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Sample records for high-risk cervical human

  1. Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical cancer in Zimbabwe: epidemiological evidence. M Chirara, G A Stanczuk, S A Tswana, L Nystrom, S Bergstrom, S R Moyo, M J Nzara. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 47 (2) 2001: pp. 32-34.

  2. Expression and clinical significance of high risk human papillomavirus and invasive gene in cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhai; Chen, Hua; Zheng, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Man-Ling

    2017-02-01

    To study the expression of E6 and E7 mRNA in high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) HPV-18 and the relationship between the expression of invasive gene and cervical carcinoma. A total of 119 patients with cervical cancer, cervical erosion and cervical HPV infection who were diagnosed in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups: cervical cancer group (n = 58) and non-cancerous group (n = 61). Another 60 patients with uterine leiomyoma were selected as normal control group. Detection of HPV18 E6, E7 mRNA expression and invasion, migration, proliferation inhibition genes, epithelial mesenchymal transition genes and proliferation related protein content. The relative expression of E6 and E7 HPV-18 in cervical cancer group was significant higher than that in non-cancerous group and control group (mRNA) (P mRNA content of CD44v6 and MMP-9 in cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous group and control group (P mRNA content of beta -catenin and Vimentin in cervical cancer group was significantly lower than that in non cancerous group and control group (P detection of cervical cancer in high-risk human papilloma virus HPV-18 E6 and E7 mRNA, and the invasion, migration, proliferation inhibition gene, epithelial mesenchymal transition and proliferation related gene protein content, HPV expression rate of mRNA increased with the development of cervical cancer, the expression is also enhanced. The expression has a certain correlation between the level and development of cervical cancer. Through the above indicators, the development of cervical cancer monitoring and treatment to provide important clinical guidance. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human telomerase gene and high-risk human papillomavirus infection are related to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

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    Zhao, Xu-Ye; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Liu, Ke-Jun; Han, Hai-Qiong; Liu, Xiao-Su; Li, Yali

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to evaluate the clinical performance of human telomerase RNA gene component (hTERC gene) amplification assay with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test of Hybrid Capture 2 DNA test (HC2), for the detection of high grade cervical precancerous lesions and cancer (CIN 2+). In addition, the association shown between hTERC gene amplification and HPV DNA test positive in women with and without cervical neoplasia was assessed. There were 92 women who underwent cytology, HR-HPV DNA test, hTERC gene amplification test, colposcopy and biopsy. We compared the clinical performance of hTERC gene test along with HR-HPV DNA test of women with colposcopy and routine screening. The samples were histology- confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2) or worse (CIN2+) as the positive criterion. The test of hTERC gene showed the hTERC gene amplification positivity increased with the severity of histological abnormality and cytological abnormality. The test of hTERC gene showed higher specificity than HR-HPV DNA test for high-grade lesions (84.4% versus 50%) and also higher positive predictive value (90.4% versus 76.5%). Our results predicted that hTERC gene amplification demonstrated more specific performance for predicting the risk of progression and offer a strong potential as a tool for triage in cervical cancer screening, with the limited sensitive as HR-HPV DNA test.

  4. [Detection and genotyping of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical specimens].

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    Chacón, Jesús; Sanz, Iziar; Rubio, María Dolores; de la Morena, María Luisa; Díaz, Esperanza; Mateos, María Luisa; Baquero, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between various human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and the results of cytological and histological analysis of cervical samples using two complementary assays for HPV detection (hybrid capture and PCR). We studied the impact of HPV genotype on the presence of pre-cancerous cervical lesions and cervical cancer, as well as the association between HPV viral load and the presence of high-risk HPV as determined by PCR. A total of 272 women were studied. Most of them presented cellular alterations consistent with cervical lesions due to HPV and all had high-risk HPV as detected by hybrid capture testing. Histological studies were undertaken, and HPV genotyping by PCR based on microarrays was performed. HPV-DNA was not detected or genotypes could not be identified by PCR in 22.06% of the patients. Genotype 16 and/or 18 was detected in 33% of 212 patients. Mixed infections with several genotypes were found in 25% of patients. The histological lesions associated with the various genotypes were as follows: genotype 16 and/or 18. were detected in 55.73% of the 61 patients with H-SIL and cancer, whereas these genotypes were detected in only 7.9% and 22% of women with ASCUS and L-SIL (P patients, high-risk HPV was present in 39.39%. In the group of patients who had a viral load greater than 3 pg/mL, high risk-HPV was detected in 77.4% (P Genotypes 16 and/or 18 were detected in most patients with a diagnosis of H-SIL. Other high-risk-HPV genotypes were much less prevalent. Hybrid capture testing is a useful screening test. PCR was effective for identifying genotypes 16 and 18. Histological and cytological findings in cervical samples should be interpreted together with high-risk HPV detection.

  5. High-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical lesions and vaccination challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mostly progressing from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chinese women. This is largely due to high prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) in the population. The prevalence of hr-HPV DNA in women and in cervical lesions women ranged from 9.9% to 17.% and from 50.5% to 70.9% in different regions of China, respectively. The most common genotypes somewhat differ between regions throughout the country and from those in many other countries. This may be a challenge to cervical cancer screening and prevention in China. Combined detection of particular HPV genotypes should be recommended in all geographical regions in China and greater attention must be paid to specific hr-HPV types during cervical cancer screening and follow-up of cervical lesions. Besides, vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer by particular HPV genotypes, has not been introduced to China so far. Updated knowledge on prevalent HPV genotypes should be provided to public health organizations to help with the development of more effective HPV vaccines, which can protect Chinese women against HPV types prevalent in local China and thus have a substantial impact on the cervical cancer burden.

  6. [Combining high-risk human papillomavirus DNA test and cytological test to detect early cervical dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, De-ying; Cen, Jian-min; Wang, Ding; Zeng, Ren-hai; Lin, Ai-hua; Shu, Yan-hong; Hong, Dan-hua; Huang, Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    To assess the value of combining high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test and cytological test in detection of early cervical dysplasia. During January 2003 to June 2004, a total of 5210 women were screened by combining high-risk HPV DNA test (hybrid capture II, HC-II) and cytological test (liquid-based ThinPrep cytology test), and the abnormal cytological or HPV DNA findings were further biopsied under the colposcope. The age of the patients was between 17 to 80, the average was 34 +/- 9. Final pathological diagnosis was HPV infection in 890 cases, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 83 cases, CIN II in 73 cases, CIN III in 80 cases, invasive cervical cancer in 54 cases, endometrial cancer in 5 cases, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia in 1 case and cervical tuberculosis in 1 case. Based on the criteria of histology and pathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value of high-risk HPV DNA test for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 92.22%, 74.71%, 5.19% and 99.84% respectively. In detecting all cases of CIN II, III by cytological test, for atypical squamous cell of undetermined signification (ASCUS), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 90.00%, 80.34%, 11.94% and 99.63% respectively; for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 70.13%, 91.58%, 11.11% and 99.51% respectively; for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value were 48.05%, 98.46%, 31.90% and 99.21% respectively. By the combination of high-risk HPV DNA test and cytological test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for detecting all cases of CIN II, III were 98.70%, 73.08%, 5.21% and 100.00% respectively. The infection rate of HPV in cervical

  7. Correlation analysis of high-risk human papillomavirus viral load and cervical lesions

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    Xiao-xing MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV viral load and pathological grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. Methods  A total of 1248 patients from General Hospital of PLA, who underwent colposcopy and surgery due to cervical lesions between Jan. 2006 and Aug. 2011 were enrolled in this study, and they were divided five groups: cervicitis, CIN Ⅰ, CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer. HR-HPV viral load (RLU/CO was determined by the Hybrid Capture Ⅱ (HCⅡ system, and they were categorized into five groups: 0-0.99, 1.00-9.99, 10.00-99.99, 100.00-999.99, ≥1000.00. The mean value and standard deviation of different HR-HPV viral load in the patients with cervicitis or with CIN Ⅰ, CINⅡ-Ⅲ, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer or stage Ⅱ cervical cancer were compared, and the correlation of HR-HPV viral load and pathogenesis of cervical lesions was analyzed. Results  HPV viral loads were significantly higher in CINⅠ(842.1±983.9, CINⅡ-Ⅲ (690.1±795.0, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer (893.1±974.2 and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer (699.5±908.3 patients than in cervicitis patients (274.2±613.6, P < 0.05, and the HPV viral loads in CINⅠ(842.1±983.9 and stage Ⅰ cervical cancer patients were higher than those in CINⅡ-Ⅲ patients (P < 0.05. When HR-HPV viral load was ≥100RLU/CO, the risk of CIN and cervical cancer increased with the increase in viral load, but there was no correlation between the viral load and pathological grades of cervical lesions. In the patients with stage ⅠB-Ⅱ cervical squamous cell carcinoma, when the HR-HPV viral load was ≥100RLU/CO, the risk of lymph node metastasis increased (P < 0.05, and the number of patients with maximum diameter of the cervical tumor ≥4cm also increased (P < 0.05. However, the HR-HPV viral load was not correlated with patient age, pathological type of the lesion, depth of cancer

  8. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid-based cer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid...

  9. Prevalence and Genotyping of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Samples from Punjab, Pakistan

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    Abida Siddiqa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18 were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95 of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63 of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79 samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95 was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in

  10. Viral DNA load of high-risk human papilloma virus is closely associated with the grade of cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guqun; Cheng, Jingxin; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the correlation between the viral load of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and the degree of cervical lesions, as well as the follow-up monitoring role of high-risk HPV measurements in the treatment of patients with cervical lesions. Hybrid capture-2 method was used to measure the amount of high-risk HPV load of 361 patients who were enrolled from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, including 76 cases of cervical squamous carcinoma, 119 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 166 cases of cervicitis. The correlation between the viral load of high-risk HPV and the degree of cervical lesions was analyzed using correlation analysis. Patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous carcinoma were followed up until December 2013, with the follow-up time being 37-60 months. Statistically significant differences in the high-risk HPV load existed between cervicitis group, CIN group and cervical squamous carcinoma group (P = 0.000). In addition, the viral load was increased with the increase of the severity of cervical lesions, showing a positive correlation (r = 0.436, P = 0.000). During the follow-up, 6 cases of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, 3 cases of recurrence CIN and 1 case of vaginal squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were found, which were shown to relate with the continuing high-risk HPV infection in vagina. Viral load of high-risk HPV were positively correlated with the severity of cervical lesions, playing an important role in the monitoring of patients with cervical lesions after treatment.

  11. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection in Urine and Cervical Samples Using High-Risk HPV DNA Testing in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surapan Khunamornpong; Jongkolnee Settakorn; Kornkanok Sukpan; Suree Lekawanvijit; Narisara Katruang; Sumalee Siriaunkgul

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in urine samples compared to that of cervical sample testing in Northern Thailand. Methods. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected during the follow-up of women with a previous positive HPV test. HPV testing was performed using the Cobas 4800 HPV Test. Linear Array assay was used for genotyping in selected cases. Results. Paired urine and cervical samples were obtained from 168 women. Of 123 p...

  12. Prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus in patients with cervical cancer: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Haghshenas, Mohammadreza; Golini-moghaddam, Tahereh; Rafiei, Alireza; Emadeian, Omid; Shykhpour, Ahmad; Ashrafi, G Hossein

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud \\ud Cervical cancer is the greater cause of cancer death in women in many developing countries. Persistent infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), primarily high risk types 16 and 18, is recognized as a causal and essential factor for the development of cervical cancer. We aimed to determine the distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes in archival biopsies with cervical carcinoma in patients from Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.\\ud \\ud METHODS:\\ud \\ud A total of 98 paraff...

  13. Viral DNA load of high-risk human papilloma virus is closely associated with the grade of cervical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Guqun; Cheng, Jingxin; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the correlation between the viral load of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and the degree of cervical lesions, as well as the follow-up monitoring role of high-risk HPV measurements in the treatment of patients with cervical lesions. Hybrid capture-2 method was used to measure the amount of high-risk HPV load of 361 patients who were enrolled from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, including 76 cases of ...

  14. Distribution of high-risk types of human papillomavirus compared to histopathological findings in cervical biopsies in women

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    Vitković Leonida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In over of 99% cases of cervical cancer its appearing is preceded by persistent cervical epithelium infection caused by high-risk oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV. The aim of the study was to examine the distribution of high-risk oncogenic HPV types compared to patohistological diagnoses of cervical diseases in women. Materials and methods: The study included 56 women with suspected premalignant and malignant cervical lesions, due to suspected colposcopic and cytological findings (Papanicolaou test. The HPV typing by 'in situ' hybridization method on high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31 and 33 was performed in all patients from cervical smear as well as cervical biopsy. Histological findings of cervical biopsy was a 'gold standard' in the analysis of materials. Results: Histologically detected premalignant or malignant changes of the cervix were found at 34 (60.7% of all 56 examined women: 17 of them had LSIL, 13 of them had HSIL, while 4 had squamous cell carcinoma. A positive HPV test had a 47 (84% of them with a prove of the presence of one or more types of HPV. The most common type of virus was HPV 16 and it was detected in 27 (48.2% women, followed by HPV 31 that was detected in 26 (46.4% women, HPV 18 in 18 (32.1% of women and HPV 33 in 4 (7.1% women. The infection caused by oncogenic type HPV16 was significantly more frequent in patients with HSIL and cervical cancer (p<0,001, while the infection caused by oncogenic type HPV 31 was significantly more frequent in patients with LSIL and cervicitis (p=0,003. The distribution of HPV 18 and HPV 33 types was not statistically significantly different in patients with different histological findings (HPV 18, p = 0.41; HPV 33, p = 1.0. Conclusion: Based on our results we can conclude that there is a good correlation of HPV infection with pre-malignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer. The incidence of HPV type 16 infection increased with severity of cervical lesions and it

  15. [Presence of high risk human papilomaviruses (HPV) in the low grade cervical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iljazović, Ermina; Mustadenagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Karasalihović, Zinaida; Cickusić, E; Avdić, S

    2006-01-01

    Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS) are the most frequent verified cellular abnormalities. Their management are still highly controversial mostly caused by uncertainty about their histology and nature of originate. Detection of HPV DNA in the absence of cytological abnormalities can also indicate presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to show the association of the benign cellular changes, ASCUS and LGSIL with oncogenic types of HPV and to prove the necessity of more intensive screening of this group of patients. Cytology and pathomorphology analyses were performed first. Identification of the presence of human papiloma virus was carried out by the Digene Hybride Capture II test for all patients. Identification of different HPV types for the particular number of patients was carried out by RFLP (Rsetriction Fragments Length of Polymorphism). Out of the 101 patients in the first group 92 (91,08%) were HPV positive, and 41, 58% had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. Out of 509 patients of the second group 26.92% were positive for HRHPV, and 78,97% of them had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. HPV 16 was detected in 27.36% (ASCUS/LGSIL) of low risk cervical lesion of the first examined period. The combination of smears with the detection of high risk HPV types increases the triage sensitivity especially at patients with mild.

  16. Prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus in patients with cervical cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Mohammadreza; Golini-Moghaddam, Tahereh; Rafiei, Alireza; Emadeian, Omid; Shykhpour, Ahmad; Ashrafi, G Hossein

    2013-06-06

    Cervical cancer is the greater cause of cancer death in women in many developing countries. Persistent infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), primarily high risk types 16 and 18, is recognized as a causal and essential factor for the development of cervical cancer. We aimed to determine the distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes in archival biopsies with cervical carcinoma in patients from Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. A total of 98 paraffin-embedded cervical samples consisted of 63 Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC), 4 Adenocarcinomas, 19 Cervical Interaepithelial Neoplasia grade I (CIN-I), 4 CIN-II and 8 CIN-III diagnosed during 2009-2011, were selected to perform high risk HPV genotyping using AmpliSens(R) HPV HCR DNA genotyping kit. The prevalence of HPV infections was assessed in low and high grade cervical lesions by age. Of the 98 cervical samples analysed by DNA PCR, 78 (79.59%) were positive for HPV DNA. HPV was detected in the 52 of SCC, 4 of Adenocarcinomas, 14 of CIN-I, 4 of CIN-II, and 4 of CIN-III for HPV. From the 78 HPV positive samples, 23 (29.5%) samples were positive for HPV type 16, 32 (41%) were positive for HPV 18, 19 (24.4%) were positive for HPV 45, and 4 (5.1%) of cervical specimens were positive for HPV 39. This study provides valuable baseline data for future assessment of the impact of current prophylactic vaccination programs that is protective against the two most common oncogenic types of HPV found in cervical cancer, HPV-16 and HPV-18, but not against other high-risk mucosal HPVs, 39 and 45, reported in this population.

  17. The potential role of self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) detection will become an important tool in the screening for cervical cancer. Self-sampling is an inexpensive and well-accepted method for HPV detection that will increase participation of nonresponders in current screening programs. Even more, because

  18. Biological activity of probable/possible high-risk human papillomavirus types in cervical cancer.

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    Halec, Gordana; Schmitt, Markus; Dondog, Bolormaa; Sharkhuu, Enkhtuya; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Kommoss, Friedrich; Bosch, Franz X; Franceschi, Silvia; Clifford, Gary; Gissmann, Lutz; Pawlita, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Judging the carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types rarely found in cervical cancer (CxCa) is hindered by lack of studies of their biological activity in cancer tissues. To asses transcriptional activity of HPV types, we have developed ultra-short amplimer, splice-site specific, E6*I mRNA RT-PCR assays for 12 high-risk (HR)-HPV (IARC Group 1) and eight probable/possible high-risk (pHR)-HPV types (IARC Group 2A/B carcinogens). Previously unreported E6*I splice sites of the six pHR-HPV types 26, 53, 67, 70, 73 and 82 were identified by cloning and sequencing. We analyzed 97 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Mongolian CxCa biopsies for presence of HPV DNA by two sensitive genotyping assays, for E6*I transcripts of all HR-/pHR-HPV types identified and for expression of HPV surrogate markers p16(INK4a), pRb and p53. E6*I of at least one HR-/pHR-HPV was expressed in 94 (98%) of cancer tissues including seven with pHR-HPV types 26, 66, 70 or 82 as single transcribed types. Fifty-eight of E6*I mRNA transcribing cases were analyzable by immunohistochemistry and displayed p16(INK4a) overexpression in 57 (98%), pRb downregulation in 56 (97%) and p53 downregulation in 36 (62%) tissues. The newly developed E6*I mRNA RT-PCR assays appeared to be highly sensitive method to analyze HPV transcription in FFPE materials. Our finding of viral oncogene transcription of pHR-HPV types 26, 66, 70 and 82 in cervical tumors, in the absence of any other transcriptionally active HR-type and with p16(INK4a) overexpression and pRb downregulation, may support a reassessment of the carcinogenicity classification of these pHR-HPV types. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cervical cytology and age: Data from the health check-ups of 7,014 Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Jin Ju; Kim, Sunmie

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the type-specific high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and distribution according to cervical cytology and age in healthy Korean women. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with 7,014 consecutive subjects undergoing both liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV genotyping test by DNA chip for cervical cancer screening. The type-specific prevalence and distribution of individual high-risk HPV types were assessed according to cervical cy...

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues

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    Mini P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  1. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues.

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    Singh, Mini P; Gupta, Nalini; Deepak, T; Kumar, Archit; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV) types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  2. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan.

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    Gul, Sana; Murad, Sheeba; Javed, Aneela

    2015-05-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. The current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers, respectively. HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV18. HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined...

  4. High-risk human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cervical cytology among Nepali and Bhutanese refugee women living in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Johnson, Derek C; Lama, Mingma; Aryal, Shilu; Lhaki, Pema; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Nepal and Bhutan. Data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhutanese women are sparse. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the prevalence of HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among Nepali and Bhutanese women living in Jhapa District in eastern Nepal; and examine the risk factors for HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in those women. Study participants were recruited from a women's health camp organized by NFCC-International, a Nepal-based non-governmental organization, in 2014. Consenting participants were administered a demographic and health questionnaire and cervico-vaginal specimens collected. Both self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens were tested for HR-HPV infection. Cytologic exam was performed on clinician-collected samples and cervical cytology results were categorized according to the Bethesda classification. A participant was classified as a Bhutanese if they were either born in Bhutan or currently lived in one of the United Nations administered Bhutanese refugee camps in Jhapa; otherwise, the participant was classified as a Nepali. Of the 647 study participants, 15.9% were Bhutanese women living in refugee camps and the overall age (± standard deviation) was 38.8 ± 8.2 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 8.9% and abnormal cervical cytology was 7.1% respectively, with no significant difference in HR-HPV positivity (p = 0.399) or abnormal cervical cytology (p = 0.698) between Nepali and Bhutanese women. Compared to women whose husbands had not migrated for employment, women whose husbands had migrated outside of the district had 3.30 times (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.13-9.64) the odds of being HR-HPV positive and women whose husbands had migrated outside the country had 2.92 times (95% CI: 1.32-6.49) the odds of

  5. High-risk human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical carcinoma of Serbian women: Distribution and association with pathohistological findings.

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    Stamenković, Miodrag; Knežević, Aleksandra; Knežević, Ivana; Kuzmanović, Igor; Karalić, Danijela; Milenković, Sanja; Jovanović, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    A significant role of high-risk Human papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in the development of cervical carcinoma is well known. HR HPV 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of all cases of cervical cancer worldwide. The incidence of cervical cancer in Serbia, is one of the highest in Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HR HPV types in cervical carcinoma of Serbian women, as well as association between the HPV types and pathohistological findings. The study included 80 archival cervical cancer tissues from the same number of patients. The presence of HPV DNA was determined using MY09/MY11 primers for L1 gene and GP1/GP2 primers for E1 gene. HPV was detected in 78.75% tissues. HR HPV genotypes found in the decreasing order of frequency were: HPV16 (80.39%), HPV33 (7.84%), HPV58 (5.88%), HPV18 (1.96%), HPV45 (1.96%) and HPV53 (1.96%). The examined tissues were 91.25% squamous cell carcinomas and 8.75% adenocarcinoma. The high frequency of HPV 16 was observed in both types of carcinoma (80.8% and 75%, respectively) while the prevalence of HPV18 was low. These results may contribute to the implementation of cervical carcinoma prevention program in Serbia, including the selection of the most appropriate vaccine and immunization program. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative study of the cervista and hybrid capture 2 methods in detecting high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical lesions.

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    Tao, Kun; Yang, Jing; Yang, Hua; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Yue-Mei; Tan, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Feng; Duan, Jin-Lin

    2014-03-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) testing is important for the follow-up of patients with cytological abnormalities. This study was undertaken to compare the clinical value of the Cervista and hybrid capture 2 (HC2) tests for detection of HR HPV in cervical lesions. Overall 439 cervical specimens with abnormal cytology and 22 normal cervical specimens were subjected to the Cervista and HC2 tests. HPV positivity and its predictive value for high-grade cervical lesions were assessed. The Cervista and HC2 tests showed comparable HR HPV detection rates in women with all cytological and histological diagnoses, with a positive and negative percent agreement of 90.8% and 64.5%, respectively. The two methods had a same sensitivity of 90% in detecting CIN II or greater cervical lesions, while the specificity for the Cervista test and HC2 assay was 47% and 43%, respectively. The positive rate for the Cervista assay probe set A9 increased with the histological severity, ranging from 25.0% in normal specimens to 69.5% in high-grade lesions. In conclusion, the clinical performance for the Cervista test is as excellent as the HC2 test in detecting HR HPV and predicting high-grade cervical lesions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Physical state & copy number of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in progression of cervical cancer

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    Shirish Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV infection and its integration in host genome is a key event in malignant transformation of cervical cells. HPV16 being a dominant HR-HPV type, we undertook this study to analyze if viral load and physical state of the virus correlated with each other in the absence of other confounding variables and examined their potential as predictors of progressive cervical lesions. Methods: Both, viral load and integration status of HPV16 were determined by real time URR PCR and estimation of E2:E6 ratio in a total of 130 PGMY-RLB -confirmed, monotypic HPV16-infected cervical DNA samples from biopsies of cytology-confirmed low grade (LSIL, 30 and high grade (HSIL, 30, and invasive carcinoma, (squamous cell carcinoma SCC, 70 cases. Results: Investigation of DNA samples revealed a gradual increase in HPV16 viral load over several magnitudes and increased frequency of integration from LSIL to HSIL and HSIL to invasive cancer in relation to the severity of lesions in monotypic HPV16-infected cervical tissues. In a substantial number of precancer (11/60 and cancer cases (29/70, HPV16 was detected in concomitant mixed form. The concomitant form of HPV16 genome carried significantly higher viral load. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, viral load and integration increased with disease severity and could be useful biomarkers in disease progression, at least, in HPV16-infected cervical pre-cancer and cancer lesions.

  8. Impact of Possibly Oncogenic High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Triage for ASC-US Cervical Cytology Results.

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    Amarosa, Emily J; Winer, Rachel L; Hong, Karen J; Mao, Constance

    2015-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend including 13 or 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types for triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) cervical cytology; however, at least 13 additional types are considered possibly oncogenic. We evaluated the effect of including possibly oncogenic HPV types in the test panel. Outcomes for all women 30 years or older with ASC-US and positive HPV testing who underwent colposcopic biopsy at University of Washington Medical Center-affiliated clinics between 2010 and 2011 were reviewed. We compared biopsy results between cases that were HPV positive for 1 or more of 13 possibly oncogenic types only (26/53/55/62/64/67/69/71/73/82/83/84/IS39) versus 1 or more of the 14 established high-risk types (16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68). We used the Fisher exact test to compare cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) diagnoses between HPV risk groups. Three hundred twenty-six ASC-US HPV-positive cervical cytology results were identified, with 170 that were linked to subsequent cervical biopsy results. Among 51 cases positive for possibly oncogenic types only, 31 (61%) had no neoplasia, 20 (39%) had CIN1, and none had CIN2+. Among 119 controls positive for at least one established high-risk type, 64 (53%) had no neoplasia, 42 (35%) had CIN1, and 13 (11%) had CIN2+ (p = .01 for the comparison of CIN2+ diagnoses between groups). The inclusion of possibly oncogenic types in the HPV test panel led to an additional 51 colposcopy biopsies (33% increase), with no additional cases of CIN 2+. Our results suggest that including possibly oncogenic HPV types increases the number of colposcopy biopsies with minimal improvements in detection of CIN2 +.

  9. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

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    Ismail Mazian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV detection system. Results Out of 70 women with cervical cancer, four (5.71% were found to be positive for HR-HPV in their oral cavity. No association of HR-HPV was found with sociodemographic profile, marital status, reproductive history, tobacco and alcohol usage, contraceptive pills usage, and presence of oral lesions (p>0.05. Among children, HR-HPV in the oral cavity was detected in only 1 of the 46 subjects examined (2.17%. Clinically healthy oral mucosa, without any oral lesions, was observed in all the HR-HPV positive subjects. Conclusion The result of this study showed that there is low, if any, risk of HR-HPV infection in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer. Further, our study suggests that there is very low risk for children of women with cervical cancer, to acquire and sustain HR-HPV in their oral cavity until childhood or adolescence.

  10. Cigarette Smoking Promotes Infection of Cervical Cells by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses, but not Subsequent E7 Oncoprotein Expression

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    Kimon Chatzistamatiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent cervical infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, there are other co-factors facilitating the hrHPV carcinogenic process, one of which is smoking. To assess the effect of smoking on high-risk (hr HPV DNA positivity and on the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein, as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the role of E7 protein detection in cervical cancer screening. Women were tested for hrHPV DNA, using Multiplex Genotyping (MPG, and E7 protein, using a novel sandwich ELISA method, and gave information on their smoking habits. Among 1473 women, hrHPV prevalence was 19.1%. The odds ratio (OR for hrHPV positivity of smokers compared to non-smokers was 1.785 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.365–2.332, p < 0.001. The ORs for E7 positivity, concerning hrHPV positive women, ranged from 0.720 to 1.360 depending on the E7 detection assay used, but this was not statistically significant. Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking is not related to an increased probability of E7 protein positivity for hrHPV positive women.

  11. An association between Trichomonas vaginalis and high-risk human papillomavirus in rural Tanzanian women undergoing cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Gweneth B; Taylor, Peyton T; Badman, Barbara S; McHaki, Emil; Korte, Jeffrey E; Soper, David E; Young Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginitis and its association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in rural Tanzania. For the purpose of cervical cancer screening, cytology and HR HPV polymerase chain reaction data were collected from 324 women aged between 30 and 60 years. Microscopy and gram stains were used to detect yeast and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical nucleic acid amplification test specimens were collected for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The majority of women were married (320 of 324) and reported having a single sexual partner (270 of 324); the median age of participants was 41 years. HR HPV was detected in 42 participants. Forty-seven percent of women had vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common infection (32.4%), followed by TV (10.4%), and yeast (6.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, TV was associated with an increased risk of HR HPV (odds ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7-10.3]). Patients with TV were 6.5 times more likely to have HPV type 16 than patients negative for TV (50% vs 13.3%) (odds ratio, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.1-37]). Among rural Tanzanian women who presented for cervical cancer screening, Trichomonas vaginitis was significantly associated with HR HPV infection (specifically type 16). © 2014 Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  12. [Correlation between high risk type human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA and cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Qian, Y M; Miao, L; Le, Y; Du, J

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between the positive rate of high risk human papillomavirus(HPV)mRNA E6/E7 and cervical cancer, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. A total of 100 cervical cancer cases and 100 healthy controls were selected in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015. The fluorescence quantitative PCR and pathological examination on HPV E6/E7 mRNA were carried out. The correlation between HPV E6/E7 mRNA and cervical squamous epithelial lesions were analyzed. In case group, the positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was 76.0%(76/100). In control group, the positive rate was 13.0%(13/100). The positive rate in case group was significantly higher than that in control group, and the difference was statistically significant(χ(2)=24.522, P0.05). The positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was significantly higher than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(SIL)rate(26.1%), low-grade SIL rate(17.6%)and atypical squamous cell hyperplasia rate(6.7%), the difference was statistically significant(χ(2)=7.615, P= 0.001; χ(2) =9.114, P=0.001; χ(2)=18.241, Pdetection rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cervical cancer patients was high. And with the increased severity of cervical squamous epithelial lesions, the positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased.

  13. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

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    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  14. Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening

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    Naryshkin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sonya Naryshkin,1 R Marshall Austin21Department of Pathology, Mercy Health System, Janesville, WI; 2Department of Pathology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjective: To increase awareness of the limitations of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV laboratory-developed testing (LDT widely used in US cervical cancer screening.Methods and results: A young woman in her 30s was diagnosed and treated for stage 1B1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma in which HPV 16 DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction testing. Both 1 month before and 42 months before cervical cancer diagnosis, the patient had highly abnormal cytology findings; however, residual SurePath™ (Becton, Dickson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ vial fluid yielded negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany hrHPV LDT results from each of the two specimens. This prompted questions to be asked concerning the performance characteristics of hrHPV LDT. A review of the available data indicates that (1 purification of DNA from SurePath specimens requires complex sample preparation due to formaldehyde crosslinking of proteins and nucleic acids, (2 HC2–SurePath hrHPV testing had not been Food and Drug Administration-approved after multiple premarket approval submissions, (3 detectible hrHPV DNA in the SurePath vial decreases over time, and (4 US laboratories performing HC2–SurePath hrHPV LDT testing are not using a standardized manufacturer-endorsed procedure.Conclusion: Recently updated cervical screening guidelines in the US recommend against the use of hrHPV LDT in cervical screening, including widely used HC2 testing from the SurePath vial. The manufacturer recently issued a technical bulletin specifically warning that use of SurePath samples with the HC2 hrHPV test may provide false negative results and potentially compromise patient safety. Co-collection using a Food and Drug Administration-approved hrHPV test

  15. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

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    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  16. High-risk human papillomavirus cervical infections among healthy women in Guadeloupe

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    Nadège Cordel

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of HR HPV cervical infection with genotypes other than 16 and 18 in Guadeloupe, irrespective of age and the cytology grade, suggests a potential benefit of the new nine-valent HPV vaccine to prevent HPV infection-related cancers in this Caribbean country.

  17. High-risk human papillomavirus genotype distribution and attribution to cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in a rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Lian; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Li; Feng, Rui Mei; Han, Ross; Zhao, Fang Hui

    2017-07-01

    To explore the genotype distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and its attribution to different grades of cervical lesions in rural China, which will contribute to type-specific HPV screening tests and the development of new polyvalent HPV vaccines among the Chinese population. One thousand two hundred ninety-two subjects were followed based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study I (SPOCCS-I), and screened by HPV DNA testing (hybrid capture® 2 [HC2]), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and if necessary, directed or random colposcopy-guided quadrant biopsies. HPV genotyping with linear inverse probe hybridization (SPF10-PCR-LiPA) was performed in HC2 positive specimens. Attribution of specific HR-HPV type to different grades of cervical lesions was estimated using a fractional contribution approach. After excluding incomplete data, 1,274 women were included in the final statistical analysis. Fifteen point two percent (194/1,274) of women were HR-HPV positive for any of 13 HR-HPV types (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and the most common HR-HPV types were HPV16 (19.1%) and HPV52 (16.5%). The genotypes most frequently detected in HR-HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1) were HPV52 (24.1%), HPV31 (20.7%), HPV16 (13.8%), HPV33 (13.8%), HPV39 (10.3%), and HPV56 (10.3%); in HR-HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+): HPV16 (53.1%), HPV58 (15.6%), HPV33 (12.5%), HPV51 (9.4%), and HPV52 (6.3%). HPV52, 31, 16, 33, 39, and 56 together contributed to 89.7% of HR-HPV-positive CIN1, and HPV16, 33, 58, 51, and 52 together contributed to 87.5% of CIN2+. In summary, we found substantial differences in prevalence and attribution of CINs between different oncogenic HPV types in a rural Chinese population, especially for HPV16, 31, 33, 52, and 58. These differences may be relevant for both clinical management and the design of preventive strategies.

  18. Establishment and Application of a Method for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Cancer Tissue.

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    Zou, Ruanmin; Xie, Wangkai; Wang, Huijing; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Lanlan; Ji, Shuhui; Chen, Xiangmin; Zhang, Lifang; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Persistent high-risk HPV infection is a major cause of cervical cancer and E6/E7 genes and the Li gene in the HPV genome are key targets to detect high-risk HPV. This study aims to explore the relationship between cervical lesions and E6/7 by establishing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect multiplex genes based on HPV EE7 genes. It is hoped that such methods will provide a more reliable method for clinical screening and the prevention of cervical cancer. Based on alignment, specific primers were designed for HPV E6/E7 genes, the sequences of which came from five5 high-risk papillomaviruses that are common in China. This enabled an E6/E7 gene detection method based on multiplex PCR to be established. E6/E7 and Li gene testing were then performed on 65 cervical cancer tissue samples. The gene copy number of HPV E6/E7 genes and the Li gene were detected from different classifications by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Out of the 65 cervical cancer tissue samples, 47 (72.31%) showed positive results in E6/E7 multiplex PCR, 21 (32.31%) showed positive results in the Ll gene PCR, and out of the 219 cervical exfoliate cell samples, 56 (25.57%) showed positive results in E6/E7 multiplex PCR, 21 (13.24%) showed positive results in the L1 gene PCR. There were significant differences (p detection and genotype of five high-risk HPVs.

  19. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus types in Mexican women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma

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    Sánchez-Garza Mireya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of high risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV types in the states of San Luis Potosí (SLP and Guanajuato (Gto, Mexico, was determined by restriction fragment length-polymorphism (RFLP analysis on the E6 ~250 bp (E6-250 HR-HPV products amplified from cervical scrapings of 442 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma (280 from SLP and 192 from Gto. Fresh cervical scrapings for HPV detection and typing were obtained from all of them and cytological and/or histological diagnoses were performed on 383. Results Low grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (LSIL were diagnosed in 280 cases (73.1%, high grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (HSIL in 64 cases (16.7% and invasive carcinoma in 39 cases (10.2%. In the 437 cervical scrapings containing amplifiable DNA, only four (0.9% were not infected by HPV, whereas 402 (92.0% were infected HR-HPV and 31 (7.1% by low-risk HPV. RFLP analysis of the amplifiable samples identified infections by one HR-HPV type in 71.4%, by two types in 25.9% and by three types in 2.7%. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV types was, in descending order: 16 (53.4% > 31 (15.6% > 18 (8.9% > 35 (5.6 > 52 (5.4% > 33 (1.2% > 58 (0.7% = unidentified types (0.7%; in double infections (type 58 absent in Gto it was 16 (88.5% > 31 (57.7% > 35 (19.2% > 18 (16.3% = 52 (16.3% > 33 (2.8% = 58 (2.8% > unidentified types (1.0%; in triple infections (types 33 and 58 absent in both states it was 16 (100.0% > 35 (54.5% > 31 (45.5% = 52 (45.5% > 18 (27.3%. Overall frequency of cervical lesions was LSIL (73.1% > HSIL (16.7% > invasive cancer (10.2%. The ratio of single to multiple infections was inversely proportional to the severity of the lesions: 2.46 for LSIL, 2.37 for HSIL and 2.15 for invasive cancer. The frequency of HR-HPV types in HSIL and invasive cancer lesions was 16 (55.0% > 31 (18.6% > 35 (7.9% > 52 (7.1% > 18 (4.3% > unidentified types (3.6% > 33 (2.9% > 58 (0.7%. Conclusion Ninety

  20. Pre-vaccination prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types in Slovenian women: a cervical cancer screening based study.

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    Učakar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Klavs, Irena

    2012-01-05

    To estimate the pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) types among 20-64 years old Slovenian women screened for cervical cancer in 2010, we consecutively enrolled 4431 women in 16 outpatient gynaecology services. All were screened with Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test and Abbott Real Time High Risk HPV Test and all positive specimens genotyped. Prevalence of cervical infection with any hr-HPV type examined was 12.9% with HPV16 3.5% and with HPV18 1.0%. Age specific prevalence estimates were the highest among 20-24 years old women and decreased with age. HPV16 prevalence was lowest among women without evidence of cervical disease and increased with the severity to 41.9% in women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Our results provide baseline data for monitoring the impact of Slovenian HPV vaccination program and development of future cervical cancer screening strategies in cohorts eligible for free HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During...... 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women...

  2. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  3. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical neoplasia attributed to 12 high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes by region

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    Castellsagué, Xavier; Ault, Kevin A; Bosch, F Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background: We estimated the proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases attributed to 14 HPV types, including quadrivalent (qHPV) (6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (9vHPV) (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, by region. Methods: Women ages 15-26 and 24-45 years from 5 regions were...

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

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    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  5. Prevalence of anal infection due to high-risk human papillomavirus and analysis of E2 gene integrity among women with cervical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gómez-Carvallo, Jesús; Euán-López, Alejandra; Cisneros-Cutz, José I; Rosado-López, Ariel; Echeverría Salazar, Jesúa; Conde-Ferráez, Laura

    2017-01-06

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) infection has been associated with 90% of anal cancer cases. Women with abnormal cytology are a high-risk group to develop anal neoplasia. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and epidemiology of HR-HPV 16, 18, 45, and 58 anal infections in women with cervical abnormalities, as well as to assess E2 gene integrity. A cross-sectional study was performed on 311 cervical and 311 anal samples from patients with abnormal cytology in two colposcopy clinics in Yucatan, Mexico. A specific PCR for oncogenes was performed in order to identify HVP 16, 18, 45 and 58. Real time PCR was used to amplify the whole HPV 16, 18, and 58 E2 gene to verify its integrity in anal samples. High risk HPV 16, 18, 58, and/or 45 were found in 41.47% (129/311) of cervical samples, and in 30.8% (96/331) of anal samples, with 18% (57/311) of the patients being positive in both samples. The same genotypes in both anatomical sites were observed in 11.25% (35/311). The E2 gene was disrupted in 82% of all tested samples. The frequency of genome disruption viral integration in anal samples by genotype was: HPV 58 (97.2%); HPV 16 (72.4%), and HPV 18 (0%). Women with cervical disease have HR-HPV anal infections, and most of them have the E2 gene disrupted, which represents a risk to develop anal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between high risk human papillomavirus infection and co-infection with Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in women with cervical premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ishita; Muwonge, Richard; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Kundu, Pratip; Mandal, Ranajit; Biswas, Jaydip; Basu, Partha

    2017-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Cervico-vaginal infection with pathogens like Chlamydia is a likely cofactor. The interactions between HPV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Candida spp. are less understood, though inflammation induced by these pathogens has been demonstrated to facilitate oncogenesis. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between Candida spp. and TV co-infection with HPV in cervical oncogenesis. Women with normal cervix who were high-risk HPV-negative (N=104) and HPV-positive (N=105); women with CIN 1 (N=106) and CIN 2/CIN 3 (N=62) were recruited from a community based cervical cancer screening program. Cervical cancer patients (N=106) were recruited from a tertiary care oncology clinic. High-risk HPV was detected by Hybrid Capture II technique; Candida spp. and TV were detected by culturing the high vaginal swabs followed by microscopic examination in all. The disease status was established by histopathology in all the women. HPV-positive women had significantly higher risk of having precursor lesions (of any grade) and cancer compared to HPV-negative women. Candida spp. or TV infection did not alter the risk of low grade or high grade lesions among HPV- positive women. HPV positive women co-infected with TV had higher risk of cervical cancer but not those co-infected with Candida spp. The higher risk of cancer observed in the women co-infected with HPV and TV without any enhanced risk of CIN 3 suggests secondary infection of the malignant growth by TV rather than any causal role. Co-infection with Candida spp. and/or TV infection did not increase the carcinogenic effect of HPV on cervix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection among women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu-Mu-Shwe; Harano, Teruo; Okada, Shigeru; Aye-Aye-Win; Khin-Saw-Aye; Hlaing-Myat-Thu; Mo-Mo-Win; Khin-Khin-Oo; Myo-Khin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of normal and abnormal cervical cytology in women who attended the cervical cancer screening clinic of the Department of Medical Research in Lower Myanmar, and to determine the proportion of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV genotypes in women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology. A total of 1,771 women were screened from 2010 to 2011. Among them, 762 women (43.0%) had a normal smear, and 866(48.9%) and 87 (4.9%) were diagnosed with inflammatory smears and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), respectively. Diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) numbered 42 (2.3%) and 11 (0.6%) respectively. Three cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.2%) were detected. Cervical swabs were collected from 96 women with abnormal cervical cytology and 20 with normal cytology. HR-HPV DNA testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with pU1M/pU2R primers. HR-HPV were identified in 35.5% (22/62) of inflammatory smears, 60% (6/10) of ASCUS, 86.7% (13/15) of LSIL, 50% (3/6) of HSIL, 100% (3/3) of SCC and 5% (1/20) of normal cytology. In PCR-positive cases, HPV genotyping was analyzed by the cleaved amplification polymorphism method. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (60.4%) followed by HPV-31 (14.6%), HPV-18 (12.5%) and HPV-58 (12.5%). Women with abnormal cervical cytology were 10 times more likely to be HR-HPV positive than those with normal cytology (p=0.0001). This study suggests that the implementation of a cervical cytology screening program and routine vaccination against HPV in preadolescent and adolescent groups are needed to reduce the burden of HPV-associated cervical cancer.

  8. Primary screening for cervical cancer based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping, in comparison to cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Koliopoulos, George; Daponte, Alexandros; Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. The study, conducted by the "HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening" (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25-55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25-29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping could represent a more accurate

  9. Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer Based on High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 Genotyping, in Comparison to Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18

  10. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer Prevention in Britain: Evidence of Differential Uptake of Interventions from a Probability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanton, Clare; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Mercer, Catherine H; Waller, Jo; Field, Nigel; Clifton, Soazig; Copas, Andrew J; Panwar, Kavita; Manyenga, Precious; da Silva, Filomeno; Wellings, Kaye; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-05-01

    The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) provides an opportunity to explore high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and uptake of cervical screening and HPV vaccination in the general population. Natsal-3, a probability sample survey of men and women ages 16 to 74, resident in Britain, interviewed 8,869 women in 2010 to 2012. We explored risk factors for HR-HPV (in urine from 2,569 sexually experienced women ages 16 to 44), nonattendance for cervical screening in the past 5 years, and noncompletion of HPV catch-up vaccination. HR-HPV was associated with increasing numbers of lifetime partners, younger age, increasing area-level deprivation, and smoking. Screening nonattendance was associated with younger and older age, increasing area-level deprivation (age-adjusted OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.47 for living in most vs. least deprived two quintiles), Asian/Asian British ethnicity (1.96, 1.32-2.90), smoking (1.97, 1.57-2.47), and reporting no partner in the past 5 years (2.45, 1.67-3.61 vs. 1 partner) but not with HR-HPV (1.35, 0.79-2.31). Lower uptake of HPV catch-up vaccination was associated with increasing area-level deprivation, non-white ethnicity, smoking, and increasing lifetime partners. Socioeconomic markers and smoking were associated with HR-HPV positivity, nonattendance for cervical screening, and noncompletion of catch-up HPV vaccination. The cervical screening program needs to engage those missing HPV catch-up vaccination to avoid a potential widening of cervical cancer disparities in these cohorts. As some screening nonattenders are at low risk for HR-HPV, tailored approaches may be appropriate to increase screening among higher-risk women. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  12. Performance of mRNA- and DNA-based high-risk human papillomavirus assays in detection of high-grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Elina; Kalliala, Ilkka; Dyba, Tadeusz; Nieminen, Pekka; Auvinen, Eeva

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to assess the performance of two commercial assays for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV): Aptima HPV Assay (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA) which detects mRNA of 14 different hrHPV types, and Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA), which detects the DNA of 13 different hrHPV types. Test performance was compared in the settings of a standard colposcopy clinic, among the regular patient flow. Two separate cervical cell samples for Aptima and HC2 testing were collected from women referred to colposcopy or a cervical follow-up visit. Altogether, 481 paired samples were analyzed and all positive samples were also tested using the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 Genotype Assay. Results from the two assays were compared directly and with stratification by histology and cytology from the same sampling visit. The overall agreement between HC2 and Aptima assays was 92.9% (Kappa coefficient of 0.855). The sensitivity and specificity of the assays in detecting CIN2+ were 92.5 and 58.2% for HC2, and 94.0 and 59.3% for Aptima, respectively. No significant differences between the assays were found (p-values >0.5). Both assays detected all CIN3 (n = 30) and carcinoma (n = 2) cases. The mRNA-based Aptima assay and the extensively studied DNA-based HC2 test performed equally well in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. Our data contribute to the growing evidence base indicating that the mRNA-based Aptima assay could be used for the triage of patients with HPV-associated cervical disease. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  14. High risk human papillomavirus testing: guidelines for use in screening, triage, and follow-up for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kathleen N; Walker, Joan L

    2004-11-01

    The changes in cervical cytology characterization agreed on by the Bethesda committee meeting in 2001 created a category of atypical findings that has caused some management confusion. By description, the characterization of cervical cytology as only atypical implies a less worrisome prognosis. However, more than 40% of high-grade (CIN II or III or cancer) will be discovered within this category. The development and Food and Drug Administration approval of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2; Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD) for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) subtypes and the subsequent level I evidence supporting use of this test in the triage of women with atypical cytology has revolutionized the management of this cytology. With this success has come numerous additional uses for HR-HPV testing in the treatment and follow-up of women with a variety of cytologic abnormalities. This article reviews the literature on uses of HR-HPV testing in this population, with reference to currently accepted guidelines.

  15. Population-based prevalence of cervical infection with human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 and other high risk types in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Samantha E; Lorincz, Attila; Wheeler, Cosette M; Gravitt, Patti; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; León-Maldonado, Leith; Ramírez, Paula; Rivera, Berenice; Hernández, Rubí; Franco, Eduardo L; Cuzick, Jack; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains an important cause of cancer mortality for Mexican women. HPV 16/18 typing may help to improve cervical cancer screening. Here we present the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) including HPV16 and HPV18 from the FRIDA (Forwarding Research for Improved Detection and Access) population. Beginning in 2013, we recruited 30,829 women aged 30-64 in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical samples were collected and tested for 14 hrHPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals for hrHPV infections according to putative risk factors. Prevalence of infection with any of the 14 hrHPV types was 11.0 %. The age-specific prevalence of all hrHPV formed a U-shaped curve with a higher prevalence for women aged 30-39 and 50-64 than women aged 40-49. Across all age groups, 2.0 % of women were positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (HPV16/18), respectively. HPV16/18 prevalence also showed a U-shaped curve with increased prevalence estimates for women aged both 30-39 and 60-64. Both prevalence curves had a significant quadratic age coefficient. Infections with hrHPV were positively associated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted disease, being unmarried, use of hormonal contraception, having a history of smoking and reported condom use in the multivariate model. The FRIDA population has a bimodal distribution of both hrHPV and HPV16/18 positivity with higher prevalences at ages 30-39 and 60-64. These findings will help to evaluate triage algorithms based on HPV genotyping. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02510027 .

  16. Comparison of urine specimen collection times and testing fractions for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus and high-grade cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, V; Des Marais, A C; Rahangdale, L; Vibat, C R T; Erlander, M G; Smith, J S

    2016-01-01

    Urine testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection could provide a non-invasive, simple method for cervical cancer screening. We examined whether HR-HPV detection is affected by urine collection time, portion of urine stream, or urine fraction tested, and assessed the performance of HR-HPV testing in urine for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). A total of 37 female colposcopy clinic attendees, ≥ 30 years, provided three urine samples: "first void" urine collected at home, and "initial stream" and "mid-stream" urine samples collected at the clinic later in the day. Self- and physician-collected brush specimens were obtained at the same clinic visit. Colposcopy was performed and directed biopsies obtained if clinically indicated. For each urine sample, HR-HPV DNA testing was conducted for unfractionated, pellet, and supernatant fractions using the Trovagene test. HR-HPV mRNA testing was performed on brush specimens using the Aptima HPV assay. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in unfractionated and pellet fractions of all urine samples. For supernatant urine fractions, HR-HPV prevalence appeared lower in mid-stream urine (56.8%[40.8-72.7%]) than in initial stream urine (75.7%[61.9-89.5%]). Sensitivity of CIN2+ detection was identical for initial stream urine and physician-collected cervical specimen (89.9%[95%CI=62.7-99.6%]), and similar to self-collected vaginal specimen (79.1%[48.1-96.6%]). This is among the first studies to compare methodologies for collection and processing of urine for HR-HPV detection. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in first void and initial stream urine, and was highly sensitive for CIN2+ detection. Additional research in a larger and general screening population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies:

    OpenAIRE

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  18. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older

    OpenAIRE

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reactionbased assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older publ...

  19. Clinical Validation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Assay According to the Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus DNA Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, A. T.; Meijer, C J L M; Poljak, M.; Berkhof, J; van Kemenade, F. J.; van der Salm, M. L.; Bogaarts, M.; Snijders, P J F; Heideman, D. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study showed that the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay fulfilled cross-sectional clinical equivalence and reproducibility criteria of international consensus guidelines, which indicates that this assay can be considered clinically validated for cervical cancer screening purposes.

  20. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Smith, Jennifer S; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Broker, Thomas R; Vermund, Sten H; Chamot, Eric; Aryal, Shilu; Lhaki, Pema; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2014-01-01

    Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening. Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA. Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8). The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81), indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5%) in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%). This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  1. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  2. Evaluation of HIV and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cytopathologic Findings in HIV-Positive and High-Risk HIV-Negative Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, Sandra; Baxter, Joanna; Raboud, Janet; Walmsley, Sharon; Rachlis, Anita; Smaill, Fiona; Ferenczy, Alex; Coutlée, François; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Canadian Women's HIV Study (CWHS) enrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women in a longitudinal cohort. This analysis considered the effects of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HPV persistence and cervical squamous

  3. Role of active and passive smoking in high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui Mei; Hu, Shang Ying; Zhao, Fang Hui; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Xun; Wallach, Asya Izraelit; Qiao, You Lin

    2017-09-01

    We performed a pooled analysis to examine cigarette smoking and household passive smoke exposure in relation to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+). Data were pooled from 12 cross-sectional studies for cervical cancer screenings from 10 provinces of China in 1999-2007. A total of 16,422 women were analyzed, along with 2,392 high-risk-HPV (hr-HPV) positive women and 381 CIN2+ cases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for sexual and non-sexual confounding factors. There was an excess risk between active smoking and hr-HPV infection and CIN2+. Adjusted OR for ever smokers vs. never smokers was 1.45 (95% CI=1.10-1.91), for hr-HPV infection and 1.89 (95% CI=1.03-3.44), for CIN2+. Passive smoking had a slightly increased risk on the hr-HPV infection with adjusted OR 1.11 (1.00-1.24), but no statistical association was observed between passive smoke exposure and CIN2+. Compared with the neither active nor passive smokers, both active and passive smokers had a 1.57-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.15) increased risk of HPV infection and a 1.99-fold (95% CI=1.02-3.88) risk of CIN2+. Our large multi-center cross-sectional study found active smoking could increase the risk of overall hr-HPV infection and CIN2+ adjusted by passive smoking and other factors. Passive smoking mildly increased the risk of HPV infection but not the CIN2+. An interaction existed between passive tobacco exposure and active smoking for hr-HPV infection and the CIN2+.

  4. Does LLETZ excision margin status predict residual disease in women who have undergone post-treatment cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J E; Ravenscroft, S; Ellis, K; Crossley, J; Dudding, N; Smith, J H; Tidy, J A

    2016-06-01

    This study looks at the importance of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) excision margins and residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women undertaking high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test of cure (TOC). A retrospective cohort study with interval analysis performed June 2007 and June 2012 on all women undertaking treatment for CIN and subsequent hrHPV TOC 6 months post LLETZ. Final analysis group comprised 2093 women treated by LLETZ (1396 completely excised; 697 incompletely excised). 298 out of 1794 women (13%) were hrHPV positive at TOC. Thirty-six women who failed TOC and attended colposcopy had residual CIN. No statistically significant difference existed between the completely and incompletely excised groups with regards to the detection of residual CIN at 6 months post-treatment. There was no correlation of margins of excision with hrHPV status at TOC. The overall cure rate at TOC was 98%. TOC pathways recommend subsequent follow-up in primary care. This study identified no safety issues with TOC pathways. We can no longer assess histological failure rates at 12 months; we, therefore, recommend that this measure of treatment failure be redefined for post TOC women. It seems time to question the benefits of routine excision margins reporting, in the absence of invasion, for treated CIN. Future reporting needs to be reconsidered by the Royal College of Pathologists. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Derek C; Bhatta, Madhav P; Smith, Jennifer S; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Broker, Thomas R; Vermund, Sten H; Chamot, Eric; Aryal, Shilu; Lhaki, Pema; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2014-01-01

    Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Nepali women...

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus types by the polymerase chain reaction and the differentiation between high-risk and low-risk cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, M T; Bots, T; Briët, M A; Jebbink, M F; Struyk, A P; van den Tweel, J G; Greer, C E; Smits, H L; ter Schegget, J

    1992-01-01

    By means of a consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the prevalence of HPV types was determined in cervical biopsies from 137 women referred to the gynecological outpatient clinic for colposcopy because of an abnormal cervical smear. The prevalence of HPV was 80.3%. There was a statistically highly significant rise in the prevalence of the oncogenic HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33) with increasing severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I to III), indicating a role for these HPV types in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. The prevalence of other HPV types decreased significantly with the severity of the lesion, suggesting that these HPV types play a less significant role in this process. These data indicate that HPV typing with PCR may be a valuable tool for distinguishing between high-risk and low-risk cervical lesions. Furthermore, our results suggest that the detection of HPV types by consensus PCR in the cervix of patients with an abnormal smear but without histologically detectable CIN is a useful tool for predicting which of these patients will eventually develop CIN. Finally, a relatively low percentage (3%) of HPV double infections is reported in this study.

  7. Molecular typing for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus is a useful tool for distinguishing primary bladder carcinoma from secondary involvement of uterine cervical carcinoma in the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hua-Lin; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Ho, Hsiang-Ling; Pan, Chin-Chen

    2016-03-01

    For patients with carcinoma of the urinary bladder and uterine cervix, distinguishing between metastasis and a second primary carcinoma has significant prognostic and therapeutic implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in cervical carcinoma with secondary involvement of the bladder and primary bladder carcinoma, in order to explore whether the detection of HR-HPV could help to differentiate between the two. Paired bladder and cervix carcinoma specimens from 37 patients with cervical carcinoma with bladder involvement, four patients with bladder carcinoma with uterine cervical involvement and two patients with double primaries were studied with quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction and chromogenic in-situ hybridization. Three hundred and seventy-five bladder carcinomas and 220 cervical carcinomas were analysed as controls. All cases of cervical carcinoma with bladder involvement showed concordant HR-HPV-positive patterns. The four cases of bladder carcinoma with uterine involvement were negative for HR-HPV. HR-HPV was detected in the cervical carcinoma but not in the bladder carcinoma of the patients with double primaries. HR-HPV was detected in 91.9% of cervical carcinomas but in none of the bladder carcinomas in the control group. Molecular typing for HR-HPV detection is useful to distinguish bladder carcinoma from secondary involvement of cervical carcinoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EUROarray human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is highly concordant with other commercial assays for detection of high-risk HPV genotypes in women with high grade cervical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, A M; Poljak, M; Garland, S M; Phillips, S; Machalek, D A; Tan, J H; Quinn, M A; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the EUROIMMUN EUROArray HPV genotyping assay against the Roche Cobas 4800, Roche HPV Amplicor, Roche Linear Array and Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the detection of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) from liquid based cervical cytology samples collected from women undergoing follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology results. Cervical specimens from 404 women undergoing management of high-grade cytological abnormality were evaluated by EUROarray HPV for detection of HR-HPV genotypes and prediction of histologically-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (≥CIN2). The results were compared to Hybrid Capture 2, Cobas 4800 HPV, Amplicor and Linear Array HPV. Positivity for 14 HR-HPV types was 80.0 % for EUROarray (95 % CI; 75.7-83.8 %). Agreement (κ, 95 % CI) between the EUROarray and other HPV tests for detection of HR-HPV was good to very good [Hybrid Capture κ = 0.62 (0.54-0.71); Cobas κ = 0.81 (0.74-0.88); Amplicor κ = 0.68 (0.60-0.77); Linear Array κ = 0.77 (0.70-0.85)]. For detection of HR-HPV, agreement with EUROarray was 87.90 % (Hybrid Capture), 93.58 % (Cobas), 92.84 % (Amplicor) and 92.59 % (Linear Array). Detection of HR-HPV was not significantly different between EUROarray and any other test (p detection of high-risk HPV and showed sensitivity and specificity for detection of ≥ CIN2 of 86 % and 71 %, respectively.

  9. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 in oral and cervical cancers in population from Gujarat, West India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal R; Vajaria, Bhairavi N; Begum, Rasheedunnisa; Desai, Ava; Patel, Jayendra B; Shah, Franky D; Shukla, Shilin N; Patel, Prabhudas S

    2014-04-01

    Oral and cervical cancers are major malignancies in men and women, respectively, in India. This study evaluated occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 infections in oral and cervical cancers to estimate HPV-associated burden of these cancers in the population from Gujarat, West India. A total of 97 malignant oral carcinoma tissues and 52 cervical carcinoma tissues were analyzed by type-specific PCR for the presence of HPV type 16 and 18 infections. None of the oral cancer patients revealed the presence of HPV type 16 and 18 infection. In cervical cancer, 31 (59.6%) patients were infected with HPV 16 and 18. Of these 31 HPV-positive cervical cancer patients, 28 (90.3%) were infected with HPV 16 and 3 (9.7%) were infected with HPV 18. The results suggested that HPV 16 and 18 do not play an important role in oral carcinogenesis in the population from Gujarat, West India. However, HPV 16 is highly prevalent in the cervical cancer patients, which may be considered for planning of prevention programs such as screening and vaccination in women from this region. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia are strongly associated with infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Kooy-Smits, M.M.; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Poddighe, P.J.; Robben, J.C.; Macville, M.V.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Hanselaar, A.G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relationships between numerical aberrations of chromosome 1 and the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Five normal samples, 11 CIN1, 13 CIN2, 18 CIN3, and nine carcinomas were studied by in situ hybridization (ISH), using a DNA probe for the

  11. Teenage cervical screening in a high risk American population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new 2009 ACOG guideline for cervical cytology screening changed the starting age to 21 years regardless of the age of onset of sexual intercourse. However, many recent studies have shown a dramatic increase in the incidence of cervical epithelial abnormalities among adolescents within the past two decades. Materials and Methods: For this study, the reports of 156,342 cervical cytology were available of which 12,226 (7.8% were from teenagers. A total of 192 teenagers with high grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cervical cytology were identified. The ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with a mean of 17.7 years and a median of 18 years. Among them, 31.3% were pregnant, 12.0% were postpartum, and 13.5% were on oral contraceptive. Ninety-eight had prior cervical cytology. Results: The teenagers had statistically significant higher detection rates of overall abnormal cervical cytology (23.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0, with 15.4% vs. 3.2% (P = 0 of low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL and 1.8% vs. 1.0% (P = 2.56 Χ 10 -13 of HSIL compared to women ≥20 years. The teenage group had the highest abnormal cytology among all age groups. The LSIL/HSIL ratio was 8.5:1 for teenagers and 3.1:1 for women ≥20 years. A total of 131 teenagers had cervical biopsies within 12 months of the HSIL cytology, with diagnoses of 39 CIN 3, 1 VAIN 3, 15 CIN 2, 62 CIN 1, and 14 had a negative histology (CIN 0. Only in 19 of these 39 women, the CIN 2/3 lesion proved to be persistent. Conclusion: We conclude that cytology screening of high risk teenagers is effective in detecting CIN 2/3 lesions. Moreover, treatment and careful follow-up can be realized.

  12. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Ricardo; Galvez-Philpott, Felipe; Arias-Stella Jr.,Javier; Arias-Stella, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes) in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results:...

  13. [Prevalence of non-vaccinable high risk genotypes of human papillomavirus in the Early Detection of Cervical Cancer Program in Cantabria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Zulueta, María; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Amparán Ruiz, Marina; Azofra Olave, Asunción; Martín Seco, Yolanda; Ojugas Zabala, Sonia; Otero García, Aurora; Royano Rasines, Carmen; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Torres Manrique, Blanca; Santibáñez Margüello, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of infection with non-vaccinable high risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Cross-sectional study. Seven randomly selected health centres in Cantabria (Northern Spain). All women with an evaluable vaginal smear (n=3,359) between 2010 and 2011. The variables collected were cytological diagnosis, PCR results, and family planning method. The vaginal smear results were classified with the Bethesda system. The classification by Muñoz et al. was used for typing as oncogenic risk HPV. Proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with corresponding confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI). The prevalence of HPV infection was 2.71% (95% CI: 2.15 to 3.27). The prevalence of high oncogenic risk HPV genotypes was 2.26%; (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.78). The most frequent genotype was 16 (28.89%). More than half of the women were positive for one of the non-vaccinable high risk genotypes: 51 (18.89%) and 58 (13.33%) and 68 (12.22%) or 31 (11.11%). At least two non-vaccinable high-risk genotypes co-existed in 23.33% of women. Younger women (≤30 years) had twice the risk of any HPV infection: OR 2.01 (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.96); and were twice as likely to use condoms compared to hormonal contraceptives, OR 2.09 (95% CI: 1.64 to 2.67). According to the high percentage of non-vaccinable high oncogenic risk HPV types, there should be a re-think of the prevention strategy in the population, who may have a false sense of protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative evaluation of three commercial systems for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical and vaginal ThinPrep PreservCyt samples and correlation with biopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnicker, M J; Pritt, B S; Duresko, B J; Espy, M J; Grys, T E; Zarka, M A; Kerr, S E; Henry, M R

    2014-10-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of more than 99% of all cervical cancers worldwide, with 14 genotypes being considered oncogenic or "high risk" because of their association with severe dysplasia and cervical carcinoma. Among these 14 high-risk types, HPV-16 and -18 account for approximately 70% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate three FDA-approved HPV nucleic acid-based tests for the ability to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN2 or worse) in corresponding tissue biopsy specimens. Residual specimens (total n = 793, cervical n = 743, vaginal n = 50) collected in ThinPrep PreservCyt medium with a cytologic result of ≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were tested by the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD), the cobas HPV test (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), and the APTIMA HPV assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA). Genotyping for HPV-16 and HPV-18 was simultaneously performed by the cobas HPV test. Results were compared to cervical or vaginal biopsy findings, when they were available (n = 350). Among the 350 patients with corresponding biopsy results, 81 (23.1%) showed ≥ CIN2 by histopathology. The ≥ CIN2 detection sensitivity was 91.4% by the cobas and APTIMA assays and 97.5% by HC2 assay. The specificities of the cobas, APTIMA, and HC2 assays were 31.2, 42.0, and 27.1%, respectively. When considering only positive HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 genotype results, the cobas test showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 51.9 and 86.6%, respectively. While the HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays showed similar sensitivities for the detection of ≥ CIN2 lesions, the specificities of the three tests varied, with the greatest specificity (86.6%) observed when the HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 genotypes were detected. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Cervical cancer screening in north east Thailand using the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) test and its relationship to high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Pientong, Chamsai; Thinkhamrop, Jedsada; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Evans, Mark F; Chaiwongkot, Arkom

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the utility of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a method for cervical cancer screening in Thailand and examined the relationship of VIA to high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) status. Cervical cells were collected from 160 patients receiving a Pap smear. VIA was performed on the cervix of the patients by application of 5% acetic acid. HPV screening of DNA extracted from cytology samples was performed by PCR using the GP5+/6+ primer system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping. The majority (96.9%) of the patients were diagnosed with normal or inflammatory cytologic changes. 32.8% of normal cytology and 42.0% of inflammation cases showed positive acetowhite staining. 3.1%, 38.1% and 42.5% of subjects were positive for an abnormal Pap test, VIA test, and HPV DNA, respectively. VIA demonstrated 50% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity for abnormal histology with PPV and NPV values of 50% and 66.7%, respectively, whereas HPV DNA test showed 100% sensitivity. HPV16 was the most common (54.4%) and HR-HPV was detected in 36.3% of all cases. 48.5% of HR-HPV positive and 36.8% of HR-HPV negative cervices stained with acetowhite following the VIA test. The VIA test is a simple method for cervical cancer screening; however, a significant proportion of patients with normal or inflammatory cytology were positive by this test. Further, HR-HPV in women without acetowhite staining was demonstrated. Therefore, some form of HR-HPV detection test may be required for combination with cervical cell screening even in low-resource nations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2010 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Comparison of the Roche Cobas(®) 4800 HPV assay to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array and Roche Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Samuel; Garland, Suzanne M; Tan, Jeffery H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-01-01

    The recently FDA (U.S. food and drug administration) approved Roche Cobas(®) 4800 (Cobas) human papillomavirus (HPV) has limited performance data compared to current HPV detection methods for test of cure in women undergoing treatment for high grade lesions. Evaluation of Cobas HPV assay using historical samples from women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. A selection of 407 samples was tested on the Cobas assay and compared to previous results from Hybrid Capture 2, HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array. Overall, a correlation between high-risk HPV positivity and high grade histological diagnosis was 90.6% by the Cobas, 86.1% by Hybrid Capture 2, 92.9% by HPV Amplicor and 91.8% by Roche Linear Array. The Cobas HPV assay is comparative to both the HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array assays and better than Hybrid capture 2 assay in the detection of High-Risk HPV in women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DETECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES BY THE POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION AND THE DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN HIGH-RISK AND LOW-RISK CERVICAL LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M. T.; Bots, T.; Briët, M. A.; Jebbink, M. F.; Struyk, A. P.; van den Tweel, J. G.; Greer, C. E.; Smits, H. L.; ter Schegget, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of a consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the prevalence of HPV types was determined in cervical biopsies from 137 women referred to the gynecological outpatient clinic for colposcopy because of an abnormal cervical smear. The prevalence of HPV was 80.3%. There was a

  18. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  19. [Influence of Age in the Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papiloma Virus in Women with Pre-Neoplasic Cervical Lesions in Navarra, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado Gutiérrez, María Rosario; Arean Cuns, Carolina; Gómez Dorronsoro, María Luisa; Paniello Alastruey, Irene; Mallor Giménez, Fermin; Lozano Escario, Maria Dolores; Santamaría Martínez, Mercedes

    2017-02-09

    Cervical carcinoma (CC) is the second cause of death among women aged 15 and 44 in Spain. CC is linked to hig-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and its prevalence varies according age and geographical region. The awereness of the latter is essential for public health prevention efforts. The aim was to study the age related in HR-HPV genotypes in cytologies with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). From a total of 67,935 ginecologic cytologies over a four-year period, we selected cytologic specimens with SIL. We used the Cervista® test to detect HR-HPV DNA. Women were classified into two groups under 35 and over 35 years old. Proportions were estimated with confidence intervals at 95% (95% CI). HR-HPV prevalence was 59,7%; 64,6% in women under 35 years old. HR-HPV species alpha 9 type 16 (HR-HPV 16) and alpha 5 type 51 (HR-HPV 51) were the most prevalent (60,9% and 51,7%). High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (H-SIL) were twice as high in women under 35 years (6,5 vs. 3,7%). 88,8% of H-SIL was associated HR-HPV 16, which increases the probability of H-SIL against Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (L-SIL) regardless of age. In our population HR-HPV 16 was associated to H-SIL whereas HR-HPV specie alpha 7 type 18 and HR-HPV 51 to L-SIL regardless of age. The high prevalence of HR-HPV 51 in Navrra´s population (51,7%), suggests that local vaccination programs be re-assessed.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  1. High-risk human papillomavirus detection in self-sampling compared to physician-taken smear in a responder population of the Dutch cervical screening: Results of the VERA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, P J W; Bosgraaf, R P; Siebers, A G; Massuger, L F A G; van der Linden, J C; Wauters, C A P; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van den Brule, A J C; IntHout, J; Melchers, W J G; Bekkers, R L M

    2017-08-01

    In 2017 the cervical cancer screening program in The Netherlands will be revised. Cervical smears will primarily be tested for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) instead of cytology, and vaginal self-sampling will be offered to non-responders. This includes a potential risk that part of the women who would otherwise opt for a cervical smear will wait for self-sampling. However, self-sampling for hrHPV in a responder population has never been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability and accuracy of self-sampling in detecting hrHPV in a screening responder population. A total of 2049 women, aged 30-60years, participating in the screening program in The Netherlands were included from April 2013 to May 2015. After they had their cervical smear taken, women self-collected a cervicovaginal sample with a brush-based device, the Evalyn Brush. Both the cervical smear and self-sample specimen were tested with the COBAS 4800 HPV platform. The hrHPV prevalence was 8.0% (95% CI 6.9-9.2) among the physician-taken samples, and 10.0% (95% CI 8.7-11.3) among the self-samples. There was 96.8% (95% CI 96.0-97.5) concordance of hrHPV prevalence between self-samples and physician-taken samples. Women in our study evaluated self-sampling as convenient (97.1%), user-friendly (98.5%), and 62.8% preferred self-sampling over a physician-taken sampling for the next screening round. In conclusion, self-sampling showed high concordance with physician-taken sampling for hrHPV detection in a responder screening population and highly acceptable to women. Implementation of HPV-self-sampling for the responder population as a primary screening tool may be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ricardo; Galvez-Philpott, Felipe; Arias-Stella, Javier; Arias-Stella, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes) in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17-79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49%) samples. Of these, 641 (82.71%) were single infections and 134 (17.29%) were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%). Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Adler

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ2 and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P<0.001 and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P=0.001, and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P<0.001. HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P=0.054. A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV.

  5. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Hussain, Showket; Mahata, Sutapa; Hedau, Suresh; Kailash, Uma; Kashyap, Veena; Bhambhani, Suresh; Roy, Meera; Batra, Swaraj; Talwar, G P; Das, Bhudev C

    2009-12-01

    'Praneem', a polyherbal formulation developed by us, has successfully completed Phase II efficacy study for treatment of abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections that act as co-factors for HPV persistence. In the present study we evaluated potential anti-HPV activity of Praneem in women infected with high risk HPV type 16. Twenty women molecularly diagnosed positive for HPV16 infection without or with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or inflammation were assigned to receive intra-vaginal, topical application of either Praneem tablet or placebo for 30 days excluding the days of menstrual period and were evaluated for persistence of HPV infection using HPV L1 consensus and HPV type 16-specific PCR as primary outcome. One course of Praneem treatment resulted in elimination of HPV in 6 out of 10 (60%) cases. A repeat treatment of four patients with persisting HPV infection resulted in clearance of HPV in two additional cases resulting in an overall 80% clearance of HPV 16 as against a spontaneous clearance of 10% (1/10) seen in the placebo arm. The elimination of HPV DNA was found to be accompanied by marked improvement in clinical symptoms and cytological abnormalities of Praneem-treated patients. Our results showed for the first time that a 30-day intra-vaginal application of the Praneem can result in elimination of HPV infection from the uterine cervix.

  6. Phase I immunotherapeutic trial with long peptides spanning the E6 and E7 sequences of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 in end-stage cervical cancer patients shows low toxicity and robust immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, Gemma G.; Welters, Marij J. P.; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Lowik, Margriet J. G.; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M. A.; Vloon, Annelies P. G.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Wafelman, Amon R.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the toxicity, safety, and immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 long peptide vaccine administered to end-stage cervical cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three groups of end-stage cervical cancer patients (in total n = 35) were s.c. vaccinated with

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus genotypes and associated risk of cervical precancerous lesions in a large U.S. screening population: data from the ATHENA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsonego, Joseph; Cox, J Thomas; Behrens, Catherine; Sandri, Maria; Franco, Eduardo L; Yap, Poh-Sin; Huh, Warner

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the age-related prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes and the genotype-associated risk for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in a large U.S. screening population. A total of 40,901 women aged ≥25 years were screened with liquid-based cytology and HPV testing in the ATHENA (Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics) trial. Genotyping was performed using the LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in all age groups, ranging from 3.5% to 0.8% in women aged 25-29 and ≥50 years, respectively. The next most prevalent genotypes were HPV52, HPV31 and HPV18. In the overall population, HPV16 conferred the greatest absolute risk of ≥CIN3 both in women aged 25-29 and ≥30 years (14.2% and 15.1%, respectively) followed by HPV31 (8.0% and 7.9%), HPV52 (6.7% and 4.4%) and HPV18 (2.7% and 9.0%). Similar trends were seen in women with negative cytology. The percent positivity increased markedly with disease progression for HPV16 and HPV18 which were responsible for 45.6% and 8.4% of ≥CIN3, respectively. Of note, HPV 18 was responsible for 50% of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 50% of invasive cancer cases. HPV16 played a major role in the development of ≥CIN3 irrespective of age, supporting the identification of HPV16 in primary screening for all women. Identification of HPV18 is also warranted, given its significant contribution to AIS and cancer. Identification of non-16/18 genotypes as a pool should provide sufficient information for screening. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Which high-risk HPV assays fulfil criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M; Berkhof, J; Cuschieri, K; Kocjan, B J; Poljak, M

    2015-09-01

    Several countries are in the process of switching to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Given the multitude of available tests, validated assays which assure high-quality screening need to be identified. A systematic review was conducted to answer the question which hrHPV tests fulfil the criteria defined by an international expert team in 2009, based on reproducibility and relative sensitivity and specificity compared to Hybrid Capture-2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-enzyme immunoassay. These latter two hrHPV DNA assays were validated in large randomized trials and cohorts with a follow-up duration of 8 years or more. Eligible studies citing the 2009 guideline were retrieved from Scopus (http://www.scopus.com) and from a meta-analysis assessing the relative accuracy of new hrHPV assays versus the standard comparator tests to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer in primary screening. The cobas 4800 HPV test and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test were consistently validated in two and three studies, respectively, whereas the PapilloCheck HPV-screening test, BD Onclarity HPV assay and the HPV-Risk assay were validated each in one study. Other tests which partially fulfil the 2009 guidelines are the following: Cervista HPV HR Test, GP5+/6+ PCR-LMNX, an in-house E6/E7 RT quantitative PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight). The APTIMA HPV assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was also fully validated. However, the cross-sectional equivalency criteria of the 2009 guidelines were set up for HPV DNA assays. Demonstration of a low risk of CIN3+ after a negative APTIMA test over a longer period is awaited to inform us about its utility in cervical cancer screening at 5-year or longer intervals. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensen, Signe; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with type-specific persistence of HR HPV infections. From a population-based cohort of 40,399 women participating...

  10. Persistence and reappearance of high-risk human papillomavirus after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla Flarup; Huusom, Lene Drasbek; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Women with early cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2+) are treated by conization; however, they still have a higher risk for subsequent CIN2+ than the general female population. Persistence of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key factor in the development...

  11. High-risk HPV presence in cervical specimens after a large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone: significance of newly detected hr-HPV genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maaike A P C; van Hamont, Dennis; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Bulten, Johan; Melchers, Willem J G; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2007-03-01

    Large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone (LLETZ) is a well-established treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. It has even been postulated that LLETZ is responsible for the elimination of the infectious agent, human papillomavirus (HPV), causing the lesion. Most studies on HPV detection after LLETZ have focused on the persistence of high-risk (hr-) HPV to identify women at risk for residual or recurrent disease. Therefore, the appearance and significance of hr-HPV types newly detected after surgical treatment has not been studied extensively so far. The presence of hr-HPV in 85 high-grade squamous cervical LLETZ biopsies and in the first follow-up smear was determined. In 80 (94%) of the LLETZ biopsies hr-HPV was detected in contrast to 30 (35%) hr-HPV positive follow-up scrapes. Twenty of the 80 hr-HPV positive women (25%) had the same hr-HPV genotypes in their follow-up cervical smears as was found in the corresponding biopsies. In the follow-up smear of 13 women a new hr-HPV genotype was detected and HPV 18 was newly detected in 8 of them. The remarkably high presence of newly detected HPV 18 genotypes may argue for a release or re-activation of this virus from proximal layers of the cervical canal incised during surgery.

  12. [Epidemiological survey of high-risk human papillomavirus among 2501 woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Na; Chen, Li-Dan; Zhang, Wei-Yun; Yang, Yong-Quan; Tang, Rong-Zhi; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Li, Lin-Hai

    2015-10-01

    To survey the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in woman in Guangzhou during the period from 2013 to 2014. A total of 2501 women in Guangzhou seeking medical attention in our hospital underwent high-risk HPV genotype screening of cervical specimens using real-time PCR. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among the women was 14.85% (146/983) in the year 2013, similar to the rate of 14.56% (221/1518) in 2014 (Χ(2)=0.041, P=0.839); no significant differences were found in the high-risk HPV infection rates between different age groups in either 2013 (Χ(2)=2.916, P=0.572) or 2014 (Χ(2)=6.494, P=0.165). The constituent ratio of the 13 types of high-risk HPV showed no significant difference between 2013 and 2014 (Χ(2)=11.872, P=0.452). The 13 HPV genotypes detected, listed in a descending order of the constituent ratios, included HPV-52, -16, -58, -56, -39, -51, -68, -59, -31, -35, -18, -33 and -45 in 2013, and were HPV-52, -16, -58, -68, -18, -51, -56, -39, -31, -33, -59, -35 and-45 in 2014. We report a high prevalence of high-risk HPV among women in Guangzhou, which suggests the necessity of screening for high-risk HPV-DNA among women at all ages for prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.

  13. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Brown, Eulynis; Slater, Sherian; Holder, Yvette; Luciani, Silvana; Lewis, Merle; Irons, Beryl

    2017-06-08

    To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace). High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2%) in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6%) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies) and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study's results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  14. Abnormal pelvic morphology and high cervical length are responsible for high-risk pregnancies in women displaying achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre J; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Baujat, Geneviève; Benachi, Alexandra

    2016-12-05

    Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathological anatomy of the pelvis. Thus, there is a foreseeable dystocia owing to cephalopelvic disproportion. Furthermore, this situation could also complicate cervical ripening prior to fetal extraction.

  15. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-risk HPVs and human carcinomas in the Syrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala-Eddin eAl Moustafa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection; persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV present a major risk factor for the initiation and progression of a variety of human carcinomas including cervical, colorectal, head and neck as well as breast carcinomas. A huge number of studies investigated and reported the incidence of high-risk HPVs in these cancers worldwide particularly in the developed countries; therefore, two HPV prophylactic vaccines against the two most frequent high-risk HPV types (16 and 18 have been developed and used worldwide. However, there are very limited studies about the prevalence of HPVs in the developing countries especially in Africa and some states of the Middle East (ME. In this mini review, we outline the presence of high-risk HPVs in human cervical, colorectal, head and neck as well as breast cancers in the Syrian population, which was recently explored for the first time by a Canadian/Syrian group.

  17. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Tummers; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellu...

  18. Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18. PMID:19654936

  19. Transcriptomic analyses of genes differentially expressed by high-risk and low-risk human papilloma virus E6 oncoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Pooja; Ganguly, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus is the causative agent for cervical cancer with 99 % of cervical cancer cases containing HPV. The high risk HPV-16, 18 and 31 are the major causative agents. The low risk HPV-6, 11 have been reported to cause penile, laryngeal, bronchogenic and oesophageal cancer. Since E6 oncoprotein is frequently over expressed in cancers, we did gene expression studies to compare between the E6 genes of high-risk (HPV18) or low-risk (HPV11)stably transfected in epithelial cell line EP...

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  1. High Risk Human Papilloma Virus Genotypes in Kurdistan Region in Patients with Vaginal Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Balatay, Amer A; Assafi, Mahde S; AlMufty, Tamara Abdulezel

    2016-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. This virus is of different genotypes and generally can be classified into high and low risk types. To determine the rate of high risk HPV genotypes in women with vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Cervical swabs were taken from 104 women. DNA was extracted and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of high risk genotypes. It was found that 13/104 (12.5%) of the samples were positive for high risk HPV genotypes. Amongst those who were positive, 4/13 (30.7%) were typed as genotype 16 and 7/13 (53.8%) showed mixed genotyping. On the other hand, genotypes 53 and 56 were found in only one sample each. High risk HPV genotypes are not uncommon and further community based study is needed to determine the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes and plan for prevention of infection.

  2. Experience of Combined Liquid Based Cervical Cytology and High-Risk HPV mRNA for Cervical Cancer Screening in Thammasat University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangto, Teerapat; Chanthasenanont, Athita; Lertvutivivat, Supapen; Nanthakomon, Tongta; Pongrojpaw, Densak; Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common of malignancy found in Thai women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and association with abnormal cervical cytology in Thai women. This study was conducted at the Gynecologic Clinic, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand. A total of 2,144 cases who underwent annual cervical cancer screening by co-testing (liquid based cytology and HPV testing, DNA versus mRNA) during the priod from July 2013 to June 2016 were recruited in this study. Prevalence of positive high risk (HR) HPV DNA and mRNA test were 19.7 and 8.4%, respectively with a statistically significant difference. Majority of cases of abnormal cytology in this study were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). In patients with ASC-US, positive HR HPV DNA was greater than in the mRNA group (10.1 and 4.5%, pmRNA test had slightly lower sensitivity but higher negative predictive value (NPV) than the DNA test to detect abnormal cytology during cervical cancer screening (pmRNA) had equally efficacy to detect high grade precancerous lesion or higher (CIN 2+). Prevalence of HR HPV DNA and mRNA were 19.7 and 8.4 percent, respectively. NPV of HPV mRNA was higher than DNA test. Both tests had equal efficacy to detect CIN 2+ with sensitivity and specificity of 63% vs 55.7% and 83% vs 92%, respectively.

  3. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with locally advanced high-risk cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Henke, G.; Grafenstein, M. von; Weidner, N.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.; Weinmann, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Staebler, A. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Div. of Gynecologic Pathology; Brucker, S. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology

    2012-07-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the outcome of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated by adjuvant radiochemotherapy and to determine risk factors for local and distant relapse. Furthermore, acute and late effects of treatment were recorded. Patients and methods: A total of 72 patients with FIGO stages I-III cervical carcinoma were treated by radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and postoperative radiochemotherapy. Only patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial involvement, positive margins, or tumor bulk were eligible. Patients were irradiated with a standard pelvic field (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). The majority of patients received platinum-based chemotherapy. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months, estimated 1-, 2-, and 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 89%, 80%, 68% and 95%, 88%, 76%, respectively. Nine of the 72 patients had pelvic recurrences including only 1 isolated local failure; 23 of the 72 patients presented with distant relapse. The majority of relapses occurred within the first 3 years after adjuvant treatment. The number of positive pelvic lymph nodes (> 1) was the strongest prognostic factor for DFS. Treatment was well tolerated with transient acute hematologic ({proportional_to}30%) and gastrointestinal ({proportional_to}30%) grade 3 toxicity. Small bowel obstruction ({proportional_to}6%) was the only important late sequelae. Conclusion: Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced cervical cancer and several risk factors is highly effective to prevent local relapse. Future efforts to improve outcome should be placed on improvement of systemic control especially in subgroups with high-risk features for distant relapse. Combined treatment was well tolerated with moderate acute and late toxicity. (orig.)

  4. Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based cohort of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Kjaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Persisting human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a critical step in cervical carcinogenesis. This study was conducted to determine the type-specific HPV persistence and risk factors for persistence of high-risk HPV infections in a large cohort of Danish women. The study was based on a population...

  5. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress

  6. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Marie Angèle Traore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3±8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%, HPV 52 (16.7%, HPV 18 (14.8%, and HPV 35 (13.0%. HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  7. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with more than half a million new cases worldwide each year. In the majority of cervical cancers a persistent infection with high-risk (hr) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types has been proven to be the causative agent. Prevention of cervical

  8. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of human papillomavirus detection in the prevention of cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death, and the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Many studies have indicated a causal relation between genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer. High-risk HPV genotypes have been detected in almost 100% of all cervical

  9. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E7 Proteins Target PTPN14 for Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. White

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The major transformation activity of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV is associated with the E7 oncoprotein. The interaction of HPV E7 with retinoblastoma family proteins is important for several E7 activities; however, this interaction does not fully account for the high-risk E7-specific cellular immortalization and transformation activities. We have determined that the cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 interacts with HPV E7 from many genus alpha and beta HPV types. We find that high-risk genus alpha HPV E7, but not low-risk genus alpha or beta HPV E7, is necessary and sufficient to reduce the steady-state level of PTPN14 in cells. High-risk E7 proteins target PTPN14 for proteasome-mediated degradation, which requires the ubiquitin ligase UBR4, and PTPN14 is degraded by the proteasome in HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Residues in the C terminus of E7 interact with the C-terminal phosphatase domain of PTPN14, and interference with the E7-PTPN14 interaction restores PTPN14 levels in cells. Finally, PTPN14 degradation correlates with the retinoblastoma-independent transforming activity of high-risk HPV E7.

  11. Electrochemical chip-based genomagnetic assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosik, Martin; Durikova, Helena; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Anton, Milan; Jandakova, Eva; Hrstka, Roman

    2016-09-15

    Cervical cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, predominantly originates from a persistent infection with a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Detection of DNA sequences from these high-risk strains, mostly HPV-16 and HPV-18, represents promising strategy for early screening, which would help to identify women with higher risk of cervical cancer. In developing countries, inadequate screening options lead to disproportionately high mortality rates, making a fast and inexpensive detection schemes highly important. Electrochemical sensors and assays offer an alternative to current methods of detection. We developed an electrochemical-chip based assay, in which target HPV DNA is captured via magnetic bead-modified DNA probes, followed by an antidigoxigenin-peroxidase detection system at screen-printed carbon electrode chips, enabling parallel measurements of eight samples simultaneously. We show sensitive detection in attomoles of HPV DNA, selective discrimination between HPV-16 and HPV-18 and good reproducibility. Most importantly, we show application of the assay into both cancer cell lines and cervical smears from patients. The electrochemical results correlated well with standard methods, making this assay potentially applicable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [High-risk HPV genotyping PCR testing as a means of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions early screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Cong, Xiao; Bian, Meilu; Shi, Mai; Wang, Xiuhong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    To explored high-risk HPV genotyping PCR testing whether as a feasible means for the early screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. From January 2013 to June 2014, 15,192 outpatients in China-Japan Friendship Hospital voluntary were tested by high-risk type HPV genotyping PCR. The average age of them were (33±8) years old. High-risk HPV types genotyping PCR tested by fluorescence PCR technology, in which 13 kinds of high-risk HPV subtypes were detected, including HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68. A total of 4,315 cases of them were tested by the liquid-based cytology (LCT), among them with positive of high-risk HPV genotyping tested by PCR (n=2,366) were biopsy under colposcope (648 cases) in those LCT results were positive or LCT negative but HPV16 positive or LCT negative but had the clear clinical symptoms or and non-HPV16 positive but with clear clinical symptoms. (1) Analysis high-risk HPV infection status of 15 192 women. (2) As the pathological diagnosis was the gold standard in the diagnosis of cervical lesions, analysis of the relationship among high-risk HPV infection, virus loads and cervical lesions. (3) To evaluated the value of high-risk HPV genotyping PCR tested method in screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. ⑴ Of 15,192 cases tested by high-risk HPV genotyping PCR, 2,366 cases were HPV positive (HPV infection), the overall infection rate was 15.57% (2,366/15,192), in which a single subtype of HPV infection in 1,767 cases, infection rate was 11.63% (1,767/15,192), and multiple subtypes of HPV infection (two and more subtypes HPV infection) in 599 cases, infection rate was 3.94% (599/15,192). The HPV16, 52 and 58 infections were the most common HPV subtypes in 13 subtypes, the infection rate was 3.95% (600/15,192), 2.86% (435/15,192) and 2.67% (406/15,192), respectively. (2) The most relevant subtypes with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and even higher lesion were HPV16, 52 and 58

  13. human papilloma virus genotypes in ghanaian women with cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-risk types such as HPV 16,. 18,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,66 and 68 are associated. East African Medical Journal Vol. 87 No. 8 August 2010. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS GENOTYPES IN GHANAIAN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL CARCINOMA. S. Attoh, MBChB, MPhil, MWACP, Department of Pathology, University of ...

  14. Evaluation of Cervicography Screening for Cervical Cancer in a High Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-16

    cervicography in cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993~ 3:395-398. 16. Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cervical no diagnosticada por citologia ...cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993; 3:395-398. 24 Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cen,-ical no diagnosticada por citologia vaginal

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of high-risk HPV genotyping in women with high-grade cervical lesions: evidence for improving the cervical cancer screening strategy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Lin, Aifen; Shao, Xiujuan; Shi, Weiwu; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Weihua

    2016-12-13

    Currently, clinical data for primary HPV screening alone are lacking in China. Here, we evaluate cervical cancer screening with primary HPV genotyping, as well as possible future screening strategy. Overall, high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence was 18.2% among hospital-based population in Taizhou area. For cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+), the sensitivity of primary hrHPV genotyping strategy and current cervical cancer screening strategy were 93.5%, and 71.1%, respectively; whereas the specificity was 17.5%, and 62.4%, respectively. Current cervical screening strategy had slightly higher positive predictive values (28.4%) for CIN2+ than hrHPV genotyping strategy (21.9%), whereas primary hrHPV genotyping strategy demonstrated higher negative predictive values (94.7%) than current cervical screening strategy (91.1%). Compared to HPV35/39/45/51/56/59/66/68 genotypes, the odds ratios (OR) for CIN2+ in HPV16/18/31/33/52/58 infection women were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.1). Primary hrHPV genotyping strategy provides a better predictive value than HPV16/18 genotyping alone in guiding the clinical management of the current cervical cancer screening. HPV testing without adjunctive cytology may be sufficiently sensitive for primary cervical cancer screening.

  16. Electrochemical genosensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple high-risk human papillomavirus sequences in clinical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civit, Laia [Nanobiotechnology and Bioanalysis Group, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Fragoso, Alex, E-mail: alex.fragoso@urv.cat [Nanobiotechnology and Bioanalysis Group, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Hoelters, Sebastian; Duerst, Matthias [Department for Gynecology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); O' Sullivan, Ciara K., E-mail: ciara.osullivan@urv.cat [Nanobiotechnology and Bioanalysis Group, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-risk human papillomavirus is detected in virtually all-invasive cervical cancers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical genosensor for simultaneous detection of multiple high-risk HPV applied to cervical scrape samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent correlation with HPV genotyping carried out within a hospital laboratory. - Abstract: An electrochemical genosensor array for the simultaneous detection of three high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences, HPV16, 18 and 45, exhibiting high sensitivity and selectivity is presented. The electrodes of a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 array were modified via co-immobilization of a 1:100 (mol/mol) mixture of a thiolated probe and an oligoethyleneglycol-terminated bipodal thiol. Detection of synthetic and PCR products was carried out in a sandwich type format, with the target hybridized between a surface immobilized probe and a horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary reporter probe. The detection limits obtained in the detection of each individual target were in the pM range, allowing the application of this sensor for the detection of samples obtained from PCR amplification of cervical scrape samples. The results obtained exhibited an excellent correlation with the HPV genotyping carried out within a hospital laboratory. Multiplexing and cross-reactivity studies demonstrated high selectivity over potential interfering sequences, facilitating application of the developed platform for the high-throughput screening of multiple high-risk DNA sequences.

  17. Molecular Diagnosis for Nodal Metastasis in Endoscopically Managed Cervical Cancer: The Accuracy of the APTIMA Test to Detect High-risk Human Papillomavirus Messenger RNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Schneider, Achim; Marnitz, Simone; Bertolini, Julia; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a commercially available test to detect E6/E7 mRNA of 14 subtypes of high-risk HPVs (APTIMA; Hologic, Bedford, MA) in the sentinel lymph nodes of CC patients laparoscopically operated. Prospective pilot study. The study was conducted in the Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. 54 women with HPV-positive CC submitted to laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy alone or sentinel node biopsy followed by systematic pelvic and/or para-aortic endoscopic lymphadenectomy. All removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) underwent sample collection by cytobrush for the APTIMA assay before frozen section. Results obtained with the HPV mRNA test were compared with the definitive histopathological analysis of the SLNs and additional lymph nodes removed. A total of 125 SLNs (119 pelvic and 6 paraaortic) were excised with a mean number of 2.3 SLNs per patient. Final histopathologic analysis confirmed nodal metastases in 10 SLNs from 10 different patients (18%). All the histologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes were also HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive, resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Four histologically free sentinel nodes were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA, resulting in a specificity of 96.4%. The HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in the SLNs of patients with CC is feasible and highly accurate. The detection of HPV mRNA in 4 women with negative SLNs might denote a shift from microscopic identification of metastasis to the molecular level. The prognostic value of this findings awaits further verification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based cohort of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Kjaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Persisting human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a critical step in cervical carcinogenesis. This study was conducted to determine the type-specific HPV persistence and risk factors for persistence of high-risk HPV infections in a large cohort of Danish women. The study was based on a population...... high-risk HPV type at both examinations. Overall, 4.2% of the women had persistent HPV infection, accounting for 26.9% of the initially HPV-positive women. HPV 16, HPV 58, and HPV 31, all from species group alpha 9, were the most persistent types; however, other high-risk HPV types that are detected...... rarely in cancer cases were also likely to persist. The number of high-risk HPV types and detection of HPV 16 infection at baseline and ever use of oral contraceptives increased the risk for persistence. The risk factor analyses also showed that use of an intrauterine device decreased the risk...

  19. Human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical cancer and vaccination challenges in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Chin’ombe, Nyasha; Sebata, Natasha L; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Matarira, Hilda T

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in women in Zimbabwe. This is mainly due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of high-risk genital HPV genotypes such as 16, 18, 31, 33, 52, 58 and 70 in Zimbabwean women with cervical cancer. The prevalence of HPV DNA in women with cervical cancer has been shown to range from 63% to 98%. The high-risk HPV 16, ...

  20. High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: the human ecology of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, J; Sherman, D

    1980-03-01

    Based on multiple regression analysis to identify the socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal correlates of neighborhood differences in the rate of child abuse and neglect, a pair of neighborhoods matched for socioeconomic level was selected, one high risk, the other low risk. Interviews with expert informants ranging from elementary school principals to mailmen were used to develop neighborhood profiles. Samples of families were drawn from each neighborhood and interviews conducted to identify stresses and supports, with special emphasis on sources of help, social networks, evaluation of the neighborhood, and use of formal family support systems. The results lend support to the concept of neighborhood "risk." Families in the high-risk neighborhood, though socioeconomically similar to families in the low-risk neighborhood, report less positive evaluation of the neighborhood as a context for child and family development. Furthermore, they reveal a general pattern of "social impoverishment" in comparison with families in the low-risk neighborhood.

  1. High-risk HPV presence in cervical specimens after a large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone: significance of newly detected hr-HPV genotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A. van; Hamont, D. van; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Large loop excision of the cervical transformation zone (LLETZ) is a well-established treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. It has even been postulated that LLETZ is responsible for the elimination of the infectious agent, human papillomavirus (HPV), causing the lesion. Most

  2. High prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes other than 16 and 18 in cervical cancers of Curaçao: implications for choice of prophylactic HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Desiree J; Lissenberg-Witte, Birgit I; de Koning, Maurits N C; Pinedo, Herbert M; Kenter, Gemma G; Meijer, Chris J L M; Quint, Wim G

    2017-10-11

    Curaçao is a Dutch-Caribbean Island located in a high-risk area for cervical cancer.Prior to introduction of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, knowledge of the prevalence of high-risk HPV vaccine genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) in cervical (pre)cancer is required. To investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, 2 and 3 in Curaçao. Paraffin-embedded blocks of 104 cervical cancers (89 squamous, 15 adenocarcinoma), 41 CIN3, 39 CIN2 and 40 CIN1 lesions were analysed for the presence of HPV. Sections were stained by H&E for histopathological evaluation, and DNA was extracted using proteinase K. HPV genotypes were detected using Short PCR Fragment (SPF10) PCR DNA enzyme immunoassay and a Line Probe Assay (LiPA25) . HPV was found in 92 (88.5%) ICC; 87 (94.6%) had a single HPV infection and 86 (93.5%) were high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-type positive.The three most common HPV types in ICC were 16 (38.5%), 18 (13.5%) and 45 (6.7%), covering 58.7%.HrHPV vaccine genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 45, 52 and 58 were responsible for 73.1% of ICC. For precancerous lesions, the HPV attribution was 85.4% for CIN3, 66.7% for CIN2% and 42.5% for CIN1. Our study, the largest in the Caribbean region in (pre)cancer, shows that the prevalence of HPV-type 16 and 18 in cervical cancer is lower compared with the world population but no differences in prevalence of these two HPV types are seen in precancerous lesions.When considering HPV vaccination in Curaçao, the relatively high contribution of non-HPV 16/18 genotypes in ICC should be taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Bart; Van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellular proteins to interfere with signaling of innate and adaptive immune pathways. This results in impairment of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent immune cell attraction, as well as resistance to incoming signals from the immune system. Furthermore, hrHPV avoids the killing of infected cells by interfering with antigen presentation to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, hrHPV has evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid detection and clearance by both the innate and adaptive immune system, the molecular mechanisms of which will be dealt with in detail in this review. PMID:26008697

  4. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Tummers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellular proteins to interfere with signaling of innate and adaptive immune pathways. This results in impairment of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent immune cell attraction, as well as resistance to incoming signals from the immune system. Furthermore, hrHPV avoids the killing of infected cells by interfering with antigen presentation to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, hrHPV has evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid detection and clearance by both the innate and adaptive immune system, the molecular mechanisms of which will be dealt with in detail in this review.

  5. High-risk human papillomavirus targets crossroads in immune signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummers, Bart; Burg, Sjoerd H Van Der

    2015-05-21

    Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellular proteins to interfere with signaling of innate and adaptive immune pathways. This results in impairment of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent immune cell attraction, as well as resistance to incoming signals from the immune system. Furthermore, hrHPV avoids the killing of infected cells by interfering with antigen presentation to antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, hrHPV has evolved multiple mechanisms to avoid detection and clearance by both the innate and adaptive immune system, the molecular mechanisms of which will be dealt with in detail in this review.

  6. Dynamics of High-Risk Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus Types after Actual Vaccination Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Peralta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has been identified as the main etiological factor in the developing of cervical cancer (CC. This finding has propitiated the development of vaccines that help to prevent the HPVs 16 and 18 infection. Both genotypes are associated with 70% of CC worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to determine the emergence of high-risk nonvaccine HPV after actual vaccination scheme to estimate the impact of the current HPV vaccines. A SIR-type model was used to study the HPV dynamics after vaccination. According to the results, our model indicates that the application of the vaccine reduces infection by target or vaccine genotypes as expected. However, numerical simulations of the model suggest the presence of the phenomenon called vaccine—induced pathogen strain replacement. Here, we report the following replacement mechanism: if the effectiveness of cross-protective immunity is not larger than the effectiveness of the vaccine, then the high-risk nonvaccine genotypes emerge. In this scenario, further studies of infection dispersion by HPV are necessary to ascertain the real impact of the current vaccines, primarily because of the different high-risk HPV types that are found in CC.

  7. Methylation marker analysis and HPV16/18 genotyping in high-risk HPV positive self-sampled specimens to identify women with high grade CIN or cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, V.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Rozendaal, L.; Bosgraaf, R.P.; Hesselink, A.T.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Steenbergen, R.D.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Berkhof, J.; Meijer, C.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Methylation marker analysis using bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 is a promising triage test for identifying cervical (pre)cancer in high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) positive women. Bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 can be applied directly on self-sampled cervico-vaginal material and its

  8. An upward trend in DNA p16ink4a methylation pattern and high risk HPV infection according to the severity of the cervical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestiato, Fernanda Nahoum; Afonso, Larissa Alves; Moysés, Natalia; Almeida Filho, Gutemberg Leão; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baeta

    2013-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical cancer development. Recently, P16INK4A gene silencing through hypermethylation has been proposed as an important cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis due to its tumor suppressor function. We aimed to investigate P16INK4A methylation status in normal and neoplastic epithelia and evaluate an association with HPV infection and genotype. This cross-sectional study was performed with 141 cervical samples from patients attending Hospital Moncorvo Filho, Rio de Janeiro. HPV detection and genotyping were performed through PCR and P16INK4A methylation by nested-methylation specific PCR (MSP). HPV frequency was 62.4% (88/141). The most common HPV were HPV16 (37%), HPV18 (16.3%) and HPV33/45(15.2%). An upward trend was observed concerning P16INK4A methylation and lesion degree: normal epithelia (10.7%), low grade lesions (22.9%), high grade (57.1%) and carcinoma (93.1%) (p HPV infection and genotyping. A correlation was found concerning methylation with HPV infection (p HPV (p = 0.01), HSIL (p cervical carcinoma, we suggest that P16INK4A methylation profile maybe thoroughly investigated as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of cancer.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection of the anal canal in women: A prospective analysis of high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Bernd P; Hofmann, Jörg; Stoellnberger, Susanne; Bergauer, Florian; Blankenstein, Thomas; Alba-Alejandre, Irene; Stein, Angela; Stuckart, Claudia; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Mylonas, Ioannis; Mahner, Sven; Gingelmaier, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with the development of cervical and anal cancer. Worldwide, the incidence of anal cancer has increased markedly. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection of the uterine cervix and anal canal in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and non-HIV-infected risk populations. Cervical and anal HPV swabs and cytology samples were collected from 287 patients at the University Hospital of Munich, Germany between 2011 and 2013. Patients were divided into HIV-negative controls (G1) and two risk groups, including HIV-negative patients with cytological abnormalities of the cervix (G2) and HIV-infected patients (G3). Data, including clinical parameters, were analysed. The risk groups had significantly more positive results for HPV in the anus (71.03 and 83.15% for G2 and G3, respectively), as compared with G1. The predominant HPV genotypes found in the anus were high-risk HPV genotypes, which were significantly correlated with concomittant cervical HPV findings. In the risk groups, a significant association between the cytological findings and HPV detection in the cervix was found, while the results of the anus revealed no significance. The results of the present study suggested that the prevalence of HPV infection in the anal canal of risk populations is high. Furthermore, patients with abnormal cervical cytology results and HIV-infected women, irrespective of their individual cervical findings, may have a risk of concomittant anal high-risk HPV infection. Based on the predominant HPV genotypes found in the study, HPV vaccination could reduce the incidence of anal cancer. Nevertheless, high-risk patients should be intensively screened for anal squamous intraepithelial abnormalities to avoid invasive cancer stages.

  10. Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length in asymptomatic high-risk women with a short cervical length in the previous pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, J M G; Hutchens, D

    2011-07-01

    To determine if asymptomatic women at high risk of preterm delivery who had a short cervical length in their previous pregnancy and delivered at term are at increased risk of having a short cervical length in their next pregnancy, and whether they are at increased risk of preterm birth. This retrospective cohort study included high-risk (those with a history of spontaneous preterm birth, uterine anomaly or excisional treatment for cervical dysplasia) asymptomatic women who were pregnant with a singleton gestation delivering between April 2003 and March 2010, who had had a previous pregnancy and who had transvaginal ultrasonographic cervical length measurement performed at 16-30 weeks' gestation in both pregnancies. Comparison was among women who had a short cervical length (pregnancy but delivered at term in that pregnancy (Short Term Group), women with a history of a normal cervical length (≥ 3.0 cm) in their previous pregnancy delivering at term (Long Term Group), and women who had a short cervical length (pregnancy delivering preterm (Short Preterm Group). Primary outcomes were spontaneous preterm birth at pregnancy compared with those in the Long Term Group (10/23 (43.5%) vs. 4/26 (15.4%), respectively) but not as likely as women in the Short Preterm Group (9/13 (69.2%); P=0.003). Women in the Short Term Group were not at an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth at pregnancy compared with women in the Long Term Group (2/23 (8.7%) vs. 2/26 (7.7%), respectively), but women in the Short Preterm Group were at an increased risk (6/13 (46.2%); Prisk of threatened preterm labor (6/23 (26.1%) and 4/26 (15.4%) vs. 9/13 (69.2%), respectively; P=0.002) and of receiving corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation (6/23 (26.1%) and 4/26 (15.4%) vs. 11/13 (84.6%), respectively; Phigh-risk asymptomatic women with a short cervical length in their previous pregnancy who delivered at term are at increased risk of having a short cervix in their next pregnancy, they are not

  11. Randomized Comparison of Isosorbide Mononitrate and PGE2 Gel for Cervical Ripening at Term including High Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Prostaglandin E2 is the most commonly used drug for cervical ripening prior to labour induction. However, there are concerns regarding uterine tachysystole and nonreassuring fetal heart (N-RFH. Isosorbide mononitrate (IMN has been used successfully for cervical ripening. The present study was conducted to compare the two drugs for cervical ripening at term in hospital. Methods. Two hundred women with term pregnancies referred for induction of labour with Bishop score less than 6 were randomly allocated to receive either 40 mg IMN tablet vaginally (n=100 or 0.5 mg PGE2 gel intracervically (n=100. Adverse effects, progress, and outcomes of labour were assessed. Results. PGE2 group had significantly higher postripening mean Bishop score, shorter time from start of medication to vaginal delivery (13.37 ± 10.67 hours versus 30.78 ± 17.29 hours, and shorter labour-delivery interval compared to IMN group (4.53 ± 3.97 hours versus 7.34 ± 5.51 hours. However, PGE2 group also had significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole (15% and N-RFH (11% compared to none in IMN group, as well as higher caesarean section rate (27% versus 17%. Conclusions. Cervical ripening with IMN was less effective than PGE2 but resulted in fewer adverse effects and was safer especially in high risk pregnancies.

  12. Papilomavírus humano e neoplasia cervical Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês da Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é um fator etiológico bem estabelecido para o câncer cervical. Esse vírus de DNA infecta primariamente o epitélio e pode induzir lesões benignas ou malignas na pele e na mucosa. Alguns HPVs são considerados de alto risco, responsáveis pela progressão das lesões precursoras até câncer cervical. A infecção genital pelo HPV é comum em mulheres jovens e geralmente é transitória. Uma pequena proporção de mulheres infectadas desenvolve câncer cervical, implicando o envolvimento de fatores ambientais e fatores genéticos na carcinogênese. Essa revisão aborda a estrutura viral, classificação e patologia do HPV, história natural e fatores de risco para neoplasia cervical e perspectivas futuras com a vacina anti-HPV.Human papillomavirus (HPV has been established as an important etiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. This DNA virus primarily infects the epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Some HPVs are considered high risk due to their role in malignant progression of cervical tumors. Genital HPV infections are common and usually transient among young sexually active women. Only a small fraction of infected women develop cervical cancer, implying the involvement of environmental and genetic cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. Classification, virology, pathology, natural history, epidemiological features of genital HPV infection, and future prospects for cervical cancer prevention with HPV vaccines will be reviewed here.

  13. Risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in relation to smoking among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview...... were also conducted. Hazard ratios (HRs) for a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (CIN3+) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the 2 groups. RESULTS: Among high-risk HPV positive women......, and subsequently cervical cells were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV infection and no prevalent cervical disease at baseline (n=1,353) were followed through the Pathology Data Bank for cervical lesions for up to 13 years. Separate analyses of women with persistent high-risk HPV infection...

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus E7 expression reduces cell-surface MHC class I molecules and increases susceptibility to natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottley, G; Watherston, O G; Hiew, Y-L

    2007-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major causative agent of cervical cancer and the E6 and E7 genes encode the major HPV oncoproteins. The E7 protein from high-risk HPV types alters cell cycle progression and represses genes encoding components of the antigen-presentation pathway, suggesting...... a role for E7 in tumour immune evasion. We show that knockdown of E7 expression in HPV16- and HPV18-transformed cervical carcinoma cells by RNA interference increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I at the cell surface and reduced susceptibility of these cells to natural...

  15. Detection of telomerase, its components, and human papillomavirus in cervical scrapings as a tool for triage in women with cervical dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N.; Helder, M N; Wisman, G B A; Knol, A J; Koopmans, S; Boezen, H M; Schuuring, E; Hollema, H; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven; van der Zee, A G J

    AIM: To examine whether the detection of either telomerase and its components or high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are of value in predicting the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade II/III in women referred because of cervical cytology reports showing at most moderate

  16. Prevalence and Distribution of High-Risk Genotypes of HPV in Women with Severe Cervical Lesions in Madrid, Spain: Importance of Detecting Genotype 16 and Other High-Risk Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Sánchez Calvo, Juan Manuel; Chacón de Antonio, Jesús; Sanz, Itziar; Diaz, Esperanza; Rubio, Maria Dolores; de la Morena, Maria Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been demonstrated to be the necessary causal factor for developing cervical cancer. To know the most prevalent HR-HPV in different geographical areas is important to design diagnostic tests and implementation of vaccines. Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in a total of 1001 patients, 198 with normal cytology results, 498 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), and 205 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who attended our gynaecology department for opportunistic screening of HPV infection. Study design. Cervical samples were taken in a PreservCyt vial (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA). Hybrid capture assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions (Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD). All samples were further studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Results. Genotype 16 was the most prevalent HR-HPV in the three groups, 17.8% in the patients with normal cytology results, 22.3% in the LSIL group, and 60% in the HSIL group. Genotype 18 had a very low prevalence in all groups. Other HR-HPV genotypes such as genotype 31, genotype 58 and genotype 52 were found in significant numbers in HSIL patients. Discussion. Our data show that genotypes 16, 31, 58, and 52 are the most prevalent HR-HPV in cervical samples with severe intraepithelial lesion in Spain. There may be some geographical variation in prevalence of carcinogenic types, and it must be considered for designing diagnostic tests and vaccine.

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of High-Risk Genotypes of HPV in Women with Severe Cervical Lesions in Madrid, Spain: Importance of Detecting Genotype 16 and Other High-Risk Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Mateos Lindemann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV has been demonstrated to be the necessary causal factor for developing cervical cancer. To know the most prevalent HR-HPV in different geographical areas is important to design diagnostic tests and implementation of vaccines. Objectives. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in a total of 1001 patients, 198 with normal cytology results, 498 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 205 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL who attended our gynaecology department for opportunistic screening of HPV infection. Study design. Cervical samples were taken in a PreservCyt vial (Cytyc Corporation, Boxborough, MA. Hybrid capture assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions (Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD. All samples were further studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR (Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany. Results. Genotype 16 was the most prevalent HR-HPV in the three groups, 17.8% in the patients with normal cytology results, 22.3% in the LSIL group, and 60% in the HSIL group. Genotype 18 had a very low prevalence in all groups. Other HR-HPV genotypes such as genotype 31, genotype 58 and genotype 52 were found in significant numbers in HSIL patients. Discussion. Our data show that genotypes 16, 31, 58, and 52 are the most prevalent HR-HPV in cervical samples with severe intraepithelial lesion in Spain. There may be some geographical variation in prevalence of carcinogenic types, and it must be considered for designing diagnostic tests and vaccine.

  18. High risk human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among women infected with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monique Figueiredo; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leturiondo, André Luiz; de Oliveira Ferreira, Cynthia; Torres, Kátia Luz; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-02-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital. Each woman underwent a gynecological exam, cervical cytology, HR-HPV detection by Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) using the BD Onclarity™ HPV Assay, colposcopy and biopsy, when necessary. We assessed the associations between potential risk factors and HR-HPV infection. Overall, 299 (92.0%) women had a PCR result. The prevalence of HR-HPV- infection was 31.1%. The most prevalent HR-HPV types were: 56/59/66 (32.2%), 35/39/68 (28.0%), 52 (21.5%), 16 (19.4%), and 45 (12.9%). Among the women with HR-HPV infection (n = 93), 43.0% had multiple infections. Women with HPV infection showed higher prevalence of cervical abnormalities than that HPV-negative (LSIL: 22.6% vs. 1.5%; HSIL: 10.8% vs. 0.0%). The prevalence of HR-HPV among women with cytological abnormalities was 87.5% for LSIL and 100.0% for HSIL. Women with CD4 Amazonas. The low CD4 cell count was an important determinant of HPV infection and abnormal cytological findings. HPV quadrivalent vaccination used in Brazil might not offer protection for an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden in women living with HIV. This is partly explained by the high presence of non targeted vaccine HR-HPVs, such as the HPV genotype groups 56/59/66, 35/39/68 and individually HPV-52 and HPV-45, some of which contribute to high-grade lesion.

  19. AN UPWARD TREND IN DNA P16INK4A METHYLATION PATTERN AND HIGH RISK HPV INFECTION ACCORDING TO THE SEVERITY OF THE CERVICAL LESION

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    Fernanda Nahoum Carestiato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical cancer development. Recently, P16INK4A gene silencing through hypermethylation has been proposed as an important cofactor in cervical carcinogenesis due to its tumor suppressor function. We aimed to investigate P16INK4A methylation status in normal and neoplastic epithelia and evaluate an association with HPV infection and genotype. This cross-sectional study was performed with 141 cervical samples from patients attending Hospital Moncorvo Filho, Rio de Janeiro. HPV detection and genotyping were performed through PCR and P16INK4A methylation by nested-methylation specific PCR (MSP. HPV frequency was 62.4% (88/141. The most common HPV were HPV16 (37%, HPV18 (16.3% and HPV33/45(15.2%. An upward trend was observed concerning P16INK4A methylation and lesion degree: normal epithelia (10.7%, low grade lesions (22.9%, high grade (57.1% and carcinoma (93.1% (p < 0.0001. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate an association between methylation, age, tobacco exposure, HPV infection and genotyping. A correlation was found concerning methylation with HPV infection (p < 0.0001, hr-HPV (p = 0.01, HSIL (p < 0.0007 and malignant lesions (p < 0.0001. Since viral infection and epigenetic alterations are related to cervical carcinoma, we suggest that P16INK4A methylation profile maybe thoroughly investigated as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of cancer.

  20. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

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    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  1. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus: a technical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jane S

    2014-09-01

    Nucleic acid-based high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is essential to contemporary cervical cancer screening. The numbers of commercially available assays approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for HPV nucleic acid detection have increased, each offering various approaches to analysis. An understanding of the methodologies associated with HPV testing is important to the practice of laboratory medicine. An overview of instruments, chemistries, laboratory workflows, and test limitations associated with current US Food and Drug Administration-approved assays is provided. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  2. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

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    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  3. A promising DNA methylation signature for the triage of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA-positive women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Hansel

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV-DNA testing is frequently performed parallel to cytology for the detection of high-grade dysplasia and cervical cancer particularly in women above 30 years of age. Although highly sensitive, hrHPV testing cannot distinguish between HPV-positive women with or without clinically relevant lesions. However, in principle discrimination is possible on the basis of DNA methylation markers. In order to identify novel DNA regions which allow an effective triage of hrHPV-positive cases, hypermethylated DNA enriched from cervical cancers was compared with that from cervical scrapes of HPV16-positive cases with no evidence for disease by CpG island microarray hybridization. The most promising marker regions were validated by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP using DNA from archived cervical tissues and cervical scrapes. The performance of these markers was then determined in an independent set of 217 hrHPV-positive cervical scrapes from outpatients with histopathological verification. A methylation signature comprising the 5' regions of the genes DLX1, ITGA4, RXFP3, SOX17 and ZNF671 specific for CIN3 and cervical cancer (termed CIN3+ was identified and validated. A high detection rate of CIN3+ was obtained if at least 2 of the 5 markers were methylated. In the subsequent cross-sectional study all cervical carcinomas (n = 19 and 56% (13/23 of CIN3 were identified by this algorithm. Only 10% (11/105 of hrHPV-positive women without histological evidence of cervical disease were scored positive by the methylation assay. Of note is that the detection rate of CIN3 differed between age groups. Eight of nine CIN3 were detected among women ≥30 years of age but only five of fourteen among <30 year old group (p = 0.03. The specificity for CIN3+ in the older age group was 76.6% (95% CI 65.6-85.5%. Clinical validation studies are required to determine the usefulness of these novel markers for triage after primary

  4. Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using menstrual blood in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or high-risk human papillomavirus infections: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Banghyun; Cho, Hye-Yon; Jeon, Kum Jin; Kim, Kidong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Moon, Jung Joo; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have reported that human papillomavirus (HPV) tests using menstrual blood (MB) may be a convenient and effective screening modality for cervical cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of detecting high-risk (HR)-HPV from MB in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or HR-HPV infections dependent on menstrual days. In this prospective exploratory pilot study, a clinical trial was conducted in 19 women. On enrollment into the study, gynecologists collected cervical cells. On the first and second day of menstruation, MB was self-collected by patients using a sanitary pad with a filter. The distribution of HPVs from MB and the accuracy of menstrual HR-HPV tests were evaluated using HPV genotyping. The agreement rate of detecting HR-HPVs using cervical and MB samples was also investigated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the MB HR-HPV test for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or worse were 87.5%, 45.5%, 53.8%, and 83.3%, respectively, during both menstrual cycle day (MCD) 1 and 2 and MCD 1 only; and 62.5%, 27.3%, 38.5%, and 50.0%, respectively, during MCD 2 only. For CIN 3 or worse, the agreement rate between positive cervical and MB HR-HPV test results was 87.5% during MCD 1 and 62.5% during MCD 2. We demonstrated the possibility of using the MB HPV test as a screening modality for cervical cancer. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Rationale and design of a multicenter prospective cohort study for the eVALuation and monitoring of HPV infections and relATEd cervical diseases in high-risk women (VALHIDATE study

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    Orlando Giovanna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pap screening, an effective method for cervical cancer prevention, is now supported by molecular human papillomavirus (HPV testing. Recently commercialised preventive vaccines also provide new tools for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. To determine appropriate prevention strategies, the Health General Direction, Lombardy Region, funded a project that aims to characterize and monitor HPV infections and related cervical diseases in high-risk women. Methods/design VALHIDATE is a 5-year multicentre open prospective cohort study. It will recruit 7000 consenting women aged 13–65 years to provide information about the local biomolecular epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical diseases in high-risk women recruited from nine clinical centres and one faith-based organisation. The study will estimate the overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities. It also aims to compare standard Pap screening with biomolecular screening, and to assist in the design of targeted regional prevention programs directed specifically at high-risk groups. Three groups of high-risk women: 1000 HIV-infected women (aged 26–65 years, 1000 recent migrant women (aged 26–65 years and 3000 young women (aged 13–26 years and 1 control group: 2000 women (aged 26–45 years attending a spontaneous screening program, will be recruited. Sample sizes will be revised after the first year. Adult participants will undergo conventional cervical cytology, HPV DNA screening and genotyping. Paediatric participants will undergo HPV DNA testing and genotyping of urine samples. HPV DNA, cytological abnormalities and HPV types will be analysed according to demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, and clinical data collected in an electronic case report form. Overall and stratified prevalences will be estimated to analyse the associations between HPV infection and selected characteristics. Logistic regression models

  6. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) E6/E7 mRNA Testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer for Detection of Cervical High-Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cancer among hrHPV DNA-Positive Women with Normal Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Brink, A. A. T. P.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Skomedal, H.; Karlsen, F.; Morland, E.; Snijders, P. J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether high-risk HPV (hrHPV) mRNA detection by PreTect HPV-Proofer can be used to stratify hrHPV DNA-positive women of different cytology classes for risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (cervical precancer or cancer, i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher [≥CIN2]). A total of 375 women participating in population-based screening, with a GP5+/6+-PCR hrHPV DNA-positive cervical scrape with normal cytology (n = 202), borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) (n = 88), or moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) (n = 85), were enrolled. Cervical scrapes were additionally subjected to HPV16/18/31/33/45 E6/E7 mRNA analysis by PreTect HPV-Proofer (mRNA test). Referral and follow-up policies were based on cytology, hrHPV DNA, and mRNA testing. The primary study endpoint was the number of ≥CIN2 detected within 3 years of follow-up. The mRNA positivity increased with the severity of cytological abnormality, ranging from 32% (64/202) in hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology to 47% (41/88) in BMD and 68% (58/85) in >BMD groups (P cytology, i.e., 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34 to 0.76) in mRNA-positive versus 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.33) in mRNA-negative women. In hrHPV DNA-positive women with BMD or >BMD, the result of the mRNA test did not influence the ≥CIN2 risk. In conclusion, mRNA testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer might be of value to select hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology in need of immediate referral for colposcopy. PMID:22553244

  7. [Uterine cervical carcinoma and human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugase, M

    1992-06-01

    For many years it has been thought that a significant proportion of cervical cancer could be attributed to sexually transmitted agents, such as sperm, smegma, Treponema pallidum, Gonococcus and herpes simplexvirus type 2. Recent advances of molecular biology, however, have revealed that human papillomavirus (HPV) might be the most causative virus of the disease. Since HPV type 16 DNA was found in a patient with cervical cancer in 1983, many HPV types have been cloned from cervical cancers, also from premalignant lesions (intraepithelial neoplasias). In Japan, we have found 6 new types of HPV (HPV 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 67) in the female genital tract so far. Especially, HPV 58, which was cloned from a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and was already fully sequenced, is thought to be an important agent for the development of cervical cancer as well as HPV 16. Now we are investigating extensively to clarify the real relationship between genital HPV infection and cervical cancer.

  8. Comparison of DRY and WET vaginal swabs with cervical specimens in Roche Cobas 4800 HPV and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hye Young; Hwang, Na Rae; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Self-collected vaginal swab samples have been proposed as an alternative specimen collection method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Two vaginal swabs (a cone-shaped flocked swab (DRY) and a L-shape FLOQSwab with 2mL eNAT transport medium (WET)) were compared to standard cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Additionally, they were also compared by using Roche Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche_HPV) and Abbott Real-time High Risk HPV (Abbott_HPV) tests. Ninety-six women were prospectively enrolled from the National Cancer Center in Korea between June and August 2015. WET and DRY vaginal swabs and cervical specimens were collected. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests were performed. The Roche_HPV test on cervical specimens was used as reference. The observed agreements (kappa) of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV between WET and DRY swabs were 89.6% (0.790, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.667-0.913) and 91.7% (0.833, 95%CI: 0.723-0.943), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between WET and DRY swabs (p>0.05 for all comparisons). For HPV16/18, the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET samples presented 93.8%/96.3% and 87.5%/97.5%, respectively. For other High Risk HPV (hrHPV), the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs presented 91.9%/91.5% and 97.3%/98.3, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the Abbott_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs were 93.8%/98.8%, 87.5%/98.8% for HPV16/18, and 91.9%/93.2%, 100.0%/93.2% for other hrHPV, respectively. HPV tests performed similarly when using vaginal DRY and WET swab samples. Using DRY and WET swabs to collect vaginal specimens could be an alternative to collecting cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. INTERFERON IN THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN INFECTED WITH HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

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    Кристина Владимировна Марочко

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 99 % of cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk types of HPV. It can take over 10 years from the time of an initial human papillomavirus infection until a cervical cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are transient and go away within 1 year. There is evidence that cell mediated immune responses of the host, both systemic and local, are important determinants of the course of infection, thus, it is reasonable to use immunocorrective therapy. Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of interferon alpha in complex therapy of HPV infection. The aim – to determine the efficacy of interferon alpha-2b in reducing the viral load of high-risk HPV among infected women of reproductive age. Materials and methods. 60 high-risk HPV positive women were included in the study. Qualitative and quantitative determination of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 was carried out by PCR in real time. Patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 (n = 30 received alfa-interferon in the form of rectal suppositories; group 2 (n = 30 did not receive the drug. Control study was conducted 1 month later. The average age in group 1 was 31,7 ± 1,6 years, in group 2 – 35,0 ± 1,6 years (p = 0,08. In group 1 monoinfection diagnosed in 72,4 % of cases, mixed infection in 27,6 % of cases in group 2 – at 64,3 % and 35,7 %, respectively. Results. The average viral load was 3,5 ± 0,2 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 3,4 ± 0,3 in group 2 (p = 0,473. Сlinically significant viral load dominated in group 1 (41,4 %, insignificant viral load was dominated in group 2 (42,9 %. After 1 month the average viral load was 1,9 ± 0,3 Lg (HPV on 105 cells in group 1 and 2,8 ± 0,4 Lg in group 2 (р = 0,04. There were statistically significant difference in both groups before and after 1 month (p < 0

  10. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

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    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  11. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    2010-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...... could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types....

  12. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapsinou, Eirini; Argyri, Elena; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Daskalopoulou, Dimitra; Patsouris, Efstratios; Nonni, Afroditi; Lazaris, Andreas C; Thomopoulou, Georgia-Heleni

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap) smear. A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity), the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  13. Cervicovaginal microbiota composition correlates with the acquisition of high-risk human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojie; Li, Chao; Li, Fang; Zhao, Junwei; Wan, Xiaoping; Wang, Kai

    2018-02-26

    High-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with the clinical conditions of both squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear what factors determine the type of hrHPV infection. Here, we have comprehensively investigated the bacterial composition of the cervicovaginal microbiota of 280 women infected with one type of hrHPV (HPV 16, 52, or 58) by the pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. Differential microbiota composition was observed among various SIL groups and within the subgroups of each group. This result showed that it is not the microbiota diversity or the common microbiota, but rather agents that are specific to each SIL that might have a positive influence on the acquisition of hrHPV types, independent of abundance. Specifically, a composition of Oribacterium, Lachnobacterium and Thermus in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 16, while a composition of Motilibacter in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 52, and a composition of Litorilinea and Paludibaculum with a concomitant paucity of L. iners in the cervicovaginal microbiota is more likely to be associated with HPV 58. Furthermore, functional predictions regarding infectious diseases and cancer-related genes disclosed significant differences (P composition of the cervicovaginal microbiota and the type of hrHPV acquired. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  14. Cytology and high risk HPV testing in cervical cancer screening program: Outcome of 3-year follow-up in an academic institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jack; Nolte, Fredrick S; Chajewski, Olga S; Lindsey, Kathryn G; Houser, Patricia M; Pellicier, Jalidsa; Wang, Qun; Ehsani, Laleh

    2017-10-19

    Combination of cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing, co-testing, has been increasingly used in screening cervical cancers. The present study summarized the outcome of co-testing by reviewing 3-year clinical and pathological follow-up information. Patients were retrospectively identified via computerized search and were grouped based on the cytologic diagnosis and HR-HPV status as negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-, NILM/HPV+, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US)/HPV-, ASC-US/HPV+, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/HPV-, LSIL/HPV+, atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H)/HPV-, ASC-H/HPV+, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)/HPV-, and HSIL/HPV+. The patients' pertinent past medical history and follow-up information were analyzed. During 3-year follow-up period, histologically proven HSIL was found in 5 of 1565 (0.3%) patients with NILM/HPV-, 7 of 141 (5.0%) with NILM/HPV+, 2 of 502 (0.4%) with ASC-US/HPV-, 30 of 274 (10.9%) with ASC-US/HPV+, 1 of 81 (1.2%) with LSIL/HPV-, 28 of 159 (17.6%) with LSIL/HPV+, 3 of 18 (16.7%) with ASC-H/HPV-, 34 of 69 (49.3%) with ASC-H/HPV+, 7 of 7 (100%) with HSIL/HPV-, and 35 of 56 (62.5%) HSIL/HPV+. In reviewing 12 HSIL cases that were originally diagnosed as NILM, 7 remained as NILM, and the other 5 were reclassified as 1 HSIL, 1 ASC-H, and 3 ASC-US, respectively. In 18 HSIL cases with negative HR-HPV, 12 patients had a prior history of positive HR-HPV testing and/or positive p16 IHC stain in the follow-up cervical biopsy. HR-HPV testing plays an important role in cervical cancer screening by identifying HSIL in patients with ASC-US, LSIL, and NILM. Co-testing is an optimal method to identifying the patients with higher risk for developing cervical abnormalities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2012-09-01

    Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Standard (liquid) and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer.High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15%) from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%). The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  16. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15% from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%. Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers.

  17. Molecular interactions of 'high risk' human papillomaviruses E6 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sequences in adenovirus E1A and human papillomavirus. E7 proteins mediate interaction with the same set of cellular proteins; J. Virol. 66 6893–6902. Eckner R, Ludlow J W, Lill N L, Oldread E, Arany Z, Modjta- hedi N, DeCaprio J A, Livingston D M and Morgan J A 1996. Association of p300 and CBP with simian virus 40 ...

  18. Correlation of cervical cytology with high-risk HPV molecular diagnosis, genotypes, and histopathology--A four year study from the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kavita; Thomas, Antony

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world and in the Middle East. Its prevention and screening strategies assume great importance especially in view of the ability to identify the illness at an early stage and disrupt its progression toward neoplasia. Cervical cancer screening program of our center in UAE as well as this study is oriented in this direction. Cervical cytology data encompassing 4 years (2011-2014) was compiled and analyzed for 14,950 cases to assess the abnormal smear reporting pattern, correlation with biopsy histopathology, HPV high-risk screening data, and HPV genotype prevalence among patients with abnormal smear test, as well as in relation to the respective nationalities of patients. Abnormal smear rates as well as HPV high-risk positivity correlated well with established data. Cytology-histology correlation was good. HPV high-risk type 16 was the commonest, type 18 which is the second common type worldwide was less frequently detected, several other high risk subtypes such as 51, 31 as well as rare types such as 66, 56, and 59 were detected in a significant number of patients. Assessment of cervical cytology reporting pattern, correlation of cervical cytology with HPV molecular diagnosis, and biopsy histopathology is a useful way to audit our work and a good quality control practice. Higher prevalence of HPV HR types such as type 51, 31 as well as 66, 56, and 59 found in the present as well as many similar other studies apart from the commonest subtype 16 may imply necessity for development of more targeted and multivalent anti-HPV vaccines for protection of women in our region. HPV genotypes correlation with the nationalities of patients is useful from an epidemiological standpoint to plan preventive strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparing the performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping for the detection of cervical (pre) cancer in high-risk HPV-positive women of a gynecologic outpatient population (COMETH-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttmer, R.; de Strooper, L.M.; Berkhof, J.; Snijders, P.J.; Dijkstra, M.G.; Uijterwaal, M.; Steenbergen, R.D.; van Kemenade, F.J.; Rozendaal, L.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Verheijen, RHM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071420487; ter Harmsel, W.A.; van Baal, W.M.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; Quint, W.G.; Heideman, D.A.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, DNA methylation analysis of FAM19A4 in cervical scrapes has been shown to adequately detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer (≥CIN3) in high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women. Here, we compared the clinical performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis to

  20. Comparing the performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping for the detection of cervical (pre) cancer in high-risk HPV-positive women of a gynecologic outpatient population (COMETH-study)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luttmer, R; de Strooper, L.M; Berkhof, J; Snijders, P.J; Dijkstra, M.G; Uijterwaal, M; Steenbergen, R.D; van Kemenade, F.J; Rozendaal, L; Helmerhorst, T.J.M; Verheijen, RHM; ter Harmsel, W.A; van Baal, W.M; Graziosi, G.C.M; Quint, W.G; Heideman, D.A; Meijer, Chris J. L. M

    2016-01-01

    Recently, DNA methylation analysis of FAM19A4 in cervical scrapes has been shown to adequately detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer (≥CIN3) in high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women...

  1. Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus Communicative Education Strategies: A Pilot Screening Study for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Clavijo, Lizeth K.; Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Rincón-Martínez, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women; HR-HPV has been classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and as a necessary, but not sufficient, causal agent for cervical cancer. Women who test positive for HPV often experience serious psychosocial consequences such as fear,…

  2. Physical status of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in flow-sorted cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine F. W.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Szuhai, Karoly; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Vrede, M. Albert; Peters, Alexander A. W.; Schtturing, Ed; Fleuren, Gert Jan

    Multiple human papilloma virus (HPV) infections have been detected in cervical cancer. To investigate the significance of multiple HPV infections, we studied their prevalence in cancer samples from a low-risk (Dutch) and a high-risk (Surinamese) population and the correlation of HPV infection with

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Annika; Nancarrow, Derek J; Brown, Ian S; Green, Adele C; Drew, Paul A; Watson, David I; Hayward, Nicholas K; Whiteman, David C

    2010-08-01

    Although most cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in western populations have been attributed to high levels of exposure to tobacco and alcohol, infectious agents have been postulated as possible causes, particularly human papillomavirus (HPV). To explore this issue, we analyzed HPV DNA prevalence and HPV types together with lifestyle factors, in relation to tumor stage and survival in a low-incidence population. Archived tumor samples from a nationwide cohort of 222 ESCC patients were tested for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR; positive samples were sequenced to determine HPV type, and p16(INK4a) status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Of 222 ESCC patients, 8 tested HPV positive (prevalence, 3.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.1%), of which 6 were HPV-16 positive and 2 were HPV-35 positive. Four of the eight HPV-positive tumors overexpressed p16(INK4a). None of 55 normal esophageal tissue samples from healthy participants had any detectable HPV. Although the numbers were low, it seemed that patients with HPV-positive ESCC tumors were younger than those with HPV-negative tumors (mean age, 60.8 versus 65.3 years, P = 0.18) and had higher body mass index (BMI) throughout life (mean current BMI of 25.1 for HPV positive, 22.2 for HPV negative, P = 0.08; mean BMI at 20 years of 25.8 for HPV positive, 22.1 for HPV negative, P = 0.003). We found no difference between patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors with respect to other lifestyle factors. These findings suggest a very low prevalence of HPV DNA in human ESCC. HPV is very unlikely to be a common cause of ESCC in Australia. (c)2010 AACR.

  4. Associations Between Vaginal Infections and Potential High-risk and High-risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Female Sex Workers in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sonia; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ogbe, Emilomo; Harmon, Stacy; Mabeya, Hillary

    2016-12-01

    Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the α-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs. A cross-sectional study design of 616 FSW from Western Kenya aged between 18 and 61 years during 2009-2015 using a peer recruitment sampling strategy. Inclusion criteria for the study entailed female sex and >18 years of age and having engaged in transactional sex in exchange for money, goods, services, or drugs in the last 3 months. Women were excluded if they were pregnant, potential HR and HR HPV genotype. The 2 most prevalent potential HR and HR genotypes were HPV 16 (16.10%) and HPV 59 (12.20%). BV was the most common infection (48.3%), followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (31.4%) and Candida spp (19.9%). A multivariate regression revealed significant associations with both α-group 9 and 6; BV and HPV 58 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.2; P = 0.05), Trichomonas vaginalis and HPV 31 and HPV 35 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8; P = 0.04 and aOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3, P = 0.05 respectively); and between Candida spp and HPV 53 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0; P = 0.03) and 16 (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3; P = 0.03). Snowball sampling may have inadvertently excluded FSW less likely to benefit from a social network. Significant associations between BV and HPV 58 and between Candida spp and HPV 16 and 53 suggest the need for sexually transmitted disease management within a cervical cancer prevention program. The probable synergistic

  5. Human papillomavirus viral load in predicting high-grade CIN in women with cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,André Luis Ferreira; Derchain,Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Martins,Marcos Roberto; Sarian,Luís Otávio Zanatta; Martinez,Edson Zangiacome; Syrjänen,Kari Juhani

    2003-01-01

    CONTEXT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may have an important role in predicting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women with cervical smears showing atypical squamous cells or LSIL. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the assessment of the viral load of high-risk HPV DNA is useful in predicting the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 and 3) in women referred because of cervical smears showing only atypical squamous cells or LSIL. TYPE OF S...

  6. Bax and Bak expression in cervical smears of women with low-and high-risk HPV types: A study of 120 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Klapsinou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of squamous cells in uterine cervix cancer, mostly by binding and inactivating the p53 and pRb tumor suppressor genes. Lately, evidence has emerged suggesting that HPV oncoproteins may interact with proteins involved in cellular apoptosis as well. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak in women with low-risk and high-risk HPV types as opposed to HPV-negative women, and in women with normal pap smear compared to women with abnormal Papanicolau test (Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 liquid-based cervical samples were subtyped for HPV types with microarray hybridization and then stained and evaluated immunocytochemically for Bax and Bak expression. Statistical analysis was performed on the Bax and Bak scores (percentage of positive cells × staining intensity, the overall percentage of positive cells, and the most prevalent staining intensity group found in each sample. Results: A weak association between negative Bax staining and cytologically normal Pap smears was discovered, whereas cytologically abnormal samples tended to stain weakly or moderately positive. No other statistically significant difference was found in the other analyzed parameters. Conclusion: Cytologically normal pap smears seem to have a slight tendency to stain negative for Bax as opposed to cytologically abnormal pap smears. Although the association is weak, it is an indication that there might be a connection between the expression of Bax and the development of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia, which warrants further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  7. Incidence of Anal Dysplasia in a Population of High-Risk Women: Observations at a Cervical Pathology Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pérez, María de Los Reyes; Bravo Violeta, Victoria; Legorburu Alonso, Beatriz; Betancor Pérez, Diana; Bebia Conesa, Vicente; Jiménez López, Jesús S

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of anal dysplasia in women at high risk of developing those lesions and to assess the relationships between positive anal cytology and different risk factors. We performed an observational cross-sectional study involving a patient survey and chart review. The study was conducted at the cervical pathology unit at the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain, from 2011 to 2015. Patients were 215 women aged 18 to 65 years old with risk factors for anal dysplasia, for whom anal evaluation was indicated. Anal cytology was performed in all patients. High-resolution anoscopy and anal biopsy were used to investigate abnormalities. All patients completed a survey regarding sexual practices. The patients' demographic and clinical data were collected by using a retrospective chart review. The main outcome measure was the incidence of anal dysplasia in this population. Of the 215 patients, 45 (21.0%) presented with cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 13.5%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 5.6%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 1.9%). Anoscopy was performed in 31 patients (14.4%) and 2 patients (0.9%) had abnormal findings. One case (0.5%) of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was identified. Only immunosuppression (p = .01) and smoking status (p = .02) were significantly correlated with positive anal cytology results. Limitations of the study include the small single-center sample, a lack of controls, the retrospective design, potential survey response biases, and the nonstandardized survey. The incidence of abnormal cytological findings was 21.0%, whereas low-grade anal intraepithelial was confirmed in 0.5% of the patients. There is a higher incidence of cytological abnormalities among immunosuppressed women and smokers.

  8. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  9. Proteomic identification of potential biomarkers for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Song; Tulake, Wuniqiemu; Ru, Mingfang; Li, Xiaohong; Yuemaier, Reziwanguli; Lidifu, Dilare; Rouzibilali, Aierken; Hasimu, Axiangu; Yang, Yun; Rouziahong, Reziya; Upur, Halmurat; Abudula, Abulizi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the main etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, human papillomavirus screening is not sufficient for early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers common to cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection by proteomics for human papillomavirus-based early diagnosis and prognosis. To this end, we collected 76 cases of fresh cervical tissues and 116 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue slices, diagnosed as cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III, or normal cervix from ethnic Uighur and Han women. Human papillomavirus infection by eight oncogenic human papillomavirus types was detected in tissue DNA samples using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein profile of cervical specimens from human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus-negative normal controls was analyzed by proteomics and bioinformatics. The expression of candidate proteins was further determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We identified 67 proteins that were differentially expressed in human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the upregulation of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, MCM5, TAGLN2, hnRNPA1, ENO1, TYPH, CYC, and MCM4 in squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix ( p potentially associated with human papillomavirus infection. Further validation studies of the profile will contribute to establishing auxiliary diagnostic markers for human papillomavirus-based cancer prognosis.

  10. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,

  11. Acquisition of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based cohort of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Iftner, Thomas; Munk, Christian

    2009-01-01

    -up. In initially HPV-negative women age, number of sexual partners, and oral contraceptive use were the main risk factors for acquisition, particularly of multiple HR HPV types. CONCLUSIONS: HPV infections were commonly acquired. We confirmed the sexually transmitted nature of the infection. Our findings show......BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer. To better understand the natural history of HPV, we assessed the incidence of type-specific HPV infection and examined risk factors for acquisition of high-risk (HR) HPV infection in Danish women. METHODS: A population......-based prospective cohort study of women aged 20 to 29 years was conducted. Participants were interviewed and underwent 2 gynaecological examinations 2 years apart. Women for whom Hybrid Capture 2 results were available at both visits were included in the analysis (n = 7454). RESULTS: A HR HPV infection was acquired...

  12. Interest of human papillomavirus DNA quantification and genotyping in paired cervical and urine samples to detect cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducancelle, A; Legrand, M C; Pivert, A; Veillon, P; Le Guillou-Guillemette, H; De Brux, M A; Beby-Defaux, A; Agius, G; Hantz, S; Alain, S; Catala, L; Descamps, P; Postec, E; Caly, H; Charles-Pétillon, F; Labrousse, F; Lunel, F; Payan, C

    2014-08-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Conventional human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires cervical sampling. However, vaginal and urine self-sampling methods are more acceptable for patients and result in increased participation when they are available in screening programs. In this context, we have developed a non-invasive screening method via the detection of HPV DNA in urine samples. To compare HPV viral loads and genotypes in paired cervical and urine samples, and to assess correlation between virological and cytological results in women seeking gynecological consultation. Paired urine and cervical specimens were collected and analyzed from 230 of 245 women participating in the previously described prospective PapU study. HPV DNA detection and quantification were performed using a real-time PCR method with short fragment PCR primers. Genotyping was carried out using the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping assay. The prevalence of HPV in the 230 paired urine and cervical smear samples was 42 and 49 %, respectively. Overall agreement for HPV positivity and negativity between the paired samples was 90 % (κ = 0.80). High HPV viral load in both cervical and urine samples was associated with cytological abnormalities. HPV-positive women were mostly infected with HR-HPV types. The agreement between high- and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) detection in both samples was 97 % (κ = 0.95 for HR-HPV and κ = 0.97 for LR-HPV). High concordance rates for HPV-DNA quantification and high/low-risk HPV genotyping in paired urine/cervical samples suggest that urinary HPV DNA testing could be useful for cervical lesion screening.

  13. Correlation between Ki-67 and telomerase expression with in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Peсa Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship of Ki-67 and telomerase expression with the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and the physical state of the DNA of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV types. A comparative study was done on 80 biopsies of human (female cervical tissue, distributed in the following manner: 20 CIN-negative biopsies and 60 CIN-positive biopsies of varying grades. The detection of the proteins Ki-67 and telomerase was performed through immunohistochemistry; the detection of HR-HPV, by in situ hybridization. The expression of Ki-67 and telomerase increased with the progression of the CIN lesion (p <0.001. The HR-HPV genome was detected in 75% of the cases with CIN, as well as in 20% of the tissues without histological lesions (p=0.001. A significant association was found between the increase in telomerase and Ki-67 expression and the integration of the DNA of HR-HPV. The overexpression of Ki-67, telomerase and the presence the integration of the DNA of HR-HPV are evidenced by more aggressive lesions that may progress to invasive carcinoma.

  14. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  15. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Munoz

    Full Text Available Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204 were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R. HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58 and two low-risk (LR-HPV (HPV-6/11 types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine followed by HPV-31(47.2% in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7% in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  16. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  17. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. METHODS During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. RESULTS Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. CONCLUSION The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  18. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. Methods During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. Results Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. Conclusion The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  19. Clinical validation of high risk HPV DNA testing versus ThinPrep cytology for primary cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Morsi Aboul-Fotouh

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: ThinPrep smears and hr-HPV DNA detection by HC-II performed very well with regard to identifying high grade lesions. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and can be used for primary screening in conjunction with cervical cytology for women aged 30 years and older.

  20. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.

  1. High-risk human papillomavirus testing in women with ASC-US cytology: results from the ATHENA HPV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Apple, Raymond; Gutekunst, Karen; Wright, Teresa L

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the clinical performance of the cobas 4800 HPV Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping in women 21 years or older with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). Women (N = 47,208) were recruited in the United States during routine screening, and liquid-based cytology and HPV testing were performed. The ASC-US prevalence was 4.1% (1,923/47,208), and 1,578 women underwent colposcopy with valid results. The cobas 4800 HPV Test demonstrated performance comparable to the Hybrid Capture 2 test (QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, MD) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse and grade 3 or worse. HPV-16/HPV-18+ women had a greater absolute risk of CIN 2 or worse compared with pooled HR-HPV+ and HR-HPV- women (24.4%, 14.0%, and 0.8%, respectively). The cobas 4800 HPV Test is clinically validated for ASC-US triage. HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping can identify women at highest risk for high-grade cervical disease, and this additional risk stratification may be used in formulating patient management decisions.

  2. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus ( genital herpes ) Human papilloma virus ( genital warts ) Trichomoniasis Other things that can cause cervicitis include: A ... the discharge under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea ...

  3. Prevalence of and Associated Risk Factors for High Risk Human Papillomavirus among Sexually Active Women, Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G Ginindza

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV infection and the dual burden of HIV remains a huge challenge in some low-income countries (LICs such as Swaziland with limited or no data. We estimated the prevalence and investigated determinants of hr-HPV, including HIV infection among sexually active women in Swaziland.A total of 655 women aged between 15 and 49 years from five health facilities were randomly enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Cervical cells were tested for hr-HPV types using GeneXpert HPV Assays.The overall weighted hr-HPV prevalence was 46.2% (95%CI: 42.8-49.5. Of hr-HPV infected women, 12.4% (95%CI: 8.6-17.5 were HPV16-positive, 13.8% (95%CI:12.0-15.8 were positive for HPV18/45, 26.7% (95%CI: 24.2-29.3 for HPV31/33/35/52/58, 7.6% (95%CI: 7.6-11.9 for HPV51/59 and 11.0%, (95%CI: 7.9-15.3 for HPV39/56/66/68. Prevalence of hr-HPV decreased with increasing age. Overall HIV prevalence remained high (42.7%; 95%CI: 35.7-46.2. HIV infection was associated with hr-HPV infection (Adjusted OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 3.043-7.8, p<0.001. Overall hr-HPV/HIV co-infection was 24.4% (95%CI: 20.3-29.1 which was significantly higher among younger age groups (p<0.001. Prevalence of multiple group hr-HPV infection was significantly higher in HIV-positive versus -negative women (27.7% and 12.7% respectively, p<0.001. The presence, absence or unknown of history of STI with HIV did not appear to modify the relationship with hr-HPV (OR = 4.2, 95%CI: 2.6-7.1, OR = 4.6, 95%CI: 2.8-7.7, p<0.001, p<0.001 and OR = 4.1, 95%CI: 1.3-13.4, p<0.021 respectively.The prevalence of hr-HPV infection was high and significantly associated with HIV among sexually active women. Furthermore, the study has provided essential information about the HIV link with hr-HPV infections which may explain the high prevalence among HIV infected women. This can contribute to policy development and planning of prevention strategies incorporating HPV infection prevention especially among

  4. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Roche Cobas HPV, and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays to Direct Sequencing and Genotyping of HPV DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the...

  5. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-05

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (pspine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential In Vitro Immortalization Capacity of Eleven, Probable High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutze, Denise M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.

    Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs)

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus among women in Laos: feasibility of using filter paper card and prevalence of high-risk types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsavan, Keokedthong; Gustavsson, Inger; Marions, Lena; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Wahlström, Rolf; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-recognized cause of cervical cancer, but little is known about the situation in Laos. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV among Lao women and to evaluate the use of a filter paper card (FTA Elute Micro Card) for collection of cervical cells in the humid tropical climate. This is a cross-sectional study including 1922 women from 3 provinces in Laos. During a gynecological examination, cervical cells were collected and applied to the FTA card followed by HPV typing using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Overall, 213 of the 1922 women were positive for HR-HPV (11%). The most common type was the group HPV33/52/58 (3%), followed by the single type 16 (2%) and the group 18/45 (1%), respectively. Only 11 cards (0.6%) did not contain a sufficient amount of genomic DNA for polymerase chain reaction-based analysis. The prevalence of HR-HPV infections in Laos is similar to other Asian countries, and 40% of the women with an HR-HPV infection will be target of the present HPV vaccines. The FTA card is suitable for collection of cervical cells for HR-HPV typing in tropical conditions. This information is important for planning and establishing primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer in Laos.

  8. Adjuvant simultaneous radiochemotherapy following radical hysterectomy for patients with cervical cancers in high-risk situation. Results of a pilot study; Adjuvante simultane Radiochemotherapie nach operiertem Uteruszervixkarzinom in der High-Risk-Situation. Ergebnisse einer Pilotuntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensgen, G.; Kuhnt, T.; Pigorsch, S.; Dunst, J. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Strauss, H. [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie der Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle/Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Background: The most important factors for prognosis of cervical cancers are age and histological criteria such as the tumor size, the involvement of lymph nodes, lympho-vascular space involvement as well as microvessel involvement and poor tumor differentiation (grading 3). Here we present the results of concomitant chemo-radiation at high-risk situation of patients with cervical cancer after surgery. Patients and Methods: The study comprised 34 patients with median age of 40 years (26-63 years) after Wertheim surgical technique for cervical cancer at the FIGO Stages IB (n = 19) and IIB (n = 15). All patients were treated between November 1995 and June 1999 by a schedule of concomitant chemoradiation. The indication for this treatment was given by the positive histological proof of lymph node metastasis, microvessel or lympho-vascular space involvement as well as a G3 grading. The chemo-therapy was given in week 1 and 5 (day 1-5 and day 29-33). The dosage of cisplatin was 20 mg/m{sup 2}/d on every day and 5-FU was given as a 120-h infusion with 600 mg/m{sup 2}/d. The external beam radiotherapy was applied to the pelvis with 1.8 Gy per fraction up to 50.4-54 Gy. In two patients the paraaortal region was irradiated too because of the involvement of these lymph nodes. Results: The median observation time was 48 months (3-68 months). 30 patients are alive (88%) in complete response. Four patients died. The mean survival was 61 {+-} 3 months. We have seen only slight acute toxicities of grade 1 and 2. Three patients suffered from a grade 3 diarrhea and three patients developed a grade 3 leukopenia. In seven patients we found a secondary lymphedema as a late toxicity. Conclusion: The concomitant chemoradiation containing cisplatin in high-risk situation for cervical cancer after surgery improves the outcome and survival in these patients. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Entscheidend fuer die Prognose nach operiertem Uteruszervixkarzinom sind neben dem Alter

  9. Comprehensive Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Its Relevance to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Howitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC continues to be a significant cause of cancer morbidity and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is not only the most common female cancer but also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Malawi, in particular, has the highest burden of cervical cancer. With the increasing use of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination, documenting the prevalent HPV types in those high-risk populations is necessary to both manage expectations of HPV vaccination and guide future vaccine development. Materials and Methods: In this study, we performed HPV typing on 474 cervical SCC samples and analyzed the potential impact of HPV vaccination in this population. Results: Ninety-seven percent of tumors were positive for at least one HPV type, and 54% harbored more than one HPV type. HPV 16 was the most common type (82%, followed by HPV 18 (34%, HPV 35 (24%, and HPV 31 (12%. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 would ideally prevent 53% of cervical SCC, and the nonavalent HPV vaccine (covering HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 would prevent 71% of cervical SCC in Malawi (assuming 100% vaccine efficacy. The main reason for a lack of coverage was high prevalence of HPV 35, which was also present as a single infection in a small subset of patients. Conclusion: Although any HPV vaccination in this population would likely prevent a significant proportion of cervical cancer, the nonavalent vaccine would provide better coverage. Furthermore, investigation of the role of HPV 35 in this population, including possible cross-protection with other HPV types, should be pursued.

  10. Comprehensive Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Its Relevance to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malawian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Herfs, Michael; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Delvenne, Philippe; Crum, Christopher P; Milner, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) continues to be a significant cause of cancer morbidity and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is not only the most common female cancer but also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Malawi, in particular, has the highest burden of cervical cancer. With the increasing use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, documenting the prevalent HPV types in those high-risk populations is necessary to both manage expectations of HPV vaccination and guide future vaccine development. In this study, we performed HPV typing on 474 cervical SCC samples and analyzed the potential impact of HPV vaccination in this population. Ninety-seven percent of tumors were positive for at least one HPV type, and 54% harbored more than one HPV type. HPV 16 was the most common type (82%), followed by HPV 18 (34%), HPV 35 (24%), and HPV 31 (12%). A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 would ideally prevent 53% of cervical SCC, and the nonavalent HPV vaccine (covering HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) would prevent 71% of cervical SCC in Malawi (assuming 100% vaccine efficacy). The main reason for a lack of coverage was high prevalence of HPV 35, which was also present as a single infection in a small subset of patients. Although any HPV vaccination in this population would likely prevent a significant proportion of cervical cancer, the nonavalent vaccine would provide better coverage. Furthermore, investigation of the role of HPV 35 in this population, including possible cross-protection with other HPV types, should be pursued.

  11. Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in High-Risk Cervical Cancer Patients After Radical Hysterectomy: A Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek Sang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Beom, E-mail: tslee70@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tak [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Joo [Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Man [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Mo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Tai [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with high-risk cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, with at least 1 high-risk characteristic, were administered paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, carboplatin area under the curve = 5 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles concomitant with radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment. Results: This prospective study enrolled 71 consecutive patients. Sixty-six patients (93%) completed the planned treatment. The majority of grade 3/4 neutropenia or nonhematologic toxicities were usually self-limited. Diarrhea grades 3/4 were observed in 4 patients (5.6%). One patient developed anaphylactic shock after infusion of paclitaxel. With a median follow-up of 57 months, recurrences occurred in 16 patients. Multivariable analysis indicated that common iliac lymph node involvement is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence (odds ratio 13.48; 95% confidence interval 2.93-62.03). In the intent-to-treat population (n=71), the estimated 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 77.3% and 80.3% respectively. In the per-protocol population (n=62), disease-free survival was 78.9% and overall survival was 83.9%. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel/carboplatin is well tolerated and seems to be effective for patients who undergo radical hysterectomy. Therefore, a prospective, randomized controlled study should be designed to evaluate efficacy of this approach for patients with high-risk cervical cancer.

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus subtypes 16 and 18 among Yemeni Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Bensumaidea, Saleh Hussein; Alshammari, Fawaz D; Alenazi, Fahaad Saleh H; ALmutlaq, Bassam Ahmed; Alturkstani, Majid Zannon; Aladani, Ihdaa Ali

    2017-06-25

    Background: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA tumor virus that causes epithelial proliferation. There are more than 100 HPV subtypes, of which 13 subtypes are regarded as high risk subtypes that can cause cancers of epithelial mucosal surfaces. High risk human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV) subtypes 16 and 18 plays a major role in the etiology of cervical cancer worldwide. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen for the existence of HPV16 and HPV18 among Yemeni women with cervical lesions. Methodology: Formalin fixed paraffin wax processed tissue blocks were retrieved for 200 patients (150 were previously diagnosed with cervical cancer and the remaining 50 were diagnosed with different benign conditions). Results: Of the 200 cervical cancer tissue specimens, HR-HPV 16 was identified in 74/200 (37%) samples and couldn’t be recognized in 126/200(63%) tissue samples. HR-HPV 18 was identified in 32/200 (16%) specimens and couldn’t be recognized in 168/200(84%) tissue specimens. Conclusion: HR-HPV subtypes were prevalent among Yemeni women with cervical cancer, with significant increase of HR-HPV subtype 16 over the HR-HPV subtype 18. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Prognostic Implication of Human Papillomavirus Types and Species in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Primary Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yat Ming Lau; Tak Hong Cheung; Winnie Yeo; Frankie Mo; Mei Yung Yu; Kun Min Lee; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Yeung, Apple C. M.; Priscilla T. Y. Law; Chan, Paul K. S.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4) years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent t...

  14. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections

  15. Can human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping classify non-16/18 high-risk HPV infection by risk stratification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infection with high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the major cause of invasive cervical cancers. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are known to be responsible for two-thirds of all invasive cervical carcinomas, followed by HPV-45, -31, and -33. Current guidelines only differentiate HPV-16/18 (+) by recommending direct colposcopy for treatment. We tried to evaluate whether there are differences in risk among 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes in this study. Methods The pathology archive database records of 1,102 consecutive gynecologic patients, who had results for cervical cytology and histology and for HPV testing, as determined by HPV 9G DNA chip, were reviewed. Results Among the 1,102 patients, 346 were non-16/18 HR-HPV (+) and 231 were HPV-16/18 (+). We calculated the odds ratios for ≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN 2) of 14 groups of each HR-HPV genotype compared with a group of HR-HPV (–) patients. Based on the odds ratio of each genotype, we divided patients with non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes (+) into two groups: HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+). The age-adjusted odds ratios for ≥CIN 2 of the HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 (+) and HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68 (+) groups compared with a HR-HPV (–) group were 11.9 (95% CI, 7.6 to 18.8; pHPV-16/18 (+) group was 18.1 (95% CI, 11.6 to 28.3; p=0.003). Conclusion The 12 non-16/18 HR-HPV genotypes can be further categorized (HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 vs. HPV-39/51/56/59/66/68) by risk stratification. The HPV-31/33/35/45/52/58 genotypes might need more aggressive action. Large scale clinical trials or cohort studies are necessary to confirm our suggestion. PMID:27550402

  16. Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in High-Risk Cervical Cancer: Re-evaluating the Findings of Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 109 in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hegarty, Sarah E. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grover, Surbhi, E-mail: Surbhi.grover@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To review the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to evaluate postoperative high-risk cervical cancer patients for factors associated with a benefit from chemoradiation therapy (CRT) over external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried for women with cervical cancer treated with hysterectomy and adjuvant EBRT from 2002 to 2012. Only patients with pathologic lymph node involvement (LN+), positive surgical margins, and/or parametrial invasion were included in our analysis (on the basis of Peter's criteria). Univariable and multivariable analyses (MVA) were performed, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to investigate for factors associated with of CRT utilization and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 3053 patients met inclusion criteria, and 2479 received adjuvant CRT (81%), whereas 574 (19%) received EBRT alone. Factors associated with increased CRT utilization on MVA included age <69 years, year of diagnosis ≥2008, non-adenocarcinoma histology, and LN+. Use of CRT improved OS among the entire cohort on MVA (HR 0.76, CI 0.601-0.962; P=.022). On MVA, CRT improved OS in patients with LN+ as their sole Peter's criteria (HR 0.58, CI 0.413-0.814; P=.002). Chemoradiation therapy did not improve OS in patients with only positive margins (P=.73), only parametrial invasion (P=.95), or any combination of these 2 factors without LN+ (P=.63). Conclusions: The use of adjuvant CRT after hysterectomy improves OS in patients with high-risk cervical cancer compared with EBRT alone, but this benefit seems to be restricted to patients with LN+. The benefits of adjuvant CRT over EBRT alone in patients with parametrial invasion and/or positive margins (without nodal involvement) are unknown.

  17. Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in High-Risk Cervical Cancer: Re-evaluating the Findings of Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 109 in a Large, Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Showalter, Timothy N; Hegarty, Sarah E; Grover, Surbhi

    2015-12-01

    To review the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to evaluate postoperative high-risk cervical cancer patients for factors associated with a benefit from chemoradiation therapy (CRT) over external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT). The National Cancer Database was queried for women with cervical cancer treated with hysterectomy and adjuvant EBRT from 2002 to 2012. Only patients with pathologic lymph node involvement (LN+), positive surgical margins, and/or parametrial invasion were included in our analysis (on the basis of Peter's criteria). Univariable and multivariable analyses (MVA) were performed, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to investigate for factors associated with of CRT utilization and overall survival (OS). A total of 3053 patients met inclusion criteria, and 2479 received adjuvant CRT (81%), whereas 574 (19%) received EBRT alone. Factors associated with increased CRT utilization on MVA included age cervical cancer compared with EBRT alone, but this benefit seems to be restricted to patients with LN+. The benefits of adjuvant CRT over EBRT alone in patients with parametrial invasion and/or positive margins (without nodal involvement) are unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The reliability of high-risk human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV assay in women with ASC-US cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Reid, Jennifer; Dockter, Janel; Getman, Damon

    2015-08-01

    The Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 Genotype assay (AHPV GT) for HPV16 and for HPV18 and/or HPV45 (HPV18/45) genotypes are approved for cervical cancer screening by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There are limited data on the reliability of these tests for detection of hrHPV, HPV16, and HPV18/45. To assess the reliability of AHPV and AHPV GT on paired specimens from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) cytology. In a population of women with ASC-US cytology (n=988), cervical specimens were collected at a routine screening baseline visit and at the colposcopy visit that occurred a median of 29 days later. Specimens were tested by AHPV and if positive, by AHPV GT. There was no significant difference in the percent AHPV positive between the colposcopy and baseline specimens (41.9% vs. 43.0%, respectively, p=0.3). The percent agreement, percent positive agreement, and the kappa value were 88.6%, 76.3%, and 0.766, respectively. There were no significant differences between AHPV testing of the colposcopy and baseline specimen in the sensitivity (95.2% vs. 92.9%, respectively, p=1) and specificity (60.5% vs. 59.2%, respectively, p=0.3) for CIN3+. Comparing the hierarchical AHPV and AHPV GT results on the two specimens, the percent exact agreement was 86.2%, the percent positive agreement was 68.4%, and the kappa value was 0.746. AHPV and AHPV GT demonstrated good reliability for hrHPV detection and risk stratification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Value of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 deoxyribonucleic acid testing with cytological entities in peri and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Veena; Hedau, Suresh

    2013-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by HPV. Some types of HPV, called high-risk (HR) types may cause cell changes that sometimes lead to cervical cancer. HPV screening has been proposed for symptomatic female population; however, Pap test is the main stay in low resource setting. To detect HR HPV 16 positivity in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and its association with cytological entities diagnosed on Pap smear. Pap smears and cervical scrapes were collected from 230 women consisting of 120 perimenopausal women approaching menopause and 110 postmenopausal women with a cervix after cessation of menstruation and processed as per routine procedure for detection of HR-HPV 16 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Cytologically abnormal HPV 16 negative cases were also tested for other HR-HPV types. Among the perimenopausal women 12 (10%) cases were positive for HR-HPV 16 consisting of 6 (5%) abnormal cases and 108 (90%) were HPV 16 negative consisting of 5 (4.1%) abnormal cases. However, among 110 postmenopausal women 14 (12.7%) were positive for HPV 16 DNA consisting of 6 (5.4%) abnormal cases and 96 (87.2%) were HPV 16 negative consisting of 4 (3.6%) abnormal cases. HPV 16 negative abnormal cases (9) were positive for low risk-HPV 6/11 consisting of atypical squamous cells (3) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions-HPV (6). There is not much variation in HPV 16 positive cases in peri and postmenopausal women. By combining HPV DNA testing with Pap smear more cases having potential for pre-cancer lesions may be detected; however, HPV test cannot replace the Pap smear in low resource setting.

  20. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygard, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...

  1. [The impact of natural history and genital tract distribution of human papillomavirus on technology for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z N; Chen, W

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. There is a close relationship between the amount of DNA, mRNA and protein expression in the natural history of virus and the cervical lesion. This article is aimed to elaborate the natural history and genital tract distribution of high risk HPV, and also evaluate the HPV based cervical cancer screening technology from the perspective of the natural history of HPV, which is meaningful for screening and clinical practice in devising and utilizing different detection technology.

  2. High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Cytology With Negative High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Tests Rarely Diagnoses Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Robert G; Peterson, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that women with cervical cytologic results of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and negative high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) test results would have a high risk of having endometrial cancer and would benefit from routine endometrial biopsy. Reports of women with cytologic results of HSIL and negative HR-HPV test results were found in an electronic colposcopy database; their charts were reviewed. Rates of endometrial cancer for cytologic results of HSIL and negative HR-HPV test results were compared to a historical series for cytologic results of HSIL with positive HR-HPV and cytologic results of atypical glandular cells (AGCs) and negative HR-HPV test results. Between August 10, 1998, and April 20, 2013, 56 women were evaluated in our colposcopy clinics for cytologic results of HSIL and negative HR-HPV test results; of these 56 women, 1 (1.8%) was diagnosed with endometrial cancer. No endometrial cancer was diagnosed during the follow-up (median = 63 mo) after colposcopy. The risk for endometrial cancer with cytologic results of HSIL and negative HR-HPV test results (1.8%, 1/56) did not differ from that of a historical series from 2007 to 2009 from the same colposcopy clinic in 223 women with cytologic results of HSIL and positive HR-HPV test results (0.0%, 0/223; p = .2) and was lower than the risk for endometrial cancer from the historical series from 2007 to 2009 in women with cytologic results of AGC and negative HR-HPV test results (14.4%, 4/27; p = .04). Women with cytologic results of HSIL and negative HR-HPV test results are more like those with cytologic results of HSIL and positive HR-HPV test results than those with cytologic results of AGC and negative HR-HPV test results and would unlikely to benefit from routine endometrial biopsy at the time of colposcopy.

  3. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

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    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  4. Cervical samples dried on filter paper and dried vaginal tampons can be useful to investigate the circulation of high-risk HPV in Congo.

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    Alidjinou, E K; Ebatetou-Ataboho, E; Sané, F; Moukassa, D; Dewilde, A; Hober, D

    2013-06-01

    High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) are associated with the development of cervical cancer, the most common cancer in women in developing countries. Reliable diagnosis of HR-HPV infection combined with simple procedures to collect and store biological samples, could improve primary screening programs and vaccine strategies in these areas. To evaluate HR-HPV detection in conventional and dried samples. The presence of HR-HPV in 31 women in Republic of Congo (Central Africa) has been investigated by using standard cervical samples and dried cervical samples collected on filter paper and vaginal tampons. The detection of HPV DNA was performed in the Laboratory of virology in Lille (France) by using Hybrid capture 2 and HPV 16/18/45 Probe Set Test. 22 standard samples were found positive for the detection of HR-HPV (71%). HPV 16/18/45 was displayed in 15 out of 22 samples positive for HR-HPV (68%). The correlations between HPV detection by using standard samples and samples dried on filter paper and dried tampons were 90.3% (kappa = 0.77) and 80.6% (kappa = 0.5) respectively. The sensitivity and the specificity of HPV detection reached 91% and 89%, respectively, with samples dried on filter paper and were 86% and 67%, respectively, for dried tampons compared with standard samples. Dried cervical samples and dried vaginal tampons can represent an alternative to conventional sampling to reduce barriers to large screening programs in developing countries and to facilitate storage and transport to reference centers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shichao; Gong, Bo; Cai, Xushan; Yang, Xiaoer; Gan, Xiaowei; Tong, Xinghai; Li, Haichuan; Zhu, Meijuan; Yang, Fengyun; Zhou, Hongrong; Hong, Guofan

    2012-08-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing. In parallel, split samples were subjected to a Digene HC2 HPV test which has been widely used for "cervical cancer risk" screen. Of the 1826 specimens, 1655 contained sufficient materials for analysis and 657 were truly negative. PCR/DNA sequencing showed 674 infected by a single high-risk HPV, 188 by a single low-risk HPV, and 136 by multiple HPV genotypes with up to five HPV genotypes in one specimen. In comparison, the HC2 test classified 713 specimens as infected by high-risk HPV, and 942 as negative for HPV infections. The high-risk HC2 test correctly detected 388 (57.6%) of the 674 high-risk HPV isolates in clinical specimens, mislabeled 88 (46.8%) of the 188 low-risk HPV isolates as high-risk genotypes, and classified 180 (27.4%) of the 657 "true-negative" samples as being infected by high-risk HPV. It was found to cross-react with 20 low-risk HPV genotypes. We conclude that nested PCR detection of HPV followed by short target DNA sequencing can be used for screening and genotyping to formulate a paradigm in clinical management of HPV-related disorders in a rapidly developing economy.

  6. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  7. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... [3] Human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus has been implicated as the causative agent. ... Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening among female ..... IIiyasu Z, Abubakar IS, Aliyu MH, Galadanci HS. Cervical cancer risk perception and predictors of ...

  8. Identification of the type of human papillomavirus (HPV in patients with cervical cancer

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    Marlina Marlina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most significant risk factor for the cause of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study for identification of HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 52 in cervical cancer patients. HPV is a row of high-risk HPV types that can cause cervical cancer. Total sample of 78 diisolat DNA derived from FFPE, cervical smears and cervical cancer fresh tissue obtained from Dr. Dr. M. Djamil, Padang and hospitals. Arifin Achmad, Pekanbaru. HPV DNA detection is done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using universal primers GP5 +/6 +. HPV types were identified by PCR with specific primers. Total sample types obtained with concentrations varying between 0.9 to 645 ng / ml with purity DNA in accordance with the specified purity for PCR amplification. The results of the study of 78 patients with cervical cancer samples, 42 samples (54% identified HPV DNA. HPV type 18 is more dominant and followed by HPV type 16 as compared to the other types, namely the percentage of 40.4% and 28.5%. HPV type 45 (7.1%, HPV type 52 (2.3% and HPV 31 and HPV type 33 was not detected.

  9. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV with Genomica HPV Clinical Array for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Catia; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Piselli, Pierluca; Cimaglia, Claudia; Lapa, Daniele; Del Nonno, Franca; Baiocchini, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide and HPV DNA testing is recommended in primary cervical cancer screening. Several molecular tests for detection/typing of HPV DNA with different sensitivity and specificity are commercially available. The present study compared the performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay and the Genomica HPV Clinical Array CLART2 in 78 specimens (63 cervical smears and 15 rectal/urethral swabs).The typing results of the Genomica assay were in absolute agreement with each of the four possible result categories of the Abbott assay (HPV16, HPV18, Other HR HPV, not detected) in 87.2% (68/78) of the samples, with a Cohen' kappa agreement coefficient for every HR type of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.39-0.85), higher in cervical swabs (k = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99) than in rectal/urethral swabs (k = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.00-0.82). There was an excellent agreement of the Genomica results with those of Abbott in cervical samples harbored HPV single infection (100% agreement). Nonetheless, both methods may lose sensitivity for detecting HPV types in multiple infections, giving discordant results (10/78). This underlines the importance of establishing the analytical sensitivity in HPV type detection in single and multiple HPV infections. In rectal/urethral swabs, 5 of 15 (33%) discordant cases were observed, most of which became compatible when the Genomica assay was performed starting from nucleic acid extracted with the Abbott m2000sp system. These results suggest that nucleic extraction based on the magnetic beads technique is suitable for HPV DNA detection in urethral/rectal swabs. © 2013 The Authors APMIS © 2013 APMIS.

  10. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Australasia and Oceania: risk-factors, epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Brotherton, Julia M L; Skinner, S Rachel; Pitts, Marian; Saville, Marion; Mola, Glen; Jones, Ronald W

    2008-08-19

    The region encompassing Australasia and Oceania, including Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Papua New Guinea, is a diverse one with respect to ethnicities, cultures and behaviours. It includes countries with comprehensive cervical cytology screening programmes which can be credited with significant reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and countries with no prevention programmes and significantly higher incidence and mortality. As elsewhere in the world, human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 are the commonest high-risk types, with the highest rates in women under 25 years of age. These two high-risk HPV types are found most frequently in cervical cancers and high-grade dysplasias, although there are minimal data for many countries in Oceania. In April 2007, Australia became the first country worldwide to commence a government funded universal HPV vaccine programme. The school-based programme targets 12-year old females in an ongoing schedule, with a catch-up programme up to 26 years of age, to be completed in mid-2009. Vaccine introduction has been comprehensively rolled out, with around 75% uptake of the complete vaccine schedule among school-girls in the first year of this initiative. This represents a successful model for other countries. We present data on cervical cancer, risk factors and prevention strategies, including epidemiology of HPV and HPV vaccine strategies.

  11. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  12. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dalgo Aguilar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108. Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador.

  13. Prevalence of High-Risk Genotypes of Human Papillomavirus: Women Diagnosed with Premalignant and Malignant Pap Smear Tests in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loján González, Cisne; Córdova Rodríguez, Ana; Acurio Páez, Katherine; Arévalo, Ana Paulina; Bobokova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary infectious agent for the development of cervical cancer, although the presence of the virus alone is insufficient for viral development and proliferation; this can be attributed to the increase in potential oncogenic risk, along with other risk factors. In the present investigation, the prevalence of high-risk HPV was determined from samples of premalignant or malignant cervical cytology in women from the southern region of Ecuador. The kit we used was able to detect genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59. In addition, 64.5% of the analyzed samples were positive for HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most prevalent (16 was detected in 148 samples and 18 in 108). Genotypes 58 and 51 were the third most frequent simple and multiple infections, respectively. The data are very similar to those obtained worldwide, suggesting that the strategy of sex education, and the use of vaccines as primary prevention agents, could significantly decrease the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in the southern region of Ecuador. PMID:28717342

  14. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds.

  15. Has cervical smooth muscle any physiological role in the human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1985-01-01

    Strips of human cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy and contractile activity was registered isometrically in a tissue chamber perfused by Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. The most frequently encountered pattern of contractile activity was high frequency-short duration. Prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGI2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha had an inhibitory effect on the muscular activity. Cervical muscle from pregnant women was more sensitive to PGE2 than specimens from non-pregnant women. PGF2 alpha had no apparent effect on cervical contractility in non-pregnant and early pregnant patients. In late pregnancy, however, PGF2 alpha inhibited muscle contractions. The present results point to a physiological role of the cervical muscles for the control of cervical competence during pregnancy. The inhibitory effect of PGs on the muscle activity may promote cervical dilatation and retraction.

  16. Hybrid capture II and PapilloCheck® tests for detection of anal high-risk human papillomavirus

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    Livia Bravo Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the level of concordance between hybrid capture II (HCII and PapilloCheck® for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV in anal samples. Methods Anal cell samples collected from 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ patients were analyzed. Results Considering only the 13 high-risk HPV types that are detectable by both tests, HCII was positive for 52.3% of the samples, and PapilloCheck® was positive for 52.3%. The level of concordance was 80.9% (Kappa = 0.61. Conclusions Good concordance was observed between the tests for the detection of high-risk HPV.

  17. Hybrid capture II and PapilloCheck® tests for detection of anal high-risk human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Cavalcante Neto, Florêncio Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves de

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the level of concordance between hybrid capture II (HCII) and PapilloCheck® for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in anal samples. Anal cell samples collected from 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patients were analyzed. Considering only the 13 high-risk HPV types that are detectable by both tests, HCII was positive for 52.3% of the samples, and PapilloCheck® was positive for 52.3%. The level of concordance was 80.9% (Kappa = 0.61). Good concordance was observed between the tests for the detection of high-risk HPV.

  18. Isothermal Method of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Most Common High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Fang, Jiehong; Wang, Ye; He, Haizhen; Dai, Mingyan; Lin, Wei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignant tumor and has a great impact on women's health. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions and the two are possibly two stages of disease progression. With the technological development of molecular biology and epidemiology, detection and treatment of HPV has become an important means to prevent cervical cancer. Here we present a novel, rapid, sensitive and specific isothermal method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is established to detect the two most common high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 DNA. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the RPA assay, incubating clinical specimens of HPV16 and HPV18 using plasmids standard. It operates at constant low temperature without the thermal instrumentation for incubation. The products can be detected via agarose gel electrophoresis assay, reverse dot blot assay, and quantitative real-time assay with SYBR Green I. We assess the diagnostic performance of the RPA assay for detecting of HPV16 and HPV18 in 335 clinical samples from patients suspected of cervical cancer. The results revealed no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes and the RPA assay achieve a sensitivity of 100 copies. Compared with TaqMan qPCR, the RPA technique achieves exponential amplification with no need for pretreatment of sample DNA at 37°C for 20 minutes, which reveals more satisfactory performance. The agreement between the RPA and qPCR assays was 97.6% (κ = 0.89) for HPV16 positivity and 98.5% (κ = 0.81) for HPV18 positivity, indicating very good correlation between both tests. Importantly, the RPA assay was demonstrated to be a useful and powerful method for detection of HPV virus, which therefore may serve as a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of HPV infection in both commercial and clinical applications.

  19. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  20. Effects of recombinant human nerve growth factor on cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in the life of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. However, the roles of NGF to cervical cancer remain deeply unknown. This study investigated the effect of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) on cervical cancer. It was found that the proliferation of hela ...

  1. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical ...

  2. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in South African women with normal cervical cytology and to determine whether our results are comparable to what has been found elsewhere in the wortd. Design: Cervical smears were collected from 262 women. Setting: The Cape Town ...

  3. Independent prognostic role of human papillomavirus genotype in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Dong; Jia, Meiqun; Ma, Hongxia; Zhou, Jing; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Lyu, Zhangyan; Yin, Jian; Cui, Hong; Yin, Yin; Jin, Guangfu; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Ni; Dai, Min

    2017-06-05

    Although the correlation of HPV genotype with cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer has been confirmed, the role of HPV genotype in cervical cancer prognosis is less conclusive. This study aims to systematically investigate the independent prognostic role of HPV genotype in cervical cancer. A total of 306 eligible patients provided cervical cell specimens for HPV genotyping before therapy and had a median follow-up time of 54 months after diagnosis. Survival times were measured from the date of diagnosis to the date of cervical cancer-related death (overall survival, OS) and from the date of diagnosis to the date of recurrence or metastasis (disease free survival, DFS). Log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the association between HPV genotype and survival times. A total of 12 types of high-risk HPV were detected and the leading ten types belong to two species: alpha-9 and alpha-7. HPV16 and 18 were the two most common types, with the prevalence of 60.8% and 8.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, HPV16-positive cases were associated with better OS (P = 0.037) and HPV16-related species alpha-9 predicted better OS and DFS (both P genotype poses differential prognoses for cervical cancer patients. The presence of HPV16 and its related species alpha-9 indicates an improved survival.

  4. Comparison of the digene HPV genotyping LQ test and the PANArray HPV genotyping chip for detection of high-risk or probable high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Kim, Ji-Youn; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of two different array-based techniques, a bead-based multiplex genotyping method (LQ; digene HPV Genotyping LQ Test, QIAGEN, Germany) and a DNA chip-based method using peptide nucleic acid probes (PANArray; PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip, Panagene, Korea), for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) and genotyping of high-risk (HR) or probable high-risk (PHR) HPVs in healthy patients who visited a health-promotion center. We obtained 508 unselected, consecutive cervicovaginal swab specimens. All specimens were examined by using the PANArray and LQ tests. All HPV-positive samples were then analyzed by multiplex PCR and direct sequencing. The LQ test detected 47 HPV-positive cases (9.3%) with HR or PHR genotypes and the PANArray test identified 36 cases (7.1%). When the results of LQ and PANArray were compared by using comprehensive genotyping (integrated interpretation of the results of LQ, PANArray, multiplex PCR, and direct sequencing) for the detection of HR or PHR genotypes, the kappa values were 0.44 and 0.30 for LQ and PANArray, respectively. In comparison to comprehensive genotyping, the LQ test yielded 53 (60.0%) concordant and 12 (13.5%) compatible results, and the PANArray yielded 36 (40.4%) concordant and three (3.4%) compatible results. The results of the LQ test had higher concordance and/or greater compatibility with those of comprehensive genotyping for the detection of HR or PHR genotypes than those of the PANArray test.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  6. What cervical screening is appropriate for women who have been vaccinated against high risk HPV? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Windridge, Peter; Gillman, Matthew S; Sasieni, Peter D

    2018-02-15

    Women vaccinated against HPV16/18 are approaching the age for cervical screening; however, an updated screening algorithm has not been agreed. We use a microsimulation model calibrated to real published data to determine the appropriate screening intensity for vaccinated women. Natural histories in the absence of vaccination were simulated for 300,000 women using 10,000 sets of transition probabilities. Vaccination with (i) 100% efficacy against HPV16/18, (ii) 15% cross-protection, (iii) 22% cross-protection, (iv) waning vaccine efficacy and (v) 100% efficacy against HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 was added, as were a range of screening scenarios appropriate to the UK. To benchmark cost-benefits of screening for vaccinated women, we evaluated the proportion of cancers prevented per additional screen (incremental benefit) of current cytology and likely HPV screening scenarios in unvaccinated women. Slightly more cancers are prevented through vaccination with no screening (70.3%, 95% CR: 65.1-75.5) than realistic compliance to the current UK screening programme in the absence of vaccination (64.3%, 95% CR: 61.3-66.8). In unvaccinated women, when switching to HPV primary testing, there is no loss in effectiveness when doubling the screening interval. Benchmarking supports screening scenarios with incremental benefits of ≥2.0%, and rejects scenarios with incremental benefits ≤0.9%. In HPV16/18-vaccinated women, the incremental benefit of offering a third lifetime screen was at most 3.3% (95% CR: 2.2-4.5), with an incremental benefit of 1.3% (-0.3-2.8) for a fourth screen. For HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58-vaccinated women, two lifetime screens are supported. It is important to know women's vaccination status; in these simulations, HPV16/18-vaccinated women require three lifetime screens, HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58-vaccinated women require two lifetime screens, yet unvaccinated women require seven lifetime screens. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.......High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  8. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV screening and detection in healthy patient saliva samples: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomaviruses (HPV are a large family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent epidemiologic evidence has suggested that HPV may be an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers. Evidence now suggests HPV may modulate the malignancy process in some tobacco- and alcohol-induced oropharynx tumors, but might also be the primary oncogenic factor for inducing carcinogenesis among some non-smokers. More evidence, however, is needed regarding oral HPV prevalence among healthy adults to estimate risk. The goal of this study was to perform an HPV screening of normal healthy adults to assess oral HPV prevalence. Methods Healthy adult patients at a US dental school were selected to participate in this pilot study. DNA was isolated from saliva samples and screened for high-risk HPV strains HPV16 and HPV18 and further processed using qPCR for quantification and to confirm analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results Chi-square analysis revealed the patient sample was representative of the general clinic population with respect to gender, race and age (p Conclusions The successful recruitment and screening of healthy adult patients revealed HPV16, but not HPV18, was present in a small subset. These results provide new information about oral HPV status, which may help to contextualize results from other studies that demonstrate oral cancer rates have risen in the US among both females and minorities and in some geographic areas that are not solely explained by rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The results of this study may be of significant value to further our understanding of oral health and disease risk, as well as to help design future studies exploring the role of other factors that influence oral HPV exposure, as well as the short- and long-term consequences of oral HPV infection.

  9. Human papillomavirus prevalence in women with normal cytology and with cervical cancer in Natal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, José Veríssimo; Meissner, Rosely de Vasconcellos; Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Judson Weber Veríssimo; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens obtained from women with normal cytology and with cervical cancer, in order to evaluate their correlation with health status and demographic characteristics, as well as sexual and reproductive activity in women treated at a cancer reference hospital in Natal, Northeast Brazil. A total of 158 women were divided into 2 groups according to their health status: group I comprised 110 women with normal cytology, and group II comprised 48 women with cervical cancer. Cervical smears were analyzed by cytological or histopathological examination for the detection of cytological alterations, and by PCR for HPV DNA detection using MY09/11 primers, followed by HPV genotyping by dot blot hybridization. Results showed overall HPV prevalence to be 24.5% in group I, with 19.1% of patients having single infection and 5.4% double infection. The HPV prevalence in group II was 85.4%, with 79.2% of patients having single and 6.2% double infection. We identified 10 different HPV genotypes, most with high oncogenic potential. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in the two studied groups, followed by HPV 58 and HPV 18. High-risk HPV genital infection, chronological age, ethnicity, early onset of sexual and reproductive activities, multiple sexual partners and smoking increased the risk for cervical cancer.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  11. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-11-21

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80-85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical ADC.

  12. Simultaneous mapping of human papillomavirus integration sites and molecular karyotyping in short-term cultures of cervical carcinomas by using 49-color combined binary ratio labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, AATP; Wiegant, JCAG; Szuhai, K; Tanke, HJ; Kenter, GG; Fleuren, GJ; Schuuring, E; Raap, AK

    2002-01-01

    Infection with high-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary causal factor in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. In most invasive cervical cancers, HPV is integrated in the host cell genome, and additional genetic aberrations are observed among which are chromosomal aberrations. To

  13. Markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk individuals seronegative by first generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Lauritzen, E

    1989-01-01

    A total of 228 stored serum samples from 140 high risk individuals was examined for serological markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and HIV antigen assay. All the samples were negative in first generation enzyme...... are common in high risk individuals seronegative by first generation ELISA. However, HIV infection do occur in subjects negative by first generation ELISA, which emphasises the need for more sensitive screening assays and/or the use of antigen detection as part of screening in high risk individuals...

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus is transcriptionally active in a subset of sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larque, Ana B; Hakim, Sofia; Ordi, Jaume; Nadal, Alfons; Diaz, Alba; del Pino, Marta; Marimon, Lorena; Alobid, Isam; Cardesa, Antonio; Alos, Llucia

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent of a subgroup of oropharyngeal carcinomas. In these tumors, the presence of the transcriptionally active HPV has been proved through the identification of HPV E6 or E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. The aim of the study was to assess the HPV-active transcription in a series of sinonasal carcinomas, in correlation with the HPV DNA identification and the p16 immunohistochemistry. Seventy patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the sinonasal tract were included in the survey. The main clinicopathological characteristics were recorded. All tumors were investigated for HPV through the HPV DNA detection by PCR, using the SPF10 primers and by in situ hybridization, using the high-risk GenPoint probe (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark). HPV16 E7 mRNA transcripts detection was performed by RT-PCR in 27 cases. The immunostaining for p16 was performed in all cases. Fourteen carcinomas (20%) were positive for high-risk HPV by PCR: 13 HPV16 and one HPV35. In situ hybridization showed a dotted nuclear positivity in all these cases. HPV16 E7 mRNA was detected in seven tumors harboring HPV16; in the remaining HPV-positive cases, RNA did not reach the quality for analysis. Strong, diffuse positivity for p16 was observed only in the HPV-positive cases. The 14 HPV-positive squamous cell carcinomas were non-keratinizing or scarcely keratinizing tumors. No significant differences were found in terms of gender, age, or staging at diagnosis between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. However, differences in disease-free survival and overall survival between both groups of patients were significant (P=0.004 and P=0.028, respectively). In conclusion, we have shown that HPV is the etiological agent of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas demonstrating the transcriptionally active HPV in these tumors. Immunostaining for p16 can be used as a surrogate marker to identify these tumors.

  15. Prevalence of Neovaginal High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Among Transgender Women in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Wouter B; Buncamper, Marlon E; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Elfering, Lian; Özer, Müjde; Bogaarts, Martijn; Steenbergen, Renske D M; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Mullender, Margriet G

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, transgender women are a high burden population for sexually transmitted diseases. Neovaginal high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection has been documented among transgender women, but its prevalence remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neovaginal hrHPV in a sample of transgender women in The Netherlands. Between June 2015 and December 2015, neovaginal samples were obtained from all transgender women who underwent vaginoplasty and attended our outpatient clinic for postoperative follow-up at least 1 year after surgery. High-risk HPV DNA detection and partial genotyping was performed by the HPV-risk assay. Genotyping of non-16/18-hrHPV-positive samples was subsequently performed by GP5+/6+-PCR followed by Luminex suspension array technology. Physical examination and standardized (sexual) history taking was conducted. Valid neovaginal swabs were obtained from 54 transgender women (median age, 40.7 years [range, 19.2-60.3]; median postoperative time, 2.4 years [range, 1.0-34.2]). No transgender women were employed in the commercial sex industry. Of 28 sexually active transgender women, 6 (20%) tested positive for neovaginal hrHPV including types 16, 45, 51, 59, 66, and X. There were no concomitant neovaginal lesions nor neovaginal symptoms. All sexually inactive transgender women tested negative for neovaginal hrHPV. A prevalence of neovaginal hrHPV infection of 20% is observed in Dutch transgender women, who self-reported to be sexually active. The clinical consequences neovaginal hrHPV infection in transgender women require further attention.

  16. Comparison of the Roche Cobas® 4800 HPV assay to Roche Amplicor for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S; Cornall, A M; Machalek, D A; Garland, S M; Bateson, D; Garefalakis, M; Tabrizi, S N

    2016-08-01

    Roche Amplicor HPV (AMP) had previously been used for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in epidemiological and clinical studies. As this assay is no longer available, we compared its performance using PreservCyt samples from women aged of 18-24 years attending for routine cervical cytology screening to Roche Cobas® 4800 (Cobas) to determine if subsequent studies could continue using the Cobas assay. Overall 507 samples were tested on Cobas and compared to previous AMP results, with discrepant samples tested on Roche Linear Array. Overall, agreement between the Cobas and AMP for the presence of HR HPV types was very high (κ = 0.81) (95 % CI: 0.76 - 0.87) with percentage agreement of 91.57 %. Cobas is comparable to AMP for the detection of HR-HPV types in a community recruited cohort of healthy women.

  17. High-risk human papillomavirus genotypes distribution in a cohort of HIV-positive women living in Europe: epidemiological implication for vaccination against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, Deborah; Manigart, Yannick; Gilles, Christine; Barlow, Patricia; De Marchin, Jérome; Feoli, Francesco; Delforge, Marc; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stéphane

    2016-01-28

    Worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 represents 70% of high-risk (HR) HPV found in cervical cancer. However HIV-positive women are more frequently infected by HRHPV other than HPV 16 or 18 (OHR). We aimed to analyse the HRHPV genotype distribution in a cohort of HIV-positive women and to estimate the potential protection offered by the different HPV vaccines. HRHPV genotypes by PCR and cytology were assessed in cervical samples from 508 HIV-positive women prospectively followed in Brussels. Women characteristics were as follows: African origin (84%), median age 42 years, median CD4 T 555/μl, 89% under combined antiretroviral therapy and 73% with HIVRNA less than 20 copies/ml. HRHPV prevalence was 23% (116/508): 38% had abnormal cytology, 76% carried OHR without HPV 16 or 18 and 11% had concomitant infection by OHR and HPV 16 or 18. The most frequent HRHPV were HPV52 (19.8%), HPV18 (14.6%), HPV31/35/51/58 (12.1% each), HPV56 (9.9%) and HPV16 (9.5%). Less than 30% of women had their HRHPV genotypes included in the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines against HRHPV 16 and 18; however, 79% had their HRHPV covered by the ninevalent vaccine against HRHPV 16/18/31/33/45/52/58. The HRHPV genotypes distribution found in these women living in Europe with a successfully treated HIV is similar to the one found in Central Africa with HRHPV other than HPV16 or 18 retrieved in 87%. In this population, the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccines could offer protection in only 30% of women; however this protection could be extended up to 80% with the ninevalent vaccine.

  18. Incident Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections in a Cohort of High-Risk Women Aged 25-65 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Rachel L; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Stern, Joshua E; Xi, Long Fu; Koutsky, Laura A

    2016-09-01

    The risk of incident high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection associated with recent sexual behaviors is undefined in mid-adult women (defined as women aged 25-65 years). Triannually, 420 female online daters aged 25-65 years submitted vaginal specimens for HPV testing and completed health and sexual behavior questionnaires. The cumulative incidence of and risk factors for incident HR-HPV detection were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. The 12-month cumulative incidence of HR-HPV detection was 25.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.3%-30.1%). Current hormonal contraceptive use was positively associated with incident HR-HPV detection. Lifetime number of male sex partners was also positively associated but only among women not recently sexually active with male partners. In analysis that adjusted for hormonal contraceptive use and marital status, women reporting multiple male partners or male partners who were new, casual, or had ≥1 concurrent partnership had a hazard of incident HR-HPV detection that was 2.81 times (95% CI, 1.38-5.69 times) that for women who reported no male sex partners in the past 6 months. Thus, among women with multiple male partners or male partners who were new, casual, or had ≥1 concurrent partnership, approximately 64% of incident HR-HPV infections were attributable to one of those partners. Among high-risk mid-adult women with recent new male partners, multiple male partners, or male partners who were casual or had ≥1 concurrent partnership, about two thirds of incident HR-HPV detections are likely new acquisitions, whereas about one third of cases are likely redetections of prior infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Biodynamics of the cervical dilatation in human labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Furuya, H; Fujita, M; Yokokawa, T; Kino, H; Kokuho, K; Tanaka, A

    1980-11-01

    We recorded the pressure between the fetus and birth canal (PFB) with small strain-gauge type pressure transducers in 37 cases of human labor and estimated expulsive activity for evaluation of the expulsive forces. Expulsive activity increased progressively in conjunction with cervical dilatation and markedly increased after rupture of the membranes. At less than 200 Hashimoto units of expulsive activity, the cervical canal could not be dilated and labor was prolonged in all periods of the first stage of labor. There were three types of modes of changes in the expulsive activities at three points on the cervical canal. These three types had different clinical characteristics of cervical dilatation during labor. New parameters such as the expulsive effort, efficiency index and resistance index of the uterine cervix, estimated together with the expulsive activity, were proposed in an attempt to evaluate the effect of expulsive forces on cervical dilatation.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Brinton, L A; García, M; Brenes, M M; Herrero, R; Gaitán, E; Tenorio, F; de Britton, R C; Rawls, W E

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate a possible association between infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, we performed a multicenter case-control study in Latin America of 759 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 1467 randomly selected age-matched controls. Demographic, sexual, behavioral, and other clinical data were obtained by interview, and HPV DNA was assayed in cervical-swab specimens with use of filter in situ hybridization. Cervical infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both was strongly associated with cervical cancer. HPV DNA was detected in 62 percent of the cases but only 32 percent of the controls, and the relative risk of cancer increased from 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.8) to 9.1 (6.1 to 13.6) with hybridization reactions of increasing strength. Although the number of sexual partners, age at first intercourse, number of live births, and Pap-smear history were also significant risk factors, the strong associations between infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both and cervical cancer persisted after we adjusted for these variables. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that genital infection with HPV 16 or 18 may have a role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Other well-known risk factors were also identified in the study, but they did not affect the association between HPV and cervical cancer.

  1. DNA content in human uterine cervical dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Romney, S L

    1979-01-01

    The DNA content of nuclei extracted from separate biopsies of normal cervical epithelium and from dysplastic sites in the same patient was determined biochemically. Mean percentage increase in the DNA content of dysplasias (mild: 143.3 +/- 14.9; moderate: 225.8 +/- 51.1; and severe: 359.8 +/- 45.8) was found to be statistically significant (F-Test: p less than 0.001) over the normal values in control cervical tissues.

  2. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer tissues with fluorescence polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan-E; Zhang, Ju; Wu, Jing; Chen, Zhong-Can; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the type-specific prevalence of eight common types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with cervical cancer living in Shanxi, China, with fluorescence polarization detection, crude DNA extracted from 137 samples of early-stage cervical cancer (within stage IIa) and chronic cervicitis was subjected to HPV L1 consensus GP5+/GP6+ system. Then, the HPV-positive products identified by GP5 + /GP6+ PCR were genotyped based on template-directed dye-terminator incorporation assay with fluorescence polarization detection (TDI-FP): the PCR products were respectively hybridized with designed type-specific probes within the GP5+/GP6+ amplicons for eight common HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 18, 16, 31, 33, 35, and 58), and specific fluorescence-labeled ddNTPs (TAMRA-ddTTP or R110-ddGTP) were directly incorporated to the ends of the corresponding probes under directing of the corresponding template in PCR products, which was reflected and read by high FP values for TAMRA or R110. HPV DNA was detected in 38.89% (28/72) cases of chronic cervicitis, and 87.69% (57/65) cases of cervical cancer. There was a significant difference in HPV prevalence between these two groups. The four commonly identified types in patients with cervical cancer were HPV 16 (45.6%), HPV 18 (22.8%), HPV 58 (17.5%), and HPV 31 (7.02%), and in those with chronic cervicitis were HPV 16 (35.7%), HPV 11 (32.1%), HPV 6 (21.4%), and HPV 18 (10.7%). 57.14% of HPV types detected in patients with chronic cervicitis were high-risk types. HPV 16 was the most common viral type identified in both groups. Type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA has some characteristics in patients with chronic cervicitis and cervical cancer living in Shanxi, China and the worldwide uncommon type HPV 58 is relatively common in both kinds of cases. The high prevalence of HPV 58 in Chinese women should been considered in diagnosis and vaccine designs of HPV.

  3. Utility of gene methylation analysis, cytological examination, and HPV-16/18 genotyping in triage of high-risk human papilloma virus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yuan Wu, Na-Yi; Liou, Yu-Ligh; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Cao, Lanqin; Kang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huei-Jen; Li, Yichen; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Honghao; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-22

    In 2015, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening, suggesting triage of women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) by HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology for women positive for non-16/18 hrHPV. The design of the present study was based on this interim guidance and analysis of the methylation status of specific candidate genes, which has been proposed as a tool to reduce unnecessary referral following primary HPV screening for cervical cancer. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 312 hrHPV-positive women. hrHPV genotyping was performed by nested multiplex PCR assay with type-specific primers.Residual cervical cells from liquid-based cytology were used for extraction of genomic DNA for assessment of the methylation status of PAX1, ZNF582, SOX1, and NKX6-1 and HPV genotyping. Combined with HPV-16/18 genotyping, both a dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 and testing for ZNF582 methylation demonstrated 100% association of methylation with pathology results, indicating carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 as a reflex test for identification of CIN3+ lesions were 78.85% and 73.55% (odds ratio = 10.37, 95% confidence interval = 4.76-22.58), respectively. This strategy could reduce the number of patients referred for colposcopic examination by 31.3% compared with cytology, and thus provide a feasible follow-up solution in regions where colposcopy is not readily available. This strategy could also prevent unnecessary anxiety in women with hrHPV infection.

  4. Molecular evidence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in colorectal tumours from Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudira Soto

    Full Text Available The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis. DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58. Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63 of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24 and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18. HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009. The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients.

  5. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is associated with premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GeumJoon; Min, Kyung-Jin; Hong, Hye-Ri; Kim, SuhngWook; Hong, Jin-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, HaiJoong

    2013-09-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be more prevalent in spontaneous abortions than in elective terminations of pregnancy. More recently, placental infection with HPV was shown to be associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. However, no study has evaluated the prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant Korean females and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 311 females who gave birth at Korea University Medical Center. Our sample included 45 preterm deliveries, 50 cases of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), 21 preeclampsia cases, and 8 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. We used the Hybrid Capture II system to detect high-risk (HR)-HPV infection at six weeks postpartum. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 14.1%. Women with HR-HPV infection had a higher incidence of PROM than those without HR-HPV. HR-HPV infection was associated with an increased risk of PROM (OR, 2.380; 95% CI, 1.103-5.134). The prevalence of preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or GDM was not different between the two groups. We observed a high prevalence of HR-HPV infection in pregnant women. Moreover, HR-HPV infection was associated with a risk of PROM at term. Further studies are needed to evaluate mechanisms by which HR-HPV infection induces PROM.

  6. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Is Associated with HIV Acquisition among South African Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertran Auvert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mounting evidence suggests an association between human papillomavirus (HPV and HIV acquisition. This study aimed to explore this association among South African female sex workers (FSWs. Methods. We used data from 88 HIV-negative FSWs who participated in a vaginal gel (COL-1492 trial. Cervicovaginal rinse samples, obtained before HIV-seroconversion, were genotyped into high-risk (HR- and low-risk (LR- HPV. HIV-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox survival analysis. Results. HR- and LR-HPV prevalences were 70.5% (95% CI : 60.5–79.2 and 60.2% (95% CI : 49.9–70.0, respectively. Twenty-five women HIV seroconverted. Controlling for background characteristics and other sexually transmitted infections, HIV aHR increased by a factor of 1.7 (95% CI : 1.01–2.7, Plinear trend = 0.045 for an increase of one unit of the number of HR-HPV genotypes. Conclusions. HIV seroconversion among FSWs is associated with genital HR-HPV infection. Further investigation is warranted, including testing the possible protective effect of available HPV vaccines on HIV acquisition.

  7. Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in tonsillar specimens using 2 commercially available assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Cara C; Orvidas, Laura J; Moore, Eric J; Binnicker, Matthew J; Duresko, Brian J; Espy, Mark J; Cockerill, Franklin R; Tombers, Nicole M; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2016-12-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY IS TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE OF HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HRHPV) INFECTION IN TONSILLAR SWABS AND TISSUE: Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for nonmalignant causes were enrolled. A flocked swab and fresh tissue were collected from the left and right tonsil of each patient. Specimens were tested for hrHPV DNA using the Roche cobas test and for the presence of E6/E7 messenger RNA using the Hologic Aptima hrHPV test. Of the 193 patients enrolled, 129 were in the pediatric group (ages 1-12years; median, 5years), and 64 were in the adult group (ages 13-55; median, 22years). All swab and tissue specimens were negative for hrHPV by both methods. Positive, negative, and internal controls performed as expected. We found a 0% rate of infection indicating that detectable hrHPV infection in tonsillar tissue appears to be uncommon in the children and adults in the population sampled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-risk human papillomavirus in Galicia, Spain: prevalence and evaluation of the sample representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Daporta, Matilde; García-Campello, Marta; Pérez-Ríos, Monica; Santiago-Pérez, Maria Isolina; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Eva; Guinarte, Genoveva; Troncoso, Ana; Pardavila, Raquel; Malvar, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of high-risk genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in Galicia remained unknown before the introduction of the HPV vaccine. The objective of this study was to estimate this prevalence in non-vaccinated women when vaccination against HR-HPV started. Sample representativeness was also evaluated. Female volunteers aged 16-64 years, residents in Galicia, Spain, completed a questionnaire and provided biological samples for a virological study and for cytology. The sample was weighted; prevalence rates were estimated and are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Virological results were available for 1703 women. HR-HPV prevalence was 10.1%, decreasing notably at ages above 30 years. HPV-16 was the most frequent genotype and 3.6% of women were infected by more than one genotype. No adjustment was necessary to generalize the results of the study. In Galicia in 2009 there would be 96 400 women aged 16-64 years infected with HR-HPV. It is possible to estimate HR-HPV prevalence in a population starting from a volunteer sample.

  9. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...... of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR.......9%. For 15 HPV types of primary interest (13 high-risk plus HPV6, 11), almost all pairs occurred more often than expected under independence; 33/105 (31.4%) were statistically significant (p...

  10. Hybrid capture II and PapilloCheck® tests for detection of anal high-risk human papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Bravo Maia; Larissa Cardoso Marinho; Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca; Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto; Lara Franciele Ribeiro Velasco; Patrícia Godoy Garcia Costa; Fabiana Pirani Carneiro; Paulo Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated the level of concordance between hybrid capture II (HCII) and PapilloCheck® for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in anal samples. Methods Anal cell samples collected from 42 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patients were analyzed. Results Considering only the 13 high-risk HPV types that are detectable by both tests, HCII was positive for 52.3% of the samples, and PapilloCheck® was positive for 52.3%. The level of concordance was 80...

  11. Distribution of Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Association to Cervical Lesions among Women in Fez (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souho, Tiatou; El Fatemi, Hinde; Karim, Safae; El Rhazi, Karima; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-01-01

    To determine the distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes and their association to cellular abnormalities in women from Fez and its neighborhood. Women attending the Hassan II University Hospital for cervical pap smears were recruited after an informed consent. Interviews and two cervical samples were performed for each woman. Cervical samples were used for cytological analysis and HPV DNA detection. HPV was typed using a method based on multiplex PCR with fluorescently labeled specific primers followed by capillary electrophoresis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fez. The HPV prevalence in the studied population was 43.1% and the most prevalent types were HPV 53 (23 cases); HPV 16 (20 cases); HPV 35 (18 cases); HPV 51 (10 cases) and HPV 56 (7 cases). From the 619 confirmed pap smears, 20% were abnormal. The cytological abnormalities were significantly associated to HPV infection, women age, number of pregnancies and parity (p < 0.05). More attention should be given to HPV in Morocco because it represents an important public health concern. The distribution of carcinogenic HPV types in the studied population is different from the data in other regions but epidemiological studies in other Moroccan regions are required.

  12. Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 Are Prevalent in Uterine Cervical Squamous Lesions from Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takehara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the prevalence and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV focusing HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 in Japan. Methods. Liquid-base cytology specimens were collected from Japanese women (n=11022, aged 14–98. After classifying cytodiagnosis, specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, where 1195 specimens were positive for cervical smear, except adenomatous lesions. Result. HPV genotypes were detected in 9.5% of NILM and 72.2% of ASC-US or more cervical lesions. In positive cervical smears, HPV genotypes were HPV 52 at 26.6%, HPV 16 at 25.2%, HPV 58 at 21.8%, and HPV 18 at 7.1%. Most patients infected with HPV 16 were between 20–29 years old, decreasing with age thereafter. As for HPV 52 and 58, although the detection rate was high in 30- to 39-year-olds, it also was significant in the 50s and 60s age groups. Conclusion. In Japan, as a cause of abnormal cervical cytology, HPV52 and 58 are detected frequently in addition to HPV 16. In older age groups, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates were higher than that observed for HPV 16. After widespread current HPV vaccination, we still must be aware of HPV 52 and 58 infections.

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in female cervical lesions from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. B. Cavalcanti

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred-sixty paraffin-embedded specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections by non-isotopic in situ hybridization. The data were compared with histologic diagnosis. Eighty-eight (55 biopsies contained HPV DNA sequences. In low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I, HPV infection was detected in 78.7 of the cases, the benign HPV 6 was the most prevalent type. HPV DNA was detected in 58 of CIN II and CIN III cases and in 41.8 of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Histologically normal women presented 20 of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV was found in 10 of these cases, what may indicate a higher risk of developing CINs and cancer. Twenty-five percent of the infected tissues contained mixed infections. HPV 16 was the most common type infecting the cervix and its prevalence raised significantly with the severity of the lesions, pointing its role in cancer pathogenesis. White women presented twice the cervical lesions of mulatto and African origin women, although HPV infection rates were nearly the same for the three groups (approximately 50. Our results showed that HPV typing by in situ hybridization is a useful tool for distinguishing between low and high risk cervical lesions. Further studies are required to elucidate risk factors associated with HPV infection and progression to malignancy in Brazilian population.

  14. Accuracy of self-collected human papillomavirus samples from Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, Kawano-Yashiro; Yoko, Motoki; Saito, Oba Mari; Ryoko, Asano; Yasuyo, Maruyama; Mikiko, Asai-Sato; Takeharu, Yamanaka; Fumiki, Hirahara; Etsuko, Miyagi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of self-collected vaginal samples compared with physician-collected cervical samples for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology. We also assessed the acceptability of self-collected HPV (sHPV) testing using a questionnaire. Women aged 20-69 years (n = 136) attending Yokohama City University Hospital because of abnormal cervical cytology between April 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled in this study. Cervical samples for conventional cytology and physician-collected HPV (pHPV) testing were obtained before colposcopic examination. After this examination, patients were asked to provide a self-sampled vaginal specimen (sHPV) at home, some time between the following day and the next week and to complete a self-sampling acceptability questionnaire. The overall positive rates of HPV detection with pHPV and sHPV testing were 61.0% (83/136) and 40.4% (55/136), respectively (P < 0.001). sHPV testing had a lower sensitivity compared to pHPV for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or worse (CIN2+: 59.4% vs 100%, P < 0.001; CIN3: 66.7% vs 100%, P = 0.248). There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity to detect CIN3 among pHPV testing, sHPV testing, and cytology. The self-collecting device had good acceptability. sHPV testing is a possible technique with which to improve poor cervical cancer screening uptake rates in Japan; however, the sensitivity to detect CIN2+ lesions must improve before it can be a substitute for conventional cytology or pHPV testing. Further large-scale acceptability studies involving non-responders are also needed before practical application. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma : induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    2000-01-01

    infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6

  16. Immunization strategy against cervical cancer involving an alphavirus vector expressing high levels of a stable fusion protein of human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Regts, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J

    We are developing immunization strategies against cervical carcinoma and premalignant disease, based on the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the onco-proteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV). Thus far, protein-based, as well as genetic immunization

  17. Molecular Docking Explains Atomic Interaction between Plant-originated Ligands and Oncogenic E7 Protein of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. In the last few decades, various compounds from plant origin such as Curcumin, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, Jaceosidin, Resveratrol etc. have been used as anti cancer therapeutic agents. Different studies have shown these plant-originated compounds are able to suppress HPV infection. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV play a key role in HPV related cancers. In this study, we explored these ligands from plants origin against E7 oncoprotein of high risk HPV 16, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor pRb protein. A robust homology model of HPV 16 E7 was built to foresee the interaction mechanism of E7 oncoprotein with these ligands using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking studies demonstrate the interaction of these ligands with pRb binding site of E7 protein by residues Tyr52, Asn53, Val55, Phe57, Cys59, Ser63, Thr64, Thr72, Arg77, Glu80 and Asp81 and help restoration of pRb functioning. This in silico based atomic interaction between these ligands and E7 protein may assist in validating the plant-originated ligands as effective drugs against HPV.

  18. Repression of human papillomavirus oncogenes in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells causes the orderly reactivation of dormant tumor suppressor pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Edward C.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Most cervical carcinomas express high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) E6 and E7 proteins, which neutralize cellular tumor suppressor function. To determine the consequences of removing the E6 and E7 proteins from cervical cancer cells, we infected HeLa cells, a cervical carcinoma cell line that contains HPV18 DNA, with a recombinant virus that expresses the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein. Expression of the E2 protein resulted in rapid repression of HPV E6 and E7 e...

  19. The incidence, clearance and persistence of non-cervical human papillomavirus infections: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sylvia; Bunge, Eveline; Bakker, Marina; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-06-14

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were designed to prevent cervical cancer in women and their provision remains a major public health need. However, HPV is also a major cause of non-cervical anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers and the potential benefit of vaccination likely extends beyond cervical cancer. A systematic literature search of PubMed (1995-2014) identified publications assessing the incidence, persistence, and clearance of non-cervical anogenital/oral HPV infections. Comparability with cervical HPV was assessed by identifying articles assessing the same or similar populations. Available data suggest high incidence rates of non-cervical HPV infection in men and women, with HPV-16 predominating in all sites. The incidence of high risk HPV per 100 person-years ranged from 11.4 to 72.9 for penile infections, 6.7-47.9 at other male genital sites, and 4.4-36.7 and 5.3-23.4 for anal infections in men and women, respectively. The incidence per 100 person-years of oral infection with any HPV type ranged from 5.7 to 6.7 in men and 6.8-39.6 in women. Within the limitations of the data, there was a general pattern of higher incidence and clearance of non-cervical genital HPV infections, compared to cervical infections. HIV status, circumcision, number of sex partners and partner HPV status significantly influenced high-risk HPV incidence/clearance at male anogenital sites. Few studies assessed risk factors for oral HPV. Parallels appear to exist between the epidemiology of cervical and non-cervical HPV infections in terms of incidence, HPV-type distribution, and risk factors for infection. Available data suggest that non-cervical genital HPV infections may occur more frequently, with higher clearance rates, than cervical infections. More extensive studies could provide useful information for estimating vaccine impact, the wider cost-benefit of HPV vaccination, and guiding vaccination policy. Not applicable, as systematic review of the literature.

  20. Synergistic effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Young Oh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to examine the combined effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: Among women undergoing health screening between 2002 and 2011 at the National Cancer Center, 284 and 122 women with HR-HPV infection and cytological findings of low-grade squamous intraepithelial or lower-grade lesions were followed up for 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI and synergy index (S were calculated. RESULTS: Among drinkers, the risks of 1-year (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-8.18 and 2-year persistence (OR 8.08, CI 2.36-27.6 were significantly higher for high HPV loads than for low HPV loads; this association was not seen for non-drinkers. The risks for 1-year (OR 4.14, CI 1.89-9.05 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.61, CI 2.09-20.9 were significantly higher in subjects with a high HPV load who were also drinkers than in those who were non-drinkers. A high HPV load together with a longer drinking duration or higher alcohol consumption was associated with increased risks of 1-year (OR 3.07, CI 1.40-6.75 or OR 2.05, CI 0.87-4.83 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.40, CI 1.72-23.8 or OR 4.14, CI 1.18-14.6. The synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and HR-HPV load was stronger on the risk of 2-year persistence (RERI = 3.26, S = 2.38 than on the risk of 1-year persistence (RERI = 1.21, S = 1.63. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effect of HR-HPV load and alcohol consumption was associated with the risk of HR-HPV persistence and was stronger for longer-term HR-HPV infection. Limiting alcohol consumption might be an important measure to prevent the development of cervical cancer in women with a high HR-HPV load.

  1. Genotyping of high-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV): ion torrent-next generation sequencing vs. linear array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Rebecca G; Ambulos, Nicholas P; Schumaker, Lisa M; Mathias, Trevor J; White, Ruth A; Troyer, Jennifer; Wells, David; Charurat, Manhattan E; Bentzen, Søren M; Cullen, Kevin J

    2017-06-13

    Our next generation sequencing (NGS)-based human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay showed a high degree of concordance with the Roche Linear Array (LA) with as little as 1.25 ng formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded-derived genomic DNA in head and neck and cervical cancer samples. This sensitive genotyping assay uses barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum general primers 5+/6+ (BSGP)5+/6+ applicable to population studies, but it's diagnostic performance has not been tested in cases with multiple concurrent HPV infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), sensitivity and specificity of the NGS assay to detect HPV genotype infections as compared to the LA. DNA was previously extracted from ten anal swab samples from men who have sex with men in Nigeria enrolled on the TRUST/RV368 cohort study. Two-sample tests of proportions were used to examine differences in the diagnostic performance of the NGS assay to detect high vs. low-risk HPV type-specific infections. In total there were 94 type-specific infections detected in 10 samples with a median of 9.5, range (9 to 10) per sample. Using the LA as the gold standard, 84.4% (95% CI: 75.2-91.2) of the same anal type-specific infections detected on the NGS assay had been detected by LA. The PPV and sensitivity differed significantly for high risk (PPV: 90%, 95% CI: 79.5-96.2; sensitivity: 93.1%, 95% CI: 83.3-98.1) as compared to low risk HPV (PPV: 73%, 95% CI: 54.1-87.7; sensitivity: 61.1, 95% CI: 43.5-76.9) (all p  0.05). The NGS assay detected 10 HPV genotypes that were not among the 37 genotypes found on LA (30, 32, 43, 44, 74, 86, 87, 90, 91, 114). The NGS assay accurately detects multiple HPV infections in individual clinical specimens with limited sample volume and has extended coverage compared to LA.

  2. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Program in High-Risk Human Neuroblastoma and Mouse Neuroblastoma Sphere-Forming Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively. This metabolic reprogramming is recapitulated in high-risk human neuroblastomas and is prognostic for poor clinical outcome. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the metabolic program markedly decreases the growth and tumorigenicity of both mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells and human neuroblastoma cell lines. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for targeting the metabolic program of high-risk neuroblastoma.

  3. High risk human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-infected young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Sadeghi, Rokhsanna; Meiring, Tracy; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-04-01

    Persistence of infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) increases the risk of incident and progressive precancerous lesions of the cervix. Rates of HR-HPV persistence have been shown to be increased among HIV-infected adult women, however there is a paucity of literature addressing HPV persistence in the young HIV-infected population. We compared rates of HR-HPV persistence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women. We obtained self-collected vaginal swabs at six-month intervals from 50 HIV-uninfected and 33 HIV-infected young women recruited through a community youth center (age 17-21 years) and compared rates of HR-HPV persistence. HR-HPV testing was conducted using the Roche's Linear Array® HPV Test. Eighty-three prevalent (upon baseline testing) and incident (upon subsequent testing) individual HR-HPV infections were identified among 43 members of the cohort (23 HIV-uninfected and 20 HIV-infected). At twelve months, 19% of baseline HR-HPV infections continued to be present with a statistically significant difference between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected participants (4% versus 31%; p=0.01). HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months, indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trol and possibly other sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia.7,8. According to Denny et al.,10 a ... HIV and HPV. Cervical cancer was made an AIDS-de- fining diagnosis by the Centers for Disease Control ..... follow-up visits cause and reducing the inconvenience of work, child-care and transportation issues.

  5. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  6. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  7. Absence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection in Endocervical Adenocarcinoma with Gastric Morphology and Phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kusanagi, Yasuki; Kojima, Atsumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kiyokawa, Takako; Sudo, Tamotsu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2010-01-01

    ... increase of patients with ACs remains unknown. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) is currently considered to be implicated in the carcinogenesis of most ACs as well as SCCs of the cervix, with a detection rate reaching 85% in the former. 9–12 Therefore, a combination of HPV DNA tests and cytology has been expected to contribute to improving sensitiv...

  8. Development of a therapeutic vaccination strategy against cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the effi cacy of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and premalignant cervical disease. Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of

  9. A non-variable L1-peptide displays high sensitivity and specificity for detecting women having human papillomavirus-associated cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Guevara, Tatiana; Sanchez, Ricardo; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2008-06-01

    Anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibody detection is promising technique for detecting women at risk of suffering cervical cancer, since potentially oncogenic, persistent, long-term HPV-infections elicit an antibody response which is rarely detected in transitory HPV-infection patients. We have identified a non-variable C-terminus L1-peptide, belonging to an alpha-helix surface exposed on L1-protein, specifically recognized by antibodies from HPV-associated cervical lesion patients. This peptide tested against 313 sera presented higher reactivity with antibodies from cervical cancer (OD mean 0.43+/-0.13) or cervical lesion patients (OD mean 0.41+/-0.17) than antibodies from normal cytology patients (OD mean 0.17+/-0.03). High-risk HPV-infected patients presented higher antibody reactivity (OD mean 0.36+/-0.17) than high-risk HPV-non-infected patients (OD mean 0.22+/-0.11). This peptide showed 88.36% sensitivity, 99.39% specificity and 94.21% correct classification of high risk-HPV cervical lesion or cervical cancer patients. This peptide should be taken into account for designing serological screening or diagnostic tests for use in a clinical scenario.

  10. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus among women with hepatitis C virus before liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, P A; Smolowitz, J; Carriero, D; Tarallo, J; Siegel, A; Jia, H; Emond, J C

    2013-08-01

    We sought to assess the prevalence and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among female liver transplant (LT) candidates. Traditional health screening before LT listing has included Pap smear and is typically carried out by the patient's local provider. The prevalence of high-risk HPV in this population has not been studied. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 LT candidates received a liquid-based Pap smear with high-risk HPV testing as part of their pre-transplant evaluation by a single provider. Clinical variables included age, ethnicity, insurance status, prior Pap smear, and HPV results, HPV risk factors including age of first intercourse, number of lifetime partners, last sexual activity, smoking, birth control pill use, history of sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus status, immunosuppressive medication, medical diagnoses, prescribed medications, and history of hepatitis A, B, C, or D. The 62 women had a median age of 56 years, and 39% had high-risk behavior known to be associated with HPV. Ten of 62 patients (16.1%) had high-risk HPV at baseline screening, 5 of whom had atypical cytology. All of the patients who were positive for high-risk HPV had an etiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the underlying cause of liver disease, with the majority (90%) having no history of high-risk behavior for HPV. In contrast, all patients with high-risk behavior who were HCV negative were HPV negative. Fisher's exact test demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between HPV and HCV; odds ratio = 24.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 438.7, P-value = 0.0013. None of the other potential risk factors were associated with HPV in this cohort. In this study, we provide evidence of a strong association between HCV and HPV in LT candidates, which has not been previously reported. HPV positivity was observed in non-sexually active women, suggesting a reactivation of dormant HPV. An association between

  11. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.

  12. High prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus-capsid antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men: a serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcletti Mario

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%. Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%. The highest antibody detection rate (88,8% was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of

  13. Molecular interactions of 'high risk'human papillomaviruses E6 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are characterized by the persistent expression of the two oncogenes, E6 and E7. Experimental studies show that E6 and E7 genes of the high risk HPVs deregulate key cell cycle controls. Recent work has uncovered new cellular partners for these proteins that throw light on many of the pathways and processes in ...

  14. Low etiologic fraction for high-risk human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen, Mark W; Xiao, Weihong; Schmitt, Alessandra; Jiang, Bo; Pickard, Robert; Kreinbrink, Paul; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Jordan, Richard C; Gillison, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of oropharyngeal cancer, but a role for HPV in the etiology of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC) remains uncertain. We sought to estimate the etiologic fraction for HPV among consecutive, incident OCSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at four North American hospitals. DNA and RNA purified from paraffin-embedded tumors were considered evaluable if positive for DNA and mRNA control genes by quantitative PCR. Fifteen high-risk (HR) HPV types were detected in tumors by consensus PCR followed by type-specific HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. P16 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A study of 400 cases allowed for precision to estimate an etiologic fraction of as low as 0% (97.5% confidence interval, 0-0.92%). Of 409 evaluable OCSCC, 24 (5.9%, 95%CI 3.6-8.2) were HR-HPV E6/7 expression positive; 3.7% (95%CI 1.8-5.5) for HPV16 and 2.2% (95%CI 0.8-3.6) for other HR-HPV types. HPV-positive tumors arose from throughout the oral cavity (floor of mouth [n=9], anterior tongue [6], alveolar process [4], hard palate [3], gingiva [1] and lip [1]) and were significantly associated with male gender, small tumor stage, poor tumor differentiation, and basaloid histopathology. P16 IHC had very good-to-excellent sensitivity (79.2%, 95%CI 57.9-92.9), specificity (93.0%, 95%CI 90.0-95.3), and negative-predictive value (98.6%, 95%CI 96.8-99.6), but poor positive-predictive value (41.3%, 95%CI 27.0-56.8) for HR-HPV E6/7 expression in OCSCC. The etiologic fraction for HR-HPV in OCSCC was 5.9%. p16 IHC had poor positive predictive value for detection of HPV in these cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Díaz, Mireia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bosch, F Xavier

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterine device (IUD) use has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, but little is known about its association with cervical cancer risk. We assessed whether IUD use affects cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of developing cervical cancer. We did a pooled analysis of individual data from two large studies by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Institut Català d'Oncologia research programme on HPV and cervical cancer; one study included data from ten case-control studies of cervical cancer done in eight countries, and the other included data from 16 HPV prevalence surveys of women from the general population in 14 countries. 2205 women with cervical cancer and 2214 matched control women without cervical cancer were included from the case-control studies, and 15,272 healthy women from the HPV surveys. Information on IUD use was obtained by personal interview. HPV DNA was tested by PCR-based assays. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression for the associations between IUD use, cervical HPV DNA, and cervical cancer. After adjusting for relevant covariates, including cervical HPV DNA and number of previous Papanicolaou smears, a strong inverse association was found between ever use of IUDs and cervical cancer (odds ratio 0·55, 95% CI 0·42-0·70; pCientifico e Tecnologico, Brazil; and Department of Reproductive Health & Research, WHO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and concordance of high-risk papillomavirus infection in male sexual partners of women diagnosed with high grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Diez, Elena; Pérez, Sonia; Iñarrea, Amparo; de la Orden, Angel; Castro, Máximo; Almuster, Sheila; Tortolero, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Moises; Montero, Ruben; Ojea, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in men. The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (a) to investigate HR-HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in men, sexual partners of women presenting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN), according to epidemiological characteristics, and (b) to assess type-specific concordance between partners. A total of 125 men were recruited within the first 6 months after HG-CIN diagnosis of their partner. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis shaft, and scrotum were tested with linear array HPV genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Type-specific concordance within 120 couples was studied. Epidemiological factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. SPSS 19 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in males was 50.4% (63/125). HPV16/53/52/51/66/31 were the most frequent genotypes (24/10.4/9.6/8.8/8/7.2%, respectively). Current smoking was associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection in men (38.2% (21/55) vs 60% (42/70), OR 2.4, p=0.025). Among 60 infected couples, 62% shared at least one genotype: 41.7% couples were concordantly HPV16 positive and 18.3% were HPV16 negative (kappa value: 0.21). The proportion of women with the same genotype as their male partner was higher than the proportion of men sharing the same genotype as their female partner: 58.7% (37/63) vs 30.8% (37/120), p<0.0001. Sexual partners of women with HG-CIN are a significant reservoir and vector of HPV infection, a fact that could contribute to making viral clearance more difficult to achieve in their partners after treatment of their HG-CIN lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Human papillomavirus type 58: the unique role in cervical cancers in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Paul KS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 15 types of human papillomavirus (HPV are classified as high-risk based on their epidemiological link with cervical cancer. These HPV types have deferent degrees of oncogenicity and their distribution among cervical precancers and cancers varies ethnogeographically. HPV58 is rare worldwide but being found more commonly in East Asia. Findings A high prevalence of HPV58 among squamous cell carcinoma has been reported from China (28% in Shanghai, 10% in Hong Kong and 10% in Taiwan and other countries in East Asia including Korea (16% and Japan (8%. HPV58 ranks the third in Asia overall, but contributes to only 3.3% of cervical cancers globally. The reasons for a difference in disease attribution may lie on the host as well as the virus itself. HLA-DQB1*06 was found to associate with a higher risk of developing HPV58-positive cervical neoplasia in Hong Kong women, but not neoplasia caused by other HPV types. An HPV58 variant (E7 T20I, G63S commonly detected in Hong Kong was found to confer a 6.9-fold higher risk of developing cervical cancer compared to other variants. A study involving 15 countries/cities has shown a predilection in the distribution of HPV58 variant lineages. Sublineage A1, the prototype derived from a cancer patient in Japan, was rare worldwide except in Asia. Conclusions HPV58 accounts for a larger share of disease burden in East Asia, which may be a result of differences in host genetics as well as the oncogenicity of circulating variants. These unique characteristics of HPV58 should be considered in the development of next generation vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  18. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Khater

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes among women with cervical lesion and in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. There is no published data concerning HPV and cervical abnormalities in Sudan. This study aimed to define the prevalence of HPV and its subtypes in the cervical smears of women presenting with gynecological complains at Omdurman Military Hospital, Sudan. During the period between March 2003 and April 2004, 135 cervical smears collected from these women, were screened using cytological techniques, and analysed by PCR for (beta-globin and HPV DNA using gel electrophoresis and ELISA. Results Of these 135 smears, there were 94 (69.3% negative, 22 (16.3% positive for inflammation, 12(8.9 mild dyskaryosis, 5 (3.7 moderate dyskaryosis and 2 (1.8 severe dyskaryosis. There were 60.7% ß. globin positive samples for HPV indicating DNA integrity. HPV DNA was identified in three samples (2.2% by gel electrophoresis and. was positive in four samples (2.9% as single and multiple infections by PCR-ELISA. The high risk HPV types 16 and 58 were identified in one sample as a mixed infection. The low risk HPV types 40 and 42 were also found as a mixed infection in another patient. HPV types 58 and 42 were identified in the other two patients. Conclusion HPV type distribution in Sudan appears to differ from that in other countries. The HPV genotypes identified were not associated with cancer.

  19. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in cervical cancer patients from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Cheryl M; Anand, Mona; Samarth, Mansi; Deshpande, Aditi; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan

    2008-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the causative agent of cervical cancer; and infection with the high-risk genotypes, predominantly HPV16 and 18,is the biggest risk factor. Vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 have been found to confer protection in large- scale clinical trials.HPV genotyping has traditionally been carried out to screen the population "at risk" using indirect methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers combined with various DNA hybridization techniques,and often followed by the sequencing of candidate products.Recently,a high-throughput and direct method based on DNA sequencing has been described for HPV genotyping using multiplex pyrosequencing. We present a pilot study on HPV genotyping of cervical cancer and non-malignant cervical samples using multiplex pyrosequencing. Using genomic DNA from cell lines,cervical biopsies,surgical tissues or formalin-fixed,paraffin- embedded tissue samples,we could successfully resolve 6 different HPV types out of the 7 tested,with their prevalence found to be in agreement with earlier reports. We also resolved coinfections with two different HPV types in several samples. An HPV16 genotype with a specific and recurrent sequence variation was observed in 8 cancer samples and one non-malignant sample. We find this technique eminently suited for high-throughput applications,which can be easily extended to large sample cohorts to determine a robust benchmark for HPV genotypes prevalent in India.

  20. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  1. Follow-up of high-risk HPV positive women by combined cytology and bi-marker CADM1/MAL methylation analysis on cervical scrapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, V.M.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Rozendaal, L.; Heideman, D.A.; Bosgraaf, R.P.; Hesselink, A.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Steenbergen, R.D.; Berkhof, J.; Snijders, P.J.; Meijer, C.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Triage of HPV screen-positive women is needed to identify those with underlying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 or worse (CIN2/3+). Presently, cytology on a physician-taken cervical scrape is mostly accepted as triage test, but needs follow-up testing in order not to miss

  2. Molecular detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in a northeast Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J D C; Vidal, F C B; Ferraro, C T L; Chein, M B C; Brito, L M O; Monteiro, S C M

    2014-10-31

    We examined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Brazilian women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our goal was to identify the types of HPV and their association with risk factors. This prospective cross-sectional study included 97 samples collected from women aged 14-79 years at the public health units of gynecological care in São Luís, MA, Brazil. HPV detection was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. The study patients completed a structured questionnaire to provide information regarding their socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral status. HPV prevalence was found to be 80.4%, with 17 virus types detected, including HPV 16, 18, 58, 6, and 11. Significant associations between HPV infection and age and frequency of doctor visits were identified. The study findings indicate the significance of age and low frequency of visits to the gynecologist as risk factors for genital HPV infection, suggesting that HPV infection-derived cervical cancer could be prevented through orientation programs for women, which include sex education and information regarding screening tests. We also found an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV serotypes in cervical lesions, which reveals an association between cervical lesions and high-risk HPV.

  3. The in Silico Approach to Identify a Unique Plant-Derived Inhibitor Against E6 and E7 Oncogenic Proteins of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus 16 and 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, the human papillomavirus (HPV remains the foremost cause of cancer mortality among women. There is a need to identify natural anti-cancerous compounds that can fight against life-threatening infections by HPV. Various kinds of natural plant-originated compounds have been used in the traditional system of medicine for cancer therapy. Different studies have reported the effective inhibition of HPV infection enacted by certain natural compounds. Out of all the different HPV types, HPV-16 and 18 are the ones mainly associated with causing cervical cancer; furthermore, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins of these two high-risk HPV types typically interact with tumor protein 53 (p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor proteins (pRb of human host which consequent to cancer formation. Objectives The goal of this study is to identify unique plant-originated compounds to utilize in order to combat the high-risk human papillomavirus oncoproteins using docking measures. Materials and Methods Twelve natural compounds jaceosidin, withaferin A, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, artemisinin, gingerol, ursolic acid, ferulic acid, berberin, silymarin, resveratrol, and indol-3-carbinol were docked against E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 using a protein-ligand docking software called AutoDock4.2. Results Out of these 12 natural compounds, withaferin A was found to inhibit all four oncoproteins with minimum binding energy. Conclusions These in silico findings indicate that withaferin A may be used as a common drug for cervical cancer caused by high-risk HPV types, perhaps by restoring the normal functions of tumor suppressor proteins.

  4. human papilloma virus genotypes in ghanaian women with cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... general primer-mediated PCR and two cocktails of oligonucleotide probes. J. Clin. Microbiol.1995; 33:901-. 905. 21. Fife, K.H., Cramer, H.M., Schroeder, H.M. et al. Detection of multiple human papilloma-virus types in the lower genital tract correlates with cervical dysplasia. J. Med. Virol. 2001; 64: 550-559.

  5. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening among female health-care workers in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. ... Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software version 16. A P value ...

  6. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on respondents' biodata, knowledge of STIs, human papilloma virus and cervical cancer, health and communication resources in their communities. This was supplemented by focus group discussions among religious and tribal groups within the urban and rural communities. We found a low level of awareness about HPV ...

  7. The Role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Testing in Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for the premalignant lesions has reduced the mortality from cervical cancer mainly in developed countries. Cancer of the cervix is regarded as a sexually transmitted disease because of its association with human papilloma virus. The backbone of screening has been pap smear. The variability of the sensitivity ...

  8. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  9. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  10. Recent progress in vaccination against human papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sara J; Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Leggatt, Graham R

    2015-03-01

    It has been more than 7 years since the commercial introduction of highly successful vaccines protecting against high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes and the development of cervical cancer. From an immune standpoint, the dependence of cervical cancer on viral infection has meant that HPV proteins can be targeted as strong tumour antigens leading to clearance of the infection and the subsequent protection from cancer. Commercially available vaccines consisting of the L1 capsid protein assembled as virus-like particles (VLPs) induce neutralising antibodies that deny access of the virus to cervical epithelial cells. While greater than 90% efficacy has been demonstrated at the completion of large phase III trials in young women, vaccine developers are now addressing broader issues such as efficacy in boys, longevity of the protection and inducing cross-reactive antibody for oncogenic, non-vaccine HPV strains. For women with existing HPV infection, the prophylactic vaccines provide little protection, and consequently, the need for therapeutic vaccines will continue into the future. Therapeutic vaccines targeting HPVE6 and E7 proteins are actively being pursued with new adjuvants and delivery vectors, combined with an improved knowledge of the tumour microenvironment, showing great promise. This review will focus on recent progress in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine development and implementation since the publication of end of study data from phase III clinical trials between 2010 and 2012. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical carcinoma with squamous cells has many of the characteristics of avenereal disease: high incidence (over 500.000 cases every year, an increased frequency for the women with multiple sex partners and the presence of one of the papillomavirus genotypes with a high carcinogenic risk (HPV 16, 18, 31 and 45 in 100% of the cases. Material and methods.In the period of time 2001-2012, in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology belonging to “Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, 5047 women were hospitalized under the suspicion of having cervical neoplasia.As part of the screening programme, the women belonging to the high risk group are tested for HPV by using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2.Results and discussions.The seropositive women’s risk of having a persistent HPV infection is 7 times higher than in the case of the seronegative ones, with the same age. This risk is double for the women with CD4 lymphocytes below 200/mmc.Infection with cancer-causing HPV types is limited to the epithelium of the uterine exocervix and it does not spread to other parts of the body. Conclusions. Cervical cancer is caused by the oncogenic types of HPV, types 16 and 18 being responsible for over 70% of the cases. It represents the second cause of mortality by cancer for the women between 15 and 44 years old. Anti-HPV vaccination comes as a partner of the screening programmes aiming to reduce the incidence and mortality by cervical cancer.

  13. High-risk human papillomavirus in non-melanoma skin lesions from renal allograft recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, M; Tran, T; Faulstich, F; Hartschuh, W; Vinokurova, S; Kloor, M; Krautkrämer, E; Zeier, M; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Sommerer, C

    2011-04-12

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) can be detected in a proportion of non-melanoma skin cancers. Data on prevalence are inconclusive, but are essential to estimate the relevance of HR-HPV, particularly with regard to prophylactic HPV vaccines for skin cancer prevention. High-risk human papillomavirus DNA was investigated in 140 non-melanoma skin lesions from 54 immunocompetent patients and 33 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients. Expression of p16(INK4a), a marker for HR-HPV oncogene expression in the uterine cervix, and of p53 and pRB was evaluated immunohistochemically. The highest prevalence of HR-HPV was found in squamous cell cancer (SCC) (46.2% (6 out of 13) in immunosuppressed and 23.5% (4 out of 17) in immunocompetent patients). High-risk human papillomavirus positivity was accompanied by diffuse p16(INK4a) expression in most SCC (Pcancers (P=0.02), while almost all SCC in situ were p16(INK4a) positive irrespective of HR-HPV presence (P=0.66). Diffuse p16(INK4a) expression was associated with lack of pRB expression (P=0.001). p53 was strongly expressed in 40.0% (56 out of 140) of the lesions irrespective of HR-HPV presence. High-risk human papillomavirus can be detected in lesions of keratinised squamous epithelia. The association of HR-HPV with diffuse p16(INK4a) expression might indicate HR-HPV oncogene expression in a proportion of lesions. Overexpression of p53 suggests p53 pathway alterations in HR-HPV-positive and -negative lesions.

  14. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  15. [Diagnostic value of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA for residue and recurrence after cervical conization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Shao, Huajiang

    2016-06-28

    To explore the diagnostic value of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA for residue and recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients after cervical conization.
 A total of 154 patients, who underwent cervical conization and possessed complete follow-up data of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINII, III), were subjected to thin-prep cytology test (TCT), HPV-DNA typing and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in 3-6 months and 12 months after cervical conization. Abnormal cytology (≥ASC-US) or high-risk HPV-DNA (+) or HPV E6/E7 mRNA (+) cases were found by colposcopy and cervical biopsy pathological diagnosis.
 Nine patients had residue and 22 recurred. HPV-DNA detections after cervical conization in 57 patients were positive. Among them, 30 patients had residual/recurrent lesions. HPV E6/E7 mRNA detections in 26 patients were positive. Among them, 24 patients had residual/recurrent lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of diagnosis in the detection of HPV-DNA were 96.8%, 78%, 52.6%, 99%, and 81.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of diagnosis in the detection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA were 77.4%, 98.4%, 92.3%, 94.5%, and 94.2%, respectively. The specificity and positive predictive value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test were greater than those of HPV-DNA typing test. There was a significant difference between the two groups (PDetection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA during the follow-up period could timely and effectively forecast the risk of residue and recurrence of CIN after cervical conization, and reduce excessive examination and treatment.

  16. Evaluation of cytology versus human papillomavirus-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshomo, Ugyen; Franceschi, Silvia; Tshokey, Tshokey; Tobgay, Tashi; Baussano, Iacopo; Tenet, Vanessa; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary M

    2017-09-22

    To evaluate the performance of existing versus alternative cervical cancer screening protocols in Bhutan, cervical exfoliated cells were collected for cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing among 1,048 women aged 30-69 years. Conventional smears were prepared and read locally. HR-HPV was tested by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction, followed by genotyping and human DNA methylation analysis among HR-HPV-positives, in Europe. Test positivity was 7.5% for ASCUS or worse (ASCUS+) cytology and 14.0% for HR-HPV. All women with ASCUS+ and/or HR-HPV positivity (n=192) were recalled for colposcopy, among whom a total of 29 cases of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) were identified. An additional 7 CIN2+ cases were imputed among women without colposcopy. Corrected sensitivities for CIN2+ and CIN3+ were 61% and 74% for ASCUS+, 86% and 96% for HR-HPV, and 47% and 70% for ASCUS+ triage of HR-HPV. Specificity varied from 88% for HR-HPV up to 98% for ASCUS+ triage of HR-HPV, similarly for CIN2+ and CIN3+. Among HR-HPV-positive women with biopsies, methylation analysis offered similar discrimination of CIN2/3 and cervical cancer as ASCUS+, and better than HPV16/18 genotyping alone, but sample sizes were limited. In conclusion, the performance of cytology in Bhutan is in the mid-range of that reported in other screening settings. HR-HPV testing has the potential to improve detection of CIN2+, albeit with a higher referral rate for colposcopy. Cytological triage of HR-HPV-positives (performed in the absence of knowledge of HR-HPV status) reduced referral but missed more than one third of CIN2+.

  17. Sympathetic Nerve Fibers in Human Cervical and Thoracic Vagus Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Atsuko; Green, Hunter R.; Lee, Thomas D.; Hong, LongSheng; Tan, Jian; Vinters, Harry V.; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Fishbein, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vagus nerve stimulation therapy (VNS) has been used for chronic heart failure (CHF), and is believed to improve imbalance of autonomic control by increasing parasympathetic activity. Although it is known that there is neural communication between the VN and the cervical sympathetic trunk, there are few data regarding the quantity and/or distribution of the sympathetic components within the VN. Objective To examine the sympathetic component within human VN and correlate these with the presence of cardiac and neurologic diseases. Methods We performed immunohistochemistry on 31 human cervical and thoracic VNs (total 104 VNs) from autopsies and we reviewed the patients’ records. We correlated the quantity of sympathetic nerve fibers within the VNs with cardiovascular and neurologic disease states. Results All 104 VNs contain TH positive (sympathetic) nerve fibers; the mean TH positive areas were 5.47% in right cervical, 3.97% in left cervical, 5.11% in right thoracic, and 4.20% in left thoracic VN. The distribution of TH positive nerve fibers varied from case to case: central, peripheral, or scattered throughout nerve bundles. No statistically significant differences in nerve morphology were seen between diseases in which VNS is considered effective (depression and CHF), and other cardiovascular diseases, or neurodegenerative disease. Conclusion Human VNs contain sympathetic nerve fibers. The sympathetic component within the VN could play a role in physiologic effects reported with VNS. The recognition of sympathetic nerve fibers in the VNs may lead to better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of VNS. PMID:24768897

  18. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gypsyamber D'Souza; Nicole Kluz; Alicia Wentz; Youngfellow, Renee M.; Anne Griffioen; Emily Stammer; Yingshi Guo; Weihong Xiao; Gillison, Maura L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence...

  19. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  20. Development of a cervical cancer progress prediction tool for human papillomavirus-positive Koreans: A support vector machine-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Eung-Hee; Kim, Hong-Gee; Lee, Wonbae

    2015-08-01

    To develop a Web-based tool to draw attention to patients positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) who have a high risk of progression to cervical cancer, in order to increase compliance with follow-up examinations and facilitate good doctor-patient communication. Records were retrospectively analysed from women who were positive for HPV on initial testing (before any treatment). Information concerning age, Papanicolaou (PAP) smear result and presence of 15 high-risk HPV genotypes was used in a support vector machine (SVM) model, to identify the patient features that maximally contributed to progression to high-risk cervical lesions. Data from 731 subjects were analysed. The maximum number of correct cancer predictions was seen when four features (PAP, HPV16, HPV52 and HPV35) were used, giving an accuracy of 74.41%. A web-based high-risk cervical lesion prediction application tool was developed using the SVM model results. Use of the web-based prediction tool may help to increase patient compliance with physician advice, and may heighten awareness of the significance of regular follow-up HPV examinations for the prevention of cervical cancer, in Korean women predicted to have heightened risk of the disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Beta-catenin accelerates human papilloma virus type-16 mediated cervical carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Gülay Bulut

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV is the principal etiological agent of cervical cancer in women, and its DNA is present in virtually all of these tumors. However, exposure to the high-risk HPV types alone is insufficient for tumor development. Identifying specific collaborating factors that will lead to cervical cancer remains an unanswered question, especially because millions of women are exposed to HPV. Our earlier work using an in vitro model indicated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in HPV-positive epithelial cells was sufficient to induce anchorage independent growth. We therefore hypothesized that constitutive activation of this pathway might function as the "second hit." To address this possibility, we developed two double-transgenic (DT mouse models, K14-E7/ΔN87βcat and K14-HPV16/ΔN87βcat that express either the proteins encoded by the E7 oncogene or the HPV16 early region along with constitutively active β-catenin, which was expressed by linking it to the keratin-14 (K14 promoter. We initiated tumor formation by treating all groups with estrogen for six months. Invasive cervical cancer was observed in 11% of the K14-ΔN87βcat mice, expressing activated β-catenin and in 50% of the animals expressing the HPV16 E7 oncogene. In double-transgenic mice, coexpression of β-catenin and HPV16 E7 induced invasive cervical cancer at about 7 months in 94% of the cases. We did not observe cervical cancer in any group unless the mice were treated with estrogen. In the second model, K14-HPV16 mice suffered cervical dysplasias, but this phenotype was not augmented in HPV16/ΔN87βcat mice. In summary, the phenotypes of the K14-E7/ΔN87βcat mice support the hypothesis that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HPV-associated premalignant lesions plays a functional role in accelerating cervical carcinogenesis.

  2. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

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    Mayinuer Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay

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    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Untermann, Anette

    2013-01-01

    New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim...... of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory...... in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23...

  4. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

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    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections.

  5. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

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    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  6. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

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    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = human papillomavirus infection was 10.1 per 1000 patient-months. At three years, 47 (88.6%) prevalent infections were cleared. Independent risk factors associated with incident human papillomavirus infection included more lifetime sexual partners (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-3.0) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (odds ratio = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-12.8). Conclusions In systemic lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  7. Epidemiology of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus infection among Iranian women - analyses of national data and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasanizadeh, Faezeh; Hassanloo, Jaleh; Khaksar, Nafiseh; Mohammad Taheri, Somayeh; Marzaban, Maryam; H Rashidi, Batool; Akbari Sari, Ali; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of cervical cancer in low risk Muslim countries, where the prognosis of cervical cancer is poor and which lack an organized cervical screening program. We studied incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer and the prevalence of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the Islamic Republic (I.R.) of Iran. We analyzed national cancer and mortality registration data and estimated age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates and age-specific patterns of cervical cancer. Furthermore, based on a systematic review we estimated prevalence of HPV infection in Iran. The mean cervical cancer ASR was 2.5 per 100,000 in pathology-based cancer registries. However, ASRs were almost double in the population-based cancer registry and reached 6 per 100,000. The mean cervical cancer ASMR for Iran was 1.04 per 100,000. The mortality to incidence ratio was 42%. The cervical cancer incidence rate increased after age 30 and peaked between ages 55 and 65. The prevalence of HPV infection was 76% in cervical cancer patients and 7% among healthy Iranian women. Of the HPV types isolated, HPV 16 (54%), 18 (14%), and 31 (6%) were the most commonly detected in Iranian cervical cancer patients. An organized prevention program is needed to fight against cervical cancer in Iran and other low incidence countries. We suggest a screening program starting after age 30 and with at least three screenings tests over each woman's lifetime. With a reservation on cost-effectiveness issue, available HPV vaccine will prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer in Iran. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical validation of the HPV-risk assay, a novel real-time PCR assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA by targeting the E7 region.

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    Hesselink, A T; Berkhof, J; van der Salm, M L; van Splunter, A P; Geelen, T H; van Kemenade, F J; Bleeker, M G B; Heideman, D A M

    2014-03-01

    The HPV-Risk assay is a novel real-time PCR assay targeting the E7 region of 15 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types (i.e., HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -67, and -68), and provides additional genotype information for HPV16 and HPV18. This study evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens and its utility with self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens. The clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) with cervical scraping specimens was evaluated by a noninferiority analysis, relative to high-risk HPV GP5+/6+ PCR, following international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening. The HPV-Risk assay showed clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 99.3%; 67/69 samples) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 94.3% (95% CI, 92.5 to 95.7%; 777/824 samples). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were noninferior to those of GP5+/6+ PCR (noninferiority score test, P=0.006 and 0.0003, respectively). Intralaboratory reproducibility over time (99.5% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 544/547 samples, kappa=0.99) and interlaboratory agreement (99.2% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 527/531 samples, kappa=0.98) for the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens were high. The agreement of the HPV-Risk assay results for self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens and clinician-obtained cervical scraping specimens was also high, i.e., 95.9% (95% CI, 85.1 to 99.0%; 47/49 samples, kappa=0.90) for self-collected lavage samples and 91.6% (95% CI, 84.6 to 95.6%; 98/107 samples, kappa=0.82) for self-collected brush samples. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay meets the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of the international guidelines for HPV test requirements and can be considered clinically validated for cervical screening purposes. The

  9. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

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    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  10. Epidemiological survey of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, China, 2010-2014: A high risk groups-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cao; Shuyi, Guo; Tao, Yan; Hao, Zhu; Zhang, Xingguang

    2017-03-17

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis which can seriously harm public health. Inner Mongolia is known as an endemic region of human brucellosis in China. The aim of this study is to present the epidemic of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2014, and to provide the evidence of preventing from brucellosis in endemic areas. The study included 838,956 participants by cluster random sampling from 2010 to 2014. The contents of this study included questionnaire survey and serological testing. The seropositive rate was calculated based on the serological testing results, tested to determine whether the participants were infected by brucellosis. The new brucellosis cases were diagnosed using the questionnaire data and serological testing results then and the incidence rate was obtained. We also plotted spatial distribution maps based on the seropositive and incidence rate of human brucellosis. The total seropositive and incidence rate of human brucellosis among the high risk groups in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2014 was 35.91‰ and 18.25‰, respectively. The epidemic of the mid-eastern Inner Mongolia was decreased, however, the epidemic has worsened in western Inner Mongolia. Despite the epidemic of human brucellosis among the high risk groups of Inner Mongolia decreased significantly from 2010 to 2014, increased prevention and control measures are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential impact of a nine-valent vaccine in human papillomavirus related cervical disease

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    Serrano Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on human papillomavirus (HPV type distribution is necessary to evaluate the potential impact of current and future HPV vaccines. We estimated the relative contribution (RC to invasive cervical cancer (ICC and precancerous cervical lesions of the nine HPV types (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 included in an HPV vaccine currently under development. Methods Estimations on ICC were based on an international study of 8,977 HPV positive cases and estimations on precancerous cervical lesions were extracted from a published meta-analysis including 115,789 HPV positive women. Globocan 2008 and 2010 World Population Prospects were used to estimate current and future projections of new ICC cases. Results RC of the 9 HPV types in ICC was 89.4%, with 18.5% of cases positive for HPV 31/33/45/52/58. Regional variations were observed. RCs varied by histology, ranging between 89.1% in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and 95.5% in adenocarcinomas (ADC. HPV 16/18/45 were detected in 94.2% of ADC. RC of the 9 types altogether decreased with age (trend test p  The RCs of individual high risk HPV types varied by cytological and histological grades of HPV-positive precancerous cervical lesions, and there was an under representation of HPV 18 and 45 compared to ICC. Conclusions The addition of HPV 31/33/45/52/58 to HPV types included in current vaccines could prevent almost 90% of ICC cases worldwide. If the nine-valent vaccine achieves the same degree of efficacy than previous vaccines, world incidence rates could be substantially reduced.

  12. Detection of human papillomavirus in women attending Pap cervical screening camp at a peripheral hospital of North-Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Agarwal, Manisha; Chatterjee, Soumya; Gogoi, Hemanta Kumar; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cervical cancer is the leading cause of deaths in India. However, cytological/HPV screening may result in early detection of cervical cancer, resulting in early treatment and reduced mortality. Although reports related to general population is available, data on HPV prevalence among women attending AFMS health care facilities is scarce. Cervical samples were collected for cytological staining by Pap test and molecular detection by PCR, genotyping by HPV specific primers and sequencing. Apart from finding of atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in one subject, no evidence of malignancy was observed. A high prevalence of HPV was found in this study group, which was intermediate between previous reports from general population and cervical cancer patients. All the subjects had infection of high risk HPV type16. HPV prevalence was found similar between different age groups. Although, none of the study subjects had malignant changes, but due to high prevalence of high risk HPV infection and other associated risk factors, these subjects might be at an elevated risk of developing cervical cancer. Regular follow-up of these patients who were detected HPV positive are required to screen for cervical malignancy.

  13. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk ... on the STD Data and Statistics page . * HPV = human papillomavirus. NOTE: Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. ...

  14. Detection and genotype of high-risk human papillomavirus in fine-needle aspirates of patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is helpful in determining tumor origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Rebecca; Aronberg, Ryan; Levi, Angelique W; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Kowalski, Diane; Chhieng, David

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with a certain subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)-namely, those arising in the oropharynx. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy, detection, and genotype of high-risk (HR) HPV using the Roche cobas 4800 system (Roche Molecular System, Pleasanton, CA). Forty-two fine-needle aspirate (FNA) specimens from 37 patients with cervical (n = 36) or mediastinal (n = 5) lymphadenopathy or a left parapharyngeal mass (n =1) were included in this prospective study. HR-HPV testing was performed on residual FNA material after direct smear preparation and, if positive, was further delineated into HPV 16/18 genotypes using the Roche cobas 4800 system. Follow-up included review of histologic material and/or electronic health records. Among those HNSCCs that were positive for HR-HPV, 18 (100%) of 18 originated from the oropharynx, whereas only two (13%) of 15 HR-HPV-negative HNSCCs originated from the oropharynx (χ(2) test, P detection and genotyping can be performed on lymph node FNAs with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma using the Roche cobas 4800 system. The presence of HR-HPV and/or HPV 16 is a reliable indicator of the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma originating from the oropharynx. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  15. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a sexually transmitted infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can develop from noninfectious causes, too. Successful ... result from common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital herpes. Allergic reactions. An ...

  16. Cervical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - dysplasia; Pap smear - dysplasia; HPV - dysplasia; Human papilloma virus - dysplasia; Cervix - dysplasia; Colposcopy - dysplasia Images Female reproductive anatomy Cervical neoplasia Uterus Cervical dysplasia - series References American ...

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is not the main cause of preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer among patients in Delta Region, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Mahmoud; Hemida, Reda; Hasan, Mohammad; Elshamy, Maged; Elfaraash, Mohammad; Emam, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant problem worldwide particularly in underdeveloped countries. It is necessary to have a persistent infection of the cervix with a high-risk or oncogenic human Papillomavirus (HPV) virus to develop cervical cancer. To study the association between HPV and pre-invasive and invasive cancer cervix among patients referred to Early Cancer Detection Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Mansoura University Hospital, Delta region, Egypt. Cervical specimens of 100 histologically confirmed premalignant and malignant cervical lesions were subjected to HPV detection and genotyping by extraction of DNA from cervical biopsy using a commercial PCR kit. HPV DNA testing was done, 36 cases were positive (36%). Correlations of age, duration of marriage, and parity were non significant (P = 0.56, 0.72, and 0.35 respectively) while correlations of residence, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and immunosuppresion were sig- nificant (P = 0.006, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.01 respectively). The prevalence of HPV in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions in our study was 39.5% & 33.3% respec tively. The commonest HPV genotypes associated with premalignant cervical lesions were HPV16; 11/17(64.7%) and HPV18; 11/17 (64.7%) mostly in the form of mul- tiple infections with HPV16+18; 7/17 (41.17%). The commonest HPV genotypes associated with malignant cervical lesions in our cases were HPV16; 15/19 (78.9%) and HPV18; 13/19 (68.42%) also in the form of multiple infections with HPV16+18; 10/19 (52.63%). The prevalence of HPV in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions was 39.5% & 33.3% respectively, this means that HPV is not the main cause of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions in Delta region in Egypt. HPV infection mostly in the form of multiple infections with HPV16+18 genotypes. Further studies are needed to clarify actual association of HPV and premalignant and malignant cervical lesions to determine the usefulness of HPV vaccination in

  18. Cell culture model predicts human disease: Altered expression of junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinases in cervical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivi Niina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is necessarily caused by human papillomaviruses, which encode three oncogenes manifesting their functions by interfering with a number of cellular proteins and pathways: the E5, E6, and E7 proteins. We have earlier found in our microarray studies that the E5 oncogene crucially affects the expression of cellular genes involved in adhesion and motility of epithelial cells. Methods In order to biologically validate our previous experimental findings we performed immunohistochemical staining of a representative set of tissue samples from different grades of high-risk human papillomavirus associated cervical disease as well as normal squamous and columnar cervical epithelium. Three-dimensional collagen raft cultures established from E5-expressing and control epithelial cells were also examined. The expression of p16, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -7, MMP-16, cytokeratin (CK 8/18, laminin, E-cadherin and beta-catenin was studied. Results In agreement with our previous microarray studies, we found intense staining for E-cadherin and beta-catenin in adherens junctions even in high-grade cervical lesions. Staining for MMP-16 was increased in severe disease as well. No significant change in staining for MMP-7 and cytokeratin 8/18 along with the grade of cervical squamous epithelial disease was observed. Conclusions Here we have confirmed, using tissue material from human papillomavirus associated lesions, some of the cellular gene expression modifications that we earlier reported in an experimental system studying specifically the E5 oncogene of papillomaviruses. These findings were partially surprising in the context of cervical carcinogenesis and emphasize that the complexity of carcinogenesis is not yet fully understood. Microarray approaches provide a wide overwiev of gene expression in experimental settings, which may yield biologically valid biomarkers for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and follow-up.

  19. High-risk oral human papillomavirus load in the US population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anil K; Graubard, Barry I; Pickard, Robert K L; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the association of demographic and behavioral factors with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) load for 18 high-risk types among 211 individuals with prevalent high-risk HPV within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Factors independently associated with HPV load above the median included older age (odds ratio, 1.04 per year increase [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07]; P = .004) and intensity of current smoking (P for trend men than women had an HPV load above the median (55.7% vs 32.8%; P = .069), and HPV load increased marginally with increasing alcohol use (P for trend = .062). In conclusion, older age and current smoking are associated with a high oral load of high-risk HPV types among individuals with a prevalent infection. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal but not oral cancers are strongly associated with high-risk human papillomavirus in 172 Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimplaki, Elpida; Argyri, Elena; Sakellaridis, Athanassios; Kyrodimos, Efthimios; Xesfyngi, Dimitra; Panotopoulou, Efstathia

    2017-01-01

    A strong and consistent association has been reported between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and oropharyngeal cancer, whereas a similar link has not yet been clarified in oral and laryngeal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Greek patients. Cytological or tissue specimens from 172 cases patients with HNSCC and cytological specimens from 91 control subjects were analyzed for HPV DNA detection and genotyping using a microarray-based assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between the presence of HPV infection and HNSCC for each of the tumor site, after adjustment for potential confounders. The adjusted ORs for positivity to high-risk HPV infection for oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were 20.3 (95% CI: 1.7-250.1) and 22.8 (95% CI: 2.5-206.2), respectively. High-risk HPV infection was not significantly associated with oral cancer. HPV infection was independently associated with poorly differentiated tumors (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1-7.5). Our results suggest a strong association of high-risk HPV infection with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. J. Med. Virol. 89:170-176, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  2. Genetic diversity of human papillomavirus types 35, 45 and 58 in cervical cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Diogo Lisbôa; Vidal, João Paulo; Pontes, Valéria Barbosa; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Pinto, Laine Celestino; Soares, Bruno Moreira; Martins, Luis Felipe; Correa, Flávia Miranda; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Chaves, Cláudia Bessa Pereira; Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo Martins

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, most studies of intra-type variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on HPV16 and HPV18, but other high-risk HPV types have not been studied. Here, we report the prevalence of lineages and variants of HPV35, HPV45 and HPV58 in cervical cancers from the Amazonian and Southeast Brazilian regions. The most frequent sublineages were A1 for HPV35, B2 for HPV45, and A2 for HPV58. The Southeast region had a higher frequency of the B2 sublineage of HPV45, and for HPV35, the genetic and nucleotide sequence diversity were higher in the Southeast region, suggesting that regional factors are influencing the diversity and lineage prevalence.

  3. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women...... the younger age and more HPV infections. HPV test result discordance identified a cluster of low-risk HPV infections that were hardly ever associated with high-grade CIN and, almost exclusively, represented false-positive screening findings....

  4. Comparative analysis of cervical cytology and human papillomavirus genotyping by three different methods in a routine diagnostic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalko, Elizaveta; Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Mesmaekers, Stéphanie; Ryckaert, Inge; Van Renterghem, Lieve; Lambein, Kathleen; Bamelis, Mieke; De Mey, Anja; Sturtewagen, Yolande; Vastenavond, Hilde; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Weyers, Steven; Praet, Marleen

    2015-09-01

    Application of Bethesda guidelines on cervical cytology involves human papillomavirus (HPV) determinations on all ASC-US and ASC-H results. We compared HPV DNA results in view of the eventual development of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesion determined either on cytology or histology. A total of 214 liquid-based cytology samples were analysed. Three different HPV DNA methods were applied: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test, INNO-Lipa HPV Genotyping Extra and Full Spectrum PCR HPV Amplification and Detection/Genotyping System by Lab2Lab Diagnostic Service. A comparison of these three methods showed full concordance only for 49 samples (23%), and 27 (13%) of the samples were discordant in indicating the presence of the high-risk HPV type. Out of 214 patients, 88 were selected who presented with a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or a VAIN lesion at follow-up cytology or histology. In this group, full concordance with HPV genotyping was present only in 19 (22%) follow-up samples. Nine (10%) follow-up samples showed discordant results for the presence of a high-risk genotype between the three genotyping methods tested either by negativity for high-risk HPV by one of the methods (n=6) or by failure to genotype HPV (n=2), or by a combination of both (n=1). Moreover, discordance for the detection of HPV16 or HPV18 was observed between the three HPV DNA genotyping methods used in 9 (10%) follow-up samples. In addition, the performance of genotyping methods on 20 external quality samples was assessed, showing discordant results for HPV16 and HPV18. Major differences were found in the genotyping results according to the HPV DNA method. Our findings highlight the importance of careful interpretation of data from studies using different HPV genotyping methods and underline the need for standardization by method validation in clinical laboratories, especially in the setting of primary HPV screening.

  5. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

    2014-08-14

    Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18-25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10-3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06-2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man.

  6. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340 and women (n = 270 aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004 and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007 infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39, number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013 and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82 were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man.

  7. Increased cycling cell numbers and stem cell associated proteins as potential biomarkers for high grade human papillomavirus+ve pre-neoplastic cervical disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Canham

    Full Text Available High risk (oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV infection causes cervical cancer. Infections are common but most clear naturally. Persistent infection can progress to cancer. Pre-neoplastic disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/CIN is classified by histology (CIN1-3 according to severity. Cervical abnormalities are screened for by cytology and/or detection of high risk HPV but both methods are imperfect for prediction of which women need treatment. There is a need to understand the host virus interactions that lead to different disease outcomes and to develop biomarker tests for accurate triage of infected women. As cancer is increasingly presumed to develop from proliferative, tumour initiating, cancer stem cells (CSCs, and as other oncogenic viruses induce stem cell associated gene expression, we evaluated whether presence of mRNA (detected by qRT-PCR or proteins (detected by flow cytometry and antibody based proteomic microarray from stem cell associated genes and/or increased cell proliferation (detected by flow cytometry could be detected in well-characterised, routinely collected cervical samples from high risk HPV+ve women. Both cytology and histology results were available for most samples with moderate to high grade abnormality. We found that stem cell associated proteins including human chorionic gonadotropin, the oncogene TP63 and the transcription factor SOX2 were upregulated in samples from women with CIN3 and that the stem cell related, cell surface, protein podocalyxin was detectable on cells in samples from a subset of women with CIN3. SOX2, TP63 and human gonadotrophin mRNAs were upregulated in high grade disease. Immunohistochemistry showed that SOX2 and TP63 proteins clearly delineated tumour cells in invasive squamous cervical cancer. Samples from women with CIN3 showed increased proliferating cells. We believe that these markers may be of use to develop triage tests for women with high grade cervical abnormality to

  8. Increased cycling cell numbers and stem cell associated proteins as potential biomarkers for high grade human papillomavirus+ve pre-neoplastic cervical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Maurice; Charsou, Chara; Stewart, June; Moncur, Sharon; Hoodless, Laura; Bhatia, Ramya; Cong, Duanduan; Cubie, Heather; Busby-Earle, Camille; Williams, Alistair; McLoughlin, Victoria; Campbell, John D M; Cuschieri, Kate; Howie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    High risk (oncogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer. Infections are common but most clear naturally. Persistent infection can progress to cancer. Pre-neoplastic disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/CIN) is classified by histology (CIN1-3) according to severity. Cervical abnormalities are screened for by cytology and/or detection of high risk HPV but both methods are imperfect for prediction of which women need treatment. There is a need to understand the host virus interactions that lead to different disease outcomes and to develop biomarker tests for accurate triage of infected women. As cancer is increasingly presumed to develop from proliferative, tumour initiating, cancer stem cells (CSCs), and as other oncogenic viruses induce stem cell associated gene expression, we evaluated whether presence of mRNA (detected by qRT-PCR) or proteins (detected by flow cytometry and antibody based proteomic microarray) from stem cell associated genes and/or increased cell proliferation (detected by flow cytometry) could be detected in well-characterised, routinely collected cervical samples from high risk HPV+ve women. Both cytology and histology results were available for most samples with moderate to high grade abnormality. We found that stem cell associated proteins including human chorionic gonadotropin, the oncogene TP63 and the transcription factor SOX2 were upregulated in samples from women with CIN3 and that the stem cell related, cell surface, protein podocalyxin was detectable on cells in samples from a subset of women with CIN3. SOX2, TP63 and human gonadotrophin mRNAs were upregulated in high grade disease. Immunohistochemistry showed that SOX2 and TP63 proteins clearly delineated tumour cells in invasive squamous cervical cancer. Samples from women with CIN3 showed increased proliferating cells. We believe that these markers may be of use to develop triage tests for women with high grade cervical abnormality to distinguish

  9. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...... with a narrow definition of a (false-)positive test. The aim of this paper was to illustrate how the narrow definition affected the measured adverse effects of HPV DNA screening compared with cytology screening....

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in 5,072 consecutive cervical SurePath samples evaluated with the Roche cobas HPV real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preisler

    Full Text Available New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2 and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23-29 years and 10% in women aged 60-65 years. HC2 assay was positive in 20% of samples, and cytology was abnormal (≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for 7% samples. When only samples without recent abnormalities were taken into account, 24% tested positive on cobas, 19% on HC2, and 5% had abnormal cytology. The proportion of positive cobas samples was higher than in the ATHENA trial. The age-standardized cobas positivity vs. cytology abnormality was 3.9 in our study and 1.7 in ATHENA. If in Copenhagen the presently used cytology would be replaced by cobas in women above age 30 years, an extra 11% of women would based on historical data be expected to have a positive cobas test without an underlying cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or worse. Countries with a high prevalence of HPV infections should therefore proceed to primary HPV-based cervical screening with caution.

  11. Can a 15-mm Cervical Length Cutoff Discriminate between Low and High Risk of Preterm Delivery in Women with Threatened Preterm Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Camilla B; Ekelund, Charlotte K; Hedegaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate if a cervical length (CL) cutoff of 15 mm is relevant to use in women with threatened preterm labor. Methods: From 2006 to 2009, 146 women with singleton pregnancies were admitted with threatened preterm labor between 23 and 33+6 weeks of gestation at Copenhagen...

  12. The integrated approach—Regulating private human spaceflight as space activity, aircraft operation, and high-risk adventure tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Dunk, Frans G.

    2013-12-01

    One of the overriding issues concerning private human spaceflight concerns how to properly regulate this specific new type of activity. Noting that in the discussion regarding regulation thereof usually the three distinct regimes of space law, air law and high-risk adventure tourism law are drawn upon to look for solutions, the present paper addresses the key elements of each of these approaches as they are to some extent already currently being applied and where, as a consequence, gaps and overlaps arise, as well as presents an effort to address the latter in a sensible, coherent, efficient and feasible manner.

  13. Cervical human papillomavirus infection and persistence: a clinic-based study in the countryside from South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coser, Janaina; Boeira, Thaís da Rocha; Wolf, Jonas Michel; Cerbaro, Kamila; Simon, Daniel; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in sexually active women and viral persistence may cause intraepithelial lesions and eventually progress to cervical cancer (CC). The present study aimed to investigate epidemiological factors related to HPV infection and to evaluate viral persistence and CC precursor lesions frequencies in women from a city in the countryside of South Brazil. Three hundred women were recruited from a primary public health care clinic. The patients were interviewed and underwent sampling with cervical brushes for HPV-DNA detection/typing by a PCR-based assay and cytological analysis by Pap smear test. HPV was detected in 47 (15.7%) women. HPV infection was significantly associated with young age (<30 years) and low socio-economic status. Seventeen (5.7%) women presented cytological abnormalities, three of them with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions. A subgroup of 79 women had been previously analyzed and thirteen (16.4%) were persistently infected, two with precursor CC intraepithelial lesions and high-risk HPV types infection (both of them without cervical abnormalities in the first exam). In conclusion, HPV infection was associated with young age (<30 years) and low family income; viral persistence was low (16.4%) but related to CC precursor lesions; and HPV-DNA high risk types detection would help to screen CC in the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical performance of multiplex high-risk e6 mrna expression in comparison with hpv dna subtypes for the identification of women at risk of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Ming; Pan, Kui-You; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Huang, Chia-Yen; Chen, Yu-Li; Chang, Shwu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    We compared multiplex E6 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) tests using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (PCR) with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA subtypes using a MY11/GP6+ PCR-based reverse-blot assay to identify cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). In total, 684 women were studied, of whom 377 (55%) were diagnosed with CIN2+ histologically. The specificity of HPV mRNA to predict histological CIN2+ was higher than that of HPV DNA (81.3% vs. 44.2%). The odds ratios (ORs) to predict histological CIN2+ in women with positive for type 16, 18, 31, and 45 E6 mRNA or by HPV DNA detection were 7.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-13.1) and 2.5 (95%CI 1.9-3.5), respectively, compared to those with negative for E6 mRNA or HPV DNA. The OR to predict histological CIN2+ in women with a cytological grade mRNA was 9.7 (95%CI 3.2-29.2), compared to those with a cytological grade mRNA (OR = 1), those with a cytological grade CIN2+, and negative for mRNA (OR = 6.9, 95%CI 4.4-10.8), and those with a cytological grade CIN2+ and positive for mRNA (OR = 28.0, 95%CI 9.8-79.6). As a HPV DNA positive triage, the OR to predict histological CIN2+ in women with a cytological grade mRNA was higher than those with negative for mRNA (OR:12.8 [95%CI 3.6-5.4] vs. OR:1.6 [95%CI 0.9-2.9]). In conclusion, multiplex HPV E6 mRNA detection can be used as a triage for women with cytological grade

  15. Repression of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Gene Initiates p53-Dependent, Telomerase-Independent Senescence and Apoptosis in HeLa Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Stacy M.; DeFilippis, Rosa Anna; Manuelidis, Laertes; DiMaio, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer cells express high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 proteins. When both HPV oncogenes are repressed in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, the dormant p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways are activated, and the cells undergo senescence in the absence of apoptosis. When the E6 gene is repressed in cells that continue to express an E7 gene, the p53 pathway, but not the Rb pathway, is activated, and both senescence and apoptosis are triggered. To determine th...

  16. High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Ngan, Christopher C; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Swift, Joshua; Lutze-Mann, Louise; Shang, Fei; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26

  17. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  18. Characterization of plasminogen activator in human cervical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Plasminogen activator activity was detected in human gynecologic specimens using a synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate assay and confirmed by an /sup 125/I-labeled fibrin plate assay. Epithelial cells in these samples contain enzymatic activity that biochemically resembles both the well-characterized plasminogen activator, urokinase, and the less-specific plasminogen activator, trypsin. Inhibition of the cervical cell activity by diisopropylfluorophosphate and p-nitrophenyl-p'-guanidinobenzoate demonstrates that, like urokinase and trypsin, this plasminogen activator is also a serine protease. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasminogen that had been incubated with cervical cells indicated the same mechanism of plasminogen activation as exhibited by urokinase. An attempt was made to correlate plasminogen activator activity of each sample with cytomorphologic diagnosis. Three of the four dysplastic samples analyzed showed higher plasminogen activator activity than did the normal samples.

  19. Human rights in health equity: cervical cancer and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate that health equity, as an empirical and normative concept, is reflected in the human rights to health and equality under international law. The obligations on government that flow from health equity as a human right are then examined. These include the obligation to act in pursuit of health equity as a policy objective, and the obligation to enact measures to ensure health equity as a policy outcome. These obligations are considered in relation to a promising remedial measure for social disparities in cervical cancer: HPV vaccines.

  20. Investigation of hTERT gene expression levels in two cell lines infected by high-risk human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akhtari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most important factors in cervical cancer. Viral sequences are integrated into the host cell genome. In mild cases the virus causes skin damages, in severe cases it leads to cancer. Like many other cancers, telomerase gene expression was increased in cervical cancer. This enzyme is a reverse transcriptase that contains two common subunits: i catalytic protein called human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT and, ii RNA sequence called hTR. hTERT expression is hardly found in any somatic tissues. Detection of high telomerase activity in human cells, lead to tumor genesis. So hTERT can be used as a diagnostic tool in cancer detection. Methods: This experimental study was carried out from May 2013 to April 2014 in Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Caski and Hela cancer cell lines were used which contain HPV16 and HPV18 respectively. Cell lines were cultured and total RNA was extracted. Following normalization agent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH, hTERT expression level was determining by real-time PCR method. For each sample, the expression level of hTERT and GAPDH were quantified as copy numbers (per reaction using the standard curve. Finally, hTERT levels in Hela and Caski cell lines were compared quantitatively by t-test using GraphPad statistic software version 5 (San Diego, CA, USA. Results: According to the charts real-time PCR, hTERT gene expression in Hela and Caski cancer cell lines is significantly different (t=0.0319. Conclusion: All results confirm that hTERT expression levels in Hela and Caski cell lines are significantly different and the level of hTERT expression in the Caski cell line was slightly higher than that of Hela cell line. The significant difference between hTERT mRNA expression levels reported here could be used as a tumor marker for HPV16 and HPV18 in cervical cancer.

  1. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Quint, Wim Gv; Alemany, Laia; Geraets, Daan T; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Lloveras, Belen; Tous, Sara; Felix, Ana; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Shin, Hai-Rim; Vallejos, Carlos S; de Ruiz, Patricia Alonso; Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Guimera, Nuria; Clavero, Omar; Alejo, Maria; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Cheng-Yang, Chou; Tatti, Silvio Alejandro; Kasamatsu, Elena; Iljazovic, Ermina; Odida, Michael; Prado, Rodrigo; Seoud, Muhieddine; Grce, Magdalena; Usubutun, Alp; Jain, Asha; Suarez, Gustavo Adolfo Hernandez; Lombardi, Luis Estuardo; Banjo, Aekunbiola; Menéndez, Clara; Domingo, Efrén Javier; Velasco, Julio; Nessa, Ashrafun; Chichareon, Saibua C Bunnag; Qiao, You Lin; Lerma, Enrique; Garland, Suzanne M; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Ferrera, Annabelle; Hammouda, Doudja; Mariani, Luciano; Pelayo, Adela; Steiner, Ivo; Oliva, Esther; Meijer, Chris Jlm; Al-Jassar, Waleed Fahad; Cruz, Eugenia; Wright, Thomas C; Puras, Ana; Llave, Cecilia Ladines; Tzardi, Maria; Agorastos, Theodoros; Garcia-Barriola, Victoria; Clavel, Christine; Ordi, Jaume; Andújar, Miguel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Sánchez, Gloria I; Nowakowski, Andrzej Marcin; Bornstein, Jacob; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier

    2010-11-01

    Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Paraffin-embedded samples of histologically confirmed cases of invasive cervical cancer were collected from 38 countries in Europe, North America, central South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Inclusion criteria were a pathological confirmation of a primary invasive cervical cancer of epithelial origin in the tissue sample selected for analysis of HPV DNA, and information about the year of diagnosis. HPV detection was done by use of PCR with SPF-10 broad-spectrum primers followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping with a reverse hybridisation line probe assay. Sequence analysis was done to characterise HPV-positive samples with unknown HPV types. Data analyses included algorithms of multiple infections to estimate type-specific relative contributions. 22,661 paraffin-embedded samples were obtained from 14,249 women. 10,575 cases of invasive cervical cancer were included in the study, and 8977 (85%) of these were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV types were 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58 with a combined worldwide relative contribution of 8196 of 8977 (91%, 95% CI 90-92). HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 6357 of 8977 of cases (71%, 70-72) of invasive cervical cancer. HPV types 16, 18, and 45 were detected in 443 of 470 cases (94%, 92-96) of cervical adenocarcinomas. Unknown HPV types that were identified with sequence analysis were 26, 30, 61, 67, 69, 82, and 91 in 103 (1%) of 8977 cases of invasive cervical cancer. Women with invasive cervical cancers related to HPV types 16, 18, or 45 presented at a younger mean age than did those with other HPV types (50·0 years [49·6-50·4], 48·2 years [47·3-49·2], 46·8 years [46·6-48·1], and 55·5 years

  2. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  3. Modelling human and organizational behaviour in a high-risk operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillem, S.; Lin, P.H.; Ale, B.J.M.; Hudson, P.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    A core part of the risk modelling program for the Oil and Gas industry being carried out at Delft University of Technology is the influence of humans, within an organisation, as well as the technical factors. Specific attention is given to the incentive structure of operators, staff and managers,

  4. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and bacterial vaginosis presence in cervical samples from Paraguayan indigenous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelos, Pamela; Mendoza, Laura Patricia; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Gimenez, Graciela; Araujo, Patricia; Paez, Malvina; Castro, Wilberto; Basiletti, Jorge; González, Joaquín; Echagüe, Gloria; Diaz, Valentina; Laspina, Florentina; Ever, Santiago; Marecos, Ramón; Deluca, Gerardo; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    To determine the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and to assess bacterial vaginosis (BV) possible associations with cervical infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. HPV typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with primers PGMY 09/11 followed by reverse line hybridization. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent criteria using the results from a Gram stain smear. Sixteen percent of women were positive for at least one high risk HPV type (HR-HPV). The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (4.4%), followed by HPV 58 (3.3%), HPV 45 (3.3%), HPV 53 (2.8%) and HPV 11 (2.8%). A significant association between HR-HPV and BV was observed (p=0.01). In addition, women with BV had a higher frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (p=0.0007), Trichomonas vaginalis (p=0.00009), Mycoplasma hominis (p=0.001). A large variety of HPV genotypes was detected and showed a slightly different pattern from previous studies on urban women in Paraguay, with the predominance of HR-HPV. Furthermore, the information of co-infections involved in BV could be useful for the improvement of national prevention programs, as well as for laboratory surveillance of these genital infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, Tristan; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Rangdaeng, Samreung; Chotivanich, Nantasak; Limtrakul, Aram; Putiyanun, Chaiwat; Suriyachai, Pornnapa; Matanasarawut, Wanmanee; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Liampongsabuddhi, Prateung; Heard, Isabelle; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc; Le Coeur, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV genotypes and cytological/histological high-grade (HSIL+/CIN2+) lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort of HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Cervical specimens were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping (Papillocheck®). Any women with High-Risk-HPV (HR-HPV), and/or potentially HR-HPV (pHR-HPV) and/or ASC-US or higher (ASC-US+) lesions were referred for colposcopy. Factors associated with HR-HPV infection and with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions were investigated using mixed-effects logistic regression models. 829 women were enrolled: median age 40.4 years, on cART for a median of 6.9 years, median CD4 cell-count 536 cells/mm3, and 788 (96%) with HIV-viral loadwomen (9%) had ASC-US+ and 28 (3%) HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions. HR-HPV infection was independently associated with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions. The prevalence of HPV infection and of cervical lesions was low. The HPV genotype distribution supports the use of 9-valent vaccine in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of the Roche Cobas HPV Test With the Hybrid Capture 2 Test for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2016-01-01

    .... To compare the performance of the Roche cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 tests for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using both ThinPrep and SurePath preparations as part of a validation study...

  7. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gandra S; Azar A; Wessolossky M

    2015-01-01

    Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evalu...

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Chile, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanda, Monserrat; Quiero, Andrea; Vergara, Nicolás; Espinoza, Gloria; Martín, Héctor San; Rojas, Giovanna; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were examined both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. A total of 1738 women were included in this study: 11.1 % were HPV positive, 9.7 % were high-risk types positive, 3.2 % were low-risk types positive, 1.4 % were Pap positive and 0.9 % were positive by both tests. The four most predominant genotypes were 16, 66, 51 and 59, with prevalence of 2.8, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 3.8 % participants. Age-specific prevalence of HPV showed a peak in HPV infection at younger ages (≤30 years), declining to a plateau in middle age. Among women with normal cytology, the 9.4 % were HPV positive, while 58.3 % of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings show new epidemiological data confirming HPV 16 and 66 as the most predominant genotypes in Chile. These data are important for design successful strategies for prevention of cervical cancer in Chile.

  9. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1 infected women in Catalonia (Spain: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

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    Valeria Stuardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. METHODS: We enrolled 479 HIV-1-infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%, 53(20.3%, and 52(16.2%. The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500 cells/mm(3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7-19.2, HIV-1 viral load >10,000 copies/mL versus <400 copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0-4.4, and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0-3.9. Sixty percent of HIV-1-infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1-infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1-infected women.

  10. Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions. A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Maria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Caruso, Carmela; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Scalisi, Rosalba; Simone, Angela; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-07-01

    To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical lesions in a Southern Italian female population in Messina and their relationship between HPV type and grade of colposcopic and histopathological abnormality, a total of 253 women aged 17-68 years, with previous cytological abnormalities, were included in this study. HPV-DNA testing, colposcopy and biopsy were performed. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted, followed by a PCR-based HPV-DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping. HPV-16 was found the most common type (46.6 %) followed by HPV-31 (26.9 %), -6 (18.6 %), -58 (8.8 %), -18 (6.7 %), -66 (5.7 %), -52 and -53 (4.7 %). Out of 62 women with abnormal transformation zone (ATZ) area compatible with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or cervical cancer (CC), 64.5 % was found high risk (HR) HPV-positive. Moreover the severity of the colposcopic diagnosis was positively correlated with the higher HPV oncogenicity risk (HPV-16 P = 0.023; and HPV-53 P = 0.047). The HPV-16 was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: 66.7 %, 31.2 %, 44 % and 37.2 % of CC, high grade (H)SIL, low grade (L)SIL and chronic cervicitis respectively; followed by HPV-31 present in 25 %, 8 %, and 13.3 % of HSIL, LSIL and chronic cervicitis respectively. A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

  11. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Shuai, E-mail: usa_2002@163.com [Baoji Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2 Xinjian Road East, WeiBin District, Baoji City, 721000, Shanxi Province (China); Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hua, Ling [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Liu, Yun-Hui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yan [Baoji Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 43, BaoFu Road, Baoji City, Shanxi Province (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  12. Imaging and tracking HIV viruses in human cervical mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Nossal, Ralph; Boukari, Hacène

    2016-09-01

    We describe a systematic approach to image, track, and quantify the movements of HIV viruses embedded in human cervical mucus. The underlying motivation for this study is that, in HIV-infected adults, women account for more than half of all new cases and most of these women acquire the infection through heterosexual contact. The endocervix is believed to be a susceptible site for HIV entry. Cervical mucus, which coats the endocervix, should play a protective role against the viruses. Thus, we developed a methodology to apply time-resolved confocal microscopy to examine the motion of HIV viruses that were added to samples of untreated cervical mucus. From the images, we identified the viruses, tracked them over time, and calculated changes of the statistical mean-squared displacement (MSD) of each virus. Approximately half of tracked viruses appear constrained while the others show mobility with MSDs that are proportional to τα+ν2τ2, over time range τ, depicting a combination of anomalous diffusion (0viruses. Although a more extensive study is warranted, these results support the assumption of mucus being a barrier against the motion of these viruses.

  13. Prevalence of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus in women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-De Leon, S C; Camargo, M; Sanchez, R; Leon, S; Urquiza, M; Acosta, J; Monsalve, D; Rodriguez, L E; Patarroyo, M E; Patarroyo, M A

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in 2109 females inhabiting five cities of Colombia was determined. Of the 49.2% with an HPV infection, 59.8% were infected with more than one viral type. Species 7 (of the the genus Alphapapillomavirus) was associated with multiple infections. Analysis of the socio-demographic data revealed a statistically significant protective effect associated with the status of civil union (civil recognition of cohabitation without marriage), and indigenous ethnicity proved to be a risk factor for HPV infection. This is the first study comparing HPV infection among women from geographical regions of Colombia with different socio-cultural structures.

  14. Differential Detection of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Four Commercial Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-11-01

    Laboratories now can choose from >100 human papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and Aptima, frequently do not detect the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant samples (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30 to 65 years of age (n = 2,859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same catchment area (n = 885). HPV testing followed the manufacturers' protocols. Women with abnormal cytology were managed according to the routine recommendations. Cytology-normal/HPV-positive women were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Screening history and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in 2.5 years after the baseline testing were determined from the national pathology register. HPV-positive women undergoing primary screening having concordant samples were more likely to harbor high-risk infections and less likely to harbor only low-risk infections than women with discordant samples. Additionally, assay signal strengths were substantially higher in concordant samples. More than 80% of ≥CIN2 results were found for women with concordant samples, and no ≥CIN2 results were found when the infection was detected by only one assay. These patterns were similar in the referral population despite the younger age and higher number of HPV infections. HPV test result discordance identified a cluster of low-risk HPV infections that were hardly ever associated with high-grade CIN and, almost exclusively, represented false-positive screening findings. Copyright © 2016 Rebolj et al.

  15. Molecular detection of human papillomavirus and viral DNA load after radiotherapy for cervical carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahla, Saloua; Kochbati, Lotfi; Sarraj, Sana; Ben Daya, Imen; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2016-10-13

    Infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinoma. Radiation therapy together with surgery is the most effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of the response to radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells. Tumor cells were obtained from biopsies of 44 cervical cancers, collected before and after radiotherapy. The presence of HPV was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for the L1 region. The prevalence of HPV was 70.4%, with HPV16 being the most common (54.5%) and HPV18 the second (15.9%). Our analyses show that ionizing radiation does not influence HPV detection, as the percentage of HPV-positive biopsies was similar in patients before and after radiotherapy (HPV16 60% vs. 51.7% and HPV18 20% vs. 13.7%, respectively). However, the detection of HPV did vary by tumor stage, with the highest proportion observed in late-stage tumors (HPV16 and HPV18 in 80% and 60% of stage III tumors, respectively). We also found that HPV viral load is influenced by radiotherapy and tumor stage, with the highest viral loads in late-stage tumors (stage III) after 1 day since radiotherapy (p<0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier curves, higher HPV viral load was associated with significantly shortened progression-free survival (p = 0.04). Our data provide prospective evidence that ionizing radiation can affect the HPV viral load and this might offer the best strategies for assessment of therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Disruption of human papillomavirus 16 E6 gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas system in human cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lan Yu, Xiaoli Wang, Da Zhu, Wencheng Ding, Liming Wang, Changlin Zhang, Xiaohui Jiang, Hui Shen, Shujie Liao, Ding Ma, Zheng Hu, Hui Wang Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV16, is considered a main causative agent of cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, the viral oncoprotein E6 disrupts the host tumor-suppressor protein p53, thus promoting malignant transformation of normal cervical cells. Here, we used the newly developed programmable ribonucleic acid-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas system to disrupt the HPV16 E6 gene. We showed that HPV16 E6 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at specific sites, leading to apoptosis and growth inhibition of HPV16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells, but not HPV-negative C33A or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also observed downregulation of the E6 protein and restoration of the p53 protein. These data proved that the HPV16 E6 ribonucleic acid-guided CRISPR/Cas system might be an effective therapeutic agent in treating HPV infection-related cervical malignancy. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas system, E6, p53, SiHa, CaSki, cervical cancer

  17. Distribution of human papillomavirus type 16 variants in Lithuanian women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Gudlevičienė

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The European HPV 16 L83V variant is usually associated with high risk of cervical cancer among women. However, statistically significant difference was not achieved when comparing difference of L83V variants between investigated groups and in HPV 16 L83V variant and prototype distribution in CIN3/Ca in situ and cancer.

  18. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Unique human papillomavirus-type distribution in South African women with invasive cervical cancer and the effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aardt, Matthys Cornelis; Dreyer, Greta; Pienaar, Hannelie Francina; Karlsen, Frank; Hovland, Siri; Richter, Karin Louise; Becker, Piet

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among South African women. Viral types associated with cervical cancer may differ not only between countries and regions, but possibly also between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and noninfected women. In a population with high HIV prevalence, human papillomavirus (HPV)-type infections detected with DNA analyses were reported in a cohort of 299 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. One hundred fifty-four women tested HIV negative, 77 tested HIV positive, and HIV status was unknown for 68 women. The mean age for HIV-positive women was 41.3 years, and that for HIV-negative women was 55.8 years (P < 0.001). Ninety-two percent of women tested HPV-DNA positive. Human papillomavirus types 16 and/or 18 were present in 62% of HIV-negative women and 65% of HIV-positive women. The 5 most common HPV types in HIV-positive women were, in decreasing frequency, HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, and 58. In HIV-negative women, the most common HPV types were HPV 16, 18, 35, and 45, followed by HPV 33 and 52. Human papillomavirus type 45 was more likely in the HIV positive compared with the HIV negative (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-8.77). The HIV-positive women had more multiple high-risk HPV-type infections than did the HIV-negative women (27% vs 8%, P = 0.001). A high number of women in South Africa with cervical cancer are HIV positive. Without viral cross-protection, HPV vaccines should prevent around 65% of cervical cancers in this population. Human papillomavirus type 45 infection is significantly linked to HIV and important for future vaccine developments.

  20. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Dhanapal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  1. Expression of E6/E7 mRNA from 'high risk' human papillomavirus in relation to CIN grade, viral load and p16INK4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sonia; Hansson, Berit; Norman, Ingrid; Gaberi, Vera; Mints, Miriam; Hjerpe, Anders; Karlsen, Frank; Johansson, Bo

    2006-09-01

    Detection of E6/E7 mRNA expression with real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay (NASBA) method (PreTect HPV-Proofer) from high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) were compared with the presence of viral load, determined with quantitative real-time PCR in 80 cervical samples. Results regarding positivity and typing were in agreement using the two methods. However, there was no correlation between viral loads for HPV 16 or 18/45 and oncogene expression. Among 15 women with low grade atypia detected at a population-based cytology screening, and scored as 'within normal limits' according to histopathology, 14% were positive for oncogene expression, whereas 71% were HR-HPV positive. A correlation was observed between HR-HPV oncogene expression and high scores of p16(INK4a) positivity. Since HPV-Proofer detects full-length E6/E7 mRNA, a positive result should correlate with presence of integrated HPV, loss of HPV replication and stabilized E6/E7 full-length mRNA expression. Such expression from integrated HR-HPV generates a high and stable expression of full-length E6 proteins, which explains why a positive HPV-Proofer result was independent of viral load and correlate with high expression of p16(INK4a). Thus, E6/E7 oncogene expression analysis yielded information, which is consistent with and will complement the results from a real-time PCR method in a clinical prognostic procedure.

  2. High sensitivity, loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with colorimetric gold-nanoparticle probes for visual detection of high risk human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumvongpin, Ratchanida; Jearanaikool, Patcharee; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Sae-Ung, Nattaya; Prasongdee, Prinya; Daduang, Sakda; Wongsena, Metee; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Swangvaree, Sukumarn Sanersak; Sandee, Alisa; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes cervical cancer. HPV16 and HPV18 are the most prevalent strains of the virus reported in women worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative method for DNA detection under isothermal conditions. However, it results in a turbid amplified product which is not easily detected by the naked eye. This study aimed to develop an improved technique by using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attached to a single-stranded DNA probe for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18. Detection of the LAMP product by AuNP color change was compared with detection by visual turbidity. The optimal conditions for this new LAMP-AuNP assay were an incubation time of 20min and a temperature of 65°C. After LAMP amplification was complete, its products were hybridized with the AuNP probe for 5min and then detected by the addition of magnesium salt. The color changed from red to blue as a result of aggregation of the AuNP probe under high ionic strength conditions produced by the addition of the salt. The sensitivity of the LAMP-AuNP assay was greater than the LAMP turbidity assay by up to 10-fold for both HPV genotypes. The LAMP-AuNP assay showed higher sensitivity and ease of visualization than did the LAMP turbidity for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18. Additionally, AuNP-HPV16 and AuNP-HPV18 probes were stable for over 1year. The combination of LAMP and the AuNP-probe colorimetric assay offers a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 in district hospitals or field studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Girlando, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Trevisan, Morena; Burroni, Elena; Grasso, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) specific genotypes differs by age and areas. Knowledge of these differences will help predicting how prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening program could best be integrated. To investigate variations in the HPV distribution between areas and ages in Italy and the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence. 37,367 women aged 25-60 years who attended cervical screening in eight different areas in Northern and Central Italy were tested for HPV infection with the high-risk hybrid capture (hr-HC2) assay. hr-HC2 positive samples were genotyped by an intensive integrated strategy. hr-HPV types were detected in 79.1% of HC2 positive women. HPV16 was the most frequent type, followed by HPV31, HPV18 and HPV56. A statistically significant variability in HPV type distribution between centres (overall χ84df(2)=195.86pHPV type distribution was observed in the age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-60 years. Considering cross-protection, overall 57.6% (95%CI 56.0-59.3) of all infections by hr-HPV types was preventable by vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and 49% (95%CI 46.9-51.1) with the quadrivalent vaccine. The variability between centres was statistically significant with both bivalent (χ7df(2)=43.8, pvaccine (χ7df(2)=32.9, pHPV genotype distribution according to centres but not to age. Results suggest that the higher proportion of HPV16/18 related high grade CIN in younger women could be the result of faster progression and not of earlier infection by these types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  5. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Sheaffer

    Full Text Available A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16 transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  6. A Small Molecule Inhibitor Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Cells Transformed by High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Amy K; Lee, Min S; Qi, Huilin; Chaniewski, Susan; Zheng, Xiaofan; Farr, Glen A; Esposito, Kim; Harden, David; Lei, Ming; Schweizer, Liang; Friborg, Jacques; Agler, Michele; McPhee, Fiona; Gentles, Robert; Beno, Brett R; Chupak, Lou; Mason, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A phenotypic high-throughput cell culture screen was performed to identify compounds that prevented proliferation of the human Papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) transformed cell line Ca Ski. A series of quinoxaline compounds exemplified by Compound 1 was identified. Testing against a panel of cell lines demonstrated that Compound 1 selectively inhibited replication of all HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-31 transformed cell lines tested with 50% Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) values of 2 to 8 μM relative to IC50 values of 28 to 73 μM in HPV-negative cell lines. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a cascade of multiple apoptotic events, including selective activation of effector caspases 3 and 7, fragmentation of cellular DNA, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) cleavage in HPV-positive cells relative to HPV-negative cells. Unregulated proliferation of HPV transformed cells is dependent on the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Treatment with Compound 1 resulted in a decrease in HPV E7 protein in Ca Ski cells. However, the timing of this reduction relative to other effects of compound treatment suggests that this was a consequence, rather than a cause, of the apoptotic cascade. Likewise, compound treatment resulted in no obvious effects on the E6- and E7- mediated down regulation of p53 and Rb, or their downstream effectors, p21 or PCNA. Further investigation of apoptotic signals induced by Compound 1 revealed cleavage of Caspase-8 in HPV-positive cells as early as 2 hours post-treatment, suggesting the compound initiates apoptosis through the extrinsic, death receptor-mediated, pathway of cell death. These studies provide proof of concept that cells transformed by oncogenic Papillomaviruses can be selectively induced to undergo apoptosis by compound treatment.

  7. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

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    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  8. Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Follen Michele

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised that the proportion of cervical cancer preventable by human papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccines might be lower in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. Method In order to study the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types in Nigeria, as well as to estimate the vaccine-preventable proportion of invasive cervical cancer (ICC in the country, we compared HPV type prevalence among 932 women from the general population of Ibadan, Nigeria, with that among a series of 75 ICC cases diagnosed in the same city. For all samples, a GP5+/6+ PCR based assay was used for the detection of 44 genital HPV types. Results In the general population, 245 (26.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 23.5% - 29.2% women were HPV-positive, among whom the prevalence of HPV35 and HPV16 were equally frequent (12.2%, 95% CI 8.4% - 17.0%. In ICC, however, HPV16 predominated strongly (67.6% of 68 HPV-positive cases, with the next most common types being 18 (10.3%, 95% CI 4.2% - 20.1%, 35, 45 and 56 (each 5.9%, 95% CI 1.6% - 14.4%. Comparing among HPV-positive women only, HPV16 and 18 were over-represented in ICC versus the general population (prevalence ratios 5.52, 95% CI 3.7 - 8.3 and 1.4, 95% CI 0.6 - 3.3, respectively. Other high-risk HPV types, as well as low-risk and multiple HPV infections were less common in HPV-positive women with ICC than from the general population. Conclusions Our study confirms that in Nigeria, as elsewhere, women infected with HPV16 and 18 are at higher risk of developing ICC than those infected with other high-risk types, and that current HPV16/18 vaccines have enormous potential to reduce cervical cancer in the region.

  9. Double demonstration of oncogenic high risk human papilloma virus DNA and HPV-E7 protein in oral cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannone, G; Santoro, A; Carinci, F; Bufo, P; Papagerakis, S M; Rubini, C; Campisi, G; Giovannelli, L; Contaldo, M; Serpico, R; Mazzotta, M; Lo Muzio, L

    2011-01-01

    Oncogenic HPVs are necessarily involved in cervical cancer but their role in oral carcinogenesis is debated. To detect HPV in oral cancer, 38 cases of formalin fixed-paraffin embedded OSCC were studied by both DNA genotyping (MY09/11 L1 consensus primers in combination with GP5-GP6 primer pair followed by sequencing) and immunohistochemistry (monoclonal Abs against capsid protein and HPV-E7 protein, K1H8 DAKO and clone 8C9 INVITROGEN, respectively). HPV-16 tonsil cancer was used as positive control. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in OSCCs was 10.5%. Amplification of DNA samples showed single HPV DNA infection in 3 cases (HPV16; HPV53; HPV70) and double infection in one case of cheek cancer (HPV31/HPV44). The overall HR-HPV prevalence was 7.5%. E-7 antigen was immunohistochemically detected in all HPV-positive cases. HPV+ OSCC cases showed an overall better outcome than HPV negative oral cancers, as evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves. HPVs exert their oncogenic role after DNA integration, gene expression of E5, E6 and E7 loci and p53/pRb host proteins suppression. This study showed that HPV-E7 protein inactivating pRb is expressed in oral cancer cells infected by oncogenic HPV other than classical HR-HPV-16/18. Interestingly HPV-70, considered a low risk virus with no definite collocation in oncogenic type category, gives rise to the expression of HPV-E7 protein and inactivate pRb in oral cancer. HPV-70, as proved in current literature, is able to inactivates also p53 protein, promoting cell immortalization. HPV-53, classified as a possible high risk virus, expresses E7 protein in OSCC, contributing to oral carcinogenesis. We have identified among OSCCs, a subgroup characterized by HPV infection (10.5%). Finally, we have proved the oncogenic potential of some HPV virus types, not well known in literature.

  10. Comparing the performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping for the detection of cervical (pre)cancer in high-risk HPV-positive women of a gynecologic outpatient population (COMETH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; De Strooper, Lise M A; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Dijkstra, Maaike G; Uijterwaal, Margot H; Steenbergen, Renske D M; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Verheijen, Rene H M; Ter Harmsel, W Abraham; Van Baal, W Marchien; Graziosi, Peppino G C M; Quint, Wim G V; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2016-02-15

    Recently, DNA methylation analysis of FAM19A4 in cervical scrapes has been shown to adequately detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer (≥ CIN3) in high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women. Here, we compared the clinical performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis to cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping, separately and in combination, for ≥ CIN3 detection in hrHPV-positive women participating in a prospective observational multi-center cohort study. The study population comprised hrHPV-positive women aged 18-66 years, visiting a gynecological outpatient clinic. From these women, cervical scrapes and colposcopy-directed biopsies (for histological confirmation) were obtained. Cervical scrapes were analyzed for FAM19A4 gene promoter methylation, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping. Methylation analysis was performed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). Sensitivities and specificities for ≥ CIN3 were compared between tests. Stratified analyses were performed for variables that potentially influence marker performance. Of all 508 hrHPV-positive women, the sensitivities for ≥ CIN3 of cytology, FAM19A4 methylation analysis, and cytology combined with HPV16/18 genotyping were 85.6, 75.6 and 92.2%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 49.8, 71.1 and 29.4%, respectively. Both sensitivity and specificity of FAM19A4 methylation analysis were associated with age (p ≤ 0.001 each). In women ≥ 30 years (n = 287), ≥ CIN3 sensitivity of FAM19A4 methylation analysis was 88.3% (95%CI: 80.2-96.5) which was noninferior to that of cytology [85.5% (95%CI: 76.0-94.0)], at a significantly higher specificity [62.1% (95%CI: 55.8-68.4) compared to 47.6% (95%CI: 41.1-54.1)]. In conclusion, among hrHPV-positive women from an outpatient population aged ≥ 30 years, methylation analysis of FAM19A4 is an attractive marker for the identification of women with ≥ CIN3. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors of cervical intraepithelial lesion in Douala-Cameroon: Implications of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Chlamydia Trachomatis and Treponema Pallidum. ... Infection with high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) such as HPVs 16 and 18 is the main cause of cervical cancer. ... a description of the source ...

  12. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... higher in ICC than in HG-CIN. The difference in age at diagnosis between CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer for HPV18 (9 years) was significantly less compared to HPV31/33/'other' (23/20/17 years), and for HPV45 (1 year) than HPV16/31/33/'other' (15/23/20/17 years). In Europe, HPV16 predominates in both...

  13. In vitro demineralisation of the cervical region of human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Xu, Yingzhi; Purton, David G

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible role for demineralisation of the cervical region of human teeth in the development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Freshly extracted human premolars were demineralised and prepared for nanoindentation and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. After 1 day or 2 days demineralisation in a solution of pH 4.5, specimens were embedded, cut and polished to 1 μm diamond paste. Nanoindentation was done at the cementum-enamel junction (CEJ) region with an interval of 30 μm, to develop mechanical properties maps. After the indentation, SEM with back-scatter detector was employed to observe the degree of demineralisation at the CEJ. After 1 day and 2 days demineralisation, the mechanical properties of enamel and dentine at the CEJ decreased by ∼50% and ∼90%, respectively. SEM images illustrate that artificial demineralisation generated typical demineralised zones in enamel near the CEJ. Moreover, 2 days demineralisation penetrated the sound enamel at the CEJ, and the dentine beneath was undermined. One day and 2 days demineralisation reduced the mechanical properties of teeth at the CEJ significantly. Demineralised enamel and dentine with low mechanical properties are prone to wear and abrasion. The findings of the investigation indicate that acid typical of that produced by dental plaque may compromise the mechanical properties of enamel and dentine at the CEJ to the extent that they would be susceptible to tooth brush abrasion, producing NCCLs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Roles of the PDZ-binding motif of HPV 16 E6 protein in oncogenic transformation of human cervical keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Yuki; Nakahara, Tomomi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Inagawa, Yuki; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yugawa, Takashi; Ohno, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2017-07-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus E6 proteins have been shown to interact with and lead to degradation of PDZ-domain-containing proteins through its carboxy-terminal motif. This PDZ-binding motif plays important roles in transformation of cultured cells and carcinogenesis of E6-transgenic mice. However, its biological effects on the natural host cells have not been elucidated. We have examined its roles in an in vitro carcinogenesis model for cervical cancer, in which E6 and E7 together with activated HRAS (HRASG12V ) can induce tumorigenic transformation of normal human cervical keratinocytes. In this model, E6Δ151 mutant, which is defective in binding to PDZ domains, almost lost tumorigenic ability, whereas E6SAT mutant, which is defective in p53 degradation showed activity close to wild-type E6. Interestingly, we found decreased expression of PAR3 in E6-expressing cells independently of E6AP, which has not been previously recognized. Therefore, we knocked down several PDZ-domain containing proteins including PAR3 in human cervical keratinocytes expressing E7, HRASG12V and E6Δ151 to examine whether depletion of these proteins can restore the tumorigenic ability. Single knockdown of SCRIB, MAGI1 or PAR3 significantly but partially restored the tumorigenic ability. The combinatorial knockdown of SCRIB and MAGI1 cooperatively restored the tumorigenic ability, and additional depletion of PAR3 further enhanced the tumorigenic ability surpassing that induced by wild-type E6. These data highlight the importance of the carboxy-terminal motif of the E6 protein and downregulation of PAR3 in tumorigenic transformation of human cervical keratinocytes. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Human papillomavirus oncogenic mRNA testing for cervical cancer screening: baseline and longitudinal results from the CLEAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer L; Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Dockter, Janel; Getman, Damon; Giachetti, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the longitudinal clinical performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) E6/E7 RNA assay (Aptima HPV [AHPV]; Hologic, San Diego, CA) compared with an HR-HPV DNA assay (Hybrid Capture 2 [HC2]; Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD) as an adjunctive method for cervical cancer screening. Women 30 years or older with a negative result for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy cytology (n = 10,860) positive by AHPV and/or HC2 assays and randomly selected women negative by both assays were referred to colposcopy at baseline. Women without baseline cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) continued into the 3-year follow-up. The specificity of AHPV for CIN2 or lower was significantly greater at 96.3% compared with HC2 specificity of 94.8% (P detection of CIN2+ were similar between the two assays. After 3 years of follow-up, women negative by either human papillomavirus test had a very low risk of CIN2+ (<0.3%) compared with CIN2+ risk in women with positive AHPV results (6.3%) or positive HC2 results (5.1%). These results support the use of AHPV as a safe and effective adjunctive cervical cancer screening method. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  16. Correlation between physical status of human papilloma virus and cervical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kezhen; Jin, Xin; Fang, Yong; Wang, Changyu; Gong, Mei; Chen, Pingbo; Liu, Jia; Deng, Dongrui; Ai, Jihui

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 in patients with cervical cancer, the physical status of HPV-16 in patients with cervical lesions, and the role of HPV-16 integration in cervical carcinogenesis were investigated. HPV genotyping was performed by using PCR approach with the primer GP5+/GP6+ and type-specific primer on biopsy specimens taken operatively from 198 women. Multiple PCR was done to detect physical status of HPV-16 in a series of cervical liquid-based cytology samples and biopsy specimens obtained from different cervical lesions with HPV-16 infection, including 112 specimens with cervical cancer, 151 specimens with CIN I, 246 specimens with CIN and 120 specimens with CINIII. The results showed that there were 112 cervical cancer samples (56.57% of total cervical cancer patients) with HPV-16 infection. The frequency of HPV-16 pure integration was 65.18% (73/112), 56.57% (47/120), 23.58% (58/246) and 7.95% (12/151) in cervical cancer, CINIII, CINII and CINI patients respectively. In situ hybridization was performed on some paraffin-embedded sections of CINII, CINIII and cervical cancer to verify the physical status of HPV-16 infection. Significant difference was observed between cervical cancer and CIN I, CINII, CINIII in the frequency of HPV-16 integration (PHPV-16 is the most prevalent type and is associated with cervical cancer. In the case of HPV-16 infection there are close associations between the severity of cervical lesions and the frequency of HPV-16 integration. The application of testing HPV genotyping and physical status based on detection of HC-II HPV DNA would be in favor of predicting the prognosis of cervical precancerosis and enhancing the screening accuracy of cervical cancer.

  17. Comparison of Clinical Performance of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Test with That of Hybrid Capture 2 Assay in a Screening Setting▿

    OpenAIRE

    Carozzi, F. M.; Burroni, E.; Bisanzi, S.; Puliti, D; Confortini, M.; Giorgi Rossi, P; Sani, C; Scalisi, A.; Chini, F.

    2011-01-01

    Randomized trials have produced sound evidence about the efficacy of screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. We evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the Abbott RealTime High Risk (HR) HPV test compared with that of the HR hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay as assessed by a noninferiority score test. A random sample of 998 cervical specimens (914 specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia less severe than grad...

  18. Screening and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV high-risk strains HPV16 and HPV18 in saliva samples from subjects under 18 years old in Nevada: a pilot study

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    Flake Colton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are oncogenic and mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent evidence has demonstrated HPV infection in other tissues, including oral epithelia and mucosa. Although a recent pilot study provided new information about oral HPV status in healthy adults from Nevada, no information was obtained about oral HPV prevalence among children or teenagers, therefore, the goal of this study is to provide more detailed information about oral prevalence of high-risk HPV among children and teenagers in Nevada. Methods This retrospective study utilized previously collected saliva samples, obtained from pediatric dental clinic patients (aged 2 – 11 and local school district teenagers (aged 12-17 for high-risk HPV screening (n=118 using qPCR for quantification and confirmation of analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results A small subset of saliva samples were found to harbor high-risk HPV16 (n=2 and HPV18 (n=1, representing a 2.5% of the total. All three were obtained from teenage males, and two of these three samples were from White participants. Conclusions Although this retrospective study could not provide correlations with behavioral or socioeconomic data, this project successfully screened more than one hundred saliva samples for high-risk HPV, confirming both HPV16 and HPV18 strains were present in a small subset. With increasing evidence of oral HPV infection in children, this study provides critical information of significant value to other dental, medical, oral and public health professionals who seek to further an understanding of oral health and disease risk in pediatric populations.

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  1. Reduction in the copy number and expression level of the recurrent human papillomavirus integration gene fragile histidine triad (FHIT predicts the transition of cervical lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Wang

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide, especially in developing countries. High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection causes cervical cancer and precancerous cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Integration of the HR-HPV genome into the host chromatin is an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. The detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences-PCR (DIPS-PCR allowed us to explore HPV integration in the human genome and to determine the pattern of this integration. We performed DIPS-PCR for 4 cell lines including 3 cervical cancer cell lines and 40 tissue samples. Overall, 32 HR-HPV integration loci were detected in the clinical samples and the HeLa and SiHa cell lines. Among all the integration loci, we identified three recurrent integration loci: 3p14.2 (3 samples, 13q22.1 (2 samples and a SiHa cell line and 8q24 (1 sample and a HeLa cell line. To further explore the effect of HR-HPV integration in the 3p14.2 locus, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to determine the copy number of the 3p14.2 locus and immunohistochemistry (IHC to determine the protein expression levels of the related FHIT gene in the clinical samples. Both the 3p14.2 locus copy number and FHIT protein expression levels showed significant decreases when CIN transitioned to cervical cancer. HPV copy number was also evaluated in these clinical samples, and the copy number of HPV increased significantly between CIN and cervical cancer samples. Finally, we employed receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve analysis to evaluate the potential of all these indexes in distinguishing CIN and cervical cancer, and the HPV copy number, FHIT copy number and FHIT protein expression levels have good diagnostic efficiencies.

  2. Association of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus with Genital Tract Mucosal Immune Factors In HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Niall; Huber, Ashley; Lo, Yungtai; Castle, Philip E.; Kemal, Kimdar; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Problem High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is prevalent in HIV-infected women and may be associated with mucosal changes that promote HIV replication. Method of Study Innate immune molecules, antimicrobial activity, HIV RNA, and HPV DNA genotypes were measured in a cross-sectional study of 128 HIV-infected women categorized into HPV-16 (n=8), other HR-HPV (n=41), and non-HR-HPV controls (n=79). Results Compared to controls, HR-HPV groups had higher plasma viral loads (p=0.004), lower CD4 cells (p=0.02), more genital tract HIV RNA (p=0.03), greater number of different HPV types (p<0.001), higher cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) IL-1α (p=0.03) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) (p=0.049), and less anti-HIVBal activity (p=0.03). HPV-16 remained significantly associated with higher HBD2 (p=0.03), higher IL-1α (p=0.009), and lower anti-HIVBaL activity (p=0.03) compared to controls after adjusting for plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count. Conclusion HR-HPV is associated with mucosal changes in HIV-infected women that could adversely impact genital tract health. PMID:26685115

  3. The influence of type-specific human papillomavirus infections on the detection of cervical precancer and cancer: A population-based study of opportunistic cervical screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Cosette M; Hunt, William C; Cuzick, Jack; Langsfeld, Erika; Robertson, Michael; Castle, Philip E

    2014-08-01

    There are limited data on the prospective risks of detecting cervical precancer and cancer in United States (US) populations specifically where the delivery of opportunistic cervical screening takes place outside managed care and in the absence of organized national programs. Such data will inform the management of women with positive screening results before and after widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and establishes a baseline preceding recent changes in US cervical cancer screening guidelines. Using data reported to the statewide passive surveillance systems of the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry, we measured the 3-year HPV type-specific cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) and grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) detected during real-world health care delivery across a diversity of organizations, payers, clinical settings, providers and patients. A stratified sample of 47,541 cervical cytology specimens from a screening population of 379,000 women underwent HPV genotyping. Three-year risks for different combinations of cytologic interpretation and HPV risk group ranged from high-grade (HSIL) cytology and HPV16 infection. A substantial proportion of CIN2+ (35.7%) and CIN3+ (30.9%) were diagnosed following negative cytology, of which 62.3 and 78.2%, respectively, were high-risk HPV positive. HPV16 had the greatest 3-year risks (10.9% for CIN2+,8.0% for CIN3+) followed by HPV33, HPV31, and HPV18. Positive results for high-risk HPV, especially HPV16, the severity of cytologic interpretation, and age contribute independently to the risks of CIN2+ and CIN3+. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  4. Are the human papillomavirus genotypes different in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia in Jewish Israeli women, a low-risk population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskov, Ido; Grisaru, Dan; Efrat, Gabi; Trejo, Leonor Leidor; Grisaru, Galia; Avidor, Boaz

    2013-05-01

    Israel is traditionally considered to have the lowest prevalence of cervical cancer compared with that in other countries of the Western world. The aim of the present study was to establish the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes distribution among Israeli Jewish women with premalignant and cervical cancer. Fifty-two specimens with invasive cervical cancer and 50 specimens with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) were identified. Human papillomavirus genotyping in paraffin-embedded specimens was performed by deparaffinization of the tissue sections and DNA extraction, followed by HPV genotype detection using a validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based HPV GenoArray test kit, to simultaneously identify 21 HPV genotypes. Forty-eight (48/52; 92.3%) cervical cancer samples demonstrated PCR-amplifiable DNA (non-HPV DNA). Forty (83.3%) of 48 samples were high-risk (HR) HPV positive. Six (12.5%) of 48 patients showed multiple HR HPV infections. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 dominated covering 28 (58.3%) and 14 (29.16%) of 48 samples. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 coinfected all 6 cases of multiple HR HPV infections. In CIN2/3 samples, 37 (78.7%) of 47 samples demonstrated PCR-amplifiable DNA (non-HPV DNA), and 20 (54.0%) of these 37 samples were infected by HPV. Human papillomavirus type 16 was found in 19 (95.0%) of 20 cases. Human papillomavirus type 18 was found in 3 (15.0%) of 20 cases; hence, HPV16 and HPV18 contributed to 100% of the cases. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 were responsible for the vast majority of invasive cervical cancer and CIN2/3 specimens (81.2% and 100%, respectively). Therefore, it is essential to include the HPV vaccine in the vaccine schedule of the Israeli population.

  5. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  6. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Up-Regulation of miR-21 Is Associated with Cervicitis and Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cervical Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureewan Bumrungthai

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 is recognized as an oncomir and shows up-regulation in many types of human malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of miR-21 expression associated with HPV infection in normal and abnormal cervical tissues. Cervical tissue samples with different cytological or histopathological grades were investigated for HPV by PCR and for miR-21 and programmed cell death, protein 4 (PDCD4 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Laser capture microdissection (LCM of stromal and epithelial tissues and in situ hybridization (ISH using locked nucleic acid (LNA probes were performed on a subset of fixed specimens. Cell line experiments were conducted on fibroblasts stimulated in culture media from HeLa cells, which were then assessed for miR-21, PDCD4, IL-6 and α-SMA expression by qRT-PCR. Twenty normal cervical cell, 12 cervicitis, 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplastic I (CIN I, 22 CIN II-III and 43 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC specimens were investigated. miR-21 levels were significantly lower in normal than in abnormal tissues. The expression of miR-21 in HPV negative normal cytology was significantly lower than in HPV positive samples in abnormal tissue and SCC. The miR-21 expression was significantly higher in HPV negative cervicitis than HPV negative normal cells. LCM and ISH data showed that miR-21 is primarily expressed in the tumor-associated stromal cell microenvironment. Fibroblasts treated with HeLa cell culture media showed up-regulated expression of miR-21, which correlated with increased expression of α-SMA and IL-6 and with down-regulation of PDCD4. These results demonstrate that miR-21 is associated with HPV infection and involved in cervical lesions as well as cervicitis and its up-regulation in tumor-stroma might be involved in the inflammation process and cervical cancer progression.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of cervical pre-cancer detection methods in a high-risk area in East Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, S; Arbyn, M; Lie, A K; Ryd, W; Borge, B; Berle, E J; Skomedal, H; Kadima, T M; Kyembwa, L; Billay, E M; Mukwege, D; Chirimwami, R B; Mvula, T M; Snijders, P J; Meijer, C J L M; Karlsen, F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the high burden of cervical cancer in low-income settings, there is a need for a convenient and affordable method for detecting and treating pre-cancerous lesions. Methods: Samples for comparing the accuracy of cytology, virology and histology were collected. Identification of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was performed using PreTect HPV-Proofer. HPV DNA detection was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR, followed by reverse line blot (RLB) for typing. Results: A total of 343 women, aged 25–60 years, attending gynaecological polyclinics in DR Congo were included for sample enrolment. The test positivity rate was conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) at cutoff ASCUS+ of 6.9 and 6.6%, respectively; PreTect HPV-Proofer of 7.3% and consensus DNA PCR for 14 HR types of 18.5%. Sixteen cases of CIN2+ lesions were identified. Of these, conventional cytology identified 66.7% with a specificity of 96.2%, LBC identified 73.3% with a specificity of 96.9%, all at cutoff ASCUS+. HR-HPV DNA detected all CIN2+ cases with a specificity of 85.9%, whereas PreTect HPV-Proofer gave a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 96.6%. Conclusion: Both HPV detection assays showed a higher sensitivity for CIN2+ than did cytological methods. Detecting E6/E7 mRNA from only a subset of HR HPVs, as is the case with PreTect HPV-Proofer, resulted in a similar specificity to cytology and a significantly higher specificity than consensus HR HPV DNA (P<0.0001). PMID:20197765

  9. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-05-01

    Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening alone and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in addition to VIA screening in Indonesia. We developed a population-based Markov model, consisting of three health states (susceptible, cervical cancer, and death), to assess future costs, health effects, and the cost-utility of cervical cancer prevention strategies in Indonesia. We followed a cohort of 100,000 females 12 to 100 years old and compared VIA screening alone with the addition of HPV vaccination on top of the screening to "no intervention." The implementation of VIA screening alone and in combination with HPV vaccination would reduce the cervical cancer incidence by 7.9% and 58.5%, corresponding to 25 and 98 deaths avoided within the cohort of 100,000, respectively. We also estimated that HPV vaccination combined with VIA screening apparently yielded a lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at international dollar 1863/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), compared with VIA screening alone (I$3126/QALY). Both strategies could however be definitely labeled as very cost-effective interventions, based on a threshold suggested by the World Health Organization. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to the discount rate, cervical cancer treatment costs, and quality of life as part of the QALY. The addition of HPV vaccination on top of VIA screening could be a cost-effective strategy in Indonesia even if relatively conservative assumptions are applied. This population-based model can be considered as an essential tool to inform decision makers on designing optimal strategies for cervical cancer prevention in Indonesia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes

  10. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  11. Cervical human papillomavirus infection in a sample of Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico: Comparison with cervical cytology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Pérez, Cynthia M; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.; Ortiz, Ana P

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persistent infection with high-risk (HR) HPV is a necessary risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Information on HPV infection is limited in Puerto Rico. This study determined the distribution of HPV types and the association of HR-HPV types with cervical pathology in a clinic-based sample of women in PR. Methods Data from 92 female participants aged 18 to 34 years and recruited from the University of Puerto Rico-Gynecology Clinic, were analyzed. Cervical cytology was performed. HPV testing was performed using L1 consensus primer PCR with MY09/MY11 primers and typed by dot-blot hybridization. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the crude and covariate adjusted association between HR-HPV and cervical pathology. Results Twenty percent (n=18) of the patients had abnormal cytology, 45.7% (n=42) were HPV positive, and 30.4% (n=28) were HR HPV-positive. Women infected with HR-risk HPV types were 7.9 (95% CI = 2.5–25.5) times likely to have abnormal cytology as compared to women without HR infection when adjusted by age and age at first sexual intercourse. Conclusions The burden of HPV infection was high, and, as expected, HR HPVs were strongly associated with dysplasia. A population-based study is needed to estimate HPV prevalence and its association with related malignancies in our population. This will be of great value in determining disease burden and will increase awareness of the HPV vaccination in our population. PMID:23556259

  12. The EVVA Cohort Study: Anal and Cervical Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Prevalence, Persistence, and Cytologic Findings in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Kaufman, Elaina; de Castro, Christina; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Burchell, Ann N; Klein, Marina; Charest, Louise; Auger, Manon; Rodrigues-Coutlée, Sophie; Coutlée, François

    2017-08-15

    The risk of anal cancer due to high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is higher in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population. We present findings of cervical and anal HPV and cytologic tests at baseline in the EVVA cohort study and HPV persistence data 6 months after baseline. Semiannual visits included questionnaires, chart reviews, cervical/anal cytologic and cervical/anal HPV testing for 2 years. Genotyping for 36 HPV genotypes was performed using the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping test. A total of 151 women living with HIV were recruited. At baseline, 75% had anal HPV, 51% had anal HR-HPV, 50% had cervical HPV, and 29% had cervical HR-HPV. Anal HPV-16 and HPV-51 were more frequent in women born in Canada (31% and 29%, respectively, compared with ≤16% for other women). Most anal HR-HPV types detected at 6 months (57%-93%) were persistent from baseline. Findings of anal cytologic tests were abnormal for 37% of women. Anal HPV is highly prevalent in women living with HIV, and type distribution varies by place of birth. High-resolution anoscopy was indicated in more than one third of results. As anal cancer is potentially preventable, these important findings need to be considered when selecting the best approach for anal cancer screening programs.

  13. Evolutionary ecology of human papillomavirus: trade-offs, coexistence, and origins of high-risk and low-risk types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Giuliano, Anna R; Brown, Joel S

    2012-01-15

    We address the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) that lead to the dichotomy between high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) types. We hypothesize that HPV faces an evolutionary tradeoff between persistence and per-contact transmission probability. High virion production enhances transmissibility but also provokes an immune response leading to clearance and limited persistence. Alternatively, low virion production increases persistence at the cost of diminished transmission probability per sexual contact. We propose that LR HPV types use the former strategy and that HR types use the latter. Sexual behaviors in a host population determine the success of each strategy. We develop an evolutionary model of HPV epidemiology, which includes host sexual behavior, and we find evolutionarily stable strategies of HPV. A slow turnover of sexual partners favors HR HPV, whereas high frequency of partner turnover selects for LR. When both sexual behaviors exist as subcultures in a population, disruptive selection can result in the coevolution and ecological coexistence of both HR and LR HPV types. Our results indicate that the elimination of HR HPV through vaccines may alter the evolutionary trajectory of the remaining types and promote evolution of new HR HPV types.

  14. Specificity of L1 Peptides versus Virus-Like Particles for Detection of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Cervical Lesions in Females Attending Engativa Hospital, Bogota, Colombia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Sánchez, Ricardo; Amaya, Jairo; León, Sandra; Acosta, Jenny; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Camargo, Milena; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2008-01-01

    A serological test for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females at risk of developing cervical cancer could be based on conserved L1 peptides with low levels of antigenicity specifically recognized by antibodies from patients with cervical lesions infected with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types. The aim was to assess the ability of L1 peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 compared with the ability of virus-like particles (VLPs) to identify these infections in females. A total of 391 HPV-infected female volunteers were interviewed, and peripheral blood and cervical cells were obtained for detection of anti-HPV antibodies and HPV DNA; all of the patients had a Pap smear test; 287 patients were referred for colposcopy or biopsy, according to gynecological criteria. The level of agreement, as determined by the use of the Lin coefficient (rho value), showed that 75 to 83% of females with HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions had antibodies that recognized VLPs and peptide 18283, 18294, or 18301, while 15 to 23% of the HPV DNA-negative females with a normal cytology had antibodies that recognized these three peptides and 45% had antibodies that recognized VLPs. The rate of agreement between peptides and VLPs for antibody detection was higher for patients with HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions. Peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 showed similar sensitivities for the detection of HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions and were more specific than VLPs. Peptide 18301 might be detecting protective antibodies in HPV DNA-negative females with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. These peptides could be useful for the design of a serology test for the detection of HR-HPV infection in females with cervical lesions and at risk of cervical cancer. PMID:18799706

  15. Specificity of L1 peptides versus virus-like particles for detection of human papillomavirus-positive cervical lesions in females attending Engativa Hospital, Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Mauricio; Sánchez, Ricardo; Amaya, Jairo; León, Sandra; Acosta, Jenny; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Camargo, Milena; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2008-11-01

    A serological test for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females at risk of developing cervical cancer could be based on conserved L1 peptides with low levels of antigenicity specifically recognized by antibodies from patients with cervical lesions infected with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types. The aim was to assess the ability of L1 peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 compared with the ability of virus-like particles (VLPs) to identify these infections in females. A total of 391 HPV-infected female volunteers were interviewed, and peripheral blood and cervical cells were obtained for detection of anti-HPV antibodies and HPV DNA; all of the patients had a Pap smear test; 287 patients were referred for colposcopy or biopsy, according to gynecological criteria. The level of agreement, as determined by the use of the Lin coefficient (rho value), showed that 75 to 83% of females with HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions had antibodies that recognized VLPs and peptide 18283, 18294, or 18301, while 15 to 23% of the HPV DNA-negative females with a normal cytology had antibodies that recognized these three peptides and 45% had antibodies that recognized VLPs. The rate of agreement between peptides and VLPs for antibody detection was higher for patients with HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions. Peptides 18283, 18294, and 18301 showed similar sensitivities for the detection of HR-HPV DNA-positive cervical lesions and were more specific than VLPs. Peptide 18301 might be detecting protective antibodies in HPV DNA-negative females with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. These peptides could be useful for the design of a serology test for the detection of HR-HPV infection in females with cervical lesions and at risk of cervical cancer.

  16. Evaluation of the human papillomavirus mRNA test for the detection of cervical lesions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y; Yamada, M; Kurata, A; Kiseki, H; Isaka, K; Kuroda, M

    2015-01-01

    For the screening of cervical abnormalities, human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is widely used along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. Although the sensitivity of the HPV DNA testing is good, its specificity is relatively low. In the present study, the authors evaluated the use of the Gen-Probe APTIMA HPV Assay for the detection of HPV mRNA and compared it with HPV DNA testing. Liquid cervical Pap specimens collected from 410 women were assessed using the APTIMA test, the Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA (HC2) Test, and the AMPLICOR HPV Test. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of high-risk HPV were 85.6% and 99.2% for the APTIMA test, 94.1% and 98.4% for the HC2 test, and 90.2% and 95.7% for the AMPLICOR test, respectively. As the severity of the cervical lesion progressed, the positive rate of the three tests indicated a similar increase. The clinical sensitivity and specificity for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) were 91.2% and 84.2% for the APTIMA test, 94.5% and 80.4% for the HC2 test, and 87.9% and 78.2% for the AMPLICOR test, respectively. The APTIMA is sensitive and specific for the detection of high-risk HPV. In the specimens with SIL, the APTIMA test is more specific than the HC2 and the AMPLICOR tests. This indicates that the APTIMA test may improve patient management and reduce the cost of screening.

  17. Basal cell carcinomas of the vulva: high-risk human papillomavirus DNA detection, p16 and BerEP4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Hillary; Kim, Jinah; Yemelyanova, Anna; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Taube, Janis M

    2014-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the vulva is rare and may be confused with the much more commonly encountered high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The HPV status of BCCs is not well established. This study assesses the utility of p16 and BerEP4 expression patterns and high-risk HPV detection for distinction of these tumors. Thirteen cases of vulvar BCC were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for p16 and BerEP4 expression. HPV status was assessed by in situ hybridization (ISH) with a high-risk HPV wide-spectrum probe and HPV 16 and 18 type-specific probes. All tumors (13/13) demonstrated patchy p16 positivity, with high-risk HPV-associated lesions. No high-risk HPV was detected by ISH (0/13). Eleven of 13 (85%) vulvar BCCs showed diffuse, intense expression of BerEP4. The 2 BerEP4-negative cases were notably squamatized. The lack of diffuse p16 expression and failure to detect high-risk HPV by ISH in vulvar BCCs indicate that these tumors are unrelated to high-risk HPV. Thus, these ancillary techniques, particularly p16 immunohistochemistry, are useful for distinguishing vulvar BCCs from basaloid forms of high-risk HPV-related vulvar SCC. BerEP4 expression can help in distinction of these tumors except in cases of BCC with extensive squamatization. Distinction of vulvar BCC from basaloid SCC is important because of differences in extent of surgical treatment for these entities.

  18. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...

  19. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem...

  20. A Comparison of the Roche Cobas HPV Test With the Hybrid Capture 2 Test for the Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2016-02-01

    All Food and Drug Administration-approved methods in the United States for human papillomavirus testing including the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and the Roche cobas human papillomavirus test are approved for cytology specimens collected into ThinPrep media but not for specimens collected into SurePath solution. To compare the performance of the Roche cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 tests for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using both ThinPrep and SurePath preparations as part of a validation study. One thousand three hundred seventy-one liquid-based cytology samples, including 1122 SurePath and 249 ThinPrep specimens, were tested for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA using the Roche cobas human papillomavirus test and the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay. For cases with discrepant results, confirmatory testing was performed using Linear Array human papillomavirus testing. One hundred and fifty-six (11.38%) and 184 (13.42%) of the 1371 specimens tested positive for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and Roche cobas human papillomavirus assay, respectively. In addition, 1289 (94.0%) of 1371 specimens demonstrated concordant high-risk human papillomavirus results with a κ value of 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 065-0.78). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of positive high-risk human papillomavirus results between the 2 liquid-based preparations with either assay. Discordant results between the 2 assays were noted in 82 of 1371 cases (6%). Twenty-seven of 82 cases (32.9%) were Hybrid Capture 2 positive/Roche cobas negative and 55 of 82 cases (67.1%) were Roche cobas positive/Hybrid Capture 2 negative. Two of 20 Hybrid Capture 2-positive/Roche cobas-negative cases (10%) and 26 of 37 Roche cobas-positive/Hybrid Capture 2-negative cases (70%) tested positive for high-risk human papillomavirus by Linear Array. Both assays showed good agreement

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes associated with cervical and breast cancers in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Rassi; Behzad, Salehi; Tahar, Mohammadian; Azadeh, Nahavandi Araghi

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is a multi-step disease, and infection with a DNA virus could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agent of several cancers. In this study, we determined the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among Iranian patients with cervix lesions (CL) and breast cancer (BC). The study group consisted of postoperative tissues from patients diagnosed with cervix lesions and breast cancer. We analyzed 250 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 100 cervix lesions and 150 breast cancer samples. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Cervix lesions were collected from 100 patients with squamous metaplasia (SM, n=50), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINI, n=18, CINII or III, n=8), and cervical carcinoma (CC, n=24). In this study we evaluated the prevalence of HPV by multiplex PCR in cervix lesions and breast cancer. For paraffin-embedded tissues, DNA extracted by the simple boiling method yielded higher proportions of successful gene amplification (99%) for b-actin gene. Overall prevalence of HPV infection was 6% in the SM group, 34.61% in the CIN group, 75% in the CC group, and 34.66% in the BC group. Furthermore, MY09/11 consensus PCR failed to detect 44 (55.69%) of all HPV infections and interestingly, the predominant genotype detected in all cancers was the oncogenic variant HPV16/18; about 34% of women aged 24 to 54 were infected with at least one type of HPV. Our results demonstrate that DNA derived from archival tissues that archived for less than 8 years could be used successfully for HPV genotyping by multiplex PCR. Infection with HPV was prevalent among Iranian women with CC and BC. The results indicate a likely causal role for high-risk HPV in CC and BC, and also offer the possibility of primary prevention of these cancers by vaccination against HPV in Iran.

  2. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Roche Cobas HPV, and Hybrid Capture 2 assays to direct sequencing and genotyping of HPV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-07-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the criteria that concordant results among the three assays were regarded as true-positive or -negative and that the results of genotyping and sequencing were considered true findings when the HPV assays presented discrepant results. The overall concordance rate among the results for the three assays was 82.6%, and RealTime HR and Cobas HPV assays agreed with HC2 in 86.1% and 89.9% of cases, respectively. The two real-time PCR assays agreed with each other for 89.6% of the samples, and the concordance rate between them was equal to or greater than 98.0% for detecting HPV type 16 or 18. HC2 demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.6% with a specificity of 89.1% for detecting HR HPVs, while RealTime HR presented a sensitivity of 78.3% with a specificity of 99.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of Cobas HPV for detecting HR HPVs were 91.7% and 97.0%. The new real-time PCR assays exhibited lower sensitivities for detecting HR HPVs than that of HC2. Nevertheless, the newly introduced assays have an advantage of simultaneously identifying HPV types 16 and 18 from clinical samples.

  3. p16 Expression Is Not a Surrogate Marker for High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Periocular Sebaceous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Anna M; Afrogheh, Amir H; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Iacob, Codrin E; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Deshpande, Vikram; Maske, Christopher; Hiss, Donovan C; Faquin, William C

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in periocular sebaceous carcinoma (SC) using multiple methods of detection, and to determine whether p16 overexpression is present and can be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV. Retrospective observational case series with laboratory investigations. Unstained paraffin sections of 35 cases of periocular SC were analyzed with immunohistochemistry for p16 and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HR-HPV. A subset of 18 lesions that were p16-positive was further studied with a novel method of mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) for the detection of transcriptionally active HR-HPV, an advanced technique with an enhanced sensitivity and specificity. The clinical findings were in keeping with those of comparable earlier studies. Strong immunohistochemical p16 positivity (meeting the criterion of >70% nuclear and cytoplasmic staining) was present in 29 of 35 cases of periocular SC (82.9%). The selected 18 p16-positive cases tested were negative for HR-HPV using mRNA ISH. PCR yielded unequivocal results with adequate DNA isolated in 24 cases, 23 of which were negative for HR-HPV. One case was positive for HPV type 16, which was found to be a false positive as collaterally determined by mRNA ISH negativity. No evidence was found for HR-HPV as an etiologic agent in the development of periocular SC using multiple modalities to maximize sensitivity and specificity and reduce the limitations of any single test. p16 overexpression is common in periocular SC but unrelated to HR-HPV status. Although p16 may be used as a surrogate marker for HR-HPV status in other tissue sites, this interpretation of p16 positivity is not applicable to periocular SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Re-detection vs. new acquisition of high-risk human papillomavirus in mid-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Carter, Joseph J; Hughes, James P; Feng, Qinghua; Hawes, Stephen E; Schwartz, Stephen M; Xi, Long Fu; Lasof, Taylor; Stern, Joshua E; Galloway, Denise A; Koutsky, Laura A; Winer, Rachel L

    2016-11-15

    To understand high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemiology in mid-adulthood, we assessed whether associations between incident detection of hrHPV DNA and recent sexual behavior differed according to whether or not there was serologic evidence of prior infection. From 2011 to 2012, we enrolled 409 women aged 30-50 years into a 6-month longitudinal study. We collected health and sexual behavior histories, enrollment sera for HPV antibody testing, and monthly self-collected vaginal swabs for HPV DNA genotyping. Generalized estimating equations logistic regression identified risk factors for type-specific incident hrHPV DNA, stratified by type-specific hrHPV serostatus at enrollment. Population attributable risks of hrHPV due to prior and recent exposure were estimated. When type-specific hrHPV serology was negative, recent sexual risk behavior was positively associated with incident hrHPV DNA (odds ratio in women reporting ≥3 recent sexual risk behaviors [e.g., new or multiple partners] vs. no recent sexual activity = 9.8, 95% CI: 2.4-40.6). No associations with recent sexual behavior were observed with positive type-specific hrHPV serology. Thirty percent of incident hrHPV DNA detection was attributable to prior infection (with positive serology) and 40% was attributable to recent sexual risk behavior (with negative serology). The proportion of incident hrHPV DNA detection attributable to recent sexual risk behavior decreased with increasing age. Among women with serologic evidence of prior infection, re-detection of the same hrHPV type is likely due to reactivation or intermittent detection of persistent infection. Without serologic evidence of prior infection, new detection is likely due to new acquisition or to intermittent detection of persisting infection. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Polymerase Chain Reaction Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV Genotyping in Invasive Cervical Cancers With Prior Negative HC2 Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiang; Zheng, Baowen; Yin, Fufen; Zeng, Zhengyu; Li, Zaibo; Griffith, Christopher C; Luo, Bing; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhou, Xianrong; Zhao, Chengquan

    2017-05-01

    Recently, three large Chinese cohort studies showed that 7.5% to 15.5% of patients with cervical carcinoma had negative high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test results on prior cytology specimens. These studies raise the question as to whether these negative hrHPV results represent truly hrHPV-negative carcinomas or false-negative hrHPV test results due to limitations in the testing of cytology specimens. This is increasingly an important question with increasing push to use hrHPV testing alone to screen for cervical cancer. We investigated the hrHPV status on the surgical specimens from these same patients with cervical carcinoma using three polymerase chain reaction methods and a linear assay genotyping method. A variety of HPV genotypes were detected in 28 (45.9%) of 61 cases, all belonging to carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic categories. HPV 16 was the most common genotype detected in positive cases (66.7%). HPV was detected in 25 (50%) of 50 squamous cell carcinomas and two (66.7%) of three adenosquamous carcinomas and only one (12.5%) of eight endocervical adenocarcinomas. Our findings demonstrate that negative hrHPV testing on cervicovaginal cytology specimens in women later diagnosed with cervical carcinoma can be explained by the occurrence of truly HPV-negative carcinomas in more than half of patients. These results should be considered in the development of future cervical cancer screening guidelines.

  6. Approaches for triaging women who test positive for human papillomavirus in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Bentley, James; Blake, Jennifer; Coutlée, François; Duggan, Máire A; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Gotlieb, Walter; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; McLachlin, Meg; Murphy, Joan; Ogilvie, Gina; Ratnam, Sam

    2017-05-01

    Substantial evidence exists to support the introduction of molecular testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening. While HPV testing is much more sensitive than cytology for detection of high-grade precancerous lesions, it is less specific. To improve efficiency, it is therefore recommended that a specific test (like cytology) be used in triaging HPV positive women to colposcopy. A number of studies have been conducted that support the use of cytology alone or in conjunction with HPV genotyping for triage. The decision to incorporate genotyping also depends on the commercial HPV test that is selected since not all tests provide results for certain individual high-risk types. Regardless of whether policy officials decide to adopt a triage approach that incorporates genotyping, the use of liquid based cytology (LBC) may also improve screening performance by reducing diagnostic delays. With LBC, the same cell suspension from a single collection may be used for HPV testing and a smear can be immediately prepared if HPV status is positive. This was a critical lesson from a community based demonstration project in Montreal (VASCAR study), where conventional cytology exists and specimen co-collection was not permitted for ethical reasons, requiring HPV positive women to return for an additional screening visit prior to colposcopy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Co-carcinogenesis: Human Papillomaviruses, Coal Tar Derivatives, and Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry W. Haverkos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the fourth most common cancers among women worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs play a major role in the etiology of CC, with several lines of epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting a role for non-viral (co-carcinogens and host genetic factors in controlling the risk for progression to neoplasia among HPV-infected individuals. The role of co-carcinogens in the development of CC is significant in the developing world where poor sanitation and other socio-economic conditions increase the infectious cancer burden. Here, we discuss how exposure to environmental factors such as coal tar derivatives from cigarette smoking, tar-based sanitary products, and inhaled smoke from biomass-burning stoves, could activate host pathways involved in development of HPV-associated squamous cell cancers in resource-limited settings. Understanding interactions between these pathways with certain oncogenic HPV genotypes may guide implementation of strategies for control and treatment of HPV-associated cancers that develop in populations at high risk of exposure to various co-carcinogens.

  8. Incidence and clearance of anal high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: estimates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, Ronald B.; González, Cristina; Torres, Montserrat; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José R.; Iribarren, Mauricio; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; del Amo, Julia

    2016-01-01

    To estimate incidence and clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), and their risk factors, in men who have sex with men (MSM) recently infected by HIV in Spain; 2007-2013. Multicenter cohort. HR-HPV infection was determined and genotyped with linear array. Two-state Markov models and

  9. Agreement between self- and clinician-collected specimen results for detection and typing of high-risk human papillomavirus in specimens from women in Gugulethu, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Heidi E.; Allan, Bruce R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Altini, Lydia; Taylor, Sylvia M.; de Kock, Alana; Coetzee, Nicol; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the agreement in detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as specific HPV types, between self- and clinician-obtained specimens for 450 women over 18 years of age attending a community health center in Gugulethu, South Africa. Both self-collected swabs and tampons had

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors...Oncogenic Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of...Abstract Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of death among women worldwide. There is an established linkage between cervical cancer and

  11. Combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the detection risk of cervical human papilloma virus infection in women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Michèle D; Botha, Matthys H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Machekano, Rhoderick N; Jacobs, Graeme B; Isaacs, Shahieda; van Schalkwyk, Marije; van der Merwe, Haynes; Mason, Deidre; Nachega, Jean B

    2015-01-02

    Data on the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are both limited and conflicting. We aimed to determine the effect of the initiation of cART for HPV genotype detection on cervical samples in HIV-infected South African women. Prospective cohort study. Generalized estimating equation was performed to estimate parameters of mixed-effects logistic regression models of cART on HPV cervical detection risk, adjusting for time-dependent covariates CD4 T-cell count, sexual activity and excision treatment. Ratio of odds ratios (ORs) was computed to compare the pooled cART effect on lower vs. high-risk HPV genotype groups, to the effect of cART on the risk of HPV-16 detection. Of the 300 patients, 204 (68%) were commenced on ART during follow-up, as they met the criteria for cART initiation. cART significantly reduced the risk for detection of HPV by 77% [OR 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.37]. cART significantly reduced the risk of HPV-16 detection (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.67). Every month on cART significantly reduced the detection risk of any HPV type by 9% (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The protective effect of cART on the detection risk for the low-risk HPV genotype group was significantly less than the protective effect of cART on the detection risk of HPV-16 (ratio of ORs 1.35, 95% CI 1.22-1.50). cART significantly reduced cervical HPV infection. This effect was dependent on the duration of exposure to cART and is the mechanism by which cART may improve the outcome of dysplasia in HIV-infected women.

  12. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  13. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  14. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution Among 18,815 Women in 13 Korean Cities and Relationship With Cervical Cytology Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Eun Hee; Cho, Seon; Kim, Suyoung; Cho, Han Ik

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection vary depending on geographical region and the immunity provided by vaccines. This study aimed to clarify the recent prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV according to age and cervical cytology findings in Korea. This study included 18,815 health examinees that underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping tests at 16 centers of Korean Association of Health Promotion in 13 cities in Korea, between January 2014 and October 2015. HPV was genotyped by using multiplex PCR (Anyplex II HPV 28, Seegene, Korea), which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR-HPV) and nine low-risk HPVs (LR-HPV). Overall HPV prevalence was 27.8%, with 22.2% HR-HPV and 11.4% LR-HPV. The five most common carcinogens were HPV 52 (3.2%), 58 (2.7%), 16 (2.0%), 56 (1.9%), and 51 (1.8%). The five most common HR-HPVs in normal cytology samples were HPV 53, 68, 70, 52, and 58, while HPV 16, 52, 58, 33, and 31 were prevalent in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). In atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), the prevalence of HR-HPV varied with age; it was highest in those aged <30 yr, declining to a minimum at age 50-59 yr, and then increasing in older women (P<0.05). The prevalence and distribution of HR-HPV varied with age and cervical cytology findings. This information would be helpful in the development of cervical cancer prevention policies.

  15. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  16. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (55/68) of cervical carcinoma biopsies and 66% (66/98) of. GIN grade 3 biopsies from Gape Town.111.19 HPV 16 was the predominant HPV type in both these studies. At present there is no information on the prevalence and types of HPV DNA present in cervical smears from women with normal cytology in South Africa.

  17. Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer Education Needs among HIV-Positive Haitian Women in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, Sonjia; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Fatil, Marie; Jones, Jamal; Jean, Chrystelle; Huff, India; Kobetz, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Haitian immigrant women, the largest growing Black ethnic group in Miami, experience the highest rates of cervical cancer and account for one of the largest populations diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Florida. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted a pilot study to examine human papilloma virus (HPV)/cervical cancer knowledge and identify intervention preferences among HIV positive Haitian women. Community health workers conducted three focus groups with 21 HIV-positive Haitian women. All sessions were conducted in Haitian Kreyol, digitally recorded, and subsequently interpreted and transcribed into English. The first focus group assessed HPV/cervical cancer knowledge, the second session explored HPV/cervical cancer considerations specific to HIV-positive women, and the third focus group discussed HPV/cervical cancer screening and intervention preferences. Data analysis was guided by a grounded theory approach. Our sample had limited HPV/cervical cancer knowledge. Misconceptions about screening, transmission, and treatment were common. Participants felt that stigma by providers impacted negatively the care they received and that stigma by the community diminished social support. Strong support for culturally tailored interventions to improve HPV/cervical cancer knowledge was expressed. Although no participants had participated in research previously, all were willing to participate in future trials. There is critical need for culturally relevant interventions to improve HPV/cervical cancer knowledge among HIV-positive Haitian women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptionally Active High-Risk Human Papillomavirus is Not a Common Etiologic Agent in the Malignant Transformation of Inverted Schneiderian Papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Lisa M; Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2017-09-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiologic and transformational agent in inverted Schneiderian papilloma (ISP) is unclear. Indeed, reported detection rates of HPV in ISPs range from 0 to 100%. The true incidence has been confounded by a tendency to conflate high- and low-risk HPV types and by the inability to discern biologically relevant from irrelevant HPV infections. The recent development of RNA in situ hybridization for high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA now allows the direct visualization of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in ISP, providing an opportunity to more definitively assess its role in the development and progression of ISPs. We performed p16 immunohistochemistry and high-risk HPV RNA in situ hybridization on 30 benign ISPs, 7 ISPs with dysplasia, 16 ISPs with carcinomatous transformation, and 7 non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) with inverted growth that were unassociated with ISP. Transcriptionally active HPV was not detected in any of the 52 ISPs including those that had undergone carcinomatous transformation, but it was detected in two of seven (29%) non-keratinizing SCCs that showed inverted growth. There was a strong correlation between high-risk HPV RNA in situ hybridization and p16 immunohistochemistry (97%; p < 0.01). These results indicate that transcriptionally active high-risk HPV does not play a common role in either the development of ISP or in its transformation into carcinoma.

  19. Novel functions and targets of miR-944 in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Lee, Linkiat; Scicluna, Patrick; Kavak, Ersen; Larsson, Catharina; Sandberg, Rickard; Lui, Weng-Onn

    2015-03-01

    Altered expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) has been observed in human cervical cancer. However, the biological functions of many of these miRNAs are yet to be discovered. We previously showed that miR-944 is significantly more abundant in cervical cancer tissues than their normal counterparts. In this study, we investigated the functions and targets of miR-944 in human cervical cancer cells. MiR-944 is located in the intron of the tumor protein p63 (TP63) gene, which is frequently overexpressed in cervical carcinomas. Using gain- and loss-of-function experiments in vitro, we demonstrate that miR-944 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but has no effect on apoptosis, in human cervical cancer cells. To identify the targets of miR-944, we performed photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing. Among the candidate targets, we validated HECW2 (HECT domain ligase W2) and S100PBP (S100P binding protein) as direct targets of miR-944 using luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis. Our findings reveal novel functions and targets of miR-944 in human cervical cancer cells, which may provide new insights of its role in cervical carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  20. Prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in mice using estrogen receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Lambert, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In mouse models for HPV-associated cancers, estrogen is required for the development of cervical and vaginal cancers. The estrogen receptor α (ERα) also is required in mice for these cancers to arise. These data are consistent with the observation in women that long-term use of oral contraceptives or multiple pregnancies significantly increases the risk for cervical cancer in HPV-positiv...

  1. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim@radcom.snu.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Goo [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 {>=} 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps {>=}6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps {>=}10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps {>=}6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps {>=}10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix

  2. High-risk human papillomavirus viral load and persistence among heterosexual HIV-negative and HIV-positive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mary K; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gravitt, Patti E; Nalugoda, Fred; Reynolds, Steven J; Wawer, Maria J; Watya, Stephen; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2014-06-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) viral load is associated with HR-HPV transmission and HR-HPV persistence in women. It is unknown whether HR-HPV viral load is associated with persistence in HIV-negative or HIV-positive men. HR-HPV viral load and persistence were evaluated among 703 HIV-negative and 233 HIV-positive heterosexual men who participated in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. Penile swabs were tested at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months for HR-HPV using the Roche HPV Linear Array, which provides a semiquantitative measure of HPV shedding by hybridisation band intensity (graded: 1-4). Prevalence risk ratios (PRR) were used to estimate the association between HR-HPV viral load and persistent detection of HR-HPV. HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load (grade:3-4) at baseline were more likely to persist than HR-HPV genotypes with low viral load (grade: 1-2) among HIV-negative men (month 6: adjPRR=1.83, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.52; month 12: adjPRR=2.01, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.11), and HIV-positive men (month 6: adjPRR=1.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67; month 12: adjPRR=1.73, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.54). Long-term persistence of HR-HPV was more frequent among HIV-positive men compared with HIV-negative men (month 24: adjPRR=2.27, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.51). Persistence of newly detected HR-HPV at the 6-month and 12-month visits with high viral load were also more likely to persist to 24 months than HR-HPV with low viral load among HIV-negative men (adjPRR=1.67, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.16). HR-HPV genotypes with high viral load are more likely to persist among HIV-negative and HIV-positive men, though persistence was more common among HIV-positive men overall. The results may explain the association between high HR-HPV viral load and HR-HPV transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J., E-mail: mjamsb01@louisville.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Yusuf, Mehran [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Cash, Elizabeth [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Silverman, Craig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Perez, Cesar [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Bert, Robert [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Redman, Rebecca [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dunlap, Neal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ{sup 2}, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain

  4. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  5. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Glätzner, Juliane; Feja, Christine; Kühne, Christian; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Planitzer, Uwe; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Tillmann, Bernhard N; Winkler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation. Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides) in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections. Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally) and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22%) was more common than left-sided branching (12%) and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm) and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2). Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  6. Epidemic characteristics, high-risk townships and space-time clusters of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province of China, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiulan; Lai, Shengjie; Yin, Wenwu; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Li, Zhongjie; Yu, Hongjie; Yang, Weizhong

    2016-12-19

    Brucellosis, one of the world's most important zoonosis, has been re-emerging in China. Shanxi Province, located in northern China, where husbandry development has been accelerated in recent years, has a rather high incidence of human brucellosis but drew little attention from the researchers. This study aimed to describe the changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province from 2005 to 2014 and explore high-risk towns and space-time clusters for elucidating the necessity of decentralizing disease control resource to township level in epidemic regions, particularly in hotspot areas. We extracted data from the Chinese National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System to describe the incidence and spatiotemporal distribution of human brucellosis in Shanxi Province. Geographic information system was used to identify townships at high risk for the disease. Space-Time Scan Statistic was applied to detect the space-time clusters of human brucellosis during the past decade. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 50,002 cases of human brucellosis were recorded in Shanxi, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1. The reported incidence rate increased dramatically from 7.0/100,000 in 2005 to 23.5/100,000 in 2014, with an average annual increase of 14.5%. There were still 33.8% cases delaying diagnosis in 2014. The proportion of the affected towns increased from 31.5% in 2005 to 82.5% in 2014. High-risk towns spread from the north to the center and then south of Shanxi Province, which were basins and adjacent highlands suitable for livestock cultivation. During the past decade, there were 55 space-time clusters of human brucellosis detected in high risk towns; the clusters could happen in any season. Some clusters' location maintained stable over time. During the last decade, Shanxi province's human brucellosis epidemic had been aggravated and high-risk areas concentrated in some towns located in basins and adjacent highlands. Space-time clusters existed and some

  7. Thermal Stimulation Alters Cervical Spinal Cord Functional Connectivity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kenneth A; Sentis, Amy I; Bernadel-Huey, Olivia N; Chen, Yufen; Wang, Xue; Parrish, Todd B; Mackey, Sean

    2018-01-15

    The spinal cord has an active role in the modulation and transmission of the neural signals traveling between the body and the brain. Recent advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made the in vivo examination of spinal cord function in humans now possible. This technology has been recently extended to the investigation of resting state functional networks in the spinal cord, leading to the identification of distinct patterns of spinal cord functional connectivity. In this study, we expand on the previous work and further investigate resting state cervical spinal cord functional connectivity in healthy participants (n = 15) using high resolution imaging coupled with both seed-based functional connectivity analyses and graph theory-based metrics. Within spinal cord segment functional connectivity was present between the left and right ventral horns (bilateral motor network), left and right dorsal horns (bilateral sensory network), and the ipsilateral ventral and dorsal horns (unilateral sensory-motor network). Functional connectivity between the spinal cord segments was less apparent with the connectivity centered at the region of interest and spanning spinal cord functional network was demonstrated to be state-dependent as thermal stimulation of the right ventrolateral forearm resulted in significant disruption of the bilateral sensory network, increased network global efficiency, and decreased network modularity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Three Human Cervical Fusion Implants for Use in the Canine Cervical Vertebral Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Emily J; Litsky, Alan S; Allen, Matthew J; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2016-10-01

    To assess technical feasibility and mechanical properties of 3 locking plate designs (Zero-P, Zero-P VA, and Uniplate 2) for use in the canine cervical spine. Prospective ex vivo study. Cadaver cervical spines from skeletally mature large breed dogs (n = 18). Specimens were screened using radiography and allocated into balanced groups based on bone density. Stiffness of intact C4-C5 vertebral motion units was measured in extension, flexion, and lateral bending using nondestructive 4-point bend testing. Uniplate 2 was then implanted at C4-C5 and mechanical testing was repeated. Mechanical test data were compared against those from 6 spines implanted with monocortical screws, an allograft ring spacer, and PMMA. The Zero-P and Zero-P VA systems could not be surgically implanted due to anatomical constraints in the vertebral column sizes of the canine cervical spines used in this study. Fixation with Uniplate 2 or with screws/PMMA significantly increased stiffness of the C4-C5 vertebral motion units compared to unaltered specimens (P dogs requiring cervical fusion. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. The blame game: cervical cancer, knowledge of its link to human papillomavirus and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Melissa A; Gerend, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    This two-study paper examined stigma toward women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI). For Study 1, participants (N = 352) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in which they read a brief description of a patient with either cervical or ovarian cancer in which the cause of the patient's cancer was either specified (cervical: HPV, a STI vs. ovarian: family history) or unspecified. Participants in the cervical cancer/cause-specified condition rated the patient as more dirty, dishonest and unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cervical cancer/cause-unspecified condition. For Study 2, participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to read a vignette about a patient with cervical cancer in which the cause of cancer was either specified or unspecified. Consistent with Study 1, participants in the cause-specified condition rated the patient as more unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cause-unspecified condition. These effects were mediated by attributions of blame toward the patient. Findings suggest that women with cervical cancer may be stigmatised and blame may play a role in this process.

  10. Genotyping for Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18/52/58 Has a Higher Performance than HPV16/18 Genotyping in Triaging Women with Positive High-risk HPV Test in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapan Khunamornpong

    Full Text Available Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV test has gained increasing acceptance as an alternative method to cytology in cervical cancer screening. Compared to cytology, HPV test has a higher sensitivity for the detection of histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+, but this could lead to a large colposcopy burden. Genotyping for HPV16/18 has been recommended in triaging HPV-positive women. This study was aimed to evaluate the screening performance of HPV testing and the role of genotyping triage in Northern Thailand.A population-based cervical screening program was performed in Chiang Mai (Northern Thailand using cytology (conventional Pap test and HPV test (Hybrid Capture 2. Women who had abnormal cytology or were HPV-positive were referred for colposcopy. Cervical samples from these women were genotyped using the Linear Array assay.Of 5,456 women, 2.0% had abnormal Pap test results and 6.5% tested positive with Hybrid Capture 2. Of 5,433 women eligible for analysis, 355 with any positive test had histologic confirmation and 57 of these had histologic HSIL+. The sensitivity for histologic HSIL+ detection was 64.9% for Pap test and 100% for Hybrid Capture 2, but the ratio of colposcopy per detection of each HSIL+ was more than two-fold higher with Hybrid Capture 2 than Pap test (5.9 versus 2.8. Genotyping results were available in 316 samples. HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58 were the three most common genotypes among women with histologic HSIL+. Performance of genotyping triage using HPV16/18/52/58 was superior to that of HPV16/18, with a higher sensitivity (85.7% versus 28.6% and negative predictive value (94.2% versus 83.9%.In Northern Thailand, HPV testing with genotyping triage shows better screening performance than cervical cytology alone. In this region, the addition of genotyping for HPV52/58 to HPV16/18 is deemed necessary in triaging women with positive HPV test.

  11. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

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    Hye-Rim Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (, squamous cell carcinoma (, bowenoid papulosis (, verrucous carcinoma (, actinic keratosis (, and basal cell carcinoma (. We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease ( nor those with squamous cell carcinoma ( showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6% of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (, while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7% of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.

  12. Simultaneous detection of human papillomavirus integration and c-MYC gene amplification in cervical lesions: an emerging marker for the risk to progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel Pantarotto; de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Pereira, Monalisa Wolski; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; da Silva, Vânia Ramos Sela

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and its integration into the host genome are key steps in the induction of malignant alterations. c-MYC chromosome region is a frequent localization for HPV insertion that has been observed in chromosome band 8q24 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We report the HPV viral integration and amplification patterns of the c-MYC gene in cytological smears with FISH as a potential biomarker for the progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). HPV detection and genotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and FISH analysis by "Vysis Cervical FISH Probe" kit (ABBOTT Molecular Inc.) were performed in 37 cervical samples including 8 NILM, 7 ASC-US, 7 LSIL, 3 ASC-H, 7 HSIL and 5 SCC. The results show concordance between FISH and PCR techniques for HPV detection. The majority of the samples contained HR-HPV, the majority being -16 and -18 genotypes. HPV integration as determined by FISH was most frequent in high-risk lesions. The c-MYC gene amplification was found only in HPV-positive samples and was detected primarily in high-risk lesions and in cells with an integrated form of HPV. HPV integration and c-MYC gene amplification detected by FISH could be an important biomarker for use in clinical practice to determine SIL with a risk of progression.

  13. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hammer; Juliane Glätzner; Christine Feja; Christian Kühne; Jürgen Meixensberger; Uwe Planitzer; Stefan Schleifenbaum; Tillmann, Bernhard N.; Dirk Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve...

  14. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repre...

  15. Cervical Carcinogenesis and Immune Response Gene Polymorphisms: A Review

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    Akash M. Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection.

  16. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  17. College sorority members' knowledge and behaviors regarding human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshire, Mollie E; Lock, Sharon E; Jensen, Lynne A

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) is higher in college students than in many other populations. HPV puts young women at risk for developing cervical cancer. The relationship between HPV and risky sexual behaviors has been well established. This study describes female college students' knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer, identifies sexual risk behaviors in this group, and assesses whether there is any relationship between knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer and the sexual risk behaviors in this population. Health care providers need to be aware of this health issue and actively promote appropriate prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the incidence of squamous cell papilloma of the esophagus and the presence of high-risk human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantham, Ganesh; Ganesan, Santhi; Einstadter, Douglas; Jin, Ge; Weinberg, Aaron; Fass, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We investigated the incidence of esophageal papilloma and the presence of high-risk HPV infection. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at a County teaching hospital. Patients with esophageal papilloma between January 2000 and December 2013 were identified. Patients with sufficient specimens were tested for the HPV virus. Sixty patients with esophageal papilloma lesions were identified from 2000 to 2013. (31 males, age 51 ± 13 years). The incidence was 0.13% in 2000 and increased to 0.57% in 2013 (P papilloma that was more than 5 mm in size, and 20% had multiple lesions. The papilloma was located in the distal esophagus in 35 (58.3%) patients, mid esophagus in 17 (28.3%) patients, and proximal in 8 (13.3%) patients. Three (5%) patients had associated OPC, and 9 (47.4%) of the 19 patients tested were positive for high-risk HPV serotype 16. The incidence of esophageal papilloma has increased by fourfolds over the past 14 years. About half of the tested patients demonstrated high risk HPV. This may suggest a potential growing risk for esophageal squamous cell cancer in the future. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Sonoporation delivery of monoclonal antibodies against human papillomavirus 16 E6 restores p53 expression in transformed cervical keratinocytes.

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    Melissa Togtema

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV, such as HPV16, have been found in nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Therapies targeted at blocking the HPV16 E6 protein and its deleterious effects on the tumour suppressor pathways of the cell can reverse the malignant phenotype of affected keratinocytes while sparing uninfected cells. Through a strong interdisciplinary collaboration between engineering and biology, a novel, non-invasive intracellular delivery method for the HPV16 E6 antibody, F127-6G6, was developed. The method employs high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU in combination with microbubbles, in a process known as sonoporation. In this proof of principle study, it was first demonstrated that sonoporation antibody delivery into the HPV16 positive cervical carcinoma derived cell lines CaSki and SiHa was possible, using chemical transfection as a baseline for comparison. Delivery of the E6 antibody using sonoporation significantly restored p53 expression in these cells, indicating the antibody is able to enter the cells and remains active. This delivery method is targeted, non-cytotoxic, and non-invasive, making it more easily translatable for in vivo experiments than other transfection methods.

  20. Evidence regarding human papillomavirus testing in secondary prevention of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Ronco, Guglielmo; Anttila, Ahti; Meijer, Chris J L M; Poljak, Mario; Ogilvie, Gina; Koliopoulos, George; Naucler, Pontus; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Peto, Julian

    2012-11-20

    More than ever, clinicians need regularly updated reviews given the continuously increasing amount of new information regarding innovative cervical cancer prevention methods. A summary is given from recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews on 3 possible clinical applications of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing: triage of women with equivocal or low-grade cytologic abnormalities; prediction of the therapeutic outcome after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, and last not but not least, primary screening for cervical cancer and pre-cancer. Consistent evidence is available indicating that HPV-triage with the Hybrid Capture(®) 2 assay (Qiagen Gaithersburg, Inc., MD, USA [previously Digene Corp.] (HC2) is more accurate (higher sensitivity, similar specificity) than repeat cytology to triage women with equivocal Pap smear results. Several other tests show at least similar accuracy but mRNA testing with the APTIMA(®) (Gen-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) test is similarly sensitive but more specific compared to HC2. In triage of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), HC2 is more sensitive but its specificity is substantially lower compared to repeat cytology. The APTIMA(®) test is more specific than HC2 without showing a loss in sensitivity. Identification of DNA of HPV types 16 and/or 18, or RNA from the five most carcinogenic HPV types allow selecting women at highest risk for CIN3+ but the sensitivity and negative predictive value of these markers are lower than full-range high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing. After conservative treatment of cervical pre-cancer, HPV testing picks up more quickly, with higher sensitivity and not lower specificity, residual or recurrent high-grade CIN than follow-up cytology. Primary screening for hrHPV generally detects more CIN2, CIN3 or cancer compared to cytology at cut-off atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL, but is less specific. Combined HPV and cytology

  1. Performance and reliability of five commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in screening for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody in high-risk subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozanne, G; Fauvel, M

    1988-01-01

    Anti-human immunodeficiency virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits marketed by Electro-Nucleonics Inc. (ENI), Genetic Systems Corp. (GSC), Organon Teknika Inc. (OTI), Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc. (ODSI), and Wellcome Diagnostics (WD) were evaluated by using 289 randomly selected serum samples from a high-risk population and 53 serum samples likely to produce false-positive results. The radioimmunoprecipitation assay was used as the reference test. Sensitivities ranged from 96.51% (ODSI...

  2. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in the cervical epithelium of Mexican women: meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Rodríguez Raúl; Romero-Morelos Pablo; Villegas-Ruíz Vanessa; Mendoza-Rodríguez Mónica; Taniguchi-Ponciano Keiko; González-Yebra Beatriz; Marrero-Rodríguez Daniel; Salcedo Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical epithelium has been identified as the main etiological factor in the developing of Cervical Cancer (CC), which has recently become a public health problem in Mexico. This finding has allowed for the development of vaccines that help prevent this infection. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and HPV type-distribution in Mexican women with CC, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), low-grade squamous ...

  3. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Shichao; Gong, Bo; Cai, Xushan; Yang, Xiaoer; Gan, Xiaowei; Tong, Xinghai; Li, Haichuan; Zhu, Meijuan; Yang, Fengyun; Zhou, Hongrong; Hong, Guofan

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA...

  4. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yat Ming Lau

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4 years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%, HPV-18 (21.6%, HPV-52 (11.9%, and HPV-58 (9.3%. Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1% patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90, whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79. However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  5. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yat Ming; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yeo, Winnie; Mo, Frankie; Yu, Mei Yung; Lee, Kun Min; Ho, Wendy C S; Yeung, Apple C M; Law, Priscilla T Y; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4) years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%), HPV-18 (21.6%), HPV-52 (11.9%), and HPV-58 (9.3%). Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1%) patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79). However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  6. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive and HIV-negative high-risk women in Kigali, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuijzen Nienke J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence, incidence and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV types in sub-Saharan Africa are not well established. The objectives of the current study are to describe (predictors of the epidemiology of HPV among high-risk women in Kigali, Rwanda. Methods HIV-negative, high-risk women were seen quarterly for one year, and once in Year 2. HIV serostatus, clinical, and behavioral information were assessed at each visit, HPV types at Month 6 and Year 2, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI at selected visits. HPV prevalence was also assessed in HIV-positive, high-risk women. Results Prevalence of any HPV was 47.0% in HIV-negative women (median age 25 years compared to 72.2% in HIV-positive women (median age 27 years; OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.6. Among HIV-negative women, cumulative incidence of high-risk (HR-HPV was 28.0% and persistence 32.0% after a mean period of 16.6 and 16.9 months, respectively. Prior Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, concurrent low-risk (LR-HPV infection and incident HSV-2 were associated with HR-HPV prevalence among HIV-negative women; prior C. trachomatis infection and co-infection with LR-HPV and HPV16-related HPV types with HR-HPV acquisition. HPV16-related types were the most prevalent and persistent. Conclusions High HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence were found among high-risk women in Kigali. HPV52 had the highest incidence; and, together with HPV33 and HPV58, were strongly associated with acquisition of other HR-HPV types in HIV-negative women.

  7. Perception of human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccination in North Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showket Hussain

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV -associated cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide but it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer and cancer associated death in India women. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine acceptance among school and undergraduates students and their parent's perception about acceptance of HPV vaccine in Northern part of India (Delhi and NCR regions.A qualitative questionnaire based survey among 2500 urban/rural students aged 12-22 years was conducted.Overall, a low frequency (15% of HPV and cervical cancer awareness was observed in students and their parents. However, the awareness was much higher in females belonging to urban setup compared to boys with a perception that HPV causes cervical cancer in women only. Additionally, only (13% participants who were aware of cervical cancer and HPV were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Apparently, parents of female students were two times more willing to accept HPV vaccination for their ward than male students (p<0.001; OR 95%CI = 2.09 (1.58-2.76.Cervical cancer and HPV awareness among school, undergraduate students and also to their parents was found to be very low in this part of India. The level of awareness and education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban setup. Better health education will be needed to maximize public awareness for cervical cancer prevention.

  8. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practices in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kymberlee; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Bhattacharya, Anand; Montgomery, Owen

    2010-01-01

    To explore knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, health beliefs, and preventative practices in women 40 to 70 years. Cross-sectional descriptive. Three urban ambulatory Obstetrics and Gynecology offices connected with a teaching hospital's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the Mid-Atlantic section of the United States. A convenience sample of 149 women age 40 to 70. To assess HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practices a self-administered survey, the Awareness of HPV and Cervical Cancer Questionnaire was distributed to women as they waited for their well-woman gynecologic exam. The mean knowledge score was 7.39 (SD=3.42) out of 15. One third of the questions about the relationship of HPV and risks for cervical cancer were answered incorrectly by more than 75% of these women. Although most appreciate the seriousness of cervical cancer, they believed themselves not particularly susceptible. There is a need for HPV and cervical cancer awareness and education for women older than age 40. Women's health care professionals are well positioned to act as a catalyst to improve HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, health beliefs, and preventative practice to ensure optimum health promotion for all women.

  9. Association Between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the association of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle. The sample (N = 745) comprised sexually active female adolescent patients (12-19 yr), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted principal component analyses for categorical data were used to derive multisystemic psychosocial risk indices using 9 indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any type, high-risk types, vaccine types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subjects had a median of 3 psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.2), with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine types (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose.

  10. Diagnostic validity of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA test in cervical cytological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Yu; Xie, Rong; Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; He, Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Xiong-Wei; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests tend to show high sensitivity, but poor specificity in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. This study aimed to explore the clinical performance of QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA in identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Thin-prep(®) liquid based cytology test (LBC) samples were collected from October 2009 to October 2011 from women who underwent outpatient hospital-based gynecological screening. LBC samples were processed for E6/E7 mRNA detection and HPV DNA detection. Of 335 patients, 135 (40.3%) were HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive for high-risk HPV subtypes. The positivity rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased with the severity of cytological and histological evaluation. An optimal cut-off value of ≥567copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cut-off value (≥567copies/ml) were higher than those of E6/E7 mRNA positivity only, but not significant. QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a valuable tool in triage for identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. A high specificity and a low positivity rate of E6/E7mRNA testing as a triage test in HPV DNA-positive women can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy. Studies composed of large population-based samples of women and with rigorous disease ascertainment, are needed to establish the optimal cut-off point based on ROC curve analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring and ordering practices for human papillomavirus in cervical cytology: findings from the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference working group 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Christine N; Bashleben, Christine; Filomena, Carol A; Means, Marilee M; Wasserman, Patricia G; Souers, Rhona J; Henry, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The association of certain types of human papillomavirus with cervical carcinoma is well established. Human papillomavirus testing is now routinely used to screen for cervical carcinoma and precursor lesions of the cervix (cotesting and reflex testing) and these results are considered in patient triage and management. To provide information about current laboratory practices in human papillomavirus testing and consensus best practice statements based on results from the College of American Pathologists' laboratory-based survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The College of American Pathologists submitted a paper-based survey to 1245 laboratories in the United States. After review of the initial results, follow-up Web-based survey results, and a literature review by an expert working group, consensus best practice statements were constructed by working group members for presentation at a national consensus conference. These best practice statements were discussed and then voted upon by conference participants. A total of 525 laboratories responded to survey questions about human papillomavirus ordering and monitoring practices, whereas 546 responded to the overall survey. In most laboratories (87.6%), the high-risk human papillomavirus test is ordered as a reflex test by providers. A minority of laboratories (11.9%) routinely bundle low- and high-risk human papillomavirus tests. Most laboratories (84.4%) do not limit testing in patients with atypical squamous cells to women older than 20 years. More than half of laboratories (53.3%) monitor human papillomavirus positive rates in Papanicolaou tests with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. It is not appropriate for laboratories to offer low-risk human papillomavirus testing for any clinical circumstance in gynecologic cytology. Laboratories should not order human papillomavirus testing to resolve diagnostic discrepancies. It is a valuable broad measure of laboratory quality

  12. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2013-03-15

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR amplification. Simulation studies were performed both under independence between genotypes and under a common dependence structure as would arise from common risk factors, and simulation results were compared to observed coinfection patterns. Overall HPV prevalence was 37.4%, with multiple infections in 17.9%. For 15 HPV types of primary interest (13 high-risk plus HPV6, 11), almost all pairs occurred more often than expected under independence; 33/105 (31.4%) were statistically significant (p<0.05 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). The pairwise odds ratios showed significant heterogeneity (Woolf's test p<0.0001). For simulations based on common dependence, three pairs had observed to expected (O/E) ratios significantly different than 1 (31/68, O/E=4.20; 51/68, O/E=2.52; 33/58, O/E=3.27; all p<0.05 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). HPV68 occurred in multiple infections nearly four times as often as expected under common dependence (p<0.005 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). These results indicate some interaction between HPV types, and suggest that common risk factors do not entirely explain the observed HPV coinfection pattern, although no evidence is found that the prevalence of any types not targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine may be indirectly increased or decreased after widespread use of the vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  13. The 3' region of Human Papillomavirus type 16 early mRNAs decrease expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, J.; Rosenstierne, M.W.; Kristiansen, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background: High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infects mucosal surfaces and HR-HPV infection is required for development of cervical cancer. Accordingly, enforced expression of the early HR-HPV proteins can induce immortalisation of human cells. In most cervical cancers and cervical cancer...

  14. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Brazil: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia MB Cavalcanti

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty paraffin-embedded biopsies obtained from female cervical lesions were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV types 6/11,16/18 and 31/33/35 DNA using non-isotopic in situ hybridization. Specimens were classified according to the Bethesda System in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, high grade SIL (HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. HPV prevalence ranged from 92.5% in LSIL to 68.5% in SCC. Benign types were prevalent in LSILs while oncogenic types infected predominantly HSILs and SCC. HPV infection showed to be age-dependent, but no significant relation to race has been detected. Patients were analyzed through a five-year period: 20.7% of the lesions spontaneously regressed while 48.9% persisted and 30.4% progressed to carcinoma. Patients submitted to treatment showed a 19.4% recurrence rate. High risk types were present in 78.6% (CrudeOR 13.8, P=0.0003 of the progressive lesions, and in 73.7% of the recurrent SILs (COR 19.3, P=0.0000001. Possible co-factors have also been evaluated: history of other sexually transmitted diseases showed to be positively related either to progression (Adjusted OR 13.0, P=0.0002 or to recurrence (AOR 17.2, P=0.0002 while oral contraceptive use and tobacco smoking were not significantly related to them (P>0.1. Association of two or more co-factors also proved to be related to both progression and recurrence, indicating that they may interact with HPV infection in order to increase the risk of developing malignant lesions.

  15. Detection of integrated human papillomavirus by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in situ hybridization: a valuable diagnostic tool in diagnosing cervical carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, R.J.T. van; Hullu, J.A. de; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Bulten, J.; Grefte, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important factor in cervical carcinogenesis. We describe 3 cases of patients with difficulties in diagnosing either a primary or recurrent cervical carcinoma. These cases illustrate that detection of integrated HPV is helpful in diagnosing cervical

  16. Comparison of initial stream urine samples and cervical samples for detection of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Mao; Yamagishi, Yuka; Izumi, Koji; Miyazaki, Narimi; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kato, Hideo; Nishiyama, Naoya; Koizumi, Yusuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-08-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is a treatable and preventable cancer. Medical efforts to reduce rates of cervical cancer focus on the promotion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the promotion of routine cervical cancer screening done by cervical cytology and cervical HPV testing. Urine-based HPV testing would be simple and noninvasive approach to screen for cervical cancer. Two biospecimens (clinician-taken sample from cervix and initial stream urine sample) were provided from a total of 240 healthy women attending for cancer screening provided for HPV testing. We have assessed the HPV detection rates among cervical samples and pellet fraction of urine samples using HPV test (Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection kit, Seegene, Korea). Among 240 samples screened, HPV prevalence was 42.9% in pellet fractions of urine samples. The agreement between the two kinds of samples was 98.4%, k = 0.792. Discordant results were observed in 27 cases; 5 were positive only by urine samples and 22 were positive only by smear samples. Sensitivity and specificity for all HPV DNA in pellet fractions of urine using cervical samples as reference was 68.4% and 99.9%. Comparing methodologies of collection of samples for HPV detection, they showed the higher agreements for almost genotypes between cervical samples and pellet fractions of urine samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in women. Additional research in a larger and general screening population would be needed. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma retinol-binding protein in human uterine cervical dysplasias and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Basu, J; Romney, S L

    1989-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of retinol-binding protein (RBP) were measured in a cross-sectional study of asymptomatic normal menstruating women (n = 94) who obtained Pap smears and participated in a double-blinded nutritional survey. Controls (n = 45) were women with negative cervical cytology, normal colposcopy and no known gynecologic pathology or dysfunction. Cases (n = 49) were subjects with abnormal cytology and colposcopically directed biopsy that established cervical epithelial dysplasias histopathologically in the previous 12-month period. In addition, 8 women with cancer of the cervix were also investigated. The mean plasma concentration of RBP was significantly lower in cases than in controls (p less than 0.001). In normal females, the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was increased. This increase was absent in the plasma of patients with cervical dysplasias (p less than 0.05). The data direct attention to a possible etiologic association between RBP in human cervical epithelial abnormalities and cancer.

  18. Cervical cancer screening in the era of human papillomavirus testing and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jeanne; Mark, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening algorithms have changed with the introduction of testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) and better understanding of the natural history of HPV. This review was undertaken to present recent developments related to cervical cancer screening, with HPV testing as a focus. Specifically, guidelines now recommend initiating cervical cancer screening at age 21, stopping at age 65 to 70 if previous tests are normal, and screening no more than every 2 to 3 years. Human papillomavirus testing is now incorporated into guidelines for cervical cancer screening in the United States, with the major impact being the lengthening of recommended screening intervals. Primary screening with HPV testing, although not yet approved in the United States, may serve to increase access to care for the millions of underserved women worldwide who bear most of the burden of cervical cancer. Despite clear guidelines from authoritative sources, many clinicians (including midwives) overscreen women. In cervical cancer screening, as in many areas of women's health care, performing tests that are unlikely to result in useful information may lead to harm. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Evaluation of an Array-Based Method for Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping in Comparison with Conventional Methods Used in Cervical Cancer Screening▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Nerea; Martró, Elisa; Castellà, Eva; Llatjós, Mariona; Tarrats, Antoni; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Díaz, Rosana; Carrasco, María; Sirera, Guillem; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV ge