHPV types (80% for HPV16, 73%-82% for HPV18, and above 50% for most other types; clearance rates decreasing as a function of time since infection; and partial protection against re-infection with the same hrHPV type (approximately 20% for HPV16 and 50% for the other types were similar in the two countries. The model could accurately predict the HPV16 prevalence observed in Italy among women who were not infected three years before. In conclusion, our models inform on biological parameters that cannot at the moment be measured directly from any empirical data but are essential to forecast the impact of HPV vaccination programmes.

  15. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Ortíz, Vicente José; Paz-Delgadillo, Diana Estela; Marino-Martínez, Iván; Ceseñas-Falcón, Luis Ángel; Sandoval-de la Fuente, Anabel; Reyes-Escobedo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck comprises a group of neoplasms that share a similar anatomical origin. Most originate from the epithelium of the aerodigestive tract and 90% correspond to squamous cell carcinoma. In the last 15 years, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been seen, mainly types 16 and 18, which are the most frequent found in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and types 6 and 11 in laryngeal cancer. There are reports in the literature that show HPV as the leading cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Determine the prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, unblinded study was performed. Prevalence of HPV infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA samples from tumour tissue of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Typing was subsequently performed in HPV positive samples in order to detect types 18, 16, 11 and 6, using custom primers. A total of 45 patients were included. The association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV was established in two patients, which represented an overall prevalence of 4.4% in our population, and 10% for laringeal tumours. There is a low prevalence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, in our population. Prospective studies on younger patients could provide more information. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ten years of human papillomavirus vaccination. From dermatology to oncology via infectology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Llop, Fernando A

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) was first identified in dermatology, and it was subsequently demonstrated that is was required for the development of uterine cervical cancer and other tumours, after a persistent infection by any of its oncogenic genotypes. Ten years ago, the most common infections and cancers associated with HPV could be prevented by immunisation with 2vaccines, one bivalent, and another tetravalent, and having just marketed a nonavalent one. During the period 2007-2008, the HPV vaccine was included in the Autonomous Communities vaccination calendar, and it is the second vaccine, after that of Hepatitis B, that prevents cancer. In these 10 years that these vaccines have been available the knowledge has progressed and there have been significant advances in vaccination strategies, as well as in the indications and recommendations. These include, lowering the age in the vaccination schedule, prescribing of 2doses at 9 years and at 13-14 years, systematic vaccination of the male in some countries, immunisation of the woman after adolescence, implementation of vaccination programmes in developed countries, prevention of other cancers, recommendations for vaccinations for populations at high risk of HPV infection, scientific evidence on the impact and effectiveness of vaccination, and confirmation of the safety of these vaccines, with more than 270 million doses administered, as has already been observed in clinical trials. The role of health professionals is essential to achieve and maintain high vaccine coverage. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Human papillomavirus-based cervical cancer prevention: long-term results of a randomized screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Lynette; Kuhn, Louise; Hu, Chih-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Wright, Thomas C

    2010-10-20

    Screen-and-treat approaches to cervical cancer prevention are an attractive option for low-resource settings, but data on their long-term efficacy are lacking. We evaluated the efficacy of two screen-and-treat approaches through 36 months of follow-up in a randomized trial. A total of 6637 unscreened South African women aged 35-65 years who were tested for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical samples underwent visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid staining and HIV serotesting. Of these, 6555 were randomly assigned to three study arms: 1) HPV-and-treat, in which all women with a positive HPV DNA test result underwent cryotherapy; 2) visual inspection-and-treat, in which all women with a positive visual inspection test result underwent cryotherapy; or 3) control, in which further evaluation or treatment was delayed for 6 months. All women underwent colposcopy with biopsy at 6 months. All women who were HPV DNA- or visual inspection-positive at enrollment, and a subset of all other women had extended follow-up to 36 months (n = 3639) with yearly colposcopy. The endpoint-cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+)-was analyzed using actuarial life-table methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. After 36 months, there was a sustained statistically significant decrease in the cumulative detection of CIN2+ in the HPV-and-treat arm compared with the control arm (1.5% vs 5.6%, difference = 4.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8% to 5.3%, P cryotherapy.

  18. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema

    2016-11-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  19. Human papillomavirus infection in Rwanda at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabo, Fidele; Franceschi, Silvia; Baussano, Iacopo; Umulisa, M Chantal; Snijders, Peter J F; Uyterlinde, Anne M; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Tenet, Vanessa; Gatera, Maurice; Binagwaho, Agnes; Clifford, Gary M

    2016-05-24

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Rwanda that, in 2011, became the first African country to implement a national vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV). To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2508 women aged 18-69 years from the general population in Kigali, Rwanda, during 2013/14. 20 % of women were HIV-positive. Samples were used for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing (44 types) with GP5+/6+ PCR. HPV prevalence was 34 %, being highest (54 %) in women ≤19 years and decreasing to 20 % at age ≥50. Prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV and cytological abnormalities was 22 and 11 % respectively (including 2 % with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) decreasing with age. Age-standardised prevalence of HR HPV was 22 % (or 19 % among HIV-negative women), and HPV16 was the most common type. Prevalence of HPV and cytological abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women, and the difference increased with age. Other significant risk factors for HPV positivity in multivariate analyses were high lifetime number of sexual partners, receiving cash for sex, and being a farmer. 40 % of women with HSIL were infected with HPV16/18 and there was no significant difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. This study confirms Rwanda to be a setting of high prevalence of HPV and cervical disease that is worsened by HIV. These data will serve as a robust baseline for future evaluations of HPV vaccine programme effectiveness.

  20. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  1. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  2. Sentimentos vivenciados por mulheres submetidas a tratamento para Papillomavirus Humano Sentimientos vivenciados por mujeres sometidas a Tratamiento para el Papillomavirus Humano Feelings experienced by women submitted to a treatment for Human Papillomavirus

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    Ana Luiza Santos de Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A carência de informações sobre o papillomavirus humano pode gerar idéias errôneas sobre o tratamento, o que interfere no contexto sócio-familiar da mulher. Com o objetivo de conhecer os sentimentos vivenciados por mulheres submetidas a tratamento de lesões por papillomavirus humano, foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa de natureza exploratória com 12 mulheres, baseada na obtenção e análise de depoimentos por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. As informações foram analisadas de acordo com a literatura e dispostas em duas temáticas: Reações emocionais e Repercussões no relacionamento. Conclui-se que a mulher que está sendo submetida a tratamento de lesões por papillomavirus humano necessita de cuidados, por parte dos enfermeiros, como forma de melhor enfrentar esse período a qual está vivenciando.La carencia de informaciones sobre el papillomavirus humano puede generar ideas erradas sobre el tratamiento, lo que interfiere en el contexto social y familiar de la mujer. Con el objetivo de conocer los sentimientos vividos por mujeres sometidas a tratamiento de lesiones por papillomavirus humanos, fue realizada una investigación cualitativa de naturaleza exploratoria con 12 mujeres, basada en la obtención y análisis de deposiciones por medio de entrevistas medio-estructurada. Las informaciones fueran analizadas conforme con la literatura y dispuestas en dos temáticas: Reacciones emocionales y Repercusiones en el reracionamiento. Concluyese que la mujer que esta siendo sometida al tratamiento de lesiones por papillomavirus humano necesita de cuidados, por parte de los enfermeros, como forma de mejor enfrentar ese periodo el cual esta viviendo.The lack of information on the papillomavirus human can generate misconception on the treatment interfering in the familiar and social context of the woman. With the purpose to know the feelings experienced by women submitted to treatment of lesions by human papillomavirus, was carried

  3. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

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    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  5. Human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer in Greenland in 1994–2010

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    Magnus Balslev Avnstorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC is associated with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV, smoking and alcohol. In Greenland, a high rate of HPV-induced cervical cancer and venereal diseases are found, which exposes the population for high risk of HPV infection. In Greenland, only girls are included in the mandatory HPV vaccination program. Objective. To investigate the annual incidence of OPSCC and the proportion of HPV-associated OPSCC (HPV+ OPSCC in Greenland in 1994–2010. Design. At Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, we identified all Greenlandic patients diagnosed and treated for OPSCC from 1994 to 2010. Sections were cut from the patient's paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and investigated for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. HPV analyses were performed with 2 sets of general HPV primers and 1 set of HPV16-specific primer. HPV+ OPSCC was defined as both >75% p16+ cells and PCR positive for HPV. Results. Of 26 Greenlandic patients diagnosed with OPSCC, 17 were males and 9 were females. The proportion of HPV+ OPSCC in the total study period was 22%, without significant changes in the population in Greenland. We found an increase in the proportion of HPV+ OPSCC from 14% in 1994–2001 to 25% in 2002–2010 (p=0.51. Among males from 20 to 27% (p=0.63 and in females from 0 to 20% (p=0.71. The annual OPSCC incidence increased from 2.3/100,000 (CI=1.2–4.2 in 1994–2001 to 3.8/100,000 (CI=2.4–6.2 in 2002–2010: among males from 2.4/100,000 (CI=1.0–5.7 to 5.0/100,000 (CI=2.9–8.9. Conclusion. Even though the population is at high risk of HPV infection, the proportion of 22% HPV+ OPSCC in the total study period is low compared to Europe and the United States. This might be explained by our small study size and/or by ethnic, geographical, sexual and cultural differences. Continuing observations of the OPSCC incidence and the proportion of HPV+ OPSCC in Greenland are needed.

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes associated with cervical and breast cancers in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Rassi; Behzad, Salehi; Tahar, Mohammadian; Azadeh, Nahavandi Araghi

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is a multi-step disease, and infection with a DNA virus could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agent of several cancers. In this study, we determined the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among Iranian patients with cervix lesions (CL) and breast cancer (BC). The study group consisted of postoperative tissues from patients diagnosed with cervix lesions and breast cancer. We analyzed 250 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 100 cervix lesions and 150 breast cancer samples. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Cervix lesions were collected from 100 patients with squamous metaplasia (SM, n=50), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINI, n=18, CINII or III, n=8), and cervical carcinoma (CC, n=24). In this study we evaluated the prevalence of HPV by multiplex PCR in cervix lesions and breast cancer. For paraffin-embedded tissues, DNA extracted by the simple boiling method yielded higher proportions of successful gene amplification (99%) for b-actin gene. Overall prevalence of HPV infection was 6% in the SM group, 34.61% in the CIN group, 75% in the CC group, and 34.66% in the BC group. Furthermore, MY09/11 consensus PCR failed to detect 44 (55.69%) of all HPV infections and interestingly, the predominant genotype detected in all cancers was the oncogenic variant HPV16/18; about 34% of women aged 24 to 54 were infected with at least one type of HPV. Our results demonstrate that DNA derived from archival tissues that archived for less than 8 years could be used successfully for HPV genotyping by multiplex PCR. Infection with HPV was prevalent among Iranian women with CC and BC. The results indicate a likely causal role for high-risk HPV in CC and BC, and also offer the possibility of primary prevention of these cancers by vaccination against HPV in Iran.

  7. High-risk and low-risk human papilloma virus in association to spontaneous preterm labor: a case-control study in a tertiary center, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Alaa; Barakat, Rafik; Nabiel, Yasmin; Barakat, Ghada

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to detect the correlation between human papillomavirus (HPV) and spontaneous preterm labor in Egyptian women and its association to the human papilloma viral load and MPP2 gene expression. We performed an observational comparative case-control study in Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Mansoura University Hospitals over women presented with spontaneous preterm labor, besides females admitted for giving birth at full term to detect conserved sequence in HPV-L1 gene (GP5/GP6) followed by genotype detection of high- and low-risk HPVs with quantification of the viral load and the MMP2 gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of HPV was 18.1% in preterm females, but only 4% in full-term women (p value = 0.019*). Twenty percent were PCR positive for HPV 16 and 40% for HPV 18 whereas none of the control was positive for any of the studied high-risk genotypes. Thirty percent were PCR positive for HPV 6 and 10% were positive for HPV 11. MMP2 gene expression was significantly higher in preterm than full term. Human papilloma viral load was found to be positively correlated to the rate of MMP2 expression and the gestational age was significantly related to the viral load and the rate of expression of MMP2 gene. Human pabilloma virus especially high-risk genotypes was correlated to spontaneous preterm labor in Egyptian females through increasing early expression of MMP2 gene. The time of occurrence of preterm labor was affected by the viral load and so the rate of expression of MMP2 gene.

  8. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

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    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  10. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

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    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  11. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  12. Using organotypic (raft) epithelial tissue cultures for the biosynthesis and isolation of infectious human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbun, Michelle A; Patterson, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Papillomaviruses have a strict tropism for epithelial cells, and they are fully reliant on cellular differentiation for completion of their life cycles, resulting in the production of progeny virions. Thus, a permissive environment for full viral replication in vitro-wherein virion morphogenesis occurs under cooperative viral and cellular cues-requires the cultivation of epithelium. Presented in the first section of this unit is a protocol to grow differentiating epithelial tissues that mimic many important morphological and biochemical aspects of normal skin. The technique involves growing epidermal cells atop a dermal equivalent consisting of live fibroblasts and a collagen lattice. Epithelial stratification and differentiation ensues when the keratinocyte-dermal equivalent is placed at the air-liquid interface. The apparent floating nature of the cell-matrix in this method led to the nickname "raft" cultures. The general technique can be applied to normal low passage keratinocytes, to cells stably transfected with papillomavirus genes or genomes, or keratinocytes established from neoplastic lesions. However, infectious papillomavirus particles have only been isolated from organotypic epithelial cultures initiated with cells that maintain oncogenic human papillomavirus genomes in an extrachomosomal replicative form. The second section of this unit is dedicated to a virion isolation method that minimizes aerosol and skin exposure to these human carcinogens. Although the focus of the protocols is on the growth of tissues that yields infectious papillomavirus progeny, this culture system facilitates the investigation of these fastidious viruses during their complex replicative cycles, and raft tissues can be manipulated and harvested at any point during the process. Importantly, a single-step virus growth cycle is achieved in this process, as it is unlikely that progeny virions are released to initiate subsequent rounds of infection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley

  13. VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: A SAFE SOLUTION TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM

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    M.G. Galitskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases caused by human papilloma virus (HPV, in recent years has become more urgent, not only for physicians, scientists, but also for patients. This is due to the high contagiousness of HPV, its prevalence and, of course, proved oncogenicity. Creation and introduction of preventive vaccines against the most common HPV types played a definite role in the global health, and, of course, raised the attention of doctors and the public to human papillomavirus infection and associated diseases. At the same time propaganda against vaccination blocks the widespread adoption of this disease prevention in our country. In this paper, we introduce the American experience of monitoring vaccination adverse events.Key words: human papillomavirus infection, prevention, vaccination, adverse events, monitoring, children.

  14. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  15. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

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    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  16. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1 in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

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    Ilaria Porcellato

    Full Text Available CPV1 (also called COPV is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10% SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  17. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1) in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcellato, Ilaria; Brachelente, Chiara; Guelfi, Gabriella; Reginato, Alice; Sforna, Monica; Bongiovanni, Laura; Mechelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    CPV1 (also called COPV) is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas) and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia) were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10%) SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  18. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  19. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  20. The role of smoking and alcohol intake in the development of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among high-risk HPV-positive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Munk, Christian; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus is considered a necessary factor in developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. However, most human papillomavirus positive women do not develop high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and other factors may be important...... for this transition. The objective of the present study was to examine if smoking and alcohol intake are associated with the risk of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus types. METHODS: We used baseline information on exposures on 548 high......-risk human papillomavirus positive women with normal cytology, comparing 94 women who developed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with 454 women who remained cytologically normal. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Compared with never smokers, the odds ratio for high...

  1. Development and Evaluation of a PCR and Mass Spectroscopy-based (PCR-MS) Method for Quantitative, Type-specific Detection of Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A.; Shih, Yang-Jen; Newton, Duane W.; Michael, Claire W.; Oeth, Paul A.; Kane, Michael D.; Opipari, Anthony W.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Kalikin, Linda M.; Kurnit, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the central role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis, coupled with an emerging need to monitor the efficacy of newly introduced HPV vaccines, warrant development and evaluation of type-specific, quantitative HPV detection methods. In the present study, a prototype PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate 13 high-risk HPV types is compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) in 199 cervical scraping samples and to DNA sequencing in 77 cervical tumor samples. High-risk HPV types were detected in 76/77 (98.7%) cervical tumor samples by PCR-MS. Degenerate and type-specific sequencing confirmed the types detected by PCR-MS. In 199 cervical scraping samples, all 13 HPV types were detected by PCR-MS. Eighteen (14.5%) of 124 cervical scraping samples that were positive for high-risk HPV by HC2 were negative by PCR-MS. In all these cases, degenerate DNA sequencing failed to detect any of the 13 high-risk HPV types. Nearly half (46.7%) of the 75 cervical scraping samples that were negative for high-risk HPV by the HC2 assay were positive by PCR-MS. Type-specific sequencing in a subset of these samples confirmed the HPV type detected by PCR-MS. Quantitative PCR-MS results demonstrated that 11/75 (14.7%) samples contained as much HPV copies/cell as HC2-positive samples. These findings suggest that this prototype PCR-MS assay performs at least as well as HC2 for HPV detection, while offering the additional, unique advantages of type-specific identification and quantitation. Further validation work is underway to define clinically meaningful HPV detection thresholds and to evaluate the potential clinical application of future generations of the PCR-MS assay. PMID:19410602

  2. Development and evaluation of a PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method for quantitative, type-specific detection of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Shih, Yang-Jen; Newton, Duane W; Michael, Claire W; Oeth, Paul A; Kane, Michael D; Opipari, Anthony W; Ruffin, Mack T; Kalikin, Linda M; Kurnit, David M

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of the central role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis, coupled with an emerging need to monitor the efficacy of newly introduced HPV vaccines, warrant development and evaluation of type-specific, quantitative HPV detection methods. In the present study, a prototype PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate 13 high-risk HPV types is compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) in 199 cervical scraping samples and to DNA sequencing in 77 cervical tumor samples. High-risk HPV types were detected in 76/77 (98.7%) cervical tumor samples by PCR-MS. Degenerate and type-specific sequencing confirmed the types detected by PCR-MS. In 199 cervical scraping samples, all 13 HPV types were detected by PCR-MS. Eighteen (14.5%) of 124 cervical scraping samples that were positive for high-risk HPV by HC2 were negative by PCR-MS. In all these cases, degenerate DNA sequencing failed to detect any of the 13 high-risk HPV types. Nearly half (46.7%) of the 75 cervical scraping samples that were negative for high-risk HPV by the HC2 assay were positive by PCR-MS. Type-specific sequencing in a subset of these samples confirmed the HPV type detected by PCR-MS. Quantitative PCR-MS results demonstrated that 11/75 (14.7%) samples contained as much HPV copies/cell as HC2-positive samples. These findings suggest that this prototype PCR-MS assay performs at least as well as HC2 for HPV detection, while offering the additional, unique advantages of type-specific identification and quantitation. Further validation work is underway to define clinically meaningful HPV detection thresholds and to evaluate the potential clinical application of future generations of the PCR-MS assay.

  3. The most effective and promising population health strategies to advance human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-01-01

    The US is failing to make substantive progress toward improving rates of human papillomavirus vaccine uptake. While the Healthy People 2020 goal for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is 80%, the three-dose completion rate in the US in 2014 for 13- to 17-year-old females is less than 40%, and the rate for males is just above 20%. Experts point to a number of reasons for the poor HPV vaccination rates including parental concerns about safety, necessity, and timing. However, the evidence refuting these concerns is substantial. Efforts focusing on education and communication have not shown promise, but several population health strategies have reminder/recall systems; practice-focused strategies targeting staff, clinicians, and parents; assessment and feedback activities; and school-based HPV vaccination programs.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenfeld, Michaela; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2013-08-20

    The World Health Organization recommends establishing that human papillomavirus vaccination is cost-effective before vaccine introduction. We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to 1 April 2012 for economic evaluations of human papillomavirus vaccination in low and middle income countries. We found 25 articles, but almost all low income countries and many middle income countries lacked country-specific studies. Methods, assumptions and consequently results varied widely, even for studies conducted for the same country. Despite the heterogeneity, most studies conclude that vaccination is likely to be cost-effective and possibly even cost saving, particularly in settings without organized cervical screening programmes. However, study uncertainty could be reduced by clarity about vaccine prices and vaccine delivery costs. The review supports extending vaccination to low income settings where vaccine prices are competitive, donor funding is available, cervical cancer burden is high and screening options are limited. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An optimized formulation of a thermostable spray dried virus-like particles vaccine against human papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Sugandha; Tumban, Ebenezer; Peabody, Julianne; Wafula, Denis; Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Muttil, Pavan

    2016-01-01

    Existing vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) require continuous cold-chain storage. Previously, we developed a bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccine for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies against diverse HPV types. Here, we formulated these VLPs into a thermostable dry powder using a multi-component excipient system and by optimizing the spray drying parameters using a half-factorial design approach. Dry powder VLPs were stable after spray drying and after long-term storage at elevated temperatures. Immunization of mice with a single dose of reconstituted dry powder VLPs that were stored at 37°C for more than a year elicited high anti-L2 IgG antibody titers. Spray dried thermostable, broadly protective L2 bacteriophage VLPs vaccine could be accessible to remote regions of the world (where ~84% of cervical cancer patients reside) by eliminating the cold-chain requirement during transportation and storage. PMID:27019231

  6. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in gynaecologic outpatients of Messina, eastern Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Simone, Angela; Todaro, Paolo; Le Donne, Maria; Caruso, Carmela; Pizzo, Alfonsa; Granese, Domenico

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in sexually active female population in Messina, we tested cervical scrapes of women referred to university clinics for routine gynaecologic care. Between March and December 2008, a total of 680 cervical samples of 598 patients (573 Italian from province of Messina and 25 resident aliens) were examined consecutively from laboratory of molecular biology at the Department of Human Pathology. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted (QIAamp DNA mini kit, Qiagen), followed by a PCR-based HPV DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping (HPV-HS Bio plus HPV-strip, AB Analytica or HPV-type, AB Analytica). The overall rate of HPV DNA detection in Italian patients (mean age 34 years; range 15-69) was 70.5% (404/573), with 163 cases of multiple infections (40.3%). In 335 patients (82.9%) a high-risk HPV infection was detected. In this group the coexistence of a low-risk HPV infection was documented in 97 cases while 65 patients exhibited only a low-risk HPV infection. HPV-16 was the most prevalent (33.4%), followed by HPV-6 (28.0%), HPV-31 (24.3%), HPV-58 (11.4%), HPV-66 (11.1%), HPV-53 (6.4%), HPV-18 (6.2%), HPV-56 (5.4%), HPV-33 (5.2%) while the other genotypes identified (HPV-11, -40, -42, -43, -44, -54, -61, -70, -81, -26, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -59, -68, -73, -82) were below 5%. HPV prevalence (any type) was 78.7% at age or =45 years. A significant association (chi2=12.718; P=0.006) between HPV DNA detection and the younger age was encountered. Since available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV infection in Italy are somewhat discordant, this study represents a helpful contribution to the knowledge on the circulation of precise genotypes in east Sicily in order to improve new HPV vaccines.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and mouse mammary tumour virus as multiple viruses in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Heng, Benjamin; Delprado, Warick; Iacopetta, Barry; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers. All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc). EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk - EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer.

  8. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-02-01

    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  9. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubia Muñoz; Julio César Reina; Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage...

  10. Squamous metaplasia induced by transfection of human papillomavirus DNA into cultured adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjo, T; Kamiyama, K; Chinen, K; Iwamasa, T; Kurihara, K; Hamada, T

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aim: It has been reported previously in cases of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung in Okinawa, a subtropical island 2000 km south of mainland Japan, that the squamous cell carcinoma components were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH). The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma components were enlarged and also positive for HPV. This is thought to indicate that after adenocarcinoma cells are infected with HPV, ...

  11. Cancer Registries and Monitoring the Impact of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: The Potential Role

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiya, Mona; Goodman, Marc T.; Datta, S. Deblina; Chen, Vivien W.; Wingo, Phyllis A.

    2008-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration licensure of a prophylactic vaccine against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, the first of its kind, poses unique challenges in postmarketing vaccine surveillance, especially in measuring vaccine effectiveness against biologic endpoints of HPV infection. Historically, the national system of population-based cancer registries in the US has provided high-quality data on cancer incidence and mortality for the most important biologic ...

  12. Epidemiological study in Okinawa, Japan, of human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Maehama, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with normal cervical cytology and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I to III(CIN) or carcinoma of the cervix in Okinawa, Japan. METHODS: We investigated HPV DNA in 4,078 subjects with cytologically normal cervices, 279 subjects with CIN, and 383 subjects with cervical cancer in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. The presence of HPV DNA was also compared among generations. HPV DNA was both det...

  13. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 66 from an invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Tawheed, A R; Beaudenon, S; Favre, M; Orth, G

    1991-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences coexisting with HPV16 and HPV45 were cloned from an invasive cervical carcinoma. The cloned HPV was shown to be a novel type, named HPV66, and is related to HPV56 (an HPV detected in cervical cancer). After screening 160 anogenital biopsies, four specimens exhibited histological features of intraepithelial neoplasia and contained HPV66 sequences. Of these, three were found to be associated with another HPV type.

  14. Exploring human papillomavirus vaccination refusal among ethnic minorities in England: A comparative qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Alice S.; Rockliffe, Lauren; Marlow, Laura A.V.; Bedford, Helen; McBride, Emily; Waller, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives In England, uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to prevent HPV‐related cancer is lower among girls from ethnic minority backgrounds. We aimed to explore the factors that prevented ethnic minority parents from vaccinating, compared to White British nonvaccinating parents and vaccinating ethnic minority parents. Methods Interviews with 33 parents (n = 14 ethnic minority non‐vaccinating, n = 10 White British nonvaccinating, and n = 9 ethnic minority vaccinating) ...

  15. Human Papillomavirus infection in men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution among men ages 18 years and older recruited from three different countries utilizing a common protocol for sampling HPV detection, and to evaluate whether HPV detection differs by age and country. MATERIAL AD METHODS: The study protocol includes a pre-enrollment run-in visit, a baseline (enrollment) visit, and nine additional visits after enrollment scheduled six months apart. For this analysis, the first 1160 men who completed...

  16. Metastatic MHC class I-negative mouse cells derived by transformation with human papillomavirus type 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmahel, M.; Sobotková, E.; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Žák, R.; Ludvíková, V.; Mikyšková, Romana; Kovařík, J.; Jelínek, F.; Povýšil, C.; Marinov, J.; Vonka, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2001), s. 374-380 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5900; GA MZd NC5526; GA ČR GA312/99/0542; GA ČR GA312/98/0826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : human papillomavirus * E6/E7 oncogenes * cell transformation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.942, year: 2001

  17. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...

  18. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  19. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  20. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  1. DNA damage response is hijacked by human papillomaviruses to complete their life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Shi-yuan

    2017-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is activated when DNA is altered by intrinsic or extrinsic agents. This pathway is a complex signaling network and plays important roles in genome stability, tumor transformation, and cell cycle regulation. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the main etiological agents of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer ranks as the fourth most common cancer among women and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 200 types of HPVs have been identifi...

  2. Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Subsequent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Reed, Rhianna A.; Bezalel, Spencer; Cameron, Michael; Cherpelis, Basil; Fenske, Neil; Sondak, Vernon K.; Messina, Jane; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of subsequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. Pathologically confirmed cases of SCC (n = 150) enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study were included in a retrospective cohort study to examine the association of cutaneous HPV at the time of SCC diagnosis with the risk of subsequent SCC development. Data on HPV seropositivity, HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB) and SCC tumors were available...

  3. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  4. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins Act Synergistically to Cause Head and Neck Cancer in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sean; Strati, Katerina; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Pitot, Henry C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contribute to cervical and other anogenital cancers, and they are also linked etiologically to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We previously established a model for HPV-associated HNSCC in which we treated transgenic mice expressing the papillomaviral oncoproteins with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). We found that the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was highly potent in causing HNSCC, and its dominance masked any potential oncogenic contribution of E6, a second papillomaviral oncoprotein commonly expressed in human cancers. In the current study, we shortened the duration of treatment with 4-NQO to reduce the incidence of cancers and discovered a striking synergy between E6 and E7 in causing HNSCC. Comparing the oncogenic properties of wild-type versus mutant E6 genes in this model for HNSCC uncovered a role for some but not other cellular targets of E6 previously shown to contribute to cervical cancer. PMID:20797753

  5. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  6. Significance of Compression in Binucleation while Differentiating Reactive Cellular Changes Between Human Papillomavirus and Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okodo, Mitsuaki; Okayama, Kaori; Fukui, Tadasi; Shiina, Natsuko; Caniz, Timothy; Yabusaki, Hiromi; Fujii, Masahiko

    2017-09-27

    Purpose: Binucleation is a reactive cellular change (RCC) in Pap smears due to Candida infection. However, the origin of these binucleated cells as RCCs remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine binucleation in patients negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and infected with Candida and those infected with high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) and to clarify the origin of the binucleated cells. Methods: A total of 115 endocervical swab specimens with a combined diagnosis of NILM, Candida infection, and RCCs were used for this study. Pap smears were used to identify binucleated cells and then separate them into two groups, compression-positive and compression-negative. In addition, hr-HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a specific primer on the DNA extracted from the remaining residual cytology specimens. To make the hr-HPV-infected binucleated cells visible, an in situ PCR assay was performed on the Pap smear. Result: Of the 115 specimens, 69.6% contained binucleated cells, 26 (32.5%) showed only the compressed form, 35 (43.8%) showed only the non-compressed form, and 19 showed both the compressed and non-compressed forms of binucleated cells. Also, 34 specimens (29.6%) were positive for hr-HPV. The sensitivity and specificity of compression-positive binucleated cells were 91.2% and 82.7% (p compression-negative group (p = 0.156). Also, 34 cases with hr-HPV contained 99 compression-positive and 24 compression-negative cells. The hr-HPV-positive cells accounted for 68 (68.7%) of the 99 compression-positive and 2 (8.3%) of the 24 compression-negative binucleated cells as determined by an in situ PCR assay for hr-HPV. The relationship between compression and hr-HPV was statistically significant (p Compression-positive binucleated cells may be present as a result of hr-HPV infection and not RCC, which is caused due to inflammation in NILM cases infected with Candida. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  8. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Among Women With High-Grade Cervical Lesions in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meizhu; Xu, Qiuxiang; Li, Hongyan; Gao, Huiqiao; Bie, Yachun; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among Han women with high-grade cervical lesions in Beijing, China. Cervical cell specimens from patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical lesions at 7 hospitals in Beijing were examined with a validated HPV kit for 13 hr-HPV genotypes during the study period. The patients were divided into a low-grade cervical lesions group (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, CIN1) and a high-grade cervical lesions group (CIN2+, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, CIN2; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, CIN3; squamous cervical cancer, SCC; and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, ACC) based on the histopathology results. A total of 2817 eligible patients were enrolled, including 610 cases identified as CIN1 and 2207 as CIN2+. The hr-HPV positive rates in the CIN1 and CIN2+ groups were 78.2% (477/610) and 93.3% (2060/2207), respectively. The most frequently detected genotypes were HPV16, 58, 52 and18 in the CIN1 group and HPV16, 58, 33, and 52 in the CIN2+ group, in descending order of prevalence. In addition, the prevalence of HPV18 among the patients with ACC was 28.6% (14/49), significantly >7.2% (54/752) prevalence among the SCC patients (P HPV infections gradually deceased to 44.2% in the CIN2 patients, 36.7% in the CIN3 patients, and 35.3% in the cervical cancer (CC) patients, which included SCC and ACC patients. In cases of multiple hr-HPV infections in the CIN2+ group, double infections accounted for ∼76.6%, and HPV16+58, HPV16+52, and HPV16+18 were the most common combinations, in descending order. The most frequent combination for triple infections was HPV16+58+31, with a rate of 4.2%. The highest positive rate occurred in the ≤24 year-old group for all types of cervical lesions. The prevalence of HPV genotypes in the targeted population with high-grade cervical lesions differs from that of other countries. This

  9. Case–Control Study of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michelle R.; Gheit, Tarik; Waterboer, Tim; Giuliano, Anna R.; Messina, Jane L.; Fenske, Neil A.; Cherpelis, Basil S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Roetzheim, Richard G.; Michael, Kristina M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Rollison, Dana E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Methods To investigate the association between cutaneous HPV and SCC, a case–control study was conducted, including 173 SCC cases from a university dermatology clinic and 300 controls that screened negative for skin cancer. Serum antibodies against cutaneous HPV types in genera alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu were measured. Tumor tissue from 159 SCC cases was tested for the presence of DNA for genus-beta HPV types. Using logistic regression ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the associations between SCC and cutaneous HPV infection, adjusting for age and sex. The Bonferroni method was used to account for multiple comparisons. Results SCC was positively associated with seropositivity to any genus-beta HPV type (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.23–3.02), particularly with types in species-1 (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.22–2.85). Type-specific associations with SCC were observed for HPV 8 (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.14–2.84), 17 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.02–2.49) and HPV 10 from genus-alpha (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.04–4.85). None of the type-specific associations remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. When DNA-positive SCC cases were compared with controls, strong serologic associations were observed for HPVs 5 (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.27–9.59), 17 (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.29–8.72), and 24 (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.24–11.5). Conclusion Genus-beta HPV infections were associated with SCC in our study population. Impact Identifying the role of cutaneous HPV infection in SCC may lead to improved characterization of high-risk individuals and the development of novel prevention strategies. PMID:22707711

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  11. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

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    Yat Ming Lau

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4 years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%, HPV-18 (21.6%, HPV-52 (11.9%, and HPV-58 (9.3%. Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1% patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90, whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79. However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India.

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    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  13. [Experimental study on carcinogenesis by human papillomavirus type 8 E7 gene].

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    Nishikawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 are often detected in skin cancers developed in patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis, as well as in skin cancers developed in immunosuppressed patients. In the present study, in order to examine the transforming activity of the HPV8E7 gene, the HPV8E7 and HPV8E6/E7 genes were cloned into the expression vector (pcD2-Y), under the SV40 enhancer/promoter to construct pcD2-8E7 and pcD2-8E6/E7, respectively. The E7 and E6/E7 genes of genital high-risk HPV16 were also cloned into pcD2-Y to construct pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, respectively. They were tested for their ability to collaboratively transform primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) with activated H-ras gene. Transfection experiments of REFs having an activated H-ras gene revealed that pcD2-8E7, as well as pcD2-16E7 and pcD2-16E6/E7, induced transformation of cells in G418-resistant colonies at efficiencies of 11.9%, 43.0% and 53.0%, respectively. Transformed cell lines induced by activated H-ras gene and pcD2-8E7 or pcD2-16E7 were named 8RE and 16RE cell lines, respectively. Tumor induction in syngeneic newborn rats by injected the 8RE cells was higher than that of the 16RE cells. In cytological and histological examination, the 8RE cell lines and their induced tumors were different from the 16RE cell lines and their induced tumors. The 8RE cell lines showed the characteristic transformation with efficient growth ability on plastic and colony formation in 0.3% soft agar. These results support the hypothesis that the HPV8E7 gene plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of skin cancers.

  14. Within-Host Variations of Human Papillomavirus Reveal APOBEC-Signature Mutagenesis in the Viral Genome.

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    Hirose, Yusuke; Onuki, Mamiko; Tenjimbayashi, Yuri; Mori, Seiichiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Tasaka, Nobutaka; Satoh, Toyomi; Morisada, Tohru; Iwata, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Koji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kukimoto, Iwao

    2018-03-28

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) causes cervical cancer, accompanied with the accumulation of somatic mutations into the host genome. There are concomitant genetic changes in the HPV genome during viral infection; however, their relevance to cervical carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Here we explored within-host genetic diversity of HPV by performing deep sequencing analyses of viral whole-genome sequences in clinical specimens. The whole genomes of HPV types 16, 52 and 58 were amplified by type-specific PCR from total cellular DNA of cervical exfoliated cells collected from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC), and were deep-sequenced. After constructing a reference vial genome sequence for each specimen, nucleotide positions showing changes with > 0.5% frequencies compared to the reference sequence were determined for individual samples. In total, 1,052 positions of nucleotide variations were detected in HPV genomes from 151 samples (CIN1, n = 56; CIN2/3, n = 68; ICC, n = 27), with varying numbers per sample. Overall, C-to-T and C-to-A substitutions were the dominant changes observed across all histological grades. While C-to-T transitions were predominantly detected in CIN1, their prevalence was decreased in CIN2/3 and fell below that of C-to-A transversions in ICC. Analysis of the tri-nucleotides context encompassing substituted bases revealed that Tp C pN, a preferred target sequence for cellular APOBEC cytosine deaminases, was a primary site for C-to-T substitutions in the HPV genome. These results strongly imply that the APOBEC proteins are drivers of HPV genome mutation, particularly in CIN1 lesions. IMPORTANCE HPVs exhibit surprisingly high levels of genetic diversity, including a large repertoire of minor genomic variants in each viral genotype. Here, by conducting deep sequencing analyses, we show for the first time a comprehensive snapshot of the "within

  15. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and decreased expression of epithelial cadherin in human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar cancer: an early event in human papillomavirus-related tumour progression?

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    Stenner, Markus; Yosef, Basima; Huebbers, Christian U; Preuss, Simon F; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Odenthal, Margarete; Klussmann, Jens P

    2011-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) constitute an important risk factor for tonsillar cancer. This study describes changes in cell adhesion molecules during metastasis of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated tonsillar carcinomas. We examined 48 primary tonsillar carcinoma samples (25 HPV-16 DNA-positive, 23 HPV-16 DNA-negative) and their respective lymph node metastases for their HPV status and for the expression of p16, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, and vimentin. A positive HPV-specific polymerase chain reaction finding correlated significantly with p16 overexpression in both primary tumours and their metastases (P<0.0001 for both). In HPV-unrelated carcinomas, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in metastases than in primary tumours (P<0.001). In contrast, the expression of nuclear β-catenin was significantly higher in metastases than in primary tumours (P=0.016). In HPV-related carcinomas, nuclear localization of β-catenin expression was already apparent in primary tumours (P=0.030). The expression of vimentin significantly correlated with the grading of the primary tumour (P=0.021). Our data indicate that the down-regulation of E-cadherin and the up-regulation of nuclear β-catenin expression might be crucial steps during tumour progression of tonsillar carcinomas, being already present in primary tumours in HPV-driven carcinomas, but becoming apparent in HPV-unrelated tumours later in the process of metastasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  16. [Molecular aspects of human papillomaviruses and their relation to uterine cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carrancá, A; Gariglio, P V

    1993-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (wart viruses) are responsible for the development of benign and malignant epithelial lesions in mammals. More than 60 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been isolated to date. Some of them are major candidates as etiologic agents in cervical cancer. DNA from HPV types 16, 18 and 33 is usually found integrated in about 90 percent of genital carcinomas. Integration of the viral DNA into the cellular genome may be an important step towards the development of malignancy. Two early genes of HPVs (E6 y E7) are involved in cellular transformation. Another early gene (E2) participates in gene control by directly binding to conserved DNA motifs in the viral genome. Several protein factors of viral and cellular origin interact with the regulatory region of HPVs and participate in the regulation transcription of oncogenes E6 and E7. Cellular factors, such as immune system and oncogene and anti-oncogene alterations, seem to play an important role in papillomavirus-associated cervical carcinogenesis.

  17. Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix uteri in women attending a Health Examination Center of the French social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beby-Defaux, A; Bourgoin, A; Ragot, S; Battandier, D; Lemasson, J M; Renaud, O; Bouguermouh, S; Vienne Md, Maladie de la; Agius, G

    2004-06-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central causal factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection constitutes an important step towards development of strategies for prevention. Six hundred and fifty seven cervical samples were tested for HPV using PCR with consensus primers (MY09/MY11), by genotyping (restriction and sequencing analyses) and by cervical cytology, from women who attended a Health Examination Center of the French social security. Women with no cervical smear as well as women with cytological abnormalities within the last 3 years were recruited. HPV DNA was detected in 7.3% of the women (5.3% for high-risk, 2.4% for low-risk, and 0.5% for unknown risk types) including 6 (0.9%) mixed infections. Fifteen different genotypes were detected, of which genotypes 16 (22.2%), 58 (13.0%), 18 (11.1%), 30 (9.2%), and 33 (9.2%) were the most prevalent. In age group 17-25 years, we found the highest frequencies for both any (22.1%) and high-risk (14.7%) HPV, and prevalences gradually decreased with age. 5.2% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 1.2% of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were found. The frequencies of high risk and all HPV types were significantly higher in squamous intraepithelial lesions than in those with normal and reactive/reparative changes (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of high-risk HPV in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion group (28.6%) was significantly higher than in the normal and reactive/reparative changes groups (3.4%) (P < 0.0001). HPV detection was associated with younger age, single marital and non-pregnant status (P < 0.0001), premenopausal status (P = 0.0004), and contraception (P = 0.0008). Marital status (OR 4.5; 95% CI = 2.3-9.0) and tobacco consumption (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.7) were predictive independent factors of HPV infection. The French system

  18. PATTERNS OF PERSISTENT GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION AMONG WOMEN WORLDWIDE: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositch, Anne F.; Koshiol, Jill; Hudgens, Michael; Razzaghi, Hilda; Backes, Danielle M.; Pimenta, Jeanne M.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the strongest risk factor for high-grade cervical precancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of HPV persistence patterns worldwide. Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched through January 1, 2010 for articles estimating HPV persistence or duration of detection. Descriptive and meta-regression techniques were used to summarize variability and the influence of study definitions and characteristics on duration and persistence of cervical HPV infections in women. Among 86 studies providing data on over 100,000 women, 73% defined persistence as HPV positivity at a minimum of two time points. Persistence varied notably across studies and was largely mediated by study region and HPV type, with HPV-16, 31, 33 and 52 being most persistent. Weighted median duration of any-HPV detection was 9.8 months. HR-HPV (9.3 months) persisted longer than low-risk HPV (8.4 months), and HPV-16 (12.4 months) persisted longer than HPV-18 (9.8 months). Among populations of HPV positive women with normal cytology, the median duration of any-HPV detection was 11.5 and HR-HPV detection was10.9 months. In conclusion, we estimated that approximately half of HPV infections persist past 6–12 months. Repeat HPV testing at 12 month intervals could identify women at increased risk of high-grade cervical precancer due to persistent HPV infections. PMID:22961444

  19. Good agreements between self and clinician-collected specimens for the detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lopes Mandu de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV are at a higher risk of developing cervical lesions. In the current study, self and clinician-collected vaginal and cervical samples from women were processed to detect HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with PGMY09/11 primers. HPV genotypes were determined using type-specific PCR. HPV DNA detection showed good concordance between self and clinician-collected samples (84.6%; kappa = 0.72. HPV infection was found in 30% women and genotyping was more concordant among high-risk HPV (HR-HPV than low-risk HPV (HR-HPV. HPV16 was the most frequently detected among the HR-HPV types. LR-HPV was detected at a higher frequency in self-collected; however, HR-HPV types were more frequently identified in clinician-collected samples than in self-collected samples. HPV infections of multiple types were detected in 20.5% of clinician-collected samples and 15.5% of self-collected samples. In this study, we demonstrated that the HPV DNA detection rate in self-collected samples has good agreement with that of clinician-collected samples. Self-collected sampling, as a primary prevention strategy in countries with few resources, could be effective for identifying cases of HR-HPV, being more acceptable. The use of this method would enhance the coverage of screening programs for cervical cancer.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in women in Shenzhen City, People's Republic of China, a population typical of recent Chinese urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-fang; Dai, Min; Qiao, You-lin; Clifford, Gary M; Liu, Zhi-hua; Arslan, Annie; Li, Ni; Shi, Ju-fang; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M; Franceschi, Silvia

    2007-09-15

    Select cancer registries report that cervical cancer is relatively rare in the People's Republic of China, but may not be representative of the entire country. We carried out a survey of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in 3 samples of women, i.e., general population, factory workers, and tertiary sector workers, in Shenzhen City in 2004. All participants were interviewed and offered gynaecological examination. HPV detection in exfoliated cervical cells was performed using a GP5+/6+ PCR-based assay. Overall HPV prevalence was 18.4% among the general population (n = 534), 11.2% among factory workers (n = 269) and 18.8% among tertiary sector workers (n = 224). Corresponding prevalence for high-risk HPV types was 13.5%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively. The most commonly found HPV types were HPV16, 52, 58, 31 and 39. HPV prevalence significantly increased with age in the general population, whereas it was highest below age 25 years in tertiary sector workers. Associations of HPV prevalence with indicators of sexual behaviour were stronger among tertiary sector workers than in the other samples of women. High HPV prevalence in all age groups and the appearance of a 'western-type' peak in HPV prevalence among young women employed in the tertiary sector raise important questions concerning the real cervical cancer burden, and its control, in urban China. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Sonoporation delivery of monoclonal antibodies against human papillomavirus 16 E6 restores p53 expression in transformed cervical keratinocytes.

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    Melissa Togtema

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV, such as HPV16, have been found in nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Therapies targeted at blocking the HPV16 E6 protein and its deleterious effects on the tumour suppressor pathways of the cell can reverse the malignant phenotype of affected keratinocytes while sparing uninfected cells. Through a strong interdisciplinary collaboration between engineering and biology, a novel, non-invasive intracellular delivery method for the HPV16 E6 antibody, F127-6G6, was developed. The method employs high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU in combination with microbubbles, in a process known as sonoporation. In this proof of principle study, it was first demonstrated that sonoporation antibody delivery into the HPV16 positive cervical carcinoma derived cell lines CaSki and SiHa was possible, using chemical transfection as a baseline for comparison. Delivery of the E6 antibody using sonoporation significantly restored p53 expression in these cells, indicating the antibody is able to enter the cells and remains active. This delivery method is targeted, non-cytotoxic, and non-invasive, making it more easily translatable for in vivo experiments than other transfection methods.

  2. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

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    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  3. Human papillomavirus mRNA and DNA testing in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we compared the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) mRNA and DNA testing of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) during cervical cancer screening. Using a nationwide Danish pathology register, we identified women aged 30......-65 years with ASC-US during 2005-2011 who were tested for HPV16/18/31/33/45 mRNA using PreTect HPV-Proofer (n = 3,226) or for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) DNA using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (n = 9,405) or Linear Array HPV-Genotyping test (LA) (n = 1,533). Women with ≥1 subsequent examination in the register (n = 13...... those testing HC2 negative (3.2% [95% CI: 2.2-4.2%] versus 0.5% [95% CI: 0.3-0.7%]). Patterns were similar after 18 months and 5 years'; follow-up; for CIN2+ and cancer as outcomes; across all age groups; and when comparing mRNA testing to hrHPV DNA testing using LA. In conclusion, the HPV16...

  4. Human papillomavirus 16E6 and NFX1-123 potentiate notch signaling and differentiation without activating cellular arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet-Gregg, Portia A.; Hamilton, Jennifer R. [Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A., E-mail: rkatzen@uw.edu [Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, 1900 Ninth Ave., Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) oncoproteins bind host cell proteins to dysregulate and uncouple apoptosis, senescence, differentiation, and growth. These pathways are important for both the viral life cycle and cancer development. HR HPV16 E6 (16E6) interacts with the cellular protein NFX1-123, and they collaboratively increase the growth and differentiation master regulator, Notch1. In 16E6 expressing keratinocytes (16E6 HFKs), the Notch canonical pathway genes Hes1 and Hes5 were increased with overexpression of NFX1-123, and their expression was directly linked to the activation or blockade of the Notch1 receptor. Keratinocyte differentiation genes Keratin 1 and Keratin 10 were also increased, but in contrast their upregulation was only indirectly associated with Notch1 receptor stimulation and was fully unlinked to growth arrest, increased p21{sup Waf1/CIP1}, or decreased proliferative factor Ki67. This leads to a model of 16E6, NFX1-123, and Notch1 differently regulating canonical and differentiation pathways and entirely uncoupling cellular arrest from increased differentiation. - Highlights: • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the Notch canonical pathway through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the differentiation pathway indirectly through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased differentiation gene expression without growth arrest. • Increased NFX1-123 with 16E6 may create an ideal cellular phenotype for HPV.

  5. Cervical cancer screening through human papillomavirus testing in community health campaigns versus health facilities in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchko, Megan J; Ibrahim, Saduma; Blat, Cinthia; Cohen, Craig R; Smith, Jennifer S; Hiatt, Robert A; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of community health campaigns (CHCs) as a strategy for human papillomavirus (HPV)-based cervical cancer screening in rural western Kenya. Between January and November 2016, a cluster-randomized trial was carried out in 12 communities in western Kenya to investigate high-risk HPV testing offered via self-collection to women aged 25-65 years in CHCs versus government health facilities. Outcome measures were the total number of women accessing cervical cancer screening and the proportion of HPV-positive women accessing treatment. In total, 4944 women underwent HPV-based cervical cancer screening in CHCs (n=2898) or health facilities (n=2046). Screening uptake as a proportion of total eligible women in the population was greater in communities assigned to CHCs (60.0% vs 37.0%, P<0.001). Rates of treatment acquisition were low in both arms (CHCs 39.2%; health facilities 31.5%; P=0.408). Cervical cancer screening using HPV testing of self-collected samples reached a larger proportion of women when offered through periodic CHCs compared with health facilities. The community-based model is a promising strategy for cervical cancer prevention. Lessons learned from this trial can be used to identify ways of maximizing the impact of such strategies through greater community participation and improved linkage to treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT02124252. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Human papillomavirus infection correlates with inflammatory Stat3 signaling activity and IL-17 level in patients with colorectal cancer.

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    Yi Xin Li

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major burden of public health and healthcare worldwide. Microbiota has been suggested in promoting chronic inflammation in the intestine which, in turn, promotes tumor development. This study focuses on possible correlations of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with proinflammatory Stat3 signaling activities and the resulting levels of its downstream proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 in CRC patients.HPV was examined using HPV Genotyping Chip technology and constitutively active Stat3 (p-Stat3 and IL-17 levels were tested using immunohistochemistry (IHC in paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent normal tissues (ANT from a cohort of 95 CRC patients. Correlation analyses were performed between HPV infection and clinicopathological characteristics, Stat3 activities and IL-17 levels among these CRC patients.Three major findings were observed: (1 HPV infection existed in a high rate of CRC cases (48.4%, 46/95, of which 45 cases (45/46, 97.8% were high-risk HPV16-positive and only one case was HPV53-positive. (2 HPV infection correlated with poorer clinical stages (III+IV of CRC. (3 HPV infection strongly correlated with both constitutively higher Stat3 activities (P<0.01 and higher IL-17 levels (P<0.01 only in CRC tissues but not in ANT tissues.HPV infection is common in CRC patients suggesting potentially preventive effectiveness of HPV vaccination among high-risk young individuals. We have for the first time revealed a tri-lateral relationship among HPV infection, constitutive Stat3 activity and IL-17 level, whose collaborative act may orchestrate a proinflammatory microenvironment in the colorectum that, in turn, may promote carcinogenesis and possibly facilitate progression of CRC.

  7. The S100A10 subunit of the annexin A2 heterotetramer facilitates L2-mediated human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodham, Andrew W; Da Silva, Diane M; Skeate, Joseph G; Raff, Adam B; Ambroso, Mark R; Brand, Heike E; Isas, J Mario; Langen, Ralf; Kast, W Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mucosotropic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses that are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, is an obligatory intracellular virus that must gain entry into host epithelial cells and deliver its double stranded DNA to the nucleus. HPV capsid proteins play a vital role in these steps. Despite the critical nature of these capsid protein-host cell interactions, the precise cellular components necessary for HPV16 infection of epithelial cells remains unknown. Several neutralizing epitopes have been identified for the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein that can inhibit infection after initial attachment of the virus to the cell surface, which suggests an L2-specific secondary receptor or cofactor is required for infection, but so far no specific L2-receptor has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) contributes to HPV16 infection and co-immunoprecipitates with HPV16 particles on the surface of epithelial cells in an L2-dependent manner. Inhibiting A2t with an endogenous annexin A2 ligand, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), or with an annexin A2 antibody significantly reduces HPV16 infection. With electron paramagnetic resonance, we demonstrate that a previously identified neutralizing epitope of L2 (aa 108-120) specifically interacts with the S100A10 subunit of A2t. Additionally, mutation of this L2 region significantly reduces binding to A2t and HPV16 pseudovirus infection. Furthermore, downregulation of A2t with shRNA significantly decreases capsid internalization and infection by HPV16. Taken together, these findings indicate that A2t contributes to HPV16 internalization and infection of epithelial cells and this interaction is dependent on the presence of the L2 minor capsid protein.

  8. The S100A10 subunit of the annexin A2 heterotetramer facilitates L2-mediated human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Woodham

    Full Text Available Mucosotropic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV are sexually transmitted viruses that are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, is an obligatory intracellular virus that must gain entry into host epithelial cells and deliver its double stranded DNA to the nucleus. HPV capsid proteins play a vital role in these steps. Despite the critical nature of these capsid protein-host cell interactions, the precise cellular components necessary for HPV16 infection of epithelial cells remains unknown. Several neutralizing epitopes have been identified for the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein that can inhibit infection after initial attachment of the virus to the cell surface, which suggests an L2-specific secondary receptor or cofactor is required for infection, but so far no specific L2-receptor has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t contributes to HPV16 infection and co-immunoprecipitates with HPV16 particles on the surface of epithelial cells in an L2-dependent manner. Inhibiting A2t with an endogenous annexin A2 ligand, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI, or with an annexin A2 antibody significantly reduces HPV16 infection. With electron paramagnetic resonance, we demonstrate that a previously identified neutralizing epitope of L2 (aa 108-120 specifically interacts with the S100A10 subunit of A2t. Additionally, mutation of this L2 region significantly reduces binding to A2t and HPV16 pseudovirus infection. Furthermore, downregulation of A2t with shRNA significantly decreases capsid internalization and infection by HPV16. Taken together, these findings indicate that A2t contributes to HPV16 internalization and infection of epithelial cells and this interaction is dependent on the presence of the L2 minor capsid protein.

  9. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  10. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  11. Reported changes in sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus knowledge in Peruvian female sex workers following participation in a human papillomavirus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A

    2013-07-01

    Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P Knowledge about HPV and HPV-related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.

  12. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  13. Human papillomavirus genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic factors for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    -specific survival (DSS) in patients diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HPV genotyping polymerase chain reaction (high-risk subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and immunohistochemical expression of p16 were analyzed......PURPOSE: Carcinomas of the anal canal are strongly associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Expression of p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection. In a retrospective study, we evaluated HPV genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic markers of overall survival (OS) and disease...... by using paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies from 143 anal carcinomas. The patients were treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. RESULTS: HPV16 was detected in 81.0% of the tumors, followed by HPV33 (5.1%), HPV18 (2.2%), and HPV58 (0.7%). p16 positivity was found in 92.9% of the tumors...

  14. Determination to genotypes of human papillomavirus and analysis with immunohistochemical marker Ki67 in biopsy with cervical dysplasia patients of Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago during 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Chaves, Ana Lorely

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide, occupying in Costa Rica the fourth place. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is shown that is linked to at least 99.7% of cases, mainly associated with high risk genotypes. A study was conducted of type descriptive where were implemented molecular techniques such as: PCR, reverse hybridization for the determination of different HPV genotypes, and immunohistochemical detection of cell proliferation marker Ki67 in paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies from patients at the Hospital Dr. Max Peralta in Cartago, during the year 2013. The most frequent genotype that was determined among the study population has been 39, which was presented in 53% of cases. In addition, 65% of biopsies studied have showed mixed infections of HPV. (author) [es

  15. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Women from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe López Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Mexican women. The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in women from Mexico City. Methods. Our study was conducted in the Clinica de Especialidades de la Mujer de la Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional, Mexico. Random samples were taken from 929 healthy women requesting a cervical Papanicolaou examination. Detection and genotyping of HPV were performed by multiplex PCR, with the HPV4A ACE Screening kit (Seegene. Results. 85 of nine hundred twenty-nine women (9.1% were infected with HPV. Of HPV-positive women, 99% and 1% had high- and low-risk HPV genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of the 16 high-risk (HR HPV types that were screened was 43% : 42% (18 were HPV positive and 14% (16 were HPV positive, which includes coinfection. Multiple infections with different viral genotypes were detected in 10% of the positive cases. Abnormal cervical cytological results were found in only 15.3% of HPV-positive women, while 84.7% had normal cytological results. Conclusions. We found a similar prevalence of HPV to previous studies in Mexico. The heterogeneity of the HPV genotype distribution in Mexico is evident in this study, which found a high frequency of HPV HR genotypes, the majority of which were HPV 18.

  16. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  17. Analysis of cis-elements that facilitate extrachromosomal persistence of human papillomavirus genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittayakhajonwut, Daraporn; Angeletti, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are maintained latently in dividing epithelial cells as nuclear plasmids. Two virally encoded proteins, E1, a helicase, and E2, a transcription factor, are important players in replication and stable plasmid maintenance in host cells. Recent experiments in yeast have demonstrated that viral genomes retain replication and maintenance function independently of E1 and E2 [Angeletti, P.C., Kim, K., Fernandes, F.J., and Lambert, P.F. (2002). Stable replication of papillomavirus genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol. 76(7), 3350-8; Kim, K., Angeletti, P.C., Hassebroek, E.C., and Lambert, P.F. (2005). Identification of cis-acting elements that mediate the replication and maintenance of human papillomavirus type 16 genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol. 79(10), 5933-42]. Flow cytometry studies of EGFP-reporter vectors containing subgenomic HPV fragments with or without a human ARS (hARS), revealed that six fragments located in E6-E7, E1-E2, L1, and L2 regions showed a capacity for plasmid stabilization in the absence of E1 and E2 proteins. Interestingly, four fragments within E7, the 3' end of L2, and the 5' end of L1 exhibited stability in plasmids that lacked an hARS, indicating that they possess both replication and maintenance functions. Two fragments lying in E1-E2 and the 3' region of L1 were stable only in the presence of hARS, that they contained only maintenance function. Mutational analyses of HPV16-GFP reporter constructs provided evidence that genomes lacking E1 and E2 could replicate to an extent similar to wild type HPV16. Together these results support the concept that cellular factors influence HPV replication and maintenance, independently, and perhaps in conjunction with E1 and E2, suggesting a role in the persistent phase of the viral lifecycle

  18. Cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitkumthorn, Nakarin; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsanajit, Pattamawadee; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Phokaew, Chureerat; Triratanachat, Surang; Trivijitsilp, Prasert; Termrungruanglert, Wichai; Tresukosol, Damrong; Niruthisard, Somchai

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate epigenetic status of cyclin A1 in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. Y. Tokumaru et al., Cancer Res 64, 5982-7 (Sep 1, 2004)demonstrated in head and neck squamous-cell cancer an inverse correlation between cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation and TP53 mutation. Human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer, however, is deprived of TP53 function by a different mechanism. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the epigenetic alterations during multistep cervical cancer development. In this study, we performed duplex methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR on several cervical cancer cell lines and microdissected cervical cancers. Furthermore, the incidence of cyclin A1 methylation was studied in 43 samples of white blood cells, 25 normal cervices, and 24, 5 and 30 human papillomavirus-associated premalignant, microinvasive and invasive cervical lesions, respectively. We demonstrated cyclin A1 methylation to be commonly found in cervical cancer, both in vitro and in vivo, with its physiological role being to decrease gene expression. More important, this study demonstrated that not only is cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation strikingly common in cervical cancer, but is also specific to the invasive phenotype in comparison with other histopathological stages during multistep carcinogenesis. None of the normal cells and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions exhibited methylation. In contrast, 36.6%, 60% and 93.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, microinvasive and invasive cancers, respectively, showed methylation. This methylation study indicated that cyclin A1 is a potential tumor marker for early diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer

  19. Human papillomavirus in anal biopsy tissues and liquid-based cytology samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Pankam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. Methods: Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC. Results: Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03 in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27% was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–31.9; P=0.006 in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4–22.7; P=0.02. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Anal tissues, Men who have sex with men, HIV, Thailand

  20. Early experience with human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Abigail; Markowitz, Lauri; Deeks, Shelley; Tam, Theresa; Irwin, Kathleen; Garland, Suzanne M; Schuchat, Anne

    2008-08-19

    Successful incorporation of a new vaccine into a nation's vaccination program requires addressing a number of issues, including: 1) establishing national recommendations; 2) assuring education of and acceptance by the public and medical community; 3) establishing and maintaining an appropriate infrastructure for vaccine delivery; 4) financing the vaccine and the program, in addition to political will. This article reviews the early experience with implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. It focuses on the United States of America and Canada and provides a brief report on Australia, where introduction is underway.

  1. Characterization of two novel cutaneous human papillomaviruses, HPV93 and HPV96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Hazard, Kristina; Eliasson, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Two novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV93 and HPV96, with genomes of 7450 and 7438 bp, respectively, are described. The L1 open reading frame of HPV93 showed highest identity to HPV24 (79%) and that of HPV96 had highest identity to HPV92 (71%). Real-time PCR for HPV92, 93 and 96 on stripped ...... per 45 cells to one copy per 10,000 cells. The E7 proteins of HPV92, 93 and 96 were found to bind the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). These results suggest a possible role for these HPV types in skin carcinogenesis that deserves further study....

  2. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  3. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  4. A systematic review of factors influencing human papillomavirus vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; LeClaire, Anna-Rae

    2017-11-21

    To critically appraise factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States, a comprehensive search of electronic databases and reference lists was conducted. The findings from 22 articles were ordered based on a socioecological model. About 30% of children initiated and 14% completed a three-dose series. Correlates of HPV vaccine initiation rates included lack of information, concerns about vaccine safety and promiscuity, providers' recommendations, school mandates, financial issues, immigration laws, and living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Upstream initiatives embracing cultural descriptors could facilitate HPV vaccination, reducing HPV-related disparities in cancer among immigrants in the US.

  5. The role of Human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer and the impact on radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    The profound influence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) on the epidemiological pattern and clinical course of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) has led to a change in the traditional understanding of this disease entity. Separate therapeutic strategies based on tumour HPV status are under consideration and in this light provision of knowledge concerning the influence of tumour HPV on the radiation response in HNSCC appears highly relevant. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of the role of HPV in head and neck cancer with specific focus on the viral impact on radiotherapy outcome of HNSCC.

  6. The role of human papillomavirus vaccines in cervical cancer: Prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Mosca, Lavinia; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease, worldwide. Primary prevention thorough vaccination si able to reduce the burden of HPV-related lesions. Ten years ago the Food and drug Administration (FDA) approved the first vaccine against HPV. In the last decades, growing data on safety and effectiveness have been collected. In the present review we report the current knowledge on vaccine against HPV, highlighting the current value and prospective regarding the widespread diffusion of HPV vaccines. The role of emerging therapeutic vaccines is reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  8. Discrete-time semi-Markov modeling of human papillomavirus persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. E.; Hudgens, M. G.; King, C. C.; Cu-Uvin, S.; Lo, Y.; Rompalo, A.; Sobel, J.; Smith, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-state modeling is often employed to describe the progression of a disease process. In epidemiological studies of certain diseases, the disease state is typically only observed at periodic clinical visits, producing incomplete longitudinal data. In this paper we consider fitting semi-Markov models to estimate the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific infection in studies where the status of HPV type(s) is assessed periodically. Simulation study results are presented indicating the semi-Markov estimator is more accurate than an estimator currently used in the HPV literature. The methods are illustrated using data from the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS). PMID:21538985

  9. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Gary M.; de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 384...

  10. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Self-Taken Samples from Screening Nonattenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, J U H; Rebolj, M; Ejegod, D M

    2017-01-01

    The Copenhagen Self-Sampling Initiative (CSi) has shown how human papillomavirus (HPV)-based self-sampling can be used to increase screening participation among 23,632 nonattenders in the Capital Region of Denmark. In this study, we describe HPV prevalence and genotype frequency in 4,824 self...... study, which had been undertaken in the same screening laboratory. Nonattenders had an HPV prevalence of 11.3% as determined by the CLART assay, which was lower than that for women from the Horizon study (18.5%). One-third of the CSi women who tested HPV positive by self-sampling tested HPV negative...

  11. Vacinas contra o Papilomavirus humano Vaccines against human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2006-09-01

    outras doenças anogenitais associadas à infecção pelo HPV.Papillomavirus infection is more common in young sexually active people. It is so prevalent that from 75% to 80% of this population will be infected in their lifetime. Most lesions will be eradicated spontaneously at the point of not being detected even with the most sensible methods. Persistent infections with oncogenic HPV increase intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer risks. Two ways of prevention may be proposed: screening for precursor lesions and immunization against HPV, to avoid them. Although anogenital cancer incidence is decreasing with screening methods, costs are high and emotional disturbance may be caused by an abnormal result. So, vaccines to prevent diseases associated to HPV must be available. In the last decade, clinical tests began with several vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types. The goal of prophylactic vaccines is to prevent primary or persistent HPV infections, and thus prevent cervical cancer and/or genital warts and the aim of the therapeutic types is to prevent progression of HPV infection, induce regression of intraepithelial neoplasia or condylomata, or eradicate residual cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines in late stages of clinical testing are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed in recombinant systems, resulting in strong adaptive immune responses that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Some studies observed 100% efficacy in preventing clinical disease for specific HPV types at least 5 years after immunization. Vaccines that target E6 and E7 proteins also represent an important strategy to control HPV-associated lesions and are in test in animal models. HPV vaccines seem to be more effective when administered prior to initiation of sexual activity, and vaccination campaigns should target preadolescent and adolescent populations. It is expected that with good coverage of the

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection.......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...

  13. Original Research Human papillomavirus in head and neck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 The College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi. This work is ... Original Research. Human ... simultaneous evaluation of other risk factors including HIV ..... increased HNSCC compared to HIV-negative people.18,19.

  14. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and their high-risk genotypes in Sri Lankan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanaka, K A S N; Wilathgamuwa, S; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2018-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer in women and approximately 700 deaths have been reported annually in Sri Lanka due to this cancer. Despite, attempts have not been made to investigate the prevalence of HPV amongst Sri Lankan women with normal cytology. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based assay was set up to detect HPV in both normal and abnormal cytology and the positive samples were then tested for the genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18 as they have been identified as the high-risk types associating with cervical cancer. Eighty-four (number = 84) clinical samples (age range 27-69) analyzed in this study indicated that the prevalence of HPV, regardless of cytological abnormalities was 15.5%, (n = 13, 95% class interval ± 7.7) while it was 100% (n = 3) for those with abnormal cytology. Association of HPV 16 and HPV 18 among the abnormal cytology was 0 and 50% (n = 1), respectively and further, the prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 in women was found to be 3.6% (n = 3, 95% CI ± 4.0) and 2.4% (n = 2, 95% CI ± 3.3), respectively. Moreover, age wise prevalence analysis revealed women of the age of 35-years or more to have higher HPV prevalence. The prevalence of HPV among normal cytology is 12.3% (n = 10, 95% CI ± 7.2) which is similar to the rates in other regions of Asia (China 15.4%; India 10.43%). Finally, higher prevalence of HPV in women of the age of 35-years or more in Sri Lanka, especially with malignant types call for such age group to be screened for proper clinical intervention to be made in reducing the incident of cervical cancers. This is the first report of prevalence of HPV among women with normal cytology in Sri Lanka.

  15. Presence of human papillomavirus in semen in relation to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G; Snijders, Peter J F; Hompes, Peter G A; Pronk, Divera T M; Hubeek, Isabelle; Berkhof, Johannes; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2016-02-01

    Is the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen associated with impairment of semen quality? In a large cohort of males seeking fertility evaluation, no associations were observed between seminal HPV presence and semen parameters. HPV is commonly detected in semen samples. Whether the presence of HPV is related to impairment of semen quality, remains unclear. This cross-sectional study included a cohort of 430 males. Male partners in couples seeking fertility evaluation provided one semen sample per person. Semen samples were tested for HPV-DNA using GP5+/6+-PCR. Sperm concentration was counted and motility was assessed in a Makler counting chamber at a magnification of ×200. The presence of antisperm antibodies was assessed by a mixed agglutination reaction (MAR)-test. Overall HPV was detected in 14.9% (64/430) of semen samples, including 2.1% (9/430) that contained both high-risk (hr) HPV and low-risk (lr) HPV types, 8.8% (38/430) with exclusively hrHPV types and 4.0% (17/430) with exclusively lrHPV types. The presence of HPV in semen was not associated with the age of the participants, seminal pH, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility or the presence of antisperm antibodies. This study did not observe an association between HPV presence in semen and impairment of semen quality. However, we cannot exclude an effect of seminal HPV on early embryo development and clinical reproductive outcomes. As HPV is frequently present in semen, screening of donor semen for HPV should be considered to prevent iatrogenic cervical HPV infections in the recipient. However our findings do not support standardized HPV testing of semen in the diagnostic work-up of subfertile couples. This study was sponsored by an unrestricted grant of Stichting Researchfonds Pathology Amsterdam, the Netherlands. P.J.F.S. has been on the speakers bureau of Roche, Gen-Probe, Abbott, Qiagen and Seegene and has been a consultant for Crucell B.V. J.B. has been

  16. Human papillomavirus infection in females with normal cervical cytology: Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis among women in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Iqbal, Huma; Mahmood, Humera; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Mohammad; Sattar, Areej Abdul; Tabassum, Sobia; Napper, Sanum; Batool, Syeda; Rasheed, Nuzhat

    2018-01-01

    Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women and the seventh most common cancer overall, accounting for an estimated 300 000 annual deaths. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cause of cervical cancer worldwide. HPV screening is not a common practice in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV and HPV types in women with a normal cytology of the cervix living in the upper and lower regions of Punjab, Pakistan, and to analyze the risk factors for HPV in this region. PCR analysis was performed for 1011 female patients with a normal cytology of the cervix from various districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Risk factors for the acquisition of HPV were studied. High-risk HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18) were detected using the Abbott Real Time HR HPV test. To determine the genotype, partial L1 region sequences of HPV-positive samples were subjected to sequencing using MY/09/MY11 primers, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using CLC software. The study found a 4.74% prevalence of HPV, with the most frequent HPV type found being the low-risk HPV6 (in 25% of infected individuals), followed by HPV55 (22.9%), HPV11 (20.8%), and high-risk types HPV45 (12.5%), HPV33 (8.33%), HPV18 (6.25%), and HPV16 (4.16%). Phylogenetic analysis of all HPV types in this study showed 80-99% nucleotide identity with types related to the same species. The sequences were clustered with China, India, Mexico, Iran, Slovenia, and Germany, showing the diversity in origin of the various genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. In this population with a normal cervical cytology, the prevalence of high-risk HPV types was very low. The major prevalent HPV genotype in Punjab Province of Pakistan was the low-risk HPV type 6, followed by HPV type 55. Sequencing of the partial L1 region suggested that the region was highly conserved in all reported sequences. This study highlights the need to conduct robust epidemiological studies in the region

  17. Seroprevalence and Associated Factors of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types among Men in the Multinational HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Rollison, Dana E; Wang, Wei; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Recently a 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) prophylactic vaccine was licensed. Seroprevalence prior to vaccine dissemination is needed for monitoring vaccine effectiveness over time. Few studies have assessed the seroprevalence of 9vHPV types in men. To investigate the seroprevalence of 9vHPV vaccine types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Archived serum specimens collected at enrollment were tested for antibodies against nine HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) using a glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based multiplex serologic assay. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and sexual behavior data at enrollment were collected through a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence and logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with seropositivity of type-specific and grouped (i.e. 9vHPV, high-risk 9vHPV, low risk 9vHPV, and five-additional) HPV types. Overall, 28.3% of men were seropositive for at least one of the 9vHPV vaccine types, 14.0% for at least one of the seven high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) and 11.2% for at least one of the five high-risk types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) not included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and 17.4% for at least one of the low-risk types (6/11). In multivariate analyses, odds ratios adjusted (AOR) for country of residence, age, marital status, smoking, number of anal sex lifetime partners, compared to men with no anal sex lifetime partners, men with ≥2 partners were more likely to be seropositive for grouped HPV [(9vHPV: AOR 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.54), (high-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.18; 95%CI: 1.05-4.50) and (low-risk 9vHPV: AOR 2.12; 95%CI: 1.12-4.03)], and individual HPV types 6, 16, 33 and 58 with AORs ranging from 2.19 to 7

  18. Is routine human papillomavirus vaccination an option for Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer remains an important public health problem in developing countries where over 80% of the global burden occurs annually but screening has been ineffective. In a polygamous country like Ghana with a high incidence of cervical cancer but no national screening program, the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) ...

  19. [Population-based study on infection and genotype distribution of high-risk human among women in rural areas of China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J L; Luo, X M; Wu, J L; Song, B; Ma, L

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To explore the epidemiologic characterization of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and genotype distribution of HR-HPV among women in rural areas of China. Methods: This study used multiple layers of stratified cluster random sampling method. During January to December in 2014, 117 counties of 27 provinces were selected as the HPV test screening pilot project counties. The women aged 35-64 years with rural areas Hukou in these project counties were selected as the study subjects. A total 457 799 women received HPV DNA test. Among them, 118 237 women from 32 counties in 11 provinces received qualified HPV DNA test by fluorescent PCR to detect HPV genotypes. Results: Among 118 237 rural women, the overall HR-HPV positive infection rate was 7.8% (9 249/118 237). The infection rate increased with age and reached an infection peak at the 60-64 age groups (9.9%, 831/8 394). The HR-HPV positive infection rate in western regions (6.9%, 2 144/31 130) was statistical significantly lower than in central regions (8.2%, 1 894/23 023) and eastern regions (8.1%, 5 211/64 084) (χ(2)=51.46, PChina. The single infection rates were 20.9% (1 355/6 496), 18.7% (1 215/6 496), and 11.2% (725/6 496), respectively. The multiple infection rates were 47.2% (77/163), 17.8% (29/163), and 18.4% (30/163), respectively. Conclusion: The HR-HPV positive infection rate in rural areas of Chinese woman was 7.8%, western region has lower infection rate compared with central and eastern regions. HPV 52 was first of the most common genotypes in rural areas of China.

  20. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Muller

    Full Text Available Human Papillomaviruses (HPV cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV. To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  1. High Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancer Precursors in a Contemporary Cohort of Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Isabelle; Etienney, Isabelle; Potard, Valérie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Moore, Catherine; Lesage, Anne-Carole; Ressiot, Emmanuelle; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Fléjou, Jean-François; Cubie, Heather; Costagliola, Dominique; Darragh, Teresa M

    2015-05-15

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at high risk for anal cancer, few data have been published on prevalence of and risk factors for anal precancer and potential screening strategies in this risk group. A cross-sectional anal screening study was nested in a gynecological cohort of HIV-infected women. Anal swab specimens were collected for cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. High-resolution anoscopy, with biopsy when indicated, was systematically performed. Among the 171 enrolled women, median age was 47.3 years and 98% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Median CD4(+) count was 655 cells/µL and HIV load was associated with increased risk of HG-AIN+. Abnormal anal cytology and HPV-16 infection performed best as a screening strategy for HG-AIN+ histology, with positive likelihood ratios of 3.4 (95% CI, 2.3-5.1) and 4.7 (95% CI, 2.5-8.7) and negative likelihood ratios of 0.2 (95% CI, .07-.8) and 0.4 (95% CI, .2-.9), respectively. HIV-infected women with a history of HPV-associated cervical disease are at increased risk for HG-AIN+ and should be offered anal cancer screening. Anal cytology and HPV-16 genotyping had the best screening performance. Anal cytology is easy to perform routinely; it may be the best candidate for screening for HG-AIN among HIV-infected women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Large scale genotype comparison of human papillomavirus E2-host interaction networks provides new insights for e2 molecular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Mandy; Jacob, Yves; Jones, Louis; Weiss, Amélie; Brino, Laurent; Chantier, Thibault; Lotteau, Vincent; Favre, Michel; Demeret, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) cause widespread infections in humans, resulting in latent infections or diseases ranging from benign hyperplasia to cancers. HPV-induced pathologies result from complex interplays between viral proteins and the host proteome. Given the major public health concern due to HPV-associated cancers, most studies have focused on the early proteins expressed by HPV genotypes with high oncogenic potential (designated high-risk HPV or HR-HPV). To advance the global understanding of HPV pathogenesis, we mapped the virus/host interaction networks of the E2 regulatory protein from 12 genotypes representative of the range of HPV pathogenicity. Large-scale identification of E2-interaction partners was performed by yeast two-hybrid screenings of a HaCaT cDNA library. Based on a high-confidence scoring scheme, a subset of these partners was then validated for pair-wise interaction in mammalian cells with the whole range of the 12 E2 proteins, allowing a comparative interaction analysis. Hierarchical clustering of E2-host interaction profiles mostly recapitulated HPV phylogeny and provides clues to the involvement of E2 in HPV infection. A set of cellular proteins could thus be identified discriminating, among the mucosal HPV, E2 proteins of HR-HPV 16 or 18 from the non-oncogenic genital HPV. The study of the interaction networks revealed a preferential hijacking of highly connected cellular proteins and the targeting of several functional families. These include transcription regulation, regulation of apoptosis, RNA processing, ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. The present work provides an overview of E2 biological functions across multiple HPV genotypes.

  3. HIV, human papillomavirus, and cervical neoplasia and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Lillo, Flavia; Broutet, Nathalie; Smith, Jennifer S

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature on the epidemiological association between human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, and cervical neoplasia, and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on this association. MEDLINE was searched using the terms 'human papillomavirus', 'HPV', 'HIV', 'cervix', 'neoplasm', and 'antiretroviral' to identify articles published before December 2006. HIV-infection was strongly associated with a higher prevalence, incidence, and persistence of HPV infection and correlated with prevalence, incidence, persistence, and progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions. The association between HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma has been more difficult to establish, but is now fully recognized. HAART seems to have little, if any, beneficial effect on the natural history of intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive women. Despite this fact, HAART, does increase the life expectancy of HIV-positive women. Therefore, it remains important to closely monitor HPV-related disease in women with HIV who are receiving HAART, particularly in regions of the world where cervical screening is not available routinely.

  4. Human papillomavirus-exposed Langerhans cells are activated by stabilized Poly-I:C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV establish persistent infections because of evolved immune evasion mechanisms, particularly HPV-mediated suppression of the immune functions of Langerhans cells (LC, the antigen presenting cells of the epithelium. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly-I:C is broadly immunostimulatory with the ability to enhance APC expression of costimulatory molecules and inflammatory cytokines resulting in T cell activation. Here we investigated the activation of primary human LC derived from peripheral blood monocytes after exposure to HPV16 virus like particles followed by treatment with stabilized Poly-I:C compounds (s-Poly-I:C, and their subsequent induction of HPV16-specific T cells. Our results indicate that HPV16 particles alone were incapable of inducing LC activation as demonstrated by the lack of costimulatory molecules, inflammatory cytokines, chemokine-directed migration, and HPV16-specific CD8+ T cells in vitro. Conversely, s-Poly-I:C caused significant upregulation of costimulatory molecules and induction of chemokine-directed migration of LC that were pre-exposed to HPV16. In HLA-A*0201-positive donors, s-Poly-I:C treatment was able to induce CD8+ T cell immune responses against HPV16-derived peptides. Thus, s-Poly-I:C compounds are attractive for translation into therapeutics in which they could potentially mediate clearance of persistent HPV infection. Keywords: Papillomavirus, HPV16, Langerhans cells, Immune escape

  5. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  6. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  7. Adherence to cervical cancer screening varies by human papillomavirus vaccination status in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Paynter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer over the past 75 years. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women receiving Gardasil™ (HPV4 vaccine participated in future cervical cancer screening at the same rate as that observed for unvaccinated women matched on birth year and health care campus. This is a retrospective cohort study of subjects selected from 27,786 females born from 1980 to 1992 who received health care in the Truman Medical Center safety net health system in Kansas City Missouri, USA. 1154 women 14–26 years old who received at least one dose of HPV4 vaccine between 2006 and 2009 were chosen at random from the vaccine records. 1154