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Sample records for high-resolution synchrotron powder

  1. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  2. In Situ High Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction Studies of Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amri, Mahrez; Fitch, Andy; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active material during battery operation [2]. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction technique has been undertaken to obtain detailed structural and compositional information during lithiation/delithiation of commercial LiFePO4...... materials [3]. We report results from the first in situ time resolved high resolution powder diffraction experiments at beamline ID22/31 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF. We follow the structural changes during charge of commercial LiFePO4 based battery materials using the Rietveld...... method. Conscientious Rietveld analysis shows slight but continuous deviation of lattice parameters from those of the fully stoichiometric end members LiFePO4 and FePO4 indicating a subsequent variation of stoichiometry during cathode delithiation. The application of an intermittent current pulses during...

  3. A new beauty for 'ADONE': a high resolution powder diffractometer for synchrotron radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution powder diffractometer, connected to the wiggler magnet line BX1, is now operative at the Adone storage ring in Frascati. A Si channel-cut monochromator on the line allows operation in the range 1-3 A. To achieve the desired high resolution in the diffraction spectra, a 'triple-axis configuration' has been chosen: a vertical standing goniometer supports a flat Ge(111) crystal analyzer on the 2O arm. With this configuration, a value of less than 0.02 o for the FWHM of the diffraction peaks has been reached. The special design solutions adopted for a Seifer MZ VI goniometer and the microstep technology used in the stepper motor actuation assure a mechanical resolution better than 0.001 o . A special supporting table, with six degrees of freedom, has been made for the diffractometer orientation in front of the X-ray beam. An IBM-PC is dedicated to the diffractometer positioning control and preliminary data collection. As a Macintosh IICX provides for the data processing, a special software package, named 'Mac Dust', has been developed and is continuously updated. The first experimental results collected on-line during the instrument check-up are presented. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  4. Structure of La2Cu2O5 by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Placa, S.J.; Bringley, J.F.; Scott, B.A.; Cox, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Dicopper(II) dilanthanum pentaoxide, La 2 Cu 2 O 5 , M r =484.90, orthorhombic, Pbam. At T=300 K: a=5.5490(1), b=10.4774(2), c=3.8796(1) A, V=225.557(8) A 3 , Z=2, D x =7.139 g cm -3 , λ=1.2000 A. Final R I =6.20, R p =14.6 and R wp =20.61%, 124 independent reflections observed. The structure has been refined from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data using the Rietveld method. It is of the oxygen-defect perovskite type and is composed entirely of corner-shared CuO 5 square pyramids, which share oxygen vacancies forming vacancy tunnels along the c axis. The La atoms reside at a perovskite-like A-site and are tenfold coordinated by oxygen. (orig.)

  5. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  6. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  7. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  8. D2B, a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at ILL Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of high resolution neutron powder diffraction to materials science have grown rapidly in the past 10 years, with the development of Rietveld methods of profile refinement, and new high resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. Materials studied range from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrodes to prestressed superconducting wires. Although the techniques have now been adapted for X-ray and synchrotron radiation, neutron powder diffraction retains unique advantages. In this paper we describe the design and first test measurements on the latest high resolution powder diffractometer D2B at ILL Grenoble. A review of the applications is published in Chemica Scripta (1986). (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  10. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery

  11. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  12. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  13. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  14. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  15. The high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD) at ISIS - a user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibberson, R.M.; David, W.I.F.; Knight, K.S.

    1992-05-01

    This guide is intended to give a short description of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD, at ISIS and to provide the basic information required in order to perform a routine powder diffraction experiment. (Author)

  16. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  17. Development of high resolution vacuum ultraviolet beam line at Indus-1 synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R.P.; Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Saraswathy, P.; Sunanda, K.; Jha, S.N.; Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Paramjeet; Mallick, Manika; Mishra, A.P.; Sahoo, N.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, S.; Sahni, V.C.

    2005-07-01

    High resolution vacuum ultraviolet beamline at Indus-1 450 MeV synchrotron source has been developed for carrying out absorption spectral studies of atoms and molecules. The beamline consists of three major parts i.e. a focusing optical system, an absorption cell and a high resolution 6.65 m vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer in Eagle mount. The wavelength range of the spectrometer is from 700 A to 2000 A and the resolution of the spectrometer is 0.01 A. Using the synchrotron source Indus-1, the absorption spectra of oxygen, ammonia and carbon disulphide have been recorded at the wavelength band of 1750 A, 1881 A and 3100 A respectively. Details of different aspects of design and development of the high resolution VUV beamline are described in this report. (author)

  18. The high-resolution powder diffraction station PO DI STA is ''running'' at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of February 1991, a ''triple-axis'' high-resolution diffractometer for on powder sample measurements with synchrotron radiation was put in operation on the Adone wiggler line BX1 at Frascati. The diffractometer is based on a Seifert goniometer, designed according to our specifications. During the project, particular attention was paid in assuring the highest reliability together with great flexibility in the use. In fact, the diffractometer can also be used in a ''medium resolution'' configuration. For preliminary alignment and data collection, it is possible to operate with a traditional x-ray tube, too. The alignment procedure of the diffractometer to the x-ray beam is very easy. Powder samples can be measured both on the flat holder and on the capillary. An IBM PC computer is used for the instrument actuation and preliminary on-line data collection, while a large software package has been developed for the data analysis performed by a Macintosh IIcx. The instrument performance has been tested with a standard Si sample and quartz and Ni oxide samples. For the two possible resolution configurations, a test on a NiO sample gave FWHM values of 0.16 degree and 0.04 degree, respectively, for the [012] peak

  19. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...

  20. Application of high-resolution film for lithography to synchrotron X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Kaoru; Ito, Kazuyoshi; Iwami, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Eiji; Kino, Takao.

    1994-01-01

    A high-resolution film for lithography is applied to a detector for synchrotron radiation topography, instead of a nuclear plate. The film shows much better resolution than that of the plate although exposure time an about 500 times longer is required. The size distribution of interstitial loops grown as vacancy sources in a nearly perfect aluminum crystal after a temperature rise is examined from the while beam topograph. (author)

  1. Accurate masking technology for high-resolution powder blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2005-07-01

    We have combined eroding 10 µm diameter Al2O3 particles with a new masking technology to realize the smallest and most accurate possible structures by powder blasting. Our masking technology is based on the sequential combination of two polymers:(i) the brittle epoxy resin SU8 for its photosensitivity and (ii) the elastic and thermocurable poly-dimethylsiloxane for its large erosion resistance. We have micropatterned various types of structures with a minimum width of 20 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 1, and 50 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 2.

  2. High-resolution neutron powder-diffraction in CMR manganates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suard, E; Radaelli, P G [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Manganese-oxide materials have recently been the subject of renewed attention, due to the `colossal` magnetoresistance (CMR) displayed near the spin-ordering temperature T{sub c} by some of these compounds. CMR has been evidenced in at least three families of manganese oxides. In most cases, the CMR compounds behave as paramagnetic semiconductors at high temperatures, and as ferromagnetic metals below T{sub c}. The study of this metallization process has lead some theorists to challenge its traditional interpretation in terms of the so-called double-exchange mechanism, and to propose alternative scenarios in which the coupling of the charge carriers with the lattice plays a paramount role. Powder diffraction method, being at the forefront of CMR research is presented. (author). 4 refs.

  3. MacDUST - a powder diffraction package developed for the ''ADONE'' high resolution diffraction station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.; Simeoni, S.

    1993-01-01

    A High Resolution Powder Diffraction Station (PO.DI.STA.) was installed at the beginning of 1991 on the ADONE-Wiggler magnet beam line. The station and the first powder diffraction spectra, collected with synchrotron radiation, were presented at the EPDIC-1 Conference. More details can also be found in. For this station, a very sophisticated software package ''MacDUST'' has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer, using the Microsoft QuickBASIC compiler. It allows very easy and comfortable operations by means of a graphical user interface environment, typical of the Macintosh system. The package consists of five major programs. The main program, MacDIFF, performs all the graphic operations on the experimental data, including zooming, overlapping, cursor scanning and editing of patterns, control of output operations to printers and HPGL plotters. It also includes several analysis routines for data smoothing, a first derivative peak search algorithm, two background subtraction routines and two profile fitting programs: one based on the simplex method and the other on the Marquardt modification of a least-square algorithm. MacPDF and MacRIC are both dedicated to phase identification. The first program is an archive manager for searching, displaying and printing phase records; MacRIC is a graphic aided search-match program based on the Hanawalt algorithm. Mac3-DIM is a plot program, useful, e.g., for representing kinetics three dimensionally. MacRIET is a Macintosh version of the well known Rietveld refinement program. This version, besides conventional structure refinements, also allows the determination of micro structural parameters, i.e. micro strain and crystallite size. The program can also be used to simulate a pattern, once the structure of the compound is known. Taking advantage of the very intuitive Macintosh graphic user interface, through dialog and alert boxes, the program allows straightforward introduction and modification of the structure

  4. Animals In Synchrotrons: Overcoming Challenges For High-Resolution, Live, Small-Animal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelley, Martin; Parsons, David; Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Physiological studies in small animals can be complicated, but the complexity is increased dramatically when performing live-animal synchrotron X-ray imaging studies. Our group has extensive experience in high-resolution live-animal imaging at the Japanese SPring-8 synchrotron, primarily examining airways in two-dimensions. These experiments normally image an area of 1.8 mmx1.2 mm at a pixel resolution of 0.45 μm and are performed with live, intact, anaesthetized mice.There are unique challenges in this experimental setting. Importantly, experiments must be performed in an isolated imaging hutch not specifically designed for small-animal imaging. This requires equipment adapted to remotely monitor animals, maintain their anesthesia, and deliver test substances while collecting images. The horizontal synchrotron X-ray beam has a fixed location and orientation that limits experimental flexibility. The extremely high resolution makes locating anatomical regions-of-interest slow and can result in a high radiation dose, and at this level of magnification small animal movements produce motion-artifacts that can render acquired images unusable. Here we describe our experimental techniques and how we have overcome several challenges involved in performing live mouse synchrotron imaging.Experiments have tested different mouse strains, with hairless strains minimizing overlying skin and hair artifacts. Different anesthetics have also be trialed due to the limited choices available at SPring-8. Tracheal-intubation methods have been refined and controlled-ventilation is now possible using a specialized small-animal ventilator. With appropriate animal restraint and respiratory-gating, motion-artifacts have been minimized. The animal orientation (supine vs. head-high) also appears to affect animal physiology, and can alter image quality. Our techniques and image quality at SPring-8 have dramatically improved and in the near future we plan to translate this experience to the

  5. High flux and high resolution VUV beam line for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, H.; Boehmer, W.; Schwentner, N.

    1982-04-01

    A beam line has been optimized for high flux and high resolution in the wavelength range from 30 nm to 300 nm. Sample chambers for luminescence spectroscopy on gaseous, liquid and solid samples and for photoelectron spectroscopy have been integrated. The synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS (at DESY, Hamburg) emitted into 50 mrad in horizontal and into 2.2 mrad in vertical direction is focused by a cylindrical and a plane elliptical mirror into the entrance slit of a 2m normal incidence monochromator. The light flux from the exit slit is focused by a rotational elliptic mirror onto the sample yielding a size of the light spot of 4 x 0.15 mm 2 . The light flux at the sample reaches 7 x 10 12 photons nm -1 s -1 at 8 eV photon energy for a current of 100 mA in DORIS. A resolution of 0.007 nm has been obtained. (orig.)

  6. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  7. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander; Lefolii, Tore Tranberg; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant contact compared to previous methods. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. D1A, a high resolution neutron powder diffractometer with a bank of mylar collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.; Bailey, I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a first attempt at following the design criteria set out earlier for a high resolution conventional powder diffractometer. An existing machine, D1A, has been modified using a bank of ten high pressure 3 He counters and almost perfect 10minutes of arc mylar foil collimators. The system is more successful than earlier multicollimator arrangements because each of the collimator/counters is virtually identical; this permits automatic addition of the intensities so that a single high resolution profile, up to X40 times as intense as on the original diffractometer, is obtained just as easily as on a single counter machine. A comparison is made with the other powder diffractometers, D1B and D2 at the ILL. (Auth.)

  9. A high-resolution neutron powder diffraction study of neodymium doping in barium cerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, K.S.; Bonanos, N.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution neutron powder diffraction data have been collected on 6 perovskites of composition BaCe1-xNdxO3-x/(2), with 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2, in which structural phase transitions Pmcn-->P4/mbm at x=0.05, and P4/mbm-->Pm3m at x=0.1, were inferred from a recent ...

  10. High-resolution synchrotron imaging shows that root hairs influence rhizosphere soil structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebernick, Nicolai; Daly, Keith R; Keyes, Samuel D; George, Timothy S; Brown, Lawrie K; Raffan, Annette; Cooper, Laura J; Naveed, Muhammad; Bengough, Anthony G; Sinclair, Ian; Hallett, Paul D; Roose, Tiina

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we provide direct evidence of the importance of root hairs on pore structure development at the root-soil interface during the early stage of crop establishment. This was achieved by use of high-resolution (c. 5 μm) synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) to visualise both the structure of root hairs and the soil pore structure in plant-soil microcosms. Two contrasting genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), with and without root hairs, were grown for 8 d in microcosms packed with sandy loam soil at 1.2 g cm -3 dry bulk density. Root hairs were visualised within air-filled pore spaces, but not in the fine-textured soil regions. We found that the genotype with root hairs significantly altered the porosity and connectivity of the detectable pore space (> 5 μm) in the rhizosphere, as compared with the no-hair mutants. Both genotypes showed decreasing pore space between 0.8 and 0.1 mm from the root surface. Interestingly the root-hair-bearing genotype had a significantly greater soil pore volume-fraction at the root-soil interface. Effects of pore structure on diffusion and permeability were estimated to be functionally insignificant under saturated conditions when simulated using image-based modelling. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  12. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  13. Location of adsorbed species in NO-reduction catalysts by high resolution neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, A.J.; Rosseinsky, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Catalysts containing copper ion exchanged into zeolites are attracting considerable attention due to their efficiency for both NO decomposition and the selective catalytic reduction of NO x in so-called lean-burn conditions in automotive exhausts. This presentation will describe the application of in-situ high resolution neutron powder diffraction to study active sites in a Cu-zeolite Y catalyst active for NO decomposition. The study under NO pressure reveals the location of two distinct copper sites for sorption. The influence of copper oxidation state on the structure of both the pristine and NO-loaded zeolites will be discussed. (author)

  14. High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer HRPT for Thermal Neutrons at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Koch, M.; Koennecke, M.; Pomjakushin, V.; Schefer, J.; Schlumpf, N.

    1999-01-01

    The new neutron powder diffractometer at the Swiss continuous spallation neutron source SINQ is designed as a flexible instrument for high resolution [best values δd/d: ( -3 with d = lattice spacing in the high resolution or high intensity modes, respectively]. It uses large scattering angles 2Θ M = 120 deg or 90 deg of the monochromator, a 28 cm high, vertically focusing wafer type Ge(hkk) monochromator and a position-sensitive 3 He detector(3.6 bar) produced by Cerca at Romans, France. It has 1600 (25x64) detectors with an angular separation of 0.1 deg and includes modern electronics developed by E. Berruyer, Cerca and PSI. The SICS software of PSI controls the instrument with a server running on an unix workstation and clients written in Java through the TCP/IP network. The design principles and first experiences are presented. The interdisciplinary applications of HRPT will permit high-resolution refinement of chemical and magnetic structures as well as phase analysis including the detection of defects and internal microstrain. In particular real-time investigations of chemical or structural changes and of magnetic phase transitions in crystalline, quasicrystalline, amorphous and liquid samples including technically interesting new materials are possible. (author)

  15. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron radiation for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy with chemical, electronic, and magnetic contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, M.L.; Chien, T.Y.; Preissner, C.; Madhavan, V.; Diesing, D.; Bode, M.; Freeland, J.W.; Rose, V.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation with scanning tunneling microscopy opens the path to high-resolution imaging with chemical, electronic, and magnetic contrast. Here, the design and experimental results of an in-situ synchrotron enhanced x-ray scanning tunneling microscope (SXSTM) system are presented. The system is designed to allow monochromatic synchrotron radiation to enter the chamber, illuminating the sample with x-ray radiation, while an insulator-coated tip (metallic tip apex open for tunneling, electron collection) is scanned over the surface. A unique feature of the SXSTM is the STM mount assembly, designed with a two free-flex pivot, providing an angular degree of freedom for the alignment of the tip and sample with respect to the incoming x-ray beam. The system designed successfully demonstrates the ability to resolve atomic-scale corrugations. In addition, experiments with synchrotron x-ray radiation validate the SXSTM system as an accurate analysis technique for the study of local magnetic and chemical properties on sample surfaces. The SXSTM system's capabilities have the potential to broaden and deepen the general understanding of surface phenomena by adding elemental contrast to the high-resolution of STM. -- Highlights: ► Synchrotron enhanced x-ray scanning tunneling microscope (SXSTM) system designed. ► Unique STM mount design allows angular DOF for tip alignment with x-ray beam. ► System demonstrates ability to resolve atomic corrugations on HOPG. ► Studies show chemical sensitivity with STM tip from photocurrent and tunneling. ► Results show system's ability to study local magnetic (XMCD) properties on Fe films.

  16. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  17. Far-infrared high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy of the ν11 bending vibrational fundamental transition of dimethylsulfoxyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Nanobashvili, Lia; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2010-05-01

    We report the first successful high resolution gas phase study of the 'parallel' band of DMSO at 380 cm -1 associated with the ν11 bending vibrational mode. The spectrum was recorded with a resolution of 0.0015 cm -1 using the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron source, the IFS 125 FTIR spectrometer and a multipass cell providing an optical path of 150 m. The rotational constants and centrifugal corrections obtained from the analysis of the resolved rotational transitions reproduce the spectrum to the experimental accuracy.

  18. Initial results from the high resolution powder diffractometer HRPD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-07-01

    The paper reviews the initial commissioning of the high resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffractometer, HRPD, on the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Preliminary results have confirmed both intensity and resolution predictions indicating that (Δd/d) lies between 0.04% and 0.08% for all d-spacings between 0.2 and 5A. The scientific potential of this increased resolution over existing time-of-flight diffractometers has been demonstrated in the successful ab initio structure determination of an unknown inorganic material, FeAsO 4 , and the detailed study of subtle symmetry changes in NiO. The true instrumental resolution, however, has been observed in only a small number of experiments: sample broadening is often seen to play a dominant role in the determination of the peak shape, particularly at longer d-spacings. This leads to additional useful information about macroscopic properties, such as anisotropic crystallite size, strain distribution and sample homogeneity, but also results in a significant increase in complexity of peak-shape description and data-analysis strategy. (author)

  19. A new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at the Brookhaven high flux beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, L.; Bar-Ziv, S.; Gardner, D.W.; Cox, D.E.; Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer under construction at the Brookhaven HFBR is expected to be completed by mid-1991. The new machine will have a Ge (511) monochromator with a take-off angle of 120 o (λ=1.89A) and 64 3 He counters in the detector bank. There will be interchangeable collimators before the monochromator allowing a choice of 5 or 11' horizontal divergence, and 10 cm-high, 5' collimators in front of the detectors. In the higher resolution mode, Δd/d is expected to be about 6x10 -4 at the resolution minimum. The diffractometer is generally similar to D2B at the Institut Laue-Langevin except for the monochromator. This will consist of a vertically focussing array of segments 3x1.27 cm in dimensions cut from stacks of 20 0.43 mm wafers that have been pressed and brazed together. Preliminary measurements indicate that a mosaic width of 0.1-0.15 o and a peak reflectivity of 25% can be achieved in this way. (author) 2 figs., 22 refs

  20. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  1. Techniques for Handling Channeling in High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectra Recorded with Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; PredoiCross, Adriana; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Seven different techniques in dealing the problem of channel spectra in Fourier transform Spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron source were examined and compared. Five of these techniques deal with the artifacts (spikes) in the recorded interferogram which in turn result in channel spectra within the spectral domain. Such interferogram editing method include replacing these spikes with zeros, straight line, fitted polynomial curve, rescaled spike and spike reduced with Gauss Function. Another two techniques try to target this issue in the spectral domain instead by either generating a synthetic background simulating the channels or measuring the channels parameters (amplitude, spacing and phase) to use in the spectral fitting program. Results showed spectral domain techniques produces higher quality results in terms of signal to noise and fitting residual. The effect of each method on the line parameters such as position, intensity are air broadening are also measured and discussed.

  2. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  3. High resolution VUV matrix isolation spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: N2 in Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the VUV absorption spectrum of nitrogen in a neon matrix exploiting the intense synchrotron radiation continuum of the storage ring DORIS and the high resolving power of a 3 m normal incidence monochromator. With an improved sample preparation technique we were able to observe both the allowed transitions b 1 PIsub(u) and b 1 Σ + sub(u) between 12.4 and 14.0 eV and even the forbidden transitions w 1 Δsub(u) and a 1 PIsub(g) between 8.0 and 11.0 eV. All four transitions consist of long progressions of sharp bands (GAMMA approx. 10 meV) which are deperturbed in the matrix due to the suppression of nearby Rydberg states. Using symmetry arguments, our analysis of the spectra leads us to the conclusion that the N 2 molecule is oriented along the (1,1,1) direction in the host lattice. A detailed fine structure is observed for most bands of the first time. This fine structure is caused by dynamical interactions of the excited molecules with the matrix and is interpreted as excitation of librational modes of the N 2 molecule and a selective coupling to phonon modes of the neon lattice. (orig.)

  4. Efficient high-resolution X-ray emission spectrometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterumsberger, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to get access to high-resolution X-Ray Emission Spectrometry (XES) at nanoscaled materials, consisting of light elements and transition metals, by the increase of the sensitivity of a Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometer (WDS) in the soft X-Ray range. The increase of the sensitivity was achieved by a refocusing of the incident radiation. With the increased sensitivity of the WDS, it was possible to determine the chemical species of different, nominal 100 nm thin titanium oxides. The combination of the refocusing optic and calibrated spectrometer enabled the detection and deconvolution of the L-fluorescence radiation of these nanoscaled titanium oxides. Due to the calibration of the spectrometer, a reliable determination of the transition probabilities of the titanium La- and Ll-fluorescence lines as a function of the chemical state is possible. To the best of my knowledge, the determination of the transition probabilities as a function of the chemical state in the soft X-Ray range has not been investigated yet. The quality of the refocusing was characterized using different diagnostic tools. Vertical full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the focused beam between 10 μm to 20 μm and horizontal FWHM values between 12 μm and 25 μm could be achieved over an energy range of 180 eV to 1310 eV. Using calibrated photodiodes, it was possible to determine the absolute transmission of the used single bounce monocapillary as well as to monitor the absolute photon flux. By means of the refocusing, it was possible to increase the photon flux by a factor of 4.9 experimentally. The increase of the photon flux enables the analysis of nanoscaled materials with the used spectrometer. This could be shown based on the determination of the lower limit of detection of boron Ka and titanium La. In both cases, the lower limit of detection of 0.4 nm equivalent layer thickness was achieved (about 1.10 -7 g/cm 2 to 2.10 -7 g/cm 2 or 3.10 15 atoms/cm 2 to

  5. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  6. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  7. High-resolution three-dimensional visualization of the rat spinal cord microvasculature by synchrotron radiation micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Cao, Yong; Wu, Tianding; Li, Dongzhe [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Lu, Hongbin, E-mail: hongbinlu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Centre of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the spinal cord microvasculature has been limited by the lack of an effective high-resolution imaging technique. In this study, synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography (SRµCT), a novel imaging technique based on absorption imaging, was evaluated with regard to the detection of the 3D morphology of the rat spinal cord microvasculature. Methods: Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this ex vivo study. After contrast agent perfusion, their spinal cords were isolated and scanned using conventional x-rays, conventional micro-CT (CµCT), and SRµCT. Results: Based on contrast agent perfusion, the microvasculature of the rat spinal cord was clearly visualized for the first time ex vivo in 3D by means of SRµCT scanning. Compared to conventional imaging techniques, SRµCT achieved higher resolution 3D vascular imaging, with the smallest vessel that could be distinguished approximately 7.4 μm in diameter. Additionally, a 3D pseudocolored image of the spinal cord microvasculature was generated in a single session of SRµCT imaging, which was conducive to detailed observation of the vessel morphology. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that SRµCT scanning could provide higher resolution images of the vascular network of the spinal cord. This modality also has the potential to serve as a powerful imaging tool for the investigation of morphology changes in the 3D angioarchitecture of the neurovasculature in preclinical research.

  8. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  9. Localization of iron in rice grain using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kyriacou, Bianca

    2014-03-01

    Cereal crops accumulate low levels of iron (Fe) of which only a small fraction (5-10%) is bioavailable in human diets. Extensive co-localization of Fe in outer grain tissues with phytic acid, a strong chelator of metal ions, results in the formation of insoluble complexes that cannot be digested by humans. Here we describe the use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to map the distribution of Fe, zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P) and other elements in the aleurone and subaleurone layers of mature grain from wild-type and an Fe-enriched line of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results obtained from both XFM and NanoSIMS indicated that most Fe was co-localized with P (indicative of phytic acid) in the aleurone layer but that a small amount of Fe, often present as "hotspots", extended further into the subaleurone and outer endosperm in a pattern that was not co-localized with P. We hypothesize that Fe in subaleurone and outer endosperm layers of rice grain could be bound to low molecular weight chelators such as nicotianamine and/or deoxymugineic acid. © 2014.

  10. Localization of iron in rice grain using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kyriacou, Bianca; Moore, Katie L.; Paterson, David J.; De Jonge, Martin Daly; Howard, Daryl Lloyd; Stangoulis, James Constantine R; Tester, Mark A.; Lombi, E.; Johnson, Alexander A T

    2014-01-01

    Cereal crops accumulate low levels of iron (Fe) of which only a small fraction (5-10%) is bioavailable in human diets. Extensive co-localization of Fe in outer grain tissues with phytic acid, a strong chelator of metal ions, results in the formation of insoluble complexes that cannot be digested by humans. Here we describe the use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to map the distribution of Fe, zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P) and other elements in the aleurone and subaleurone layers of mature grain from wild-type and an Fe-enriched line of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results obtained from both XFM and NanoSIMS indicated that most Fe was co-localized with P (indicative of phytic acid) in the aleurone layer but that a small amount of Fe, often present as "hotspots", extended further into the subaleurone and outer endosperm in a pattern that was not co-localized with P. We hypothesize that Fe in subaleurone and outer endosperm layers of rice grain could be bound to low molecular weight chelators such as nicotianamine and/or deoxymugineic acid. © 2014.

  11. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J; Baker, Annabelle R; Thompson, Stephen P; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G; Yang, Sihai; Tang, Chiu C

    2017-02-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world's first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation.

  12. Application of new synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to anomalous scattering from glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Armand, P.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied two synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to the measurement of high quality anomalous scattering diffraction data for amorphous materials. One of these methods, which uses a curved perfect crystal analyzer to simultaneously diffract multiple powder lines into a position sensitive detector has been shown to possess high resolution, low background, and very high counting rates. This data measurement technique provides excellent energy resolution while minimizing systematic errors resulting from detector nonlinearity. Anomalous scattering data for a Cesium Germanate glass collected using this technique will be presented. The second powder diffraction technique uses a flat analyzer crystal to deflect multiple diffraction lines out of the equatorial plane. Calculations show that this method possesses sufficient energy resolution for anomalous scattering experiments when a perfect crystal analyzer is used and is experimentally much simpler. Future studies will make use of a rapid sample changer allowing the scattering from the sample and a standard material (a material not containing the anomalous scatterer) to be measured alternately at each angle, reducing systematic errors due to beam instability or sample misalignment

  13. Multipole electron-density modelling of synchrotron powder diffraction data: the case of diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, H.; Overgaard, J.; Busselez, R.

    2010-01-01

    between experiment and theory, and the study therefore demonstrates that synchrotron powder diffraction can indeed provide accurate structure-factor values based on data measured in minutes with limited sample preparation. Thus, potential systematic errors such as extinction and twinning commonly......Accurate structure factors are extracted from synchrotron powder diffraction data measured on crystalline diamond based on a novel multipole model division of overlapping reflection intensities. The approach limits the spherical-atom bias in structure factors extracted from overlapping powder data...

  14. Optimization of a coherent synchrotron radiation source in the Tera-hertz range for high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform spectroscopy is the most used multiplex tool for high-resolution measurements in the infrared range. Its extension to the Tera-hertz domain is of great interest for spectroscopic studies of interstellar molecules. This application is however hampered by the lack of dedicated, broadband sources with a sufficient intensity and stability. In this work, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) was used as a source for molecular spectroscopy at high resolution on the AILES infrared and Tera-hertz beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron. The beamline being optimized for far-infrared, we could characterize the properties of CSR and compare them to the incoherent synchrotron radiation. A double detection system allowed to correct the effect of the source-related instabilities, hence to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Pure rotational spectra were measured using these developments. The case of the propynal molecule, for which a refined set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants was calculated, proves the complementarity between CSR and the classical microwave or infrared sources. (author)

  15. High-resolution inner-shell spectroscopies of free atoms and molecules using soft-x-ray beamlines at the third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of inner-shell spectroscopies of free atoms and molecules using high-resolution soft-x-ray monochromators installed in the soft-x-ray beamlines at the third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities. Beamlines and endstations devoted to atomic and molecular inner-shell spectroscopies and various types of experimental techniques, such as ion yield spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy and multiple-coincidence momentum imaging, are described. Experimental results for K-shell excitation of Ne, O K-shell excitation of H 2 O and CO 2 , C K-shell excitation and ionization of CO 2 and B K-shell excitation of BF 3 , obtained at beamline 27SU of SPring-8 in Japan, are discussed as examples of atomic and molecular inner-shell spectroscopies using the third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. (topical review)

  16. Identification of cellulose fibres belonging to Spanish cultural heritage using synchrotron high resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, L.K.; Justo, A.; Duran, A.; Haro, M.C.J. de; Franquelo, M.L.; Perez Rodriguez, J.L. [CSIC-Seville University, Materials Science Institute of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A complete characterisation of fibres used in Spanish artwork is necessary to provide a complete knowledge of these natural fibres and their stage of degradation. Textile samples employed as painting supports on canvas and one sample of unprocessed plant material were chosen for this study. All the samples were investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD). Flax and cotton have the Cellulose I structure. The values of the crystalline index (CI) were calculated for both types of fibres. The structure of Cellulose IV was associated with the unprocessed plant material. The information obtained by SR-XRD was confirmed by laboratory techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (orig.)

  17. Advances in high-resolution synchrotron micro-XANES for constraining the redox evolution of terrestrial and extraterrestrial magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S. R.; Dyar, M. D.; McCanta, M. C.; Head, E.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the redox evolution of geological materials is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth and terrestrial planets. Microfocused, synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provides direct, in-situ analyses of the valence state for elements that can be used as proxies for oxygen fugacity (Fe, V, Cr, Ti, S, Eu, and Ce). Such proxies span the entire fO2 range of solar system evolution, covering at least 16 log units. Recent technical improvements at the Advanced Photon Source 13-ID-E microspectroscopy beamline have improved the energy, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity for XAS. The application of multiple valence state oxybarometers to individual mineral grains is valuable as demonstrated in a study of Ti, V and Cr valence in olivine and pyroxene of the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 [1], results which yielded a very reduced fO2 estimate of IW-3 and suggested a likely origin of NWA 7325 in a parent body with similar redox conditions to the ureilite parent body. Simultaneously, we have made advances using multivariate prediction models to more precisely measure ever-smaller variations in elemental valence [2]. Applied to V XAS spectra in glasses, we have developed an MVA calibration model that directly relates the measured spectra to predicted fO2, improving the precision in calculating fO2 with more robust error analysis. These machine learning based algorithms also allow for XAS to be collected in an imaging modality to spatially map elemental redox states within samples. For example for imaging changes in Fe oxidation state in natural lunar picritic glasses [3] that may be related to magmatic degassing. This presentation highlights recent examples of this research at 13-ID-E, including application of Fe, S and V valence state oxybarometers in the analysis of terrestrial volcanic glasses and melt inclusions for looking at long term evolution of oxygen fugacity of magmas. [1] Sutton S. et al. (2017) GCA, 211, 115

  18. Solving Crystal Structures from Powder Diffraction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. Nørlund; Lehmann, M. S.; Nielsen, Mogens

    1985-01-01

    High resolution powder data from both neutron and X-ray (synchrotron) sources have been used to estimate the possibility of direct structure determination from powder data. Two known structures were resolved by direct methods with neutron and X-ray data. With synchrotron X-ray data, the measured ...

  19. Application of focused-beam flat-sample method to synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction with anomalous scattering effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M; Katsuya, Y; Matsushita, Y

    2013-01-01

    The focused-beam flat-sample method (FFM), which is a method for high-resolution and rapid synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements by combination of beam focusing optics, a flat shape sample and an area detector, was applied for diffraction experiments with anomalous scattering effect. The advantages of FFM for anomalous diffraction were absorption correction without approximation, rapid data collection by an area detector and good signal-to-noise ratio data by focusing optics. In the X-ray diffraction experiments of CoFe 2 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 (By FFM) using X-rays near the Fe K absorption edge, the anomalous scattering effect between Fe/Co or Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ can be clearly detected, due to the change of diffraction intensity. The change of observed diffraction intensity as the incident X-ray energy was consistent with the calculation. The FFM is expected to be a method for anomalous powder diffraction.

  20. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal-organic framework material HKUST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I. F.; Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-12-01

    We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal-organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal-organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host.

  1. Intensive structural investigation of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} intermetallic compounds using high resolution powder neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujamilah,; Ridwan, [Materials Science Research Center, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structure of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} intermetallic compounds system were refined by Rietveld analyses of the high resolution neutron powder diffraction data. The analyses results show that the substituent atoms were not distributed randomly over the Fe sites, but preferentially occupied some Fe sites. More further, it was also found that the substituent atoms which atomic radius smaller than Fe tend to avoid the 6c site at low concentration while the larger substituent atom tend to replace the Fe atom at this 6c site corresponding to their concentration. From these crystallographic data, it was suggested that the change of magnetic ordering temperature Tc, is not mainly determined by the change of short bond distance between this `dumb-bell` atoms, but it was also influenced by the nearest coordinated atoms to this site. (author)

  2. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal–organic framework material HKUST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I.F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Millange, Franck [Institut Lavoisier Versailles (CNRS UMR 8180), Université de Versailles, 78035 Versailles (France); Walton, Richard I., E-mail: r.i.walton@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • Binding sites for dihydrogen in a metal–organic framework have been identified. • The combination of diffraction and spectroscopy shows competitive filling of various adsorption sites. • Inelastic neutron scattering over wide-momentum transfer reveals new models for hydrogen-framework interactions. - Abstract: We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal–organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal–organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host.

  3. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal–organic framework material HKUST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I.F.; Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding sites for dihydrogen in a metal–organic framework have been identified. • The combination of diffraction and spectroscopy shows competitive filling of various adsorption sites. • Inelastic neutron scattering over wide-momentum transfer reveals new models for hydrogen-framework interactions. - Abstract: We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal–organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal–organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host

  4. Structural study on the gas adsorption phenomena in porous coordination polymers by synchrotron powder diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    In situ synchrotron powder diffraction measurement of gas adsorption and crystal structure analysis for porous coordination polymers (PCPs) were performed. From the obtained accurate crystal structure in both atomic and charge density levels, not only the position and orientation of adsorbed gas molecules but also the interaction between the adsorbed gas molecule and host framework were found. The information enables us to understand the mechanism of gas adsorption phenomena and functions of PCPs. It will give us the guiding principles for the novel functional materials design. (author)

  5. ENDIX. A computer program to simulate energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovestreydt, E.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Parthe, E.; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    A Fortran 77 computer program is described which allows the simulation of energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams. The input consists of structural data (space group, unit cell dimensions, atomic positional and displacement parameters) and information on the experimental conditions (chosen Bragg angle, type of X-ray tube and applied voltage or operating power of synchrotron radiation source). The output consists of the normalized intensities of the diffraction lines, listed by increasing energy (in keV), and of an optional intensity-energy plot. The intensities are calculated with due consideration of the wave-length dependence of both the anomalous dispersion and the absorption coefficients. For a better agreement between observed and calculated spectra provision is made to optionally superimpose, on the calculated diffraction line spectrum, all additional lines such as fluorescence and emission lines and escape peaks. The different effects which have been considered in the simulation are discussed in some detail. A sample calculation of the energy dispersive powder diffraction pattern of UPt 3 (Ni 3 Sn structure type) is given. Warning: the user of ENDIX should be aware that for a successful application it is necessary to adapt the program to correspond to the actual experimental conditions. Even then, due to the only approximately known values of certain functions, the agreement between observed and calculated intensities will not be as good as for angle dispersive diffraction methods

  6. Characterisation of microfocused beam for synchrotron powder diffraction using a new X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C; Potter, J; Tang, C C; Lennie, A R

    2012-01-01

    The powder diffraction beamline I11, Diamond Light Source, is being continually upgraded as requirements of the user community evolve. Intensities of X-rays from the I11 in-vacuum electron undulator in the 3 GeV synchrotron fall off at higher energies. By focusing higher energy X-rays, we can overcome flux limitations, and open up new diffraction experiments. Here, we describe characterisation of microfocusing using compound refractive lenses (CRL). For a relatively modest outlay, we have developed an experimental setup and a novel X-ray camera with good sensitivity and a resolution specification suitable for characterising these focusing optics. We show that vertical oscillations in the focused beam compromise resolution of the source imaged by the CRL. Nevertheless, we have measured CRL focusing properties, and demonstrate the use of energy scanning to determine lens alignment. Real benefits of the intensity gain are illustrated.

  7. Synchrotron hard X-ray imaging of shock-compressed metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This poster will present the application of a new, high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray radiography technique to the study of shock-compressed granular materials. Following plate-impact loading, transmission radiography was used to quantitatively observe the compaction and release processes in a range of high-Z metal powders (e.g. Fe, Ni, Cu). By comparing the predictions of 3D numerical models initialized from X-ray tomograms-captured prior to loading-with experimental results, this research represents a new approach to refining mesoscopic compaction models. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  8. Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N 2 /O 2 (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 ± 0.7)×10 20 m −3 was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 ± 0.4)×10 19 m −3 at 0.1 vol. %

  9. High-resolution far-infrared synchrotron FTIR spectrum of the ν12 band of formamide-d1 (DCONH2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Wu, Q. Y.; Ng, L. L.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; McNaughton, Don

    2018-05-01

    The spectrum of the ν12 band of formamide-d1 (DCONH2) was recorded using a synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer coupled to the Australian Synchrotron THz/Far-IR beamline, with an unapodized resolution of 0.00096 cm-1 in the 350-210 cm-1 region. For the first time, rovibrational constants up to five quartic and two sextic terms were derived for the v12 = 1 state through the fitting of a total of 2072 far-infrared transitions using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.000073 cm-1. The band centre of the ν12 band of DCONH2 was found to be 289.3327553(47) cm-1 although the experimental uncertainty was limited to ±0.0002 cm-1. Ground state rovibrational constants of DCONH2 up to five quartic and two sextic constants were derived from a fit of 847 ground state combination differences (GSCDs) obtained from the infrared transitions of the ν12 band, together with 6 previously reported microwave transitions, with a rms deviation of 0.000108 cm-1. The ground state rotational constants (A, B, and C) of DCONH2 were improved while the ground state centrifugal distortion constants were accurately obtained for the first time. The uncertainty of the measured infrared lines was estimated to be ±0.0002 cm-1. From the ground state rotational constants, the inertial defect of DCONH2 was calculated to be 0.0169412(11) uÅ2.

  10. A novel technique combining high-resolution synchrotron x-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction for characterization of micro particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrifield, David R; Ramachandran, Vasuki; Roberts, Kevin J; Armour, Wesley; Axford, Danny; Basham, Mark; Connolley, Thomas; Evans, Gwyndaf; McAuley, Katherine E; Owen, Robin L; Sandy, James

    2011-01-01

    The processing of solids, such as crystals, is strongly influenced by the surface properties of the material. In recent years the pharmaceutical industry has shown great interest in identifying, or chemically speciating, the molecular components of crystal faces. Formerly, characterization of the molecular identity of crystal faces was restricted to the study of large single crystals. This would have been primarily for structure determination as part of the drug registration process. Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire is a new synchrotron facility in the UK, having 18 operational beamlines with 4 more in the construction phase. Beamlines at this medium energy light source enable the study of micron-sized objects in great detail. It is well known that x-ray microtomography (XMT) can be used to investigate the external morphology of a crystal whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to study the molecular orientation, structure and packing within the crystal. The objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of, and thereby develop a new methodology for, characterizing the molecular identity of a particular face of a crystalline particle at a scale of scrutiny of 20–50 µm by combining these two powerful techniques. This work demonstrates the application of XMT and XRD to investigate respectively the shape and crystalline phase/orientation of relevant test crystals. This research has applications in the pharmaceutical industry in that when the exact molecular nature of a particular face is known, the important physico-pharmaceutical properties stemming from that can be better understood. Some initial data are presented and discussed

  11. The ν8 band of C2HD3 by high-resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy: Coriolis interactions between the v8 = 1 and v6 = 1 states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L. L.; Tan, T. L.; Akasyah, Luqman; Wong, Andy; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; McNaughton, Don

    2017-10-01

    The synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the ν8 band of ethylene-d3 (C2HD3) was measured at an unapodized resolution of 0.00096 cm-1 from 830 to 1010 cm-1. Rovibrational constants up to five quartic terms were derived with improved precision for the v8 = 1 state through the fitting of 1566 unperturbed infrared transitions using the Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.00044 cm-1. For the first time, 446 perturbed IR transitions of the ν8 band were fitted together with the 1566 unperturbed infrared transitions to obtain the a- and b-Coriolis resonance parameters from its interaction with the v6 = 1 state, with an rms deviation of 0.00039 cm-1. The IR lines of the ν6 band were too weak for detection. Three rotational constants, a quartic constant and band center of the v6 = 1 state were also derived for the first time in this work. Ground state rovibrational constants of C2HD3 up to five quartic constants were also derived from a fit of 906 ground state combination differences with an rms deviation of 0.00030 cm-1 from infrared transitions of the present analysis. The ground state rotational constants are in close agreement with theoretically calculated values using the cc-pVTZ basis set at CCSD(T), MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory. Alpha constants determined from the rotational constants of the v8 = 1 state derived from the perturbed IR fit compared favourably with those from anharmonic calculations.

  12. Capillary based Li-air batteries for in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    For Li-air batteries to reach their full potential as energy storage system, a complete understanding of the conditions and reactions in the battery during operation is needed. To follow the reactions in situ a capillary-based Li-O2 battery has been developed for synchrotron-based in situ X......-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). In this article, we present the results for the analysis of 1st and 2nd deep discharge and charge for a cathode being cycled between 2 and 4.6 V. The crystalline precipitation of Li2O2 only is observed in the capillary battery. However, there are indications of side reactions...... of constant exposure of X-ray radiation to the electrolyte and cathode during charge of the battery was also investigated. X-ray exposure during charge leads to changes in the development of the intensity and the FWHM of the Li2O2 diffraction peaks. The X-ray diffraction results are supported by ex situ X...

  13. Development and test of a high-resolution detector for synchrotron radiation imaging; Entwicklung und Test eines hochaufloesenden Detektors zur Bildgebung mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebsamen, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    For medical imaging with x-rays, especially coronary angiography in vivo, high position resolution detectors are needed, thereby being able to deliver a contrast better than 1% and a readout speed faster than milliseconds. Since coronary angiography uses a contrast agent like iodine or gadolinium, high energy photons up to 51 keV are needed for imaging. The k-edge subtraction method allows visualizing small vessels because of the sharp jump of absorption at the k-edge of the contrast agent and the almost constant absorption of the surrounding tissue and bone, as well as the measurement of the concentration of the contrast agent to explore heart dynamics. Various detectors and detector materials are in use or development to match these conditions. Solid state Si-, Ge-, CdZnTe-, CdMnTe- or CdTe-seminconductor detectors are used or tested for imaging, each of them having different physical and/or technical problems which prevent to meet the required specifications. These problems are low absorption efficiency (Si) and reduced position resolution if scintillators are used, cooling and poor resolution (Ge) and charge spread along many pixels and technical problems to manufacture a detector chip (CdZnTe, CdMnTe, CdTe). The approach made in this work is a gas filled ionization chamber, built as a integrating line detector. In general, ionization chambers always suffer from poor absorption efficiency, but this can be overcome using the noble Gases Ar, Kr or Xe at very high gas pressures around 50 bar and relatively long (in the range of cm) anode strips. This design is critical for parallax effects, so an x-ray beam with a very small beam divergence is needed. This requirement in combination with the desired contrast and timing resolution can only be achieved by synchrotron light sources of the third generation, like the DORIS ring at DESY, Hamburg or the ESR in Grenoble. A different problem of ionization chambers is fluorescence photons, which produce a background signal

  14. An undulator based high flux and high resolution beamline for atomic, molecular and optical science (AMOS) research at INDUS-2 synchrotron radiation source (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Asim Kumar; Rajasekhar, B.N.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2014-08-01

    A dedicated UV-VUV and soft X-ray beamline to provide several new research opportunities in Photon induced processes in the energy range of 6-250 eV for Atomic Molecular and Optical Science (AMOS) research, a domain still less explored both at national as well international level, has been proposed by Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC. This beamline will use a planar permanent magnet (PPM) undulator based on Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), a 2.5 GeV third generation electron storage ring at RRCAT, Indore, India and is expected to offer a variety of opportunities for more advanced and sustained investigations for AMOS research. A plane mirror and a toroidal mirror are used as the pre-focusing optics of the AMOS beamline. A varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (VLSPGM) in a converging beam, constant included angle mode containing one toroidal focusing mirror and four interchangeable gratings is to be used to cover the energy range of 6 to 250 eV and obtain resolving powers ∼10 4 and intensity ∼10 12 ph/s at the sample position. A toroidal mirror is used to focus the diverging monochromatic light from the monochromator at a distance of 150 cm with a 1:1 magnification. As the first step towards the beamline optics design, the evaluation of the PPM undulator radiation characteristics relevant to beamline design has been performed using the Indus-2 SRS parameters in the long straight section of the ring, PPM undulator parameters, and the empirical expressions available in literature. The software resources such as XOPS, ESRF, France and SPECTRA, Photon factory, Japan have been used for detailed modelling and verification of the empirical computations. Beamline layout preparation, optimization, imaging performance evaluation, and resolving power calculations for ideal beamline optics are carried out using SHADOWVUI, an extension of XOPS software resource. A new mounting of the optical components in the monochromator has been proposed

  15. A novel isomorphic phase transition in β-pyrochlore oxide KOs2O6: a study using high resolution neutron powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Kenzo; Kofu, Maiko; Ibberson, Richard M.; Hirota, Kazuma; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out adiabatic calorimetric and neutron powder diffraction experiments on the β-pyrochlore oxide KOs2O6, which has a superconducting transition at Tc = 9.6 K and another novel transition at Tp = 7.6 K. A characteristic feature of this compound is that the K ions exhibit rattling vibrations in the cages formed by O atoms even at very low temperatures. The temperature and entropy of the Tp transition is in good agreement with previous data measured using a heat relaxation method, indicating that the present sample is of high purity and the transition entropy, 0.296 J K-1 mol-1, does not depend on the calorimetric method used. The neutron powder diffraction data show no peak splitting nor extra peaks over the temperature range between 2 and 295 K, suggesting that the Tp transition is a rather unusual isomorphic transition. Rietveld analysis revealed an anomalous expansion of the lattice and a deformation of the O atom cage below 7.6 K. In the low-temperature phase, the distribution of scattering density corresponding to the K ions becomes broader whilst maintaining its maximum at the cage center. Based on these findings, we suggest that the Tp transition is due to the expansion of the cage volume and cooperative condensation of the K ions into the ground state of the rattling motion.

  16. Synchrotron WAXS and XANES studies of silica (SiO2) powders synthesized from Indonesian natural sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchlis, Khairanissa; Fauziyah, Nur Aini; Pratapa, Suminar; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Limpirat, Wanwisa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated polymorphic silica (SiO 2 ) powders using, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), laboratory X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The WAXS and XANES spectra were collected using synchrotron radiation at Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. The silica powders were obtained by processing silica sand from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Purification process of silica sand was done by magnetic separation and immersion with HCl. The purification step was needed to reduce impurity or undesirable non Si elements. Three polymorphs of silica were produced, i.e. amorphous phase (A), quartz (B), and cristobalite (C). WAXS profile for each phase was presented in terms of intensity vs. 2θ prior to analyses. Both XRD (λ CuKα =1.54056 Å) and WAXS (λ=1.09 Å) patttern show that (1) A sample contains no crystallites, (2) B sample is monophasic, contains only quartz, and (3) C sample contains cristobalite and trydimite. XRD quantitative analysis using Rietica gave 98,8 wt% cristobalite, while the associated WAXS data provided 98.7 wt% cristobalite. Si K-edge XANES spectra were measured at energy range 1840 to 1920 eV. Qualitatively, the pre-edge and edge features for all phases are similar, but their main peaks in the post-edge region are different. (paper)

  17. Crystal structure refinement of α-Si3N4 using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data: unbiased refinement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraya, H.

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of α-silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was refined by the Rietveld method using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data (wavelength = 1.2 A) collected at station BL-4B2 in the photon factory. A refinement procedure that adopted a new weight function, w = 1/Y o e (Y o is the observed profile intensity and e ≅ 2), for the least-squares fitting [Toraya (1998). J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 333-343] was studied. The most reasonable structural parameters were obtained with e = 1.7. Crystal data of α-Si 3 N 4 : trigonal, P31c, a = 7.75193 (3), c = 5.61949 (4) A, V = 292.447 (3) A 3 , Z = 4; R p = 5.08, R wp = 6.50, R B = 3.36, R F = 2.26%. The following five factors are considered equally important for deriving accurate structural parameters from powder diffraction data: (i) sufficiently large sin θ/λ range of >0.8 A -1 ; (ii) adequate counting statistics; (iii) correct profile model; (iv) proper weighting on observations to give a uniform distribution of the mean weighted squared residuals; (v) high-angular-resolution powder diffraction data. (orig.)

  18. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  19. Cation-dependent anomalous compression of gallosilicate zeolites with CGS topology: A high-pressure synchrotron powder diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Lee, Hyun-Hwi; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kim, Sun Jin; Kao, Chi-chang

    2008-01-01

    The high-pressure compression behaviour of 3 different cation forms of gallosilicate zeolite with CGS topology has been investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell technique. Under hydrostatic conditions mediated by a nominally penetrating pressure-transmitting medium, unit-cell lengths and volume compression is modulated by different degrees of pressure-induced hydration and accompanying channel distortion. In a Na-exchanged CGS (Na 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .16H 2 O), the unit-cell volume expands by ca. 0.6% upon applying hydrostatic pressure to 0.2 GPa, whereas, in an as-synthesized K-form (K 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .5H 2 O), this initial volume expansion is suppressed to ca. 0.1% at 0.16 GPa. In the early stage of hydrostatic compression below ∼1 GPa, relative decrease in the ellipticity of the non-planar 10-rings is observed, which is then reverted to a gradual increase in the ellipticity at higher pressures above ∼1 GPa, implying a change in the compression mechanism. In a Sr-exchanged sample (Sr 5 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .19H 2 O), on the other hand, no initial volume expansion is observed. Instead, a change in the slope of volume contraction is observed near 1.5 GPa, which leads to a 2-fold increase in the compressibility. This is interpreted as pressure-induced rearrangement of water molecules to facilitate further volume contraction at higher pressures. - Graphical abstract: Three different cation forms of gallosilicate CGS zeolites have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell. Under hydrostatic conditions, unit-cell lengths and volume show anomalous compression behaviours depending on the non-framework cation type and initial hydration level, which implies different modes of pressure-induced hydration and channel distortion

  20. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  1. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  2. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  3. Phase and Chemical Composition Analysis on Neolithic Painted Ceramics Sherds Using Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Powder Diffraction (SRXPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Powder Diffraction studies were performed at the wiggler beamline 1711 of MAX II Synchrotron accelerator from Lund, Sweden, in the frame of EU FPV Access to Large Scale Facilities programme. Diffraction data were collected using radiation of wavelength 1.36 A, which was detected by a Brucker system with a Smart 1000 CCD detector. The main goal of our studies was to distinguish different clays and mineral pigments of various Neolithic pottery-producing centres on Romanian territory in relation with possible inter-regional trade route connections. As main results we can mention: - identification of black pigment composition from Cucuteni (Northern Moldavia), Ariusd (South-Eastern Transylvania) and Cris-Starcevo (Oltenia) type pottery (VI - IV Millennia B. Chr.) as a combination of jacobsite, bixbyite (Manganese oxides), magnetite and goethite (Iron oxides) originary from North Moldova mineral deposits of Iacobeni (150 km up on the river Bistritza from analyzed Cucuteni archaeological sites), and as a combination of pyrolusite, magnetite and hematite for Cris-Starcevo samples, probably from local clay (enriched in Mn-Fe oxides) - identification of white pigment composition as calcite (CaCO3) for Cris- Starcevo culture sites from Central Transylvania (from the local abundant chalk deposits) and as calcium silicates mixed with illite (K, H2))Al2[(H2O, OH)2]AlSi3O10 for Cucuteni culture sites - identification of read-brown pigment composition as various mixtures of hematite - goethite - magnetite, all of local provenance - identification of all examined sherds as having local provenance for the clay The main conclusion is that during Neolithic period, the pottery workshops, largely extended on Romanian territory, used local clays but traded black mineral pigments across the Carpathian mountains (Cucuteni and Ariusd areas are separated by these mountains by easily crossed by passes along small rivers)

  4. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  5. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  7. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  8. Neutron Powder Diffraction Measurements of the Spinel MgGa2O4:Cr3+ - A Comparative Study between the High Flux Diffractometer D2B at the ILL and the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer Aurora at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M A F M; Sosman, L P; Yokaichiya, F; Henry, P F; Bordallo, H N; Mazzocchi, V L; Parente, C B R; Mestnik-Filho, J

    2012-01-01

    Optical materials that emit from the visible to the near-infrared spectral region are of great interest due to their possible application as tunable radiation sources, as signal transmission, display, optoelectronics signal storage, cellulose industry as well as in dosimetry. One important family of such systems are the spinel compounds doped with Cr 3+ , in which the physical the properties are related to the insertion of punctual defects in the crystalline structure. The purpose of our work is two fold. First, we compare the luminescence of the MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system with the single phase Ga 2 O 3 and MgGa 2 O 4 and relate structural changes observed in MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system to the optical properties, and secondly, to compare the neutron powder diffraction results obtained using two diffractometers: D2B located at the ILL (Grenoble, France) and Aurora located at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil). In the configuration chosen, Aurora shows an improved resolution, which is related to the design of its silicon focusing monochromator.

  9. Mixed-linker UiO-66: structure-property relationships revealed by a combination of high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Marco; Tiana, Davide; Casati, Nicola; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Smit, Berend; Ranocchiari, Marco

    2017-01-04

    The use of mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks (MIXMOFs) is one of the most effective strategies to modulate the physical-chemical properties of MOFs without affecting the overall crystal structure. In many instances, MIXMOFs have been recognized as solid solutions, with random distribution of ligands, in agreement with the empirical rule known as Vegard's law. In this work, we have undertaken a study combining high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HR-PXRD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the aim of understanding the reasons why UiO-66-based amino- and bromo-functionalized MIXMOFs (MIXUiO-66) undergo cell expansion obeying Vegard's law and how this behaviour is related to their physical-chemical properties. DFT calculations predict that the unit cell in amino-functionalized UiO-66 experiences only minor expansion as a result of steric effects, whereas major modification to the electronic features of the framework leads to weaker metal-linker interaction and consequently to the loss of stability at higher degrees of functionalization. For bromo-functionalized UiO-66, steric repulsion due to the size of bromine yields a large cell expansion, but the electronic features remain very similar to pristine UiO-66, preserving the stability of the framework upon functionalization. MIXUiO-66 obtained by either direct synthesis or by post-synthetic exchange shows Vegard-like behaviour, suggesting that both preparation methods yield solid solutions, but the thermal stability and the textural properties of the post-synthetic exchanged materials do not display a clear dependence on the chemical composition, as observed for the MOFs obtained by direct synthesis.

  10. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS?; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry

  11. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  12. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  13. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  14. The equation of state of PbTiO sub 3 up to 37 GPa: a synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction study

    CERN Document Server

    Sani, A; Levy, D

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction patterns were collected using ID09 of ESRF (Grenoble, France) for a powder sample of PbTiO sub 3 , placed in a diamond anvil cell. The patterns were collected at room temperature using nitrogen (up to 37 GPa) and methanol-ethanol solution (up to 7 GPa) as pressure-transmitting media. The bulk moduli were calculated for the first time using the Vinet equation of state and they were compared to those of isostructural compounds. The trend of the spontaneous polarization as a function of pressure confirms that the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 11.2 GPa possesses a second-order character.

  15. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  16. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  17. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  18. Structural transition induced by charge-transfer in RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6]. Investigation by synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moritomo, Y; Sakata, M; Kato, K; Kuriki, A; Tokoro, H; Ohkoshi, S I; Hashimoto, K

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependence of atomic coordinates is determined for RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6] by means of synchrotron-radiation (SR) X-ray powder structural analysis. We observed a structural transition from the cubic (F4-bar3m; Z=4) to the tetragonal (I4-barm2; Z=2) phase at approx. =210K in the cooling run and at approx. =300K in the warming run. In the low-temperature tetragonal phase, we found Jahn-Tellar type distortion of the MnN sub 6 octahedra and compression of the averaged Fe-C bond distance. These structural data suggest that the structural transition is triggered by the inter-metallic charge-transfer from the Mn(II) site to the Fe(III) site.

  19. Temperature-Induced Desorption of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Confined on ZSM-5: An In Situ Synchrotron XRD Powder Diffraction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rodeghero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-induced desorption of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE from aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic ZSM-5 was studied by in situ synchrotron powder diffraction and chromatographic techniques. This kind of information is crucial for designing and optimizing the regeneration treatment of such zeolite. The evolution of the structural features monitored by full profile Rietveld refinements revealed that a monoclinic (P21/n to orthorhombic (Pnma phase transition occurred at about 100 °C. The MTBE desorption process caused a remarkable change in the unit-cell parameters. Complete MTBE desorption was achieved upon heating at about 250 °C. Rietveld analysis demonstrated that the desorption process occurred without any significant zeolite crystallinity loss, but with slight deformations in the channel apertures.

  20. Quadrupole lamp furnace for high temperature (up to 2050 K) synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction studies in air in reflection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, P.; Yoon, W.; Jurkschat, K.; Zschack, P.; Kriven, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ≤2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to determine the specimen temperature and displacement. The performance of the apparatus was verified by measurement of the thermal expansion properties of CeO 2 , MgO, and Pt which were found to be within ±3% of the acceptable values. The advantages, limitations, and important considerations of the instrument developed are discussed

  1. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  2. Simvastatin: structure solution of two new low-temperature phases from synchrotron powder diffraction and ss-NMR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušák, M.; Kratochvíl, B.; Jegorov, A.; Brus, Jiří; Maixner, J.; Rohlíček, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2010), s. 511-518 ISSN 1040-0400 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500602; GA MŠk 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : crystal structure * simvastatin * powder diffraction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2010

  3. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  4. Oxygen stoichiometry and the structure of Tl[sub 2]Ba[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 10-y]. A high-resolution powder neutron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogborne, D.M.; Weller, M.T.; Lanchester, P.C. (Dept. of Chemistry and Physics, Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom))

    1992-09-15

    Samples of Tl[sub 2]Ba[sub 2]Ca[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 10-y] have been prepared with three different oxygen stoichiometries by reaction under various oxygen gas partial pressures. Powder neutron diffraction studies on these materials show that for y > 0 oxygen vacancies exist in the thallium-oxygen layer; filling this site results in a contraction of the lattice with concomitant reduction in the apical Cu-O bond length but with an expansion of the copper-oxygen interlayer distance. These structural changes which occur as a function of oxygen content are discussed in terms of the superconducting properties of these materials. (orig.).

  5. Thermal Behaviour of Sm0.5 R 0.5FeO3 (R = Pr, Nd) Probed by High-Resolution X-ray Synchrotron Powder Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovska, Olena; Vasylechko, Leonid; Buryy, Oleh

    2016-12-01

    Mixed ferrites Sm0.5Pr0.5FeO3 and Sm0.5Nd0.5FeO3 with orthorhombic perovskite structure isotypic with GdFeO3 were synthesized by solid-state reaction technique in air at 1473 K. Structural parameters obtained at room temperature prove a formation of continuous solid solutions in the SmFeO3-PrFeO3 and SmFeO3-NdFeO3 pseudo-binary systems. Sm0.5Pr0.5FeO3 and Sm0.5Nd0.5FeO3 show strongly anisotropic nonlinear thermal expansion: thermal expansion in the b direction is twice lower than in the a and c directions. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients of Sm0.5Pr0.5FeO3 and Sm0.5Nd0.5FeO3 in the temperature range of 298-1173 K are in the limits of (9.0-11.1) × 10(-6) K(-1), which is close to the values reported for the parent RFeO3 compounds. Subtle anomalies in the lattice expansion of Sm0.5Pr0.5FeO3 and Sm0.5Nd0.5FeO3 detected at 650-750 K reflect magnetoelastic coupling at the magnetic ordering temperature T N.

  6. Clay pigment structure characterisation as a guide for provenance determination--a comparison between laboratory powder micro-XRD and synchrotron radiation XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Žižak, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Application of X-ray diffraction (XRD)-based techniques in the analysis of painted artworks is not only beneficial for indisputable identification of crystal constituents in colour layers, but it can also bring insight in material crystal structure, which can be affected by their geological formation, manufacturing procedure or secondary changes. This knowledge might be helpful for art historic evaluation of an artwork as well as for its conservation. By way of example of kaolinite, we show that classification of its crystal structure order based on XRD data is useful for estimation of its provenance. We found kaolinite in the preparation layer of a Gothic wall painting in a Czech church situated near Karlovy Vary, where there are important kaolin deposits. Comparing reference kaolin materials from eight various Czech deposits, we found that these can be differentiated just according to the kaolinite crystallinity. Within this study, we compared laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) with synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysing the same real sample. We found that both techniques led to the same results.

  7. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  8. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  13. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    transient (based on a bright supercontinuum light source) spectroscopies in a wide spectral range (200-1600 nm). Details and future combination of this innovative system with high-resolution synchrotron micro-diffraction at GSECARS for full characterization of materials in-situ at extreme conditions will be discussed.

  14. Rietveld refinement of the orthorhombic Pbca structures of Rb2CdSi5O12, Cs2MnSiO5O12, Cs2CoSi5O12 and Cs2NiSi5O12 leucites by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.M.T.; Henderson, C.M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns for hydrothermally synthesized Rb 2 CdSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 leucite analogues, and dry-synthesized Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 NiSi 5 O 12 leucite analogues showed that they have an orthorhombic Pbca structure. The structures have been refined by the Rietveld method, showing that the tetrahedrally coordinated atoms (Si, Cd, Mn, Co and Ni) are ordered on separate sites. The Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 , Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 NiSi 5 O 12 leucite samples are unusual in containing SiO 4 tetrahedra which are more distorted, on average, than the larger MnO 4 , CoO 4 and NiO 4 tetrahedra. The JCPDS file numbers for Rb 2 CdSi 5 O 12 , Cs 2 MnSi 5 O 12 and Cs 2 CoSi 5 O 12 are 46-1491, 46-1492 and 46-1493, respectively. (orig.)

  15. SRS station 16.3: high-resolution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, B M; Golshan, M; Moore, M; Reid, J; Kowalski, G

    2001-01-01

    Station 16.3 is a high-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline at Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data presented demonstrate the high-resolution available on the station utilising the recently commissioned four-reflection Si 1 1 1 monochromator and three-reflection Si 1 1 1 analyser. For comparison, a reciprocal space map of the two-bounce Si 1 1 1 monochromator and two-bounce analyser is also shown. Operation of the station is illustrated with examples for silicon, and for diamond. Lattice parameter variations were measured with accuracies in the part per million range and lattice tilts at the arc second level (DuMond, Phys. Rev. 52 (1937) 872).

  16. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  17. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  18. Macromolecular crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartunik, H.D.; Phillips, J.C.; Fourme, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron X-ray sources in macromolecular crystallography is described. The properties of synchrotron radiation relevant to macromolecular crystallography are examined. The applications discussed include anomalous dispersion techniques, the acquisition of normal and high resolution data, and kinetic studies of structural changes in macromolecules; protein data are presented illustrating these applications. The apparatus used is described including information on the electronic detectors, the monitoring of the incident beam and crystal cooling. (U.K.)

  19. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  20. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  1. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  2. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Performance of a high resolution monochromator for the vacuum ultraviolet radiation from the DORIS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-03-01

    The unique properties of the DORIS storage ring at DESY as a synchrotron radiation source are exploited for high resolution spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet. We describe a new experimental set up with a 3 meter normal incidence monochromator for wavelengths between 3,000 A to 300 A (4 [de

  4. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  5. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  6. High-resolution neutron-diffraction measurements to 8 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. L.; Fortes, A. D.; Ridley, C. J.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Funnell, N. P.; Gibbs, A. S.; Goodway, C. M.; Sadykov, R.; Knight, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the capability to measure high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data to a pressure of at least 8 kbar. We have used the HRPD instrument at the ISIS neutron source and a piston-cylinder design of pressure cell machined from a null-scattering titanium zirconium alloy. Data were collected under hydrostatic conditions from an elpasolite perovskite La?NiMnO?; by virtue of a thinner cell wall on the incident-beam side of the cell, it was possible to obtain data in the instrument's highest resolution back-scattering detector banks up to a maximum pressure of 8.5 kbar.

  7. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  8. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  9. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  10. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  11. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  12. Digital signal processors for cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Bechstein, Sylke; Hennig, Wolfgang; Momayezi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing fast digital signal processors (DSPs) to read out superconducting high-resolution X-ray detectors with on-line pulse processing. For superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector read-out, the DSPs offer online filtering, rise time discrimination and pile-up rejection. Compared to analog pulse processing, DSP readout somewhat degrades the detector resolution, but improves the spectral purity of the detector response. We discuss DSP performance with our 9-channel STJ array for synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  13. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  14. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  15. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  16. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  17. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  18. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  19. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  20. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  1. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  2. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  3. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...

  4. High Resolution Topography Analysis on Threading Edge Dislocations in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, I.; Nagano, M.; Tsuchida, H.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Threading edge dislocations (TEDs) in a 4H-SiC epitaxial layer are investigated using high-resolution synchrotron topography. Six types of TED image are confirmed to correspond to the Burgers vector directions by a comparison of computer simulated images and observed topography images in crystal boundaries. Using a mapping method, a wide spatial distribution of the six types of TED is examined in a quarter section of a 2-inch wafer.

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  6. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  7. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  8. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  9. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  10. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  11. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  12. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  13. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  14. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  15. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  16. Sharp or broad pulse peak for high resolution instruments? Choice of moderator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, M.; Watanabe, N.; Teshigawara, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept how we should choose moderator performance to realize required performance for instruments. Neutron burst pulse can be characterized with peak intensity, peak width and tail. Those can be controllable by designing moderator, i.e. material, temperature, shape, decoupling, poisoning and having premoderator. Hence there are large number of variable parameters to be determined. Here we discuss the required moderator performance for some typical examples, i.e. high resolution powder instrument, chopper instrument, high resolution back scattering machine. (author)

  17. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of the early hydration of α-tricalcium phosphate/tricalcium silicate composite bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, Loreley; Correa, Jose Raul, E-mail: lmorejon@fq.uh.cu [Departamento de Quimica General, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, UH (Cuba); Motisuke, Mariana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carrodeguas, Raul Garcia [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Desenvolvimento de Biomateriais do Nordeste; Santos, Luis Alberto dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2015-01-15

    Bioactivity, osteogenicity and mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based phosphates cements can be improved by adding tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S); however, the addition of C{sub 3}S delays the precipitation and growth of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Thus, the aim of this work was the study of in situ setting reaction of α-TCP/C{sub 3}S composite bone cement under high energy X-ray generated by a synchrotron source within the first 72h. The results showed that the addition of C{sub 3}S induces the precipitation of nanosized CDHA at early times depending on the added content. Calculated crystallite sizes showed that the higher the content of C{sub 3}S, the smaller the crystal size at the beginning of the precipitation. These results are different from those obtained by conventional XRD method, suggesting that the proposed technique is a powerful tool in determining the composition and extent of reaction of CPCs surfaces in real time. (author)

  18. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  19. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  20. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  1. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  2. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  3. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  4. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  5. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  6. High-resolution lattice-spacing comparator using SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2004-01-01

    A novel lattice spacing measurement using a high-resolution self-reference d-spacing comparator has been described. Self selection of monochromatic synchrotron x-rays by a monolithic double channel-cut-crystal monochromator (MDCM) comprising silicon 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 reflections may lead to a stable, highly-collimated and narrow bandwidth beam. Also if utilizing 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 Bragg planes of a silicon sample, the interval between two associated Bragg peaks for the X-rays with wavelength of 0.13438 nm can be extremely small, so that the diffraction angle can be determined with high precision and the traveling time from one peak to the other can be marvelously reduced by the order of at least three compared to the established classical methods such as the Bond method. Thus this so-called self-reference comparator method can dramatically save measurement time and provide an absolute measurement on the basis of the x-ray wavelength of the MDCM, therefore a lattice spacing measurement with uncertainty of 10 -8 , for the 1mm 2 area on a silicon crystal within measurement time of a few ten seconds and has been achieved. (author)

  7. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  8. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2π solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  9. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  11. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  12. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  13. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  14. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  15. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  16. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  17. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  18. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  19. Structure resolution of Ba5Al3F19 and Iivestigation of fluorine ion dynamics by synchrotron powder diffraction, variable-temperature solid-state NMR, and quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineau, C.; Fayon, F.; Suchomel, M.R.; Allix, M.; Massiot, D.; Taulelle, F.

    2011-01-01

    The room temperature structure of Ba 5 Al 3 F 19 has been solved using electron microscopy and synchrotron powder diffraction data. One-dimensional (1D) 27 Al and ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) 19 F NMR spectra have been recorded and are in agreement with the proposed structural model for Ba 5 Al 3 F 19 . The 19 F isotropic chemical shift and 27 Al quadrupolar parameters have been calculated using the CASTEP code from the experimental and density functional theory geometry-optimized structures. After optimization, the calculated NMR parameters of both the 19 F and 27 Al nuclei show improved consistency with the experimental values, demonstrating that the geometry optimization step is necessary to obtain more accurate and reliable structural data. This also enables a complete and unambiguous assignment of the 19 F MAS NMR spectrum of Ba 5 Al 3 F 19 . Variable-temperature 1D MAS 19 F NMR experiments have been carried out, showing the occurrence of fluorine ion mobility. Complementary insights were obtained from both two-dimensional (2D) exchange and 2D double-quantum dipolar recoupling NMR experiments, and a detailed analysis of the anionic motion in Ba 5 Al 3 F 19 is proposed, including the distinction between reorientational processes and chemical exchange involving bond breaking and re-formation.

  20. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  1. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  2. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  3. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  4. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  5. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  7. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  8. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  9. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  10. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  11. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  13. JHF synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) consists of two synchrotrons and an injector linac. First, we will present a brief review of the specifications and lattice of the synchrotrons; one is 3 GeV booster and the other is 50 GeV main ring. Secondly, some detailed results of design study will be discussed, together with the present status of the R and D programs in progress. Among them, an estimate of beam loss is one of critical issues in beam dynamics. The development of a high gradient RF cavity is also crucial for a high intensity machine. (author)

  14. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  15. High-resolution diffractometer MINI-SFINKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, W.A.; Kudryaschev, W.A.; Uljanov, W.A.; Bulkin, A.P.; Muratov, W.G.; Korotkova, T.K.; Schebetov, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical principles of the RTOF (reverse time-of-flight) method as well as the basic equations, the optimization of the neutron guides with Fourier chopper and the time-focussing detector setup are outlined. The powder diffractometer is described and some experimental results are given. The report was used as conceptual design basis for the FSS spectrometer at FRG-1 (GKSS Research Center) which has been optimized for non-destructive determination of residual stress. (orig.) With 18 figs., 3 tabs [de

  16. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  17. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.; Niedermayr, T.; Cunningham, M.F.; Van den Berg, M.L.; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 24 hours hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  18. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Cunningham, M F; Berg, M L; Ullom, J N; Loshak, A; Funk, T; Cramer, S P; Batteux, J D; See, E; Frank, M; Labov, S E

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  19. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E

    2001-07-21

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  20. Ultraprecision motion control technique for high-resolution x-ray instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    2000-07-17

    With the availability of third-generation hard x-ray synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, x-ray inelastic scattering and x-ray nuclear resonant scattering provide powerful means for investigating the vibrational dynamics of a variety of materials and condensed matter systems. Novel high-resolution hard x-ray optics with meV energy resolution requires a compact positioning mechanism with 20--50-nrad angular resolution and stability. In this paper, the authors technical approach to this design challenge is presented. Sensitivity and stability test results are also discussed.

  1. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  2. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  3. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  4. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  5. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  6. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  7. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  8. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  9. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  10. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  11. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  12. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  13. High-Resolution Imaging of Selenium in Kidneys: A Localized Selenium Pool Associated with Glutathione Peroxidase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Kehr, Sebastian; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Carlson, Bradley A.; Seravalli, Javier; Jin, Richard; Handy, Diane E.; Park, Thomas J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Recent advances in quantitative methods and sensitive imaging techniques of trace elements provide opportunities to uncover and explain their biological roles. In particular, the distribution of selenium in tissues and cells under both physiological and pathological conditions remains unknown. In this work, we applied high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to map selenium distribution in mouse liver and kidney. Results: Liver showed a uniform selenium distributio...

  14. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  16. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  17. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.; Moon, Juhyuk; Yoon, Seyoon; Bae, Sungchul; Levitz, Pierre; Winarski, Robert; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three

  18. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  19. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction study of porous buffer InP(001) layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomov, A. A.; Punegov, V. I.; Nohavica, Dušan; Chuev, M.A.; Vasiliev, A.L.; Novikov, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2014), s. 1614-1625 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : porous layers * X-ray reciprocal space mapping * indium phosphide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  20. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  1. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  2. Computerized tomography using high resolution X-ray imaging system with a microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprazny, Z.; Korytar, D.; Konopka, P.; Ac, V.; Bielecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there is an effort to image an internal structure of an object by using not only conventional 2D X-ray radiography but also using high resolution 3D tomography which is based on reconstruction of multiple 2D projections at various angular positions of the object. We have previously reported [1] the development and basic parameters of a high resolution x-ray imaging system with a microfocus source. We report the recent progress using this high resolution X-ray laboratory system in this work. These first findings show that our system is particularly suitable for light weight and nonmetallic objects such as biological objects, plastics, wood, paper, etc. where phase contrast helps to increase the visibility of the finest structures of the object. Phase-contrast X-ray Computerized Tomography is of our special interest because it is an emerging imaging technique that can be implemented at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and also in laboratory conditions using a microfocus X-ray tube or beam conditioning optics. (authors)

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  4. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  6. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  7. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  8. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  9. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  10. Powder diffraction studies using anomalous dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.E.; Wilkinson, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the increasing availability and accessibility of high resolution powder diffractometers at many synchrotron radiation sources throughout the world, there is rapidly-growing interest in the exploitation of anomalous dispersion techniques for structural studies of polycrystalline materials. In conjunction with the Rietveld profile method for structure refinement, such studies are especially useful for the determination of the site distributions of two or more atoms which are near neighbors in the periodic table, or atoms which are distributed among partially occupied sites. Additionally, it is possible to (1) determine the mean-square displacements associated with different kinds of atoms distributed over a single set of sites, (2) distinguish between different oxidation states and coordination geometries of a particular atom in a compound and (3) to determine f' for a wide range of atomic species as a function of energy in the vicinity of an absorption edge. Experimental methods for making anomalous dispersion measurements are described in some detail, including data collection strategies, data analysis and correlation problems, possible systematic errors, and the accuracy of the results. Recent work in the field is reviewed, including cation site-distribution studies (e.g. doped high T c superconductors, ternary alloys, FeCo 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , FeNi 2 BO 5 ), oxidation-state contrast (e.g. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , Eu 3 O 4 , GaCl 2 , Fe 2 PO 5 ), and the effect of coordination geometry (e.g. Y 3 Ga 5 O l2 )

  11. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  12. High-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein using the high-pressure cryocooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiura, Akifumi; Ohta, Kazunori; Masaki, Mika; Sato, Masaru; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. This is the first ultra-high-resolution structure obtained from a high-pressure cryocooled crystal. Recently, many technical improvements in macromolecular X-ray crystallography have increased the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and improved the resolution limit of protein structures. Almost all high-resolution structures have been determined using a synchrotron radiation source in conjunction with cryocooling techniques, which are required in order to minimize radiation damage. However, optimization of cryoprotectant conditions is a time-consuming and difficult step. To overcome this problem, the high-pressure cryocooling method was developed (Kim et al., 2005 ▶) and successfully applied to many protein-structure analyses. In this report, using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. Structural comparisons between high- and ambient-pressure cryocooled crystals at ultra-high resolution illustrate the versatility of this technique. This is the first ultra-high-resolution X-ray structure obtained using the high-pressure cryocooling method

  13. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  14. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  15. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  16. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  17. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  18. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  19. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  20. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  1. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  2. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  3. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  4. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  5. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  6. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  7. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  8. Three dimensional imaging of damage in structural materials using high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffiere, J.-Y. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-yves.buffiere@insa-lyon.fr; Proudhon, H. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ferrie, E. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ludwig, W. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Maire, E. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cloetens, P. [ESRF Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-15

    This paper presents recent results showing the ability of high resolution synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to image damage initiation and development during mechanical loading of structural metallic materials. First, the initiation, growth and coalescence of porosities in the bulk of two metal matrix composites have been imaged at different stages of a tensile test. Quantitative data on damage development has been obtained and related to the nature of the composite matrix. Second, three dimensional images of fatigue crack have been obtained in situ for two different Al alloys submitted to fretting and/or uniaxial in situ fatigue. The analysis of those images shows the strong interaction of the cracks with the local microstructure and provides unique experimental data for modelling the behaviour of such short cracks.

  9. Three dimensional imaging of damage in structural materials using high resolution micro-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffiere, J.-Y.; Proudhon, H.; Ferrie, E.; Ludwig, W.; Maire, E.; Cloetens, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results showing the ability of high resolution synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to image damage initiation and development during mechanical loading of structural metallic materials. First, the initiation, growth and coalescence of porosities in the bulk of two metal matrix composites have been imaged at different stages of a tensile test. Quantitative data on damage development has been obtained and related to the nature of the composite matrix. Second, three dimensional images of fatigue crack have been obtained in situ for two different Al alloys submitted to fretting and/or uniaxial in situ fatigue. The analysis of those images shows the strong interaction of the cracks with the local microstructure and provides unique experimental data for modelling the behaviour of such short cracks

  10. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  11. Simulation of high-resolution X-ray microscopic images for improved alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiangxia; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Cheng Xianchao; Li Wenjie; Guan Yong; Liu Ying; Xiong Ying; Tian Yangchao

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of precision optical elements to X-ray microscopes necessitates fine realignment to achieve optimal high-resolution imaging. In this paper, we demonstrate a numerical method for simulating image formation that facilitates alignment of the source, condenser, objective lens, and CCD camera. This algorithm, based on ray-tracing and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, is applied to simulate the X-ray microscope beamline U7A of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The simulations and imaging experiments show that the algorithm is useful for guiding experimental adjustments. Our alignment simulation method is an essential tool for the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) with optical elements and may also be useful for the alignment of optical components in other modes of microscopy.

  12. High-resolution Fourier-transform extreme ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of 14N15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heays, A. N.; Dickenson, G. D.; Salumbides, E. J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Lewis, B. R.; Ubachs, W.

    2011-12-01

    The first comprehensive high-resolution photoabsorption spectrum of 14N15N has been recorded using the Fourier-transform spectrometer attached to the Desirs beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. Observations are made in the extreme ultraviolet and span 100 000-109 000 cm-1 (100-91.7 nm). The observed absorption lines have been assigned to 25 bands and reduced to a set of transition energies, f values, and linewidths. This analysis has verified the predictions of a theoretical model of N2 that simulates its photoabsorption and photodissociation cross section by solution of an isotopomer independent formulation of the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation. The mass dependence of predissociation linewidths and oscillator strengths is clearly evident and many local perturbations of transition energies, strengths, and widths within individual rotational series have been observed.

  13. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  14. High-resolution X-ray diffraction with no sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, G M; Turner, S M R; Degryse, P; Shortland, A J

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) implemented in a back-reflection geometry is extremely insensitive to sample morphology and positioning even in a high-resolution configuration. This technique allows high-quality X-ray diffraction analysis of samples that have not been prepared and is therefore completely non-destructive. The experimental technique was implemented on beamline B18 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Oxfordshire, UK. The majority of the experiments in this study were performed with pre-characterized geological materials in order to elucidate the characteristics of this novel technique and to develop the analysis methods. Results are presented that demonstrate phase identification, the derivation of precise unit-cell parameters and extraction of microstructural information on unprepared rock samples and other sample types. A particular highlight was the identification of a specific polytype of a muscovite in an unprepared mica schist sample, avoiding the time-consuming and difficult preparation steps normally required to make this type of identification. The technique was also demonstrated in application to a small number of fossil and archaeological samples. Back-reflection EDXRD implemented in a high-resolution configuration shows great potential in the crystallographic analysis of cultural heritage artefacts for the purposes of scientific research such as provenancing, as well as contributing to the formulation of conservation strategies. Possibilities for moving the technique from the synchrotron into museums are discussed. The avoidance of the need to extract samples from high-value and rare objects is a highly significant advantage, applicable also in other potential research areas such as palaeontology, and the study of meteorites and planetary materials brought to Earth by sample-return missions.

  15. Competing orbital ordering in RVO3 compounds: High-resolution x-ray diffraction and thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M. H.; Blake, G. R.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Marquina, C.

    2007-01-01

    We report evidence for the phase coexistence of orbital orderings of different symmetry in RVO 3 compounds with intermediate-size rare earths. Through a study by high-resolution x-ray powder diffraction and thermal expansion, we show that the competing orbital orderings are associated with the magnitude of the VO 6 octahedral tilting and magnetic exchange striction in these compounds and that the phase-separated state is stabilized by lattice strains

  16. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  17. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  18. The micro-mechanics of strength, durability and damage tolerance in composites: new insights from high resolution computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, S. Mark; Sinclair, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Recent work, led by the authors, on impact damage resistance, particle toughening and tensile fibre failure is reviewed in order to illustrate the use of high-resolution X-ray tomography to observe and quantify damage mechanisms in carbon fibre composite laminates. Using synchrotron and micro-focus X-ray sources resolutions of less than 1 μm have been routinely achieved. This enables individual broken fibres and the micromechanisms of particle toughening to be observed and quantified. The data for fibre failure, cluster formation and overall tensile strength are compared with model predictions. This allows strategies for future model development to be identified. The overall implications for using such high-resolution 3-D measurements to inform a “data-rich mechanics” approach to materials evaluation and modeling is discussed.

  19. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  20. Hard x-ray monochromator with milli-electron volt bandwidth for high-resolution diffraction studies of diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Shu Deming; Khachatryan, Ruben; Xiao, Xianghui; DeCarlo, Francesco; Goetze, Kurt; Roberts, Timothy; Roehrig, Christian; Deriy, Alexey [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    We report on design and performance of a high-resolution x-ray monochromator with a spectral bandwidth of {Delta}E{sub X}{approx_equal} 1.5 meV, which operates at x-ray energies in the vicinity of the backscattering (Bragg) energy E{sub H} = 13.903 keV of the (008) reflection in diamond. The monochromator is utilized for high-energy-resolution diffraction characterization of diamond crystals as elements of advanced x-ray crystal optics for synchrotrons and x-ray free-electron lasers. The monochromator and the related controls are made portable such that they can be installed and operated at any appropriate synchrotron beamline equipped with a pre-monochromator.

  1. High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of styrene oxide adsorption and reaction on Ag(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, H.; Enever, M. C. N.; Adib, K.; Hrbek, J.; Barteau, M. A.

    2004-11-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the adsorption and reaction of styrene oxide on Ag(1 1 1). When adsorption is carried out at 250 K or above, ring opening of styrene oxide forms a stable surface oxametallacycle intermediate which eventually reacts at 485 K to regenerate styrene oxide. High resolution XPS is capable of distinguishing the oxametallacycle from molecularly adsorbed and condensed styrene oxide on the basis of different C1s peak separations. The observed separations are well accounted for by the results of DFT calculations.

  2. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  3. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  5. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  6. Overview and perspective of materials characterization by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2009-01-01

    A peculiarity of techniques and the methods of synchrotron radiation are explained. It consists of five sections such as introduction, synchrotron radiation, interaction between X-ray and materials, analytical methods of materials using synchrotron radiation and perspective and problems. The second section described the principles of synchrotron orbit radiation, synchrotron light source, the main formulae and schematic drawing of undulator, and the synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan. The third section explained behavior of X-ray in materials, absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering of X-ray. The fourth section stated many analytical methods of materials; the surface diffractometer, powder diffractometer, high-energy X-ray diffraction, core-electron absorption spectroscopy, micro-beam diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). A characteristic feature of synchrotron radiation contains the large wave length ranges from infrared to X-ray, high directivity and brightness, linear (circular) polarization, pulsed light, good control and stability. The brightness spectra of Spring-8 and SAGA-LS, concept of synchrotron light source, undulator and wiggler, nine synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan, mass absorption coefficients of Cu and Au, and analysis of materials using synchrotron radiation are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  7. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds. (paper)

  8. High-resolution direct 3D printed PLGA scaffolds: print and shrink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Helena N; Wu, Benjamin M

    2014-12-17

    Direct three-dimensional printing (3DP) produces the final part composed of the powder and binder used in fabrication. An advantage of direct 3DP is control over both the microarchitecture and macroarchitecture. Prints which use porogen incorporated in the powder result in high pore interconnectivity, uniform porosity, and defined pore size after leaching. The main limitations of direct 3DP for synthetic polymers are the use of organic solvents which can dissolve polymers used in most printheads and limited resolution due to unavoidable spreading of the binder droplet after contact with the powder. This study describes a materials processing strategy to eliminate the use of organic solvent during the printing process and to improve 3DP resolution by shrinking with a non-solvent plasticizer. Briefly, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) powder was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation to form polymer microparticles. The printing powder was composed of polymer microparticles dry mixed with sucrose particles. After printing with a water-based liquid binder, the polymer microparticles were fused together to form a network by solvent vapor in an enclosed vessel. The sucrose is removed by leaching and the resulting scaffold is placed in a solution of methanol. The methanol acts as a non-solvent plasticizer and allows for polymer chain rearrangement and efficient packing of polymer chains. The resulting volumetric shrinkage is ∼80% at 90% methanol. A complex shape (honey-comb) was designed, printed, and shrunken to demonstrate isotropic shrinking with the ability to reach a final resolution of ∼400 μm. The effect of type of alcohol (i.e. methanol or ethanol), concentration of alcohol, and temperature on volumetric shrinking was studied. This study presents a novel materials processing strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct 3DP to produce high resolution PLGA scaffolds.

  9. Structure solution from powder neutron and x-ray diffraction data: getting the best of both worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Powder diffraction methods have traditionally been used in three main areas: phase identification and quantification, lattice parameter determination and structure refinement. Until recently structure solution has been the almost exclusive domain of single crystal diffraction methods, predominantly using x-rays. The increasing use of synchrotron and neutron sources, and the unrelenting advances in computing hardware and software means that powder methods are challenging single crystal methods as a practical method for structure solution, especially when single crystal method can not be applied. It is known that structural refinements from a known starting structure using combined X-ray and neutron data sets are capable of providing highly accurate structures. Likewise, using combined x-ray and neutron powder diffraction data in the structure solution process should also be a powerful technique, although to date no one is pursuing this methodology. This paper present examples of solutions to the problem. Namely we are using high resolution powder X-ray and neutron methods to solve the structures of molecular materials and minerals, then refining the structures using both sets of data. In this way we exploit the advantages of both methods while minimising the disadvantages. We present our solution for a small amino acid structure, a metalorganic and a mineral structure

  10. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  11. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  12. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the high-resolution seismic data depends mainly on the data ..... metric rift geometry. Based on the .... Biswas S K 2003 Regional tectonic framework of the .... Sheth H C, Ray J S, Ray R, Vanderkluysen L, Mahoney J. J, Kumar A ...

  13. Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, A.; Berkmen, Y.M.; Goekmen, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  14. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  15. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  17. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  18. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clinical experience in implementing whole-genome high-resolution SNP arrays to investigate 33 patients with syndromic and .... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM, ..... of damaged mitochondria through either autophagy or mito- ..... malformations: associations with maternal and infant character- istics in a ...

  19. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  20. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...

  1. High resolution satellite imagery : from spies to pipeline management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S. [Canadian Geomatic Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Farrell, M. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The launch of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite in September 1999 has opened the door for corridor applications. The technology has been successfully implemented by TransCanada PipeLines in mapping over 1500 km of their mainline. IKONOS is the world's first commercial high resolution satellite which collects data at 1-meter black/white and 4-meter multi-spectral. Its use is regulated by the U.S. government. It is the best source of high resolution satellite image data. Other sources include the Indian Space Agency's IRS-1 C/D satellite and the Russian SPIN-2 which provides less reliable coverage. In addition, two more high resolution satellites may be launched this year to provide imagery every day of the year. IKONOS scenes as narrow as 5 km can be purchased. TransCanada conducted a pilot study to determine if high resolution satellite imagery is as effective as ortho-photos for identifying population structures within a buffer of TransCanada's east line right-of-way. The study examined three unique segments where residential, commercial, industrial and public features were compared. It was determined that IKONOS imagery is as good as digital ortho-photos for updating structures from low to very high density areas. The satellite imagery was also logistically easier than ortho-photos to acquire. This will be even more evident when the IKONOS image archives begins to grow. 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubachs, W.M.G.; Salumbides, E.J.; Eikema, K.S.E.; de Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.

    2014-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies.

  3. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  4. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  5. Pattern of interstitial lung disease detected by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diffuse lung diseases constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. Objectives: To describe the pattern of HRCT findings in patients with ...

  6. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  7. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  8. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  9. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  10. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  11. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  12. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  13. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364164794; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  14. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  15. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  16. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  17. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  18. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6 5 , the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle

  19. High-resolution x-ray imaging using a structured scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormozan, Yashar, E-mail: hormozan@kth.se; Sychugov, Ilya; Linnros, Jan [Materials and Nano Physics, School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Kista, Stockholm SE-16440 (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce a new generation of finely structured scintillators with a very high spatial resolution (a few micrometers) compared to conventional scintillators, yet maintaining a thick absorbing layer for improved detectivity. Methods: Their concept is based on a 2D array of high aspect ratio pores which are fabricated by ICP etching, with spacings (pitches) of a few micrometers, on silicon and oxidation of the pore walls. The pores were subsequently filled by melting of powdered CsI(Tl), as the scintillating agent. In order to couple the secondary emitted photons of the back of the scintillator array to a CCD device, having a larger pixel size than the pore pitch, an open optical microscope with adjustable magnification was designed and implemented. By imaging a sharp edge, the authors were able to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of this finely structured scintillator. Results: The x-ray images of individually resolved pores suggest that they have been almost uniformly filled, and the MTF measurements show the feasibility of a few microns spatial resolution imaging, as set by the scintillator pore size. Compared to existing techniques utilizing CsI needles as a structured scintillator, their results imply an almost sevenfold improvement in resolution. Finally, high resolution images, taken by their detector, are presented. Conclusions: The presented work successfully shows the functionality of their detector concept for high resolution imaging and further fabrication developments are most likely to result in higher quantum efficiencies.

  20. X-ray diffraction studies of Pompeian wall paintings using synchrotron radiation and dedicated laboratory made systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, A.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2010-01-01

    The full identification of artwork materials requires not only elemental analysis but also structural information of the compounds as provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD). This is easily done when taking samples (or micro-samples) from artworks. However, there is an increasing interest in performing non-destructive studies that require adapted XRD systems. Comparative study of synchrotron high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (SR-HRPD) and laboratory non-destructive systems (portable XRD and micro-XRD) is the main objective of this work. There are no qualitative differences among the three systems as for detected phases in the Pompeian wall paintings that were studied, except in the case of minority phases which only were detected by SR-HRPD. The identified pigments were goethite, hematite, cinnabar, glauconite, Pompeian blue, together with calcite, dolomite and aragonite. Synchrotron XRD diagrams show better resolution than the others. In general, the peak widths in the diagrams obtained with the portable XRD system are similar to those obtained by micro-diffraction equipment. Factors such as residual divergence of X-ray sources, incidence angle and slit or collimator size are discussed in relation with the quality of XRD diagrams. (orig.)

  1. High resolution color imagery for orthomaps and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricker, Peter [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (Switzerland); Gallo, M. Guillermo [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The ADS40 Airborne Digital Pushbroom Sensor is currently the only commercial sensor capable of acquiring color and false color strip images in the low decimeter range at the same high resolution as the black and white stereo images. This high resolution of 12,000 pixels across the entire swath and 100% forward overlap in the image strips result in high quality DSM's, True Ortho's and at the same time allow unbiased remote sensing applications due to color strip images unchanged by pan-sharpening. The paper gives details on how the pushbroom sensor achieves these seemingly difficult technical challenges. It describes how a variety of mapping applications benefit from this sensor, a sensor which acts as a satellite pushbroom sensor within the airborne environment. (author)

  2. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Prell, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version of the reconstructed images in polar coordinates. This post-processing method reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improved image quality for phantom and in in vivo scans. Noise and artifacts were reduced both in transversal and in multi-planar reformations along the longitudinal axis. (note)

  3. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  4. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  5. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  6. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  7. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes

  8. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  9. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  10. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  11. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jiri

    2002-03-25

    The combination of advanced high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with high-pressure capability represents a powerful experimental tool in studies of protein folding. This review is organized as follows: after a general introduction of high-pressure, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of proteins, the experimental part deals with instrumentation. The main section of the review is devoted to NMR studies of reversible pressure unfolding of proteins with special emphasis on pressure-assisted cold denaturation and the detection of folding intermediates. Recent studies investigating local perturbations in proteins and the experiments following the effects of point mutations on pressure stability of proteins are also discussed. Ribonuclease A, lysozyme, ubiquitin, apomyoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin and troponin C were the model proteins investigated.

  12. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  13. Precision crystal alignment for high-resolution electron microscope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.J.; Beeching, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more difficult tasks involved in obtaining quality high-resolution electron micrographs is the precise alignment of a specimen into the required zone. The current accepted procedure, which involves changing to diffraction mode and searching for symmetric point diffraction pattern, is insensitive to small amounts of misalignment and at best qualitative. On-line analysis of the fourier space representation of the image, both for determining and correcting crystal tilt, is investigated. 8 refs., 42 figs

  14. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  15. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  16. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  17. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  18. PROFIL-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  19. Profil-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  20. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungenschmid, D.; Buchberger, W.; Schoen, G.; Schoepf, R.; Mihatsch, T.; Birbamer, G.; Wicke, K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  1. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  2. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: https://ciesin.columbia.edu/data/hrsl/) in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission s...

  4. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  5. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  6. Detectors for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Tomography is the technique of producing a photographic image of an opaque specimen by transmitting a beam of x-rays or gamma rays through the specimen onto an adjacent photographic film. The image results from variations in thickness, density, and chemical composition, of the specimen. This technique is used to study the metabolism of the human brain. This article examines the design of equipment used for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography. 27 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  7. High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry: A Time Motion Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Sadowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: High-resolution manometry (HRM of the esophagus is a new technique that provides a more precise assessment of esophageal motility than conventional techniques. Because HRM measures pressure events along the entire length of the esophagus simultaneously, clinical procedure time should be shorter because less catheter manipulation is required. According to manufacturer advertising, the new HRM system is more accurate and up to 50% faster than conventional methods.

  8. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid o......-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  9. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  10. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  11. Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  12. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    objective of this project is to provide the DoD and its remediation contractors with the HT technology for delineating the spatial distribution of...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hydraulic Tomography ( HT ) is a high-resolution...performance of subsurface remedial actions at environmental sites. The good technical performance and cost-effectiveness of HT have been demonstrated in

  13. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  14. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  15. A precision synchrotron radiation detector using phosphorescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Butler, J.; Wormser, G.

    1990-01-01

    A precision detector to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions has been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 μm on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. High-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein using the high-pressure cryocooling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiura, Akifumi; Ohta, Kazunori; Masaki, Mika; Sato, Masaru; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2013-11-01

    Recently, many technical improvements in macromolecular X-ray crystallography have increased the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and improved the resolution limit of protein structures. Almost all high-resolution structures have been determined using a synchrotron radiation source in conjunction with cryocooling techniques, which are required in order to minimize radiation damage. However, optimization of cryoprotectant conditions is a time-consuming and difficult step. To overcome this problem, the high-pressure cryocooling method was developed (Kim et al., 2005) and successfully applied to many protein-structure analyses. In this report, using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. Structural comparisons between high- and ambient-pressure cryocooled crystals at ultra-high resolution illustrate the versatility of this technique. This is the first ultra-high-resolution X-ray structure obtained using the high-pressure cryocooling method.

  17. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  18. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, F.; Ono, A.; Ando, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ishii, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sato, H.; Kira, A.; Otabe, M.; Mori, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  19. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  20. The high resolution shear wave seismic reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the state-of-the-art of the high resolution S-wave reflection technique. Published and unpublished literature has been reviewed and discussions have been held with experts. Result is to confirm that the proposed theoretical and practical basis for identifying aquifer systems using both P- and S-wave reflections is sound. Knowledge of S-wave velocity and P-wave velocity is a powerful tool for assessing the fluid characteristics of subsurface layers. Material properties and lateral changes in material properties such as change from clay to sand, can be inferred from careful dual evaluation of P and S-wave records. The high resolution S-wave reflection technique has seen its greatest application to date as part of geotechnical studies for building foundations in the Far East. Information from this type of study has been evaluated and will be incorporated in field studies. In particular, useful information regarding S-wave sources, noise suppression and recording procedures will be incorporated within the field studies. Case histories indicate that the best type of site for demonstrating the power of the high resolution S-wave technique will be in unconsolidated soil without excessive structural complexities. More complex sites can form the basis for subsequent research after the basic principles of the technique can be established under relatively uncomplicated conditions

  1. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  2. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  3. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  4. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying; Reardon, Patrick N.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Khbeis, Michael; Irish, Duane; Mueller, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed, as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.

  5. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  7. Application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M [King' s Coll., London (UK). Wheatstone Physics Lab.

    1980-05-01

    X-ray interferometry has been attempted with synchrotron radiation at Hamburg and at Orsay. Experiments will start this year at the Storage Ring Source at Daresbury. This review covers work which has already been completed and outlines the likely trends in phase sensitive X-ray polarimetry, high resolution spectroscopy (including real and imaginary-part EXAFS) and novel experiments with many-beam-case interferometers.

  8. The national synchrotron light source and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the National Synchrotron Light Source facility including its beamlines and operational characteristics. Research results on selected beamlines on the VUV ring which highlight new experimental capabilities are described since they are more relevant to the program at HESYRL. Examples chosen are spin-polarized photoemission, infra-red surface science, high resolution core level spectroscopy, X- Ray lithography, photoelectron/Auger coincidence spectroscopy and high electron momentum resolution surface studies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  10. A subspace approach to high-resolution spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fan; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-04-01

    To accelerate spectroscopic imaging using sparse sampling of (k,t)-space and subspace (or low-rank) modeling to enable high-resolution metabolic imaging with good signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method, called SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, exploits a unique property known as partial separability of spectroscopic signals. This property indicates that high-dimensional spectroscopic signals reside in a very low-dimensional subspace and enables special data acquisition and image reconstruction strategies to be used to obtain high-resolution spatiospectral distributions with good signal-to-noise ratio. More specifically, a hybrid chemical shift imaging/echo-planar spectroscopic imaging pulse sequence is proposed for sparse sampling of (k,t)-space, and a low-rank model-based algorithm is proposed for subspace estimation and image reconstruction from sparse data with the capability to incorporate prior information and field inhomogeneity correction. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated using both computer simulations and phantom studies, which produced very encouraging results. For two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging experiments on a metabolite phantom, a factor of 10 acceleration was achieved with a minimal loss in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the long chemical shift imaging experiments and with a significant gain in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the accelerated echo-planar spectroscopic imaging experiments. The proposed method, SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, is able to significantly accelerate spectroscopic imaging experiments, making high-resolution metabolic imaging possible. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Landslide detection using very high-resolution satellite imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Yuzo; Konishi, Tomohisa

    2012-10-01

    The heavy rain induced by the 12th typhoon caused landslide disaster at Kii Peninsula in the middle part of Japan. We propose a quick response method for landslide disaster mapping using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imageries. Especially, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is effective because it has the capability of all weather and day/night observation. In this study, multi-temporal COSMO-SkyMed imageries were used to detect the landslide areas. It was difficult to detect the landslide areas using only backscatter change pattern derived from pre- and post-disaster COSMOSkyMed imageries. Thus, the authors adopted a correlation analysis which the moving window was selected for the correlation coefficient calculation. Low value of the correlation coefficient reflects land cover change between pre- and post-disaster imageries. This analysis is effective for the detection of landslides using SAR data. The detected landslide areas were compared with the area detected by EROS-B high resolution optical image. In addition, we have developed 3D viewing system for geospatial visualizing of the damaged area using these satellite image data with digital elevation model. The 3D viewing system has the performance of geographic measurement with respect to elevation height, area and volume calculation, and cross section drawing including landscape viewing and image layer construction using a mobile personal computer with interactive operation. As the result, it was verified that a quick response for the detection of landslide disaster at the initial stage could be effectively performed using optical and SAR very high resolution satellite data by means of 3D viewing system.

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Geological survey by high resolution electrical survey on granite areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an Integral part of the geological survey in 'The study of the regions ground water flow system' that we are carrying out with Tono Geoscience Center, we proved the relation between the uncontinuation structure such as lineament in the base rock and resistivity structure (resistivity distribution), for the purpose of that confirms the efficacy of the high resolution electrical survey as geological survey, we carried out high resolution electrical survey on granite area. We obtained the following result, by the comparison of resistivity distribution with established geological survey, lineament analysis and investigative drilling. 1. The resistivity structure of this survey area is almost able to classify it into the following four range. 1) the low resistivity range of 50-800 Ωm, 2) The resistivity range like the middle of 200-2000 Ωm, 3) The high resistivity range of 2000 Ωm over, 4) The low resistivity range of depth of the survey line 400-550 section. 2. The low resistivity range of 4) that correspond with the established geological data is not admitted. 3. It was confirmed that resistivity structure almost correspond to geological structure by the comparison with the established data. 4. The small-scale low resistivity area is admitted in the point equivalent to the lineament position of established. 5. We carried out it with the simulation method about the low resistivity range of 4). As a result, it understood that it has the possibility that the narrow ratio low resistivity area is shown as the wide ratio resistivity range in the analysis section. In the survey in this time, it is conceivable that the resistivity distribution with the possibility of the unhomogeneous and uncontinuation structure of the base rock is being shown conspicuously, the efficacy of the high resolution resistivity survey as geological survey on granite was shown. (author)

  14. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  15. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dunker, Tim; Hauglin, Harald; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic...

  16. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  17. Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, S.R.; Osher, S.; California Univ., Los Angeles)

    1985-01-01

    Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and glitches, relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes. 21 references

  18. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  19. Free radicals. High-resolution spectroscopy and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, E.

    1983-01-01

    High-resolution, high-sensitivity spectroscopy using CW laser and microwave sources has been applied to free radicals and transient molecules to establish their existence and to explore their properties in detail. The radicals studied were mainly generated by discharge-induced reactions. A few molecules are used as typical examples to illustrate the results so far obtained. The molecular and electronic structures of free radicals, intramolecular motions of large amplitudes in some labile molecules, and metastable electronic states of carbenes are given special emphasis. The significance of the present spectroscopic results in other related fields such as astronomy and atmospheric chemistry is stressed. 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  1. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  2. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  3. Diesel characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich, C.A

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry-gas chromatography is combined with the HC22 method in order to obtain detailed information about the chemical composition of diesel and the distribution of different compound types in terms of its final boiling temperature from a single analysis. The total time elapsed from sample injection and signal processing to obtain final results is 90 minutes. This fact makes this methodology a new and very important tool for the decision making process concerning the most suitable final boiling temperature and the type of treatment of the product in order to obtain diesel that fulfills the international standards. The consistency and repeatability of the experimental results are demonstrated

  4. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  5. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.

    2008-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R and D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented

  6. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma by high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Ogata, Noboru; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Tohno, Tetsuya; Makino, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    Three normal volunteers and 57 patients with cholesteatoma were examined by high resolution computed tomography. Serial sections were made through the temporal bone at the nasaly inclined position of 30 degree to the orbitomeatal line (semiaxial plane ; SAP). The findings of temporal bone structures in normal subjects were evaluated in SAP and axial plane (OM). Although the both planes showed good visualization, SAP showed both the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity in one slice. In cholesteatoma soft tissue masses in the tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells and Eustachian tube were demonstrated clearly by SAP. (author)

  7. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  8. Evaluation of high-resolution CT after tympanoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, Y.; Tanaka, F.; Okuno, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the condition of the middle ear cavity following tympanoplasty which is always of great interest to radiologists and otosurgeons. This study consisted of 21 patients who had various types of tympanoplasty (types I-IV) for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma by using high-resolution CT (HRCT). HRCT following tympanoplasty was a valuable method for assessing the middle ear aeration and the state of ossicular reconstruction, including stapes prosthesis, although in some cases of soft-tissue mass in the middle ear it was necessary to correlate with clinical findings in order to differentiate between granulation and recurrence

  9. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  10. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  11. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  13. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  14. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic- force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single-molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecules * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  15. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  16. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  17. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  18. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    2000-01-01

    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  19. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacovella, U. [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Holland, D. M. P. [STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  20. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  1. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    de Ciencias Fisicas,. Universidad Nacional. Autonoma de Mexico. Sameen Ahmed Khan. A summary of results on synchrotron radiation is presented along with notes on its properties and applications. Quantum aspects are briefly mentioned. Synchrotron radiation facilities are described briefly with a detailed coverage of ...

  2. The Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Herley, P.J.; Chen, H.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an X-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates is available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  4. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  5. An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Wang, Jenny; Kiss, Andrew M.; Martin, Aiden A.; Depond, Philip J.; Guss, Gabriel M.; Thampy, Vivek; Fong, Anthony Y.; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Stone, Kevin H.; Tassone, Christopher J.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Toney, Michael F.; Van Buuren, Anthony; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2018-05-01

    In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation. We also present experimental results using Ti-6Al-4V, a widely used aerospace alloy, as a model system. Both imaging and diffraction experiments were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Melt pool dynamics were imaged at frame rates up to 4 kHz with a ˜1.1 μm effective pixel size and revealed the formation of keyhole pores along the melt track due to vapor recoil forces. Diffraction experiments at sampling rates of 1 kHz captured phase evolution and lattice contraction during the rapid cooling present in LPBF within a ˜50 × 100 μm area. We also discuss the utility of these measurements for model validation and process improvement.

  6. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Many important properties of transition metal oxides such as, copper oxide high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites are due to strong electron-electron interactions, and hence these systems are called highly correlated systems. These materials are characterised by the coexistence of different kinds of order, including charge, orbital, and magnetic moment. This thesis contains high-resolution X-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in such systems namely the high-T C copper oxides isostructural system, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with various Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2), and the CMR manganite system, Nd 1/2 Sr 1/2 MnO 3 . It also includes a review of charge ordering in a large variety of transition metal oxides, such as ferrates, vanadates, cobaltates, nickelates, manganites, and cuprates systems, which have been reported to date in the scientific literature. Using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering, it has been demonstrated that the charge stripes exist in a series of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2) at low temperatures. Satellite reflections due to the charge ordering were found with the wavevector (2ε, 0, 1) below the charge ordering transition temperature, T CO , where 2ε is the amount of separation from the corresponding Bragg peak. The charge stripes are shown to be two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd

  7. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  8. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  9. Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Dianna; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) is an in-tube, PCR-based method to detect methylation levels at specific loci of interest. A unique primer design facilitates a high sensitivity of the assays enabling detection of down to 0.1-1% methylated alleles in an unmethylated background.Primers for MS-HRM assays are designed to be complementary to the methylated allele, and a specific annealing temperature enables these primers to anneal both to the methylated and the unmethylated alleles thereby increasing the sensitivity of the assays. Bisulfite treatment of the DNA prior to performing MS-HRM ensures a different base composition between methylated and unmethylated DNA, which is used to separate the resulting amplicons by high resolution melting.The high sensitivity of MS-HRM has proven useful for detecting cancer biomarkers in a noninvasive manner in urine from bladder cancer patients, in stool from colorectal cancer patients, and in buccal mucosa from breast cancer patients. MS-HRM is a fast method to diagnose imprinted diseases and to clinically validate results from whole-epigenome studies. The ability to detect few copies of methylated DNA makes MS-HRM a key player in the quest for establishing links between environmental exposure, epigenetic changes, and disease.

  10. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-R. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  11. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Song, K.S.; Lim, T.H.; Im, J.G.; Seo, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings (n = 8). The clinical history of taking squalene was confirmed in all patients. The CT findings were classified into three patterns: diffuse ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. Distribution of the abnormalities, duration of taking squalene, predisposing factors for aspiration, and route of administration were analyzed. Ten patients showed diffuse ground-glass opacity pattern. Seven of 10 patients had predisposing conditions such as unconsciousness, pharyngeal dysmotility, or motor disturbances, and 6 patients had a recent history of taking large amount of squalene through nasal route. Seven patients who had consolidation pattern had a history of taking squalene for several months and did not have any predisposing factor. All of the 5 patients who had a pattern of interstitial abnormalities had a history of taking squalene longer than 1 year and showed segmental distribution of interstitial thickening with interposing ground-glass opacities. Three patients simultaneously had two different patterns at different lobes of the lung. The HRCT findings of lipoid pneumonia are ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. These HRCT findings with appropriate inquiries could be useful for diagnosis of exogeneous lipoid pneumonia. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author)

  13. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  14. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  15. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  17. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de; Marchiori, Edson; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  18. Peculiar velocity effects in high-resolution microwave background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challinor, Anthony; Leeuwen, Floor van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the impact of peculiar velocity effects due to the motion of the solar system relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on high resolution CMB experiments. It is well known that on the largest angular scales the combined effects of Doppler shifts and aberration are important; the lowest Legendre multipoles of total intensity receive power from the large CMB monopole in transforming from the CMB frame. On small angular scales aberration dominates and is shown here to lead to significant distortions of the total intensity and polarization multipoles in transforming from the rest frame of the CMB to the frame of the solar system. We provide convenient analytic results for the distortions as series expansions in the relative velocity of the two frames, but at the highest resolutions a numerical quadrature is required. Although many of the high resolution multipoles themselves are severely distorted by the frame transformations, we show that their statistical properties distort by only an insignificant amount. Therefore, the cosmological parameter estimation is insensitive to the transformation from the CMB frame (where theoretical predictions are calculated) to the rest frame of the experiment

  19. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  20. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  1. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grkovski, Milan, E-mail: milan.grkovski@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Brzezinski, Karol [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Cindro, Vladimir [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Clinthorne, Neal H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kagan, Harris [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lacasta, Carlos [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Mikuž, Marko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Solaz, Carles [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Studen, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Weilhammer, Peter [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Žontar, Dejan [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-07-11

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm{sup 2} pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2–4.8 mm) filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm)

  2. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  3. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  4. An original acquisition chain for the TOHR High Resolution Tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinot, Laurent

    1999-01-01

    The framework of this work is part of a new approach of emission tomography adapted to small animals. The principle of our tomographic system TOHR (French acronym for High Resolution Tomograph) is based on the use of large solid angle and high resolution focusing collimators each mounted in front of a detection module of high efficiency. With a first-generation acquisition chain we were able to characterize TOHR, however, to take fully advantage of the TOHR possibilities, a completely new acquisition scheme had to be designed. This system, being the main topic of this work, makes use of temporal information. The detection of a particle that entered the detector is translated into temporal logical signals. These signals pass into a time coding circuitry and the coded results are transferred in a digital processor. According to the initial terms of delivery, the developed acquisition chain steers the detection of events dependent on the deposited energy and time of arrival. The latter is done by coincidence measurements. All elements are mounted on a special board included into a PC unit and a dedicated program controls the whole system. First experiments showed up the interest of the new acquisition unit for other application in physics or medical imaging

  5. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.-R.; Ho, T.-C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  6. High resolution and simultaneous monitoring of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory, it became possible to investigate temporal variations of airborne 212 Pb (T 1/2 =10.6 h) along with 210 Pb and 7 Be with order of magnitude higher time resolution. Then, we have measured airborne nuclides at three monitoring points, (1) roof of our laboratory (LLRL; 40 m ASL), (2) Shinshiku Plateau (640 m ASL) located about 8 km from LLRL as a comparison of vertical distribution, and (3) Hegura Island (10 m ASL) at about 50 km from Wajima located north of Noto Peninsula facing on the Sea of Japan (about 180 km to the north-northeast of LLRL), to investigate influence of Asian continent. Airborne nuclides were collected by high volume air samplers at intervals of a few hours at either two or three points simultaneously. In the same manner, high resolution monitoring was carried out also at the time of passage of typhoon and cold front. In this study, we observed drastic temporal variations of airborne radionuclides and correlations of multiple monitoring points. The results indicate that high resolution and simultaneous monitoring is very useful to understand dynamic state of variations of airborne nuclides due to short and long-term air-mass movement. (author)

  7. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemistry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preses, J.; Grover, J.R.; White, M.G.; Kvick, A.

    1990-01-01

    An accidental by-product of high-energy physics, synchrotron radiation, has emerged as one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of chemical reactions. Advances made by using synchrotron radiation in physical chemistry are reviewed herein. Descriptions of experiments exploiting the many ways that synchrotron radiation can be manipulated are presented. These manipulations include intensification of the radiation and compression or shifting of its spectral structure. Combinations of the use of synchrotron radiation, which provides access to very short wavelengths and is, at the same time, continuously and easily tunable, with laser radiation, which offers much higher resolution and much more intense radiation per pulse, but is difficult to tune in the ultraviolet region of the spectra, gives the chemist a way to map a molecule's potential energy curve, to note the lengths and strengths of chemical bonds, and to predict and explain novel reactions of more complex molecules. The use of diffraction of x-rays to study the spacing of atoms in crystals is discussed. Various applications of synchrotron radiation to studies of the fluorescence of hydrocarbons and to the chiral dichroism studies of other natural products like DNA and RNA are described. Methods for enhancing synchrotron light sources by insertion devices, such as wigglers and undulators, that increase the available photo flux and construction of new sources of synchrotron radiation are mentioned

  9. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  10. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the

  11. A PICTORIAL PRESENTATION OF ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY CURRENT PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G

    2017-01-01

    High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr

  12. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  13. Influence of filling pattern structure on synchrotron radiation and beam spectrum at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Johannes; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Caselle, Michele; Blomley, Edmund; Hiller, Nicole; Kehrer, Benjamin; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Schuh, Marcel; Schwarz, Markus; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the effects of the filling pattern structure in multi-bunch mode on the beam spectrum. This effects can be seen by all detectors whose resolution is better than the RF frequency, ranging from stripline and Schottky measurements to high resolution synchrotron radiation measurements. Our heterodyne measurements of the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation at 270 GHz reveal the discrete frequency harmonics around the 100'000 revolution harmonic of ANKA, the synchrotron radiation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Significant effects of bunch spacing, gaps between bunch trains and variations in individual bunch currents on the emitted CSR spectrum are described by theory and supported by observations.

  14. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April.

  15. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  16. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April

  17. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  18. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  19. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  20. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  1. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  3. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  4. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  5. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTRUM OF HCl{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doménech, J. L.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Molecular Physics Department, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Drouin, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Cernicharo, J., E-mail: jl.domenech@csic.es [Molecular Astrophysics Group, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-20

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl{sup +}, has been recently identified in space from Herschel 's spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimeter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration–rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, IR observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers, as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule.

  6. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  7. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  8. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  9. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  10. High resolution X-ray tomography for stationary multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Reinecke, N.; Petritsch, G.; Mewes, D.

    1998-01-01

    The high resolution which can be obtained by computer assisted tomography is used to investigate the liquid distribution and void fraction in random and structured packing. With a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4mm 2 it is possible even to detect thin liquid films on structured packings. The experimental set-up consists of a custom-built second generation tomograph. The imaged object consists of a column filled with either a random ceramic packing of spheres or a structured metal packing. The liquid and void fraction distribution in random and structured packings with a quiescent gaseous phase is visualized. The water/air system is used. The liquid distributor consists of a perforated plate. The experimental hold-up values averaged over the column cross-section are in good agreement with empirical equations. (author)

  11. Fast iterative segmentation of high resolution medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Various applications in positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) require segmentation of 20 to 60 high resolution images of size 256x256 pixels in 3-9 seconds per image. This places particular constraints on the design of image segmentation algorithms. This paper examines the trade-offs in segmenting images based on fitting a density function to the pixel intensities using curve-fitting versus the maximum likelihood method. A quantized data representation is proposed and the EM algorithm for fitting a finite mixture density function to the quantized representation for an image is derived. A Monte Carlo evaluation of mean estimation error and classification error showed that the resulting quantized EM algorithm dramatically reduces the required computation time without loss of accuracy

  12. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  13. Automated high-resolution NMR with a sample changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.G.; Johnson, R.D.; Philson, S.B.; Strouse, J.; McEnroe, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Within the past two years, it has become possible to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra using automated commercial instrumentation. Software control of all spectrometer functions has reduced most of the tedious manual operations to typing a few computer commands or even making selections from a menu. Addition of an automatic sample changer is the next natural step in improving efficiency and sample throughput; it has a significant (and even unexpected) impact on how NMR laboratories are run and how it is taught. Such an instrument makes even sophisticated experiments routine, so that people with no previous exposure to NMR can run these experiments after a training session of an hour or less. This A/C Interface examines the impact of such instrumentation on both the academic and the industrial laboratory

  14. DETECTION OF BARCHAN DUNES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Azzaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  15. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  16. High-resolution sonography in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbiati, L.; De Pra, L.; Rizzatto, G.; Derchi, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by the compression on the median nerve under the transverse carpal ligament, has multiple causes and clinical presentations. One hundred eighteen patients with carpal tunnel sydrome underwent high-resolution US which demonstrated unpalpable cystic masses in 25 patients (lobulated stalked synovial cysts in 19 and retrotendinous cysts in six, all confirmed at surgery), and diffuse thickening and decreased echogenicity of the tendon sheaths in 87 patients, suggesting tenosynovitis (confirmed at surgery in 64). In six patients simple encasement of muscle bellies in the carpal tunnel was shown. US can delineate the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, suggest the need for surgery, and aid the surgeon in locating the lesion to be removed

  17. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.

    1985-01-01

    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  18. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  19. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  1. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglbauer, R.; Schurawitzki, H.; Eichler, I.; Goetz, M.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in 24 children (median age 57.9 months) suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). In 23 patients (one examination unacceptable because of motion artifacts) the most frequent finding was bronchial wall thickening, shown in 21 patients (91%), followed by bronchiectasis in 15 patients (65%). Less frequent findings were mucus plugging and patchy consolidations, which could be demonstrated in 11 patients each (48%). Findings were classified using a CT scoring system and including only irreversible pulmonary changes; a statistically significant correlation with lung function tests could be established. HRCT to date seems to be the most valuable method to determine extent and severity of lung involvement in children with CF and should therefore be routinely used for the staging of this disease. (orig.)

  2. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  3. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Francia, G. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Scafe, R. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: scafe@casaccia.enea.it; De Vincentis, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); La Ferrara, V. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Iurlaro, G. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Nasti, I. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Montani, L. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Betti, M. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Martucciello, N. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} {sup -} solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.

  4. High-resolution 3-T MR neurography of peroneal neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Shrey K.; Williams, Eric H.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The common peroneal nerve (CPN), a major terminal branch of the sciatic nerve, can be subject to a variety of pathologies, which may affect the nerve at any level from the lumbar plexus to its distal branches. Although the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy is traditionally based on a patient's clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is gaining an increasing role in the definition of the type, site, and extent of peripheral nerve disorders. Current high-field MR scanners enable high-resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast imaging of peripheral nerves. In the lower extremities, MR neurography has been employed in the demonstration of the anatomy and pathology of the CPN, as well as in the detection of associated secondary muscle denervation changes. This article reviews the normal appearance of the CPN as well as typical pathologies and abnormal findings at 3.0-T MR neurography of the lower extremity. (orig.)

  5. Meniscus tears of the knee: Postarthrogram high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Do, Young Soo; You, Jin Jong; Gong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees with clinically suspected meniscal tears were examined with high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) immediately following double contrast arthrography. All subsequently underwent arthroscopy. The findings of postarthrogram HRCT and arthroscopy were compared to evaluated the usefulness of postarthrogram HRCT in diagnosis of the meniscal tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HRCT were 96.2%. 83.3% and 92.1% respectively. The anatomic details of the meniscal tears were clearly visible on the HRCT scans. Sagittal and coronal reformation views well visualized the horizontal tears and the relationship of torn meniscal fragments, and well differential the peripheral tears from the synovial recess. Our result indicate that postarthrogram HRCT not only is a sensitive and effective method for the detection and characterization of the meniscal tears, but also provides arthroscopists with the appropriate surgical plans

  6. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  7. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  8. High-resolution spectrum of the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations of the Galactic center region indicate the presence of a narrow gamma-ray line feature at 170 keV, and theoretical speculations suggest it may result from Compton backscattering of the 511 keV annihilation radiation. The high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer on HEAO 3 observed the Galactic center in the fall of 1979 and in the spring of 1980. In view of the recent developments, the HEAO data were re-examined to search for this new feature and to look for possible correlations with the 511 keV line emisison. No evidence for such Compton backscattered radiation was found and the derived upper limits for emission in a line feature near 170 keV were well below previously reported fluxes, indicating possible time variability.

  9. The inelastic contribution to high resolution images of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Ahn, C.C.; Wood, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of the contribution due to inelastically scattered electrons to unfiltered HREM images is examined, with emphasis on imaging of defects in semiconductors. Whenever the low energy loss spectrum contains sharp peaks, the contribution is not featureless. At specimen thickness of a few tens of nm, it may change the image appearance in a major way. The strongest effect occurs in high resolution, medium voltage (200 to 500 kV) electron microscope images of defects at focus values minimizing the contrast of the elastic image in low Z materials such as Al and Si. In higher Z materials or those with no sharp 'plasmons', the contribution is small. 23 refs., 8 figs

  10. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  11. Paracoccidioidomycosis: High-resolution computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Valiante, Paulo Marcos; Mano, Claudia Mauro; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante L.; Souza, Arthur Soares; Capone, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: The study included 23 adult patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analyzed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions by consensus. An experienced lung pathologist reviewed all pathological specimens. The HRCT findings were correlated with histopathologic data. Results: The predominant HRCT findings included areas of ground-glass opacities, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, airspace consolidation, cavitation, and fibrosis. The main pathological features consisted of alveolar and interlobular septal inflammatory infiltration, granulomas, alveolar exudate, cavitation secondary to necrosis, and fibrosis. Conclusion: Paracoccidioidomycosis can present different tomography patterns, which can involve both the interstitium and the airspace. These abnormalities can be pathologically correlated with inflammatory infiltration, granulomatous reaction, and fibrosis.

  12. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Kenneth C. [Baltimore VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Williams, Eric H. [Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Towson, MD (United States); Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution 3-T MR neurography of peroneal neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Chalian, Majid; Soldatos, Theodoros; Thawait, Shrey K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Williams, Eric H. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-15

    The common peroneal nerve (CPN), a major terminal branch of the sciatic nerve, can be subject to a variety of pathologies, which may affect the nerve at any level from the lumbar plexus to its distal branches. Although the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy is traditionally based on a patient's clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is gaining an increasing role in the definition of the type, site, and extent of peripheral nerve disorders. Current high-field MR scanners enable high-resolution and excellent soft-tissue contrast imaging of peripheral nerves. In the lower extremities, MR neurography has been employed in the demonstration of the anatomy and pathology of the CPN, as well as in the detection of associated secondary muscle denervation changes. This article reviews the normal appearance of the CPN as well as typical pathologies and abnormal findings at 3.0-T MR neurography of the lower extremity. (orig.)

  14. High resolution imaging of tunnels by magnetic resonance neurography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Machado, Antonio J.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh; Wang, Kenneth C.; Williams, Eric H.; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerves often traverse confined fibro-osseous and fibro-muscular tunnels in the extremities, where they are particularly vulnerable to entrapment and compressive neuropathy. This gives rise to various tunnel syndromes, characterized by distinct patterns of muscular weakness and sensory deficits. This article focuses on several upper and lower extremity tunnels, in which direct visualization of the normal and abnormal nerve in question is possible with high resolution 3T MR neurography (MRN). MRN can also serve as a useful adjunct to clinical and electrophysiologic exams by discriminating adhesive lesions (perineural scar) from compressive lesions (such as tumor, ganglion, hypertrophic callous, or anomalous muscles) responsible for symptoms, thereby guiding appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  15. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of clusters of Group V elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-sheng; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    High resolution HeI (580 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of As 2 , As 4 , and P 4 were obtained with a newly-built high temperature molecular beam source. Vibrational structure was resolved in the photoelectron spectra of the three cluster species. The Jahn-Teller effect is discussed for the 2 E and 2 T 2 states of P 4 + and As 4 + . As a result of the Jahn-Teller effect, the 2 E state splits into two bands, and the 2 T 2 state splits into three bands, in combination with the spin-orbit effect. It was observed that the ν 2 normal vibrational mode was involved in the vibronic interaction of the 2 E state, while both the ν 2 and ν 3 modes were active in the 2 T 2 state. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Chandra High Resolution Imaging of NGC 1365 and NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Fabbiano, G.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.; Karovska, M.; Zezas, A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Lord, S.; Howell, J. H.; Mundell, C. G.

    2010-07-01

    We present Chandra high resolution imaging of the circumnuclear regions of two nearby active galaxies, namely the starburst/AGN composite Seyfert 1.8 NGC 1365 and the archetypal Seyfert 1 NGC 4151. In NGC 1365, the X-ray morphology shows a biconical soft X-ray-emission region extending ~5 kpc in projection from the nucleus, coincident with the optical high-excitation outflows. Chandra HRC imaging of the NGC 4151 nucleus resolves X-ray emission from the 4 arcsec radio jet and the narrow line region (NLR) clouds. Our results demonstrate the unique power of spatially resolved spectroscopy with Chandra, and support previous claims that frequent jet-ISM interaction may explain why jets in Seyfert galaxies appear small, slow, and thermally dominated.

  17. High resolution ultrastructure imaging of fractures in human dental tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental hard tissues are dentine, cementum, and enamel. These are hydrated mineralised composite tissues with a hierarchical structure and versatile thermo-mechanical properties. The hierarchical structure of dentine and enamel was imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB milling. High resolution TEM was carried out in the vicinity of a crack tip in dentine. An intricate “random weave” pattern of hydroxyapatile crystallites was observed and this provided a possible explanation for toughening of the mineralized dentine tissue at the nano-scale. The results reported here provide the basis for improved understanding of the relationship between the multi-scale nature and the mechanical properties of hierarchically structured biomaterials, and will also be useful for the development of better prosthetic and dental restorative materials.

  18. A high resolution gridded ionization chamber for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes some techniques used in the design of high resolution gridded ionisation chambers for measurements of absolute activity of radionuclides. Details of the geometry of the system and its electrodes are presented; their shape and the spacing between the grid wire was studied with the help of an electrolytic tank. The experimental spectra obtained with an Am 241 source using Ar + 10% methane as a flow gas show a total resolution of 39,07 KeV in very good agreement with the best results available in the literature. An application of the methods developed was used in the design ans construction of a proportional counter provided with three sequential grids disposed in such a way that the pulses from the first stage had their amplitude multiplied by the two further stages. Multiplication factors of the order of 10 sup(3) were obtained but higher values are expected. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Esophageal Motor Function With High-resolution Manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For several decades esophageal manometry has been the test of choice to evaluate disorders of esophageal motor function. The recent introduction of high-resolution manometry for the study of esophageal motor function simplified performance of esophageal manometry, and revealed previously unidentified patterns of normal and abnormal esophageal motor function. Presentation of pressure data as color contour plots or esophageal pressure topography led to the development of new tools for analyzing and classifying esophageal motor patterns. The current standard and still developing approach to do this is the Chicago classification. While this methodical approach is improving our diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders, it currently does not address all motor abnormalities. We will explore the Chicago classification and disorders that it does not address. PMID:23875094

  20. High resolution imaging of surface patterns of single bacterial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Dominik; Wesner, Daniel; Regtmeier, Jan; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We systematically studied the origin of surface patterns observed on single Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterial cells by comparing the complementary techniques atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Conditions ranged from living bacteria in liquid to fixed bacteria in high vacuum. Stepwise, we applied different sample modifications (fixation, drying, metal coating, etc.) and characterized the observed surface patterns. A detailed analysis revealed that the surface structure with wrinkled protrusions in SEM images were not generated de novo but most likely evolved from similar and naturally present structures on the surface of living bacteria. The influence of osmotic stress to the surface structure of living cells was evaluated and also the contribution of exopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by imaging two mutant strains of the bacterium under native conditions. AFM images of living bacteria in culture medium exhibited surface structures of the size of single proteins emphasizing the usefulness of AFM for high resolution cell imaging.

  1. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000-15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert's visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition.

  2. High-resolution imaging of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy of this investigation has been to develop new high-resolution imaging capabilities and to apply them to extended observing programs. These programs have included Io's neutral sodium cloud and comets. The Io observing program was carried out at Table Mountain Observatory (1976 to 1981), providing a framework interpreting Voyager measurements of the Io torus, and serving as an important reference for studying asymmetries and time variabilities in the Jovian magnetosphere. Comet observations made with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and 1.6 m AMOS telescope (1984 to 1987) provide basis for studying early coma development in Halley, the kinematics of its nucleus, and the internal and external structure of the nucleus. Images of GZ from the ICE encounter period form the basis for unique comparisons with in situ magnetic field and dust impact measurements to determine the ion tail and dust coma structure, respectively

  3. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  4. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  5. Contribution of x-ray topography and high-resolution diffraction to the study of defects in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, Michael; Huang Xianrong; Vetter, William M

    2003-01-01

    A short review is presented of the various synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) imaging techniques developed for characterization of silicon carbide (SiC) crystals and thin films. These techniques, including back-reflection topography, reticulography, transmission topography, and a set of section topography techniques, are demonstrated to be particularly powerful for imaging hollow-core screw dislocations (micropipes) and closed-core threading screw dislocations, as well as other defects, in SiC. The geometrical diffraction mechanism commonly underlying these imaging processes is emphasized for understanding the nature and origins of these defects. Also introduced is the application of SWBXT combined with high-resolution x-ray diffraction techniques to complete characterization of 3C/4H or 3C/6H SiC heterostructures, including polytype identification, 3C variant mapping, and accurate lattice mismatch measurements

  6. Scanning SRXF analysis and isotopes of uranium series from bottom sediments of Siberian lakes for high-resolution climate reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E.L.; Grachev, M.A.; Chebykin, E.P.; Phedorin, M.A.; Kalugin, I.A.; Khlystov, O.M.; Zolotarev, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution scanning X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Synchrotron Radiation (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in Lake Baikal and Lake Teletskoye. Physical modeling of river runoff taking into account the chemistry of U series isotopes and their concentrations in sediments allowed a decade-scale reconstruction of Holocene (0-11 ky) river input to Lake Baikal. Holocene moisture peaks in East Siberia are synchronous with abrupt spells in the Atlantic. The multi-element data from Lake Teletskoye were used to predict the function of geochemical response to climate change in plainland Altai and to reconstruct the trends of annual (winter) air temperatures and atmospheric precipitation for the past 500 years

  7. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  8. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  9. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  10. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  11. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.

    2017-12-01

    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  12. A high-resolution multimode digital microscope system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Edward D; Shaw, Sidney L; Waters, Jennifer C; Waterman-Storer, Clare M; Maddox, Paul S; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a high-resolution, multimode digital imaging system based on a wide-field epifluorescent and transmitted light microscope, and a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The three main parts of this imaging system are Nikon FXA microscope, Hamamatsu C4880 cooled CCD camera, and MetaMorph digital imaging system. This chapter presents various design criteria for the instrument and describes the major features of the microscope components-the cooled CCD camera and the MetaMorph digital imaging system. The Nikon FXA upright microscope can produce high resolution images for both epifluorescent and transmitted light illumination without switching the objective or moving the specimen. The functional aspects of the microscope set-up can be considered in terms of the imaging optics, the epi-illumination optics, the transillumination optics, the focus control, and the vibration isolation table. This instrument is somewhat specialized for microtubule and mitosis studies, and it is also applicable to a variety of problems in cellular imaging, including tracking proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in live cells. The instrument is also valuable for correlating the assembly dynamics of individual cytoplasmic microtubules (labeled by conjugating X-rhodamine to tubulin) with the dynamics of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (labeled with DiOC6) and the dynamics of the cell cortex (by differential interference contrast) in migrating vertebrate epithelial cells. This imaging system also plays an important role in the analysis of mitotic mutants in the powerful yeast genetic system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancing GIS Capabilities for High Resolution Earth Science Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, B. W.; Oehmke, R.; Li, P.; O'Kuinghttons, R.; Theurich, G.; DeLuca, C.

    2017-12-01

    Applications for high performance GIS will continue to increase as Earth system models pursue more realistic representations of Earth system processes. Finer spatial resolution model input and output, unstructured or irregular modeling grids, data assimilation, and regional coordinate systems present novel challenges for GIS frameworks operating in the Earth system modeling domain. This presentation provides an overview of two GIS-driven applications that combine high performance software with big geospatial datasets to produce value-added tools for the modeling and geoscientific community. First, a large-scale interpolation experiment using National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) catchments, a high resolution rectilinear CONUS grid, and the Earth System Modeling Framework's (ESMF) conservative interpolation capability will be described. ESMF is a parallel, high-performance software toolkit that provides capabilities (e.g. interpolation) for building and coupling Earth science applications. ESMF is developed primarily by the NOAA Environmental Software Infrastructure and Interoperability (NESII) group. The purpose of this experiment was to test and demonstrate the utility of high performance scientific software in traditional GIS domains. Special attention will be paid to the nuanced requirements for dealing with high resolution, unstructured grids in scientific data formats. Second, a chunked interpolation application using ESMF and OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS) will demonstrate how spatial subsetting can virtually remove computing resource ceilings for very high spatial resolution interpolation operations. OCGIS is a NESII-developed Python software package designed for the geospatial manipulation of high-dimensional scientific datasets. An overview of the data processing workflow, why a chunked approach is required, and how the application could be adapted to meet operational requirements will be discussed here. In addition, we'll provide a general overview of OCGIS

  14. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE AND AERIAL ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agrafiotis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  15. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s −1  averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min −1 . The average surface roughness, S a , achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica. (paper)

  16. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal

    2017-02-01

    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  17. Strengthening IAEA safeguards using high-resolution commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol to improve its ability to detect the undeclared production of fissile material. This new strengthened safeguards system has opened the door for the IAEA to use of all types of information, including the potential use of commercial satellite imagery. We have therefore been investigating the feasibility of strengthening IAEA safeguards using commercial satellite imagery. Based on our analysis on a number of one-meter resolution IKONOS satellite images of military nuclear production facilities at nuclear states including Russia, China, India, Pakistan and Israel, we found that the new high-resolution commercial satellite imagery would play a new and valuable role in strengthening IAEA safeguards. Since 1999, images with a resolution of one meter have been available commercially from Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite. One-meter images from other companies are expected to enter the market soon. Although still an order of magnitude less capable than military imaging satellites, the capabilities of these new high-resolution commercial satellites are good enough to detect and identify the major visible characteristics of nuclear production facilities and sites. Unlike the classified spy satellite photos limited to few countries, the commercial satellite imagery is commercially available to anyone who wants to purchase it. Therefore, the new commercial satellite open a new chance that each state, international organizations, and non-governmental groups could use the commercial images to play a more proactive role in monitoring the nuclear activities in related countries and verifying the compliance of non-proliferation agreements. This could help galvanize support for intensified efforts to slow the pace of nuclear proliferation. To produce fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) for weapons, a country would operate dedicated plutonium-production reactors and the

  18. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  19. High resolution X radiography imaging detector-micro gap chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Huqiang; Wang Yun; Xu Dong; Xie Kuanzhong; Bian Jianjiang

    2007-01-01

    Micro gap chamber (MGC) is a new type of Two-Dimensional position sensitive detector having excellent properties on the space and time resolution, counting rate, 2D compact structure and the flexible of application. It will become a candidate of a new tracking detector for high energy physics experiment. The basic structure and properties of MGC as well as its main research subjects are presented in this paper. Furthermore, the feasibility and validity of utilizing diamond films as the MGC gap material were also discussed in detail. So, a potential radiography imaging detector is provided in order to realize X image and X ray diffraction experiment having very good spatial and time resolution in the 3rd Generation of Synchrotron Radiation Facility. (authors)

  20. High-Resolution Single-Grain Diffraction of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, Ulrich; Ribárik, Gábor; Ungar, Tamas

    2017-01-01

    . The microstructure usually influences the materials properties critically. It has been demonstrated that, by using high-energy synchrotron radiation, diffraction peaks off individual grains can be recorded in-situ during processing. Important information such as the orientation, average strain, and size...... of individual grains can be obtained, even if the peak shapes are commonly not analyzed. However, it is also well-known that the shape of diffraction peaks, if observed with sufficient resolution, contains significant information about the microstructure. While the intensity distribution in reciprocal space...... of a perfect lattice consists of delta functions located at the reciprocal lattice points, defects induce characteristic peak broadening. In order to exploit the wealth of microstructural information contained in broadened diffraction peaks, the intensity distribution has to be characterized in all three...

  1. High resolution absorption spectrum of nitrogen in the vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, P.; Saile, V.; Koch, E.E.

    1977-03-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of molecular N 2 has been determined in the range from 10-35 eV utilizing the continuum of synchrotron radiation from the DORIS storage ring, a 3 m normal incidence monochromator of 0.03 A resolution and photoelectrical recording. New detailed features are observed which make possible a refined analysis of the valence-Rydberg interaction of the b 1 πsub(u)-c 1 πsub(u), b' 1 Σ + sub(u)-c' 1 Σ + sub(u) states as well as an improved analysis of Rydberg series leading to the X 2 Σ + sub(g), the A 2 πsub(u), the B 2 Σ + sub(u) and the C 2 Σ + sub(u) states of the N + 2 ion. (orig.) [de

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  3. Uses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has long been used as a technique for elemental analysis. X-ray fluorescence techniques have a number of features that make them attractive for application to biomedical samples. In the past few years synchrotron radiation x-ray sources have been developed and, because of their properties, their use can improve the sensitivity for trace element analysis by two to three orders of magnitude. Also, synchrotron radiation will make possible an x-ray microprobe with resolution in the micrometer range. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation source recently built at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will have a facility for trace element analysis by x-ray fluorescence and will be available to all interested users

  4. The Australian synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  5. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  6. In situ liquid water visualization in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with high resolution synchrotron x-ray radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Banerjee, R.; Lee, J.; Ge, N.; Lee, C.; Bazylak, A., E-mail: abazylak@mie.utoronto.ca [Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wysokinski, T. W.; Belev, G.; Webb, A.; Miller, D.; Zhu, N. [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Tabuchi, Y.; Kotaka, T. [EV System Laboratory, Research Division 2, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    In this work, we investigated the dominating properties of the porous materials that impact water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Visualizations of liquid water in an operating PEMFC were performed at the Canadian Light Source. A miniature fuel cell was specifically designed for X-ray imaging investigations, and an in-house image processing algorithm based on the Beer-Lambert law was developed to extract quantities of liquid water thicknesses (cm) from raw X-ray radiographs. The X-ray attenuation coefficient of water at 24 keV was measured with a calibration device to ensure accurate measurements of the liquid water thicknesses. From this experiment, the through plane distribution of the liquid water in the fuel cell was obtained.

  7. High-resolution synchrotron terahertz investigation of the large-amplitude hydrogen bond librational band of (HCN)2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihrin, Dmytro; Jakobsen, P. W.; Voute, A.

    2018-01-01

    experimental value for the vibrational zero-point energy of 2.50 ± 0.05 kJ mol−1 arising from the entire class of large-amplitude intermolecular modes. The spectroscopic findings are complemented by CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z (electronic energies) and CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVQZ (force fields) electronic structure...... calculations, providing a (semi)-experimental value of 17.20 ± 0.20 kJ mol−1 for the dissociation energy D0 of this strictly linear weak intermolecular CH⋯N hydrogen bond....

  8. In situ liquid water visualization in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with high resolution synchrotron x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, S.; Banerjee, R.; Lee, J.; Ge, N.; Lee, C.; Bazylak, A.; Wysokinski, T. W.; Belev, G.; Webb, A.; Miller, D.; Zhu, N.; Tabuchi, Y.; Kotaka, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the dominating properties of the porous materials that impact water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Visualizations of liquid water in an operating PEMFC were performed at the Canadian Light Source. A miniature fuel cell was specifically designed for X-ray imaging investigations, and an in-house image processing algorithm based on the Beer-Lambert law was developed to extract quantities of liquid water thicknesses (cm) from raw X-ray radiographs. The X-ray attenuation coefficient of water at 24 keV was measured with a calibration device to ensure accurate measurements of the liquid water thicknesses. From this experiment, the through plane distribution of the liquid water in the fuel cell was obtained.

  9. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  10. Design of UHV chamber assembly and mirror mounts for high resolution VUV beam line at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Sinha, A.K.; Bhattacharya, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The reflecting optical system is designed for the high resolution VUV spectroscopy facility to be installed at INDUS-1. The fore-optics system consists of three cylindrical mirrors (M1, M2 and M3) to accept a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) diverging synchrotron beam from the storage ring in order to focus the image on the entrance slit of the vacuum spectrometer located at 13 m from the source point. In this paper we present some important details regarding mechanical design of the high resolution beam line consisting of mirror mounts, UHV chambers, associated mechanisms and beam pipes. The mirrors are mounted in an adjustable three point kinematic holder. In addition, these mounts are provided with a multi-plane alignment provision. Mirror mounts are placed inside VHV chambers which are provided with three translational and two rotational movements to facilitate initial as well as final on-line fine-tuned alignments. Beam pipes are connected to the VHV chambers through flanged bellows. Chambers, associated mechanisms, beam pipes with its non-rigid support and related pumping stations are positioned in the support structure rigidly. (author). 2 figs

  11. High resolution study of Kβ' and Kβ1,3 X-ray emission lines from Mn-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limandri, S.; Ceppi, S.; Tirao, G.; Stutz, G.; Sanchez, C.G.; Riveros, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution Kβ emission spectra of several manganese compounds were measured in order to characterize the dependence of the Kβ' and Kβ 1,3 features, on the chemical environment. High resolution spectra were obtained using a non-conventional spectrometer based on quasi-back-diffraction geometry at National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). It was found that the energy of the Kβ' satellite structure relative to the main Kβ 1,3 line decreases linearly with the formal oxidation state for Mn-O systems. A noticeable dispersion of the relative Kβ' energy for different Mn 2+ compounds could be observed. The dependence of the Kβ' satellite line on the net charge and the effective 3d spin in Mn 2+ compounds was investigated. Calculations of the net charge and the effective 3d spin were performed within the density-functional theory using the package SIESTA. A direct relation between this dispersion and the effective Mn 3d spin was found.

  12. High-resolution 3D imaging of polymerized photonic crystals by lab-based x-ray nanotomography with 50-nm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Leilei; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Gelb, Jeff; Stevenson, Darren M.; Braun, Paul A.

    2010-09-01

    High resolution x-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-destructive 3-D imaging method. It can offer superior resolution on objects that are opaque or low contrast for optical microscopy. Synchrotron based x-ray computed tomography systems have been available for scientific research, but remain difficult to access for broader users. This work introduces a lab-based high-resolution x-ray nanotomography system with 50nm resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast modes. Using this system, we have demonstrated high quality 3-D images of polymerized photonic crystals which have been analyzed for band gap structures. The isotropic volumetric data shows excellent consistency with other characterization results.

  13. A new high-resolution electromagnetic method for subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wanjie

    For most electromagnetic (EM) geophysical systems, the contamination of primary fields on secondary fields ultimately limits the capability of the controlled-source EM methods. Null coupling techniques were proposed to solve this problem. However, the small orientation errors in the null coupling systems greatly restrict the applications of these systems. Another problem encountered by most EM systems is the surface interference and geologic noise, which sometimes make the geophysical survey impossible to carry out. In order to solve these problems, the alternating target antenna coupling (ATAC) method was introduced, which greatly removed the influence of the primary field and reduced the surface interference. But this system has limitations on the maximum transmitter moment that can be used. The differential target antenna coupling (DTAC) method was proposed to allow much larger transmitter moments and at the same time maintain the advantages of the ATAC method. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical DTAC calculations were derived mathematically using Born and Wolf's complex magnetic vector. 1D layered and 2D blocked earth models were used to demonstrate that the DTAC method has no responses for 1D and 2D structures. Analytical studies of the plate model influenced by conductive and resistive backgrounds were presented to explain the physical phenomenology behind the DTAC method, which is the magnetic fields of the subsurface targets are required to be frequency dependent. Then, the advantages of the DTAC method, e.g., high-resolution, reducing the geologic noise and insensitive to surface interference, were analyzed using surface and subsurface numerical examples in the EMGIMA software. Next, the theoretical advantages, such as high resolution and insensitive to surface interference, were verified by designing and developing a low-power (moment of 50 Am 2) vertical-array DTAC system and testing it on controlled targets and scaled target coils. At last, a

  14. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  15. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  16. High-resolution seismic reflection surveying with a land streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Tapırdamaz, Mustafa; Cankurtaranlar, Ali; Ergintav, Semih; Kurt, Levent

    2013-04-01

    In this study, newly designed seismic reflection data acquisition array (land streamer) is utilized to image the shallow subsurface. Our acquisition system consist of 24 geophones screwed on iron plates with 2 m spacing, moving on the surface of the earth which are connected with fire hose. Completely original, 4.5 Kg weight iron plates provides satisfactory coupling. This land-streamer system enables rapid and cost effective acquisition of seismic reflection data due to its operational facilities. First test studies were performed using various seismic sources such as a mini-vibro truck, buffalo-gun and hammer. The final fieldwork was performed on a landslide area which was studied before. Data acquisition was carried out on the line that was previously measured by the seismic survey using 5 m geophone and shot spacing. This line was chosen in order to re-image known reflection patterns obtained from the previous field study. Taking penetration depth into consideration, a six-cartridge buffalo-gun was selected as a seismic source to achieve high vertical resolution. Each shot-point drilled 50 cm for gunshots to obtain high resolution source signature. In order to avoid surface waves, the offset distance between the source and the first channel was chosen to be 50 m and the shot spacing was 2 m. These acquisition parameters provided 12 folds at each CDP points. Spatial sampling interval was 1 m at the surface. The processing steps included standard stages such as gain recovery, editing, frequency filtering, CDP sorting, NMO correction, static correction and stacking. Furthermore, surface consistent residual static corrections were applied recursively to improve image quality. 2D F-K filter application was performed to suppress air and surface waves at relatively deep part of the seismic section. Results show that, this newly designed, high-resolution land seismic data acquisition equipment (land-streamer) can be successfully used to image subsurface. Likewise

  17. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  18. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  19. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  20. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums