WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-resolution real-time temperature

  1. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  2. High-resolution near real-time drought monitoring in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Aadhar, Saran; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning, and management of water resources at sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. We develop a high-resolution (0.05°) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to m...

  3. High-Resolution Near Real-Time Drought Monitoring in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhar, S.; Mishra, V.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning and management of water resources at the sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. Here we develop a high resolution (0.05 degree) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to monitor climatic extremes (heat waves, cold waves, dry and wet anomalies) in South Asia. A distribution mapping method was applied to correct bias in precipitation and air temperature (maximum and minimum), which performed well compared to the other bias correction method based on linear scaling. Bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data were used to estimate Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to assess the historical and current drought conditions in South Asia. We evaluated drought severity and extent against the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies and satellite-driven Drought Severity Index (DSI) at 0.05˚. We find that the bias-corrected high-resolution data can effectively capture observed drought conditions as shown by the satellite-based drought estimates. High resolution near real-time dataset can provide valuable information for decision-making at district and sub- basin levels.

  4. Real-time underwater object detection based on an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to real time detection and tracking of underwater objects, using image sequences from an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar. The use of a high resolution sonar provides a good estimate of the location of the objects, but strains the computers on board, beca...

  5. High resolution real time capable combustion chamber simulation; Zeitlich hochaufloesende echtzeitfaehige Brennraumsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piewek, J. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The article describes a zero-dimensional model for the real time capable combustion chamber pressure calculation with analogue pressure sensor output. The closed-loop-operation of an Engine Control Unit is shown at the hardware-in-the-loop-simulator (HiL simulator) for a 4-cylinder common rail diesel engine. The presentation of the model focuses on the simulation of the load variation which does not depend on the injection system and thus the simulated heat release rate. Particular attention is paid to the simulation and the resulting test possibilities regarding to full-variable valve gears. It is shown that black box models consisting in the HiL mean value model for the aspirated gas mass, the exhaust gas temperature after the outlet valve and the mean indicated pressure can be replaced by calculations from the high-resolution combustion chamber model. (orig.)

  6. Digital synthesis of pulse shapes in real time for high resolution radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Valentin T.; Knoll, Glenn F.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the synthesis of pulse shapes using fast digital schemes in place of the traditional analog methods of pulse shaping. Efficient recursive algorithms have been developed that allow real time implementation of a shaper that can produce either trapezoidal or triangular pulse shapes. Other recursive techniques are presented which allow a synthesis of finite cusp-like shapes. Preliminary experimental tests show potential advantages of using these techniques in high resolution, high count rate pulse spectroscopy. ((orig.))

  7. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Quodbach, J.; Moussavi, A.; Tammer, R.; Frahm, J.; Kleinebudde, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 x 80 m with a section thickness of only 600 m were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the i...

  8. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L.

    2014-01-01

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  9. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it

    2014-12-21

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  10. High-Resolution Light Transmission Spectroscopy of Nanoparticles in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Carol; Sun, Nan; Deatsch, Alison; Li, Frank; Ruggiero, Steven

    2017-04-01

    As implemented here, Light Transmission Spectroscopy (LTS) is a high-resolution real-time technique for eliminating spectral noise and systematic effects in wide band spectroscopic measurements of nanoparticles. In this work, we combine LTS with spectral inversion for the purpose of characterizing the size, shape, and number of nanoparticles in solution. The apparatus employs a wide-band multi-wavelength light source and grating spectrometers coupled to CCD detectors. The light source ranges from 210 to 2000 nm, and the wavelength dependent light detection system ranges from 200 to 1100 nm with model the total extinction cross-section, and spectral inversion is employed to obtain quantitative particle size distributions. Discussed are the precision, accuracy, resolution, and sensitivity of our results. The technique is quite versatile and can be applied to spectroscopic investigations where wideband, accurate, low-noise, real-time spectra are desired. University of Notre Dame Office of Research, College of Science, Department of Physics, and USDA.

  11. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration.

  12. High-resolution real-time sonography and MR imaging in assessment of osteocartilaginous exostoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, L.M.; Kropej, D.H.; Wimberger, D.M.; Wurnig, C.F.; Kramer, J.; Kainberger, F.M.; Braun, O.H.; Ritschl, P.W.; Imhof, H.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution real-time ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging, using both spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences, were performed prospectively in 14 patients with solitary osteocartilaginous exostoses to assess cartilage cap thickness and bursa formation. Results were compared to surgical and histopathologic findings in all cases. Both US and MR imaging were useful in evaluating exostotic cartilage cap thickness, which is supposed to be the most reliable sign of malignant transformation. Hyaline cartilage matrix had distinctive features in US and MR imaging caused by its specific histologic composition. The formation of bursae over the protruding exostoses, which results in pain and clinically could raise the suspicion of growth and malignant transformation, was demonstrated best using GE sequences. MR imaging was thus superior to US in the detection of bursa formation. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution real-time sonography and MR imaging in assessment of osteocartilaginous exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, L.M.; Kropej, D.H.; Wimberger, D.M.; Wurnig, C.F.; Kramer, J.; Kainberger, F.M.; Braun, O.H.; Ritschl, P.W.; Imhof, H. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Depts. of Radiology, Orthopedic Surgery, Pathology, and the MR Inst.)

    1991-09-01

    High-resolution real-time ultrasonography (US) and MR imaging, using both spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences, were performed prospectively in 14 patients with solitary osteocartilaginous exostoses to assess cartilage cap thickness and bursa formation. Results were compared to surgical and histopathologic findings in all cases. Both US and MR imaging were useful in evaluating exostotic cartilage cap thickness, which is supposed to be the most reliable sign of malignant transformation. Hyaline cartilage matrix had distinctive features in US and MR imaging caused by its specific histologic composition. The formation of bursae over the protruding exostoses, which results in pain and clinically could raise the suspicion of growth and malignant transformation, was demonstrated best using GE sequences. MR imaging was thus superior to US in the detection of bursa formation. (orig.).

  14. Generation of real-time mode high-resolution water vapor fields from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Penna, Nigel T.; Li, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    Pointwise GPS measurements of tropospheric zenith total delay can be interpolated to provide high-resolution water vapor maps which may be used for correcting synthetic aperture radar images, for numeral weather prediction, and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations. Several previous studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapor, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. In this paper, we present an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent tropospheric delay components. For a 150 km × 150 km California study region, we estimate real-time mode zenith total delays at 41 GPS stations over 1 year by using the precise point positioning technique and demonstrate that the decoupled interpolation model generates improved high-resolution tropospheric delay maps compared with previous tropospheric turbulence- and elevation-dependent models. Cross validation of the GPS zenith total delays yields an RMS error of 4.6 mm with the decoupled interpolation model, compared with 8.4 mm with the previous model. On converting the GPS zenith wet delays to precipitable water vapor and interpolating to 1 km grid cells across the region, validations with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer near-IR water vapor product show 1.7 mm RMS differences by using the decoupled model, compared with 2.0 mm for the previous interpolation model. Such results are obtained without differencing the tropospheric delays or water vapor estimates in time or space, while the errors are similar over flat and mountainous terrains, as well as for both inland and coastal areas.

  15. High Resolution Near Real Time Image Processing and Support for MSSS Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R. B.; Sabol, C.; Borelli, K.; Spetka, S.; Addison, J.; Mallo, A.; Farnsworth, B.; Viloria, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes image enhancement software applications engineering development work that has been performed in support of Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS) Modernization. It also includes R&D and transition activity that has been performed over the past few years with the objective of providing increased space situational awareness (SSA) capabilities. This includes Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) use of an FY10 Dedicated High Performance Investment (DHPI) cluster award -- and our selection and planned use for an FY12 DHPI award. We provide an introduction to image processing of electro optical (EO) telescope sensors data; and a high resolution image enhancement and near real time processing and summary status overview. We then describe recent image enhancement applications development and support for MSSS Modernization, results to date, and end with a discussion of desired future development work and conclusions. Significant improvements to image processing enhancement have been realized over the past several years, including a key application that has realized more than a 10,000-times speedup compared to the original R&D code -- and a greater than 72-times speedup over the past few years. The latest version of this code maintains software efficiency for post-mission processing while providing optimization for image processing of data from a new EO sensor at MSSS. Additional work has also been performed to develop low latency, near real time processing of data that is collected by the ground-based sensor during overhead passes of space objects.

  16. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    This project presented at the EGU 2016 born of solidarity and the need to dignify the most disadvantaged people living in the poorest countries (Africa, South America and Asia, which are continually exposed to changes in the hydrologic cycle suffering events of large floods and/or long periods of droughts. It is also a special year this 2016, Year of Mercy, in which we must engage with the most disadvantaged of our Planet (Gaia) making available to them what we do professionally and scientifically. The project called "Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution" is Non-Profit and aims to provide at global high resolution (1km2) hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time and continuously coupling Weather Forecast of Global Circulation Models, such us GFS-0.25° (Deterministic and Ensembles Run) forcing a physically based distributed hydrological model computationally efficient, such as the latest version extended of TOPKAPI model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended. Finally using the MCP approach for the proper use of ensembles for Predictive Uncertainty assessment essentially based on a multiple regression in the Normal space, can be easily extended to use ensembles to represent the local (in time) smaller or larger conditional predictive uncertainty, as a function of the ensemble spread. In this way, each prediction in time accounts for both the predictive uncertainty of the ensemble mean and that of the ensemble spread. To perform a continuous hydrological modeling with TOPKAPI-X model and have hot start of hydrological status of watersheds, the system assimilated products of rainfall and temperature derived from remote sensing, such as product 3B42RT of TRMM NASA and others.The system will be integrated into a Decision Support System (DSS) platform, based on geographical data. The DSS is a web application (For Pc, Tablet/Mobile phone): It does not need installation (all you need is a web browser and an internet

  17. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larina, Irina V; Larin, Kirill V; Esenaliev, Rinat O

    2005-01-01

    To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution and accuracy. We investigated a non-invasive optoacoustic method for accurate, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature during thermotherapy. In this study, we induced temperature gradients in tissue and tissue-like samples and monitored the temperature distribution using the optoacoustic technique. The fundamental harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) was used for optoacoustic wave generation and probing of tissue temperature. The tissue temperature was also monitored with a multi-sensor temperature probe inserted in the samples. Good agreement between optoacoustically measured and actual tissue temperatures was obtained. The accuracy of temperature monitoring was better than 1 0 C, while the spatial resolution was about 1 mm. These data suggest that the optoacoustic technique has the potential to be used for non-invasive, real-time temperature monitoring during thermotherapy

  18. A high-resolution mini-microscope system for wireless real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Boddeda, Akash; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Menard, Frederic; Kim, Keekyoung

    2017-09-04

    Compact, cost-effective and high-performance microscope that enables the real-time imaging of cells and lab-on-a-chip devices is highly demanded for cell biology and biomedical engineering. This paper aims to present the design and application of an inexpensive wireless mini-microscope with resolution up to 2592 × 1944 pixels and speed up to 90 fps. The mini-microscope system was built on a commercial embedded system (Raspberry Pi). We modified a camera module and adopted an inverse dual lens system to obtain the clear field of view and appropriate magnification for tens of micrometer objects. The system was capable of capturing time-lapse images and transferring image data wirelessly. The entire system can be operated wirelessly and cordlessly in a conventional cell culturing incubator. The developed mini-microscope was used to monitor the attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 and HEK 293 cells inside an incubator for 50 hours. In addition, the mini-microscope was used to monitor a droplet generation process in a microfluidic device. The high-quality images captured by the mini-microscope enabled us an automated analysis of experimental parameters. The successful applications prove the great potential of the developed mini-microscope for monitoring various biological samples and microfluidic devices. This paper presents the design of a high resolution mini-microscope system that enables the wireless real-time imaging of cells inside the incubator. This system has been verified to be a useful tool to obtain high-quality images and videos for the automated quantitative analysis of biological samples and lab-on-a-chip devices in the long term.

  19. Augmented Reality Experience: From High-Resolution Acquisition to Real Time Augmented Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Clini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a research project “dUcale” that experiments ICT solutions for the museum of Palazzo Ducale (Urbino. In this project, the famed painting the “Città Ideale” becomes a case to exemplify a specific approach to the digital mediation of cultural heritage. An augmented reality (AR mobile application, able to enhance the museum visit experience, is presented. The computing technologies involved in the project (websites, desktop and social applications, mobile software, and AR constitute a persuasive environment for the artwork knowledge. The overall goal of our research is to provide to cultural institutions best practices efficiently on low budgets. Therefore, we present a low cost method for high-resolution acquisition of paintings; the image is used as a base in AR approach. The proposed methodology consists of an improved SIFT extractor for real time image. The other novelty of this work is the multipoint probabilistic layer. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness of the proposed approach with extensive use of the AR application in front of the “Città Ideale” painting. To prove the usability of the application and to ensure a good user experience, we also carried out several users tests in the real scenario.

  20. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA...

  1. Molecular differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis eggs by multiplex real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09℃ and 85.9±0.08℃ for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens.

  2. Real-time high-resolution measurement of collagen alignment in dynamically loaded soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Timothy; Kahan, Lindsey; Lake, Spencer P; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    A technique for creating maps of the direction and strength of fiber alignment in collagenous soft tissues is presented. The method uses a division of focal plane polarimeter to measure circularly polarized light transmitted through the tissue. The architecture of the sensor allows measurement of the retardance and fiber alignment at the full frame rate of the sensor without any moving optics. The technique compares favorably to the standard method of using a rotating polarizer. How the new technique enables real-time capture of the full angular spread of fiber alignment and retardance under various cyclic loading conditions is illustrated.

  3. Real-time haptic cutting of high-resolution soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Westermann, Rüdiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We present our systematic efforts in advancing the computational performance of physically accurate soft tissue cutting simulation, which is at the core of surgery simulators in general. We demonstrate a real-time performance of 15 simulation frames per second for haptic soft tissue cutting of a deformable body at an effective resolution of 170,000 finite elements. This is achieved by the following innovative components: (1) a linked octree discretization of the deformable body, which allows for fast and robust topological modifications of the simulation domain, (2) a composite finite element formulation, which thoroughly reduces the number of simulation degrees of freedom and thus enables to carefully balance simulation performance and accuracy, (3) a highly efficient geometric multigrid solver for solving the linear systems of equations arising from implicit time integration, (4) an efficient collision detection algorithm that effectively exploits the composition structure, and (5) a stable haptic rendering algorithm for computing the feedback forces. Considering that our method increases the finite element resolution for physically accurate real-time soft tissue cutting simulation by an order of magnitude, our technique has a high potential to significantly advance the realism of surgery simulators.

  4. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  5. Near-infrared high-resolution real-time omnidirectional imaging platform for drone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vladan; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in hardware systems have made higher quality cameras. State of the art panoramic systems use them to produce videos with a resolution of 9000 x 2400 pixels at a rate of 30 frames per second (fps).1 Many modern applications use object tracking to determine the speed and the path taken by each object moving through a scene. The detection requires detailed pixel analysis between two frames. In fields like surveillance systems or crowd analysis, this must be achieved in real time.2 In this paper, we focus on the system-level design of multi-camera sensor acquiring near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and its ability to detect mini-UAVs in a representative rural Swiss environment. The presented results show the UAV detection from the trial that we conducted during a field trial in August 2015.

  6. Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Neville J; Peel, Louise L; Swann, Marcus J; Cross, Graham H; Reeves, Andrew; Brand, Stuart; Lu, Jian R

    2004-01-01

    A novel method for the analysis of thin biological films, called dual polarization interferometry (DPI), is described. This high resolution (<1 A), laboratory-based technique allows the thickness and refractive index (density) of biological molecules adsorbing or reacting at the solid-liquid interface to be measured in real time (up to 10 measurements per second). Results from the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on to a silicon oxynitride chip surface are presented to demonstrate how time dependent molecular behaviour can be examined using DPI. Mechanistic and structural information relating to the adsorption process is obtained as a function of the solution pH

  7. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium by Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a real-time PCR approach with high resolution melting-curve (HRM assay developed for the detection and differentiation of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in fecal and urine samples collected from rural Yemen. The samples were screened by microscopy and PCR for the Schistosoma species infection. A pair of degenerate primers were designed targeting partial regions in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1 gene of S. mansoni and S. haematobium using real-time PCR-HRM assay. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 31.8%; 23.8% of the participants were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. With regards to the intensity of infections, 22.1% and 77.9% of S. haematobium infections were of heavy and light intensities, respectively. Likewise, 8.1%, 40.5% and 51.4% of S. mansoni infections were of heavy, moderate and light intensities, respectively. The melting points were distinctive for S. mansoni and S. haematobium, categorized by peaks of 76.49 ± 0.25 °C and 75.43 ± 0.26 °C, respectively. HRM analysis showed high detection capability through the amplification of Schistosoma DNA with as low as 0.0001 ng/µL. Significant negative correlations were reported between the real-time PCR-HRM cycle threshold (Ct values and microscopic egg counts for both S. mansoni in stool and S. haematobium in urine (p < 0.01. In conclusion, this closed-tube HRM protocol provides a potentially powerful screening molecular tool for the detection of S. mansoni and S. haematobium. It is a simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method. Hence, this method is a good alternative approach to probe-based PCR assays.

  8. Real-Time Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station High-Resolution Model Implementation and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.

    2015-01-01

    Customer: NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO), and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. NASA's LSP, GSDO, SLS and other programs at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) use the daily and weekly weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) as decision tools for their day-to-day and launch operations on the Eastern Range (ER). For example, to determine if they need to limit activities such as vehicle transport to the launch pad, protect people, structures or exposed launch vehicles given a threat of severe weather, or reschedule other critical operations. The 45 WS uses numerical weather prediction models as a guide for these weather forecasts, particularly the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) 1.67 kilometer Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Considering the 45 WS forecasters' and Launch Weather Officers' (LWO) extensive use of the AFWA model, the 45 WS proposed a task at the September 2013 Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Tasking Meeting requesting the AMU verify this model. Due to the lack of archived model data available from AFWA, verification is not yet possible. Instead, the AMU proposed to implement and verify the performance of an ER version of the AMU high-resolution WRF Environmental Modeling System (EMS) model (Watson 2013) in real-time. The tasking group agreed to this proposal; therefore the AMU implemented the WRF-EMS model on the second of two NASA AMU modeling clusters. The model was set up with a triple-nested grid configuration over KSC/CCAFS based on previous AMU work (Watson 2013). The outer domain (D01) has 12-kilometer grid spacing, the middle domain (D02) has 4-kilometer grid spacing, and the inner domain (D03) has 1.33-kilometer grid spacing. The model runs a 12-hour forecast every hour, D01 and D02 domain outputs are available once an hour and D03 is every 15 minutes during the forecast period. The AMU assessed the WRF-EMS 1

  9. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini.

  10. Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Quan Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini.

  11. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  12. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  13. Marker-referred movement measurement with grey-scale coordinate extraction for high-resolution real-time 3D at 100 Hz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnée, E.H.; Jobbá, A.; Sabel, J.C.; Veenendaal, H.L.J. van; Martin, F.; Andriessen, D.C.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review of early history in photography highlights the origin of cinefilm as a scientific tool for image-based measurement of human and animal motion. The paper is concerned with scanned-area video sensors (CCD) and a computer interface for the real-time, high-resolution extraction of image

  14. Towards a pathogenic Escherichia coli detection platform using multiplex SYBR®Green Real-time PCR methods and high resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni-Maria Kagkli

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a group of bacteria which has raised a lot of safety concerns in recent years. Five major intestinal pathogenic groups have been recognized amongst which the verocytotoxin or shiga-toxin (stx1 and/or stx2 producing E. coli (VTEC or STEC respectively have received a lot of attention recently. Indeed, due to the high number of outbreaks related to VTEC strains, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has requested the monitoring of the "top-five" serogroups (O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157 most often encountered in food borne diseases and addressed the need for validated VTEC detection methods. Here we report the development of a set of intercalating dye Real-time PCR methods capable of rapidly detecting the presence of the toxin genes together with intimin (eae in the case of VTEC, or aggregative protein (aggR, in the case of the O104:H4 strain responsible for the outbreak in Germany in 2011. All reactions were optimized to perform at the same annealing temperature permitting the multiplex application in order to minimize the need of material and to allow for high-throughput analysis. In addition, High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis allowing the discrimination among strains possessing similar virulence traits was established. The development, application to food samples and the flexibility in use of the methods are thoroughly discussed. Together, these Real-time PCR methods facilitate the detection of VTEC in a new highly efficient way and could represent the basis for developing a simple pathogenic E. coli platform.

  15. Dynamic temperature estimation and real time emergency rating of transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R. S.; Holboll, J.; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2012-01-01

    enables real time emergency ratings, such that the transmission system operator can make well-founded decisions during faults. Hereunder is included the capability of producing high resolution loadability vs. time schedules within few minutes, such that the TSO can safely control the system.......). It is found that the calculated temperature estimations are fairly accurate — within 1.5oC of the finite element method (FEM) simulation to which it is compared — both when looking at the temperature profile (time dependent) and the temperature distribution (geometric dependent). The methodology moreover...

  16. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  17. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  18. Real-Time and High-Resolution 3D Face Measurement via a Smart Active Optical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Guocai; Xing, Xiuwen

    2017-03-31

    The 3D measuring range and accuracy in traditional active optical sensing, such as Fourier transform profilometry, are influenced by the zero frequency of the captured patterns. The phase-shifting technique is commonly applied to remove the zero component. However, this phase-shifting method must capture several fringe patterns with phase difference, thereby influencing the real-time performance. This study introduces a smart active optical sensor, in which a composite pattern is utilized. The composite pattern efficiently combines several phase-shifting fringes and carrier frequencies. The method can remove zero frequency by using only one pattern. Model face reconstruction and human face measurement were employed to study the validity and feasibility of this method. Results show no distinct decrease in the precision of the novel method unlike the traditional phase-shifting method. The texture mapping technique was utilized to reconstruct a nature-appearance 3D digital face.

  19. Dual Super-Systolic Core for Real-Time Reconstructive Algorithms of High-Resolution Radar/SAR Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoche, Alejandro Castillo; Castillo, Javier Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    A high-speed dual super-systolic core for reconstructive signal processing (SP) operations consists of a double parallel systolic array (SA) machine in which each processing element of the array is also conceptualized as another SA in a bit-level fashion. In this study, we addressed the design of a high-speed dual super-systolic array (SSA) core for the enhancement/reconstruction of remote sensing (RS) imaging of radar/synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor systems. The selected reconstructive SP algorithms are efficiently transformed in their parallel representation and then, they are mapped into an efficient high performance embedded computing (HPEC) architecture in reconfigurable Xilinx field programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. As an implementation test case, the proposed approach was aggregated in a HW/SW co-design scheme in order to solve the nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) from a remotely sensed scene. We show how such dual SSA core, drastically reduces the computational load of complex RS regularization techniques achieving the required real-time operational mode. PMID:22736964

  20. Efficient Hardware Implementation of the Horn-Schunck Algorithm for High-Resolution Real-Time Dense Optical Flow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorkiewicz, Mateusz; Kryjak, Tomasz; Gorgon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an efficient hardware implementation of the Horn-Schunck algorithm that can be used in an embedded optical flow sensor. An architecture is proposed, that realises the iterative Horn-Schunck algorithm in a pipelined manner. This modification allows to achieve data throughput of 175 MPixels/s and makes processing of Full HD video stream (1, 920 × 1, 080 @ 60 fps) possible. The structure of the optical flow module as well as pre- and post-filtering blocks and a flow reliability computation unit is described in details. Three versions of optical flow modules, with different numerical precision, working frequency and obtained results accuracy are proposed. The errors caused by switching from floating- to fixed-point computations are also evaluated. The described architecture was tested on popular sequences from an optical flow dataset of the Middlebury University. It achieves state-of-the-art results among hardware implementations of single scale methods. The designed fixed-point architecture achieves performance of 418 GOPS with power efficiency of 34 GOPS/W. The proposed floating-point module achieves 103 GFLOPS, with power efficiency of 24 GFLOPS/W. Moreover, a 100 times speedup compared to a modern CPU with SIMD support is reported. A complete, working vision system realized on Xilinx VC707 evaluation board is also presented. It is able to compute optical flow for Full HD video stream received from an HDMI camera in real-time. The obtained results prove that FPGA devices are an ideal platform for embedded vision systems. PMID:24526303

  1. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution. (paper)

  2. Kinota: An Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Chepudira, K.; LaBar, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) SensorThings API (STA) specification, ratified in 2016, is a next-generation open standard for enabling real-time communication of sensor data. Building on over a decade of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Standards, STA offers a rich data model that can represent a range of sensor and phenomena types (e.g. fixed sensors sensing fixed phenomena, fixed sensors sensing moving phenomena, mobile sensors sensing fixed phenomena, and mobile sensors sensing moving phenomena) and is data agnostic. Additionally, and in contrast to previous SWE standards, STA is developer-friendly, as is evident from its convenient JSON serialization, and expressive OData-based query language (with support for geospatial queries); with its Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), STA is also well-suited to efficient real-time data publishing and discovery. All these attributes make STA potentially useful for use in environmental monitoring sensor networks. Here we present Kinota(TM), an Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring. Kinota, which roughly stands for Knowledge from Internet of Things Analyses, relies on Cassandra its underlying data store, which is a horizontally scalable, fault-tolerant open-source database that is often used to store time-series data for Big Data applications (though integration with other NoSQL or rational databases is possible). With this foundation, Kinota can scale to store data from an arbitrary number of sensors collecting data every 500 milliseconds. Additionally, Kinota architecture is very modular allowing for customization by adopters who can choose to replace parts of the existing implementation when desirable. The architecture is also highly portable providing the flexibility to choose between cloud providers like azure, amazon, google etc. The scalable, flexible and cloud friendly architecture of Kinota makes it ideal for use in next

  3. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperature product provides near-real-time brightness temperatures for both the Northern and...

  4. Real-time high resolution 3D imaging of the lyme disease spirochete adhering to and escaping from the vasculature of a living host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J Moriarty

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic spirochetes are bacteria that cause a number of emerging and re-emerging diseases worldwide, including syphilis, leptospirosis, relapsing fever, and Lyme borreliosis. They navigate efficiently through dense extracellular matrix and cross the blood-brain barrier by unknown mechanisms. Due to their slender morphology, spirochetes are difficult to visualize by standard light microscopy, impeding studies of their behavior in situ. We engineered a fluorescent infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, which expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP. Real-time 3D and 4D quantitative analysis of fluorescent spirochete dissemination from the microvasculature of living mice at high resolution revealed that dissemination was a multi-stage process that included transient tethering-type associations, short-term dragging interactions, and stationary adhesion. Stationary adhesions and extravasating spirochetes were most commonly observed at endothelial junctions, and translational motility of spirochetes appeared to play an integral role in transendothelial migration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of high resolution 3D and 4D visualization of dissemination of a bacterial pathogen in a living mammalian host, and provides the first direct insight into spirochete dissemination in vivo.

  5. New approaches for the reliable in vitro assessment of binding affinity based on high-resolution real-time data acquisition of radioligand-receptor binding kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Markus; Pichler, Florian; Nics, Lukas; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Spreitzer, Helmut; Hacker, Marcus; Mitterhauser, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Resolving the kinetic mechanisms of biomolecular interactions have become increasingly important in early-phase drug development. Since traditional in vitro methods belong to dose-dependent assessments, binding kinetics is usually overlooked. The present study aimed at the establishment of two novel experimental approaches for the assessment of binding affinity of both, radiolabelled and non-labelled compounds targeting the A 3 R, based on high-resolution real-time data acquisition of radioligand-receptor binding kinetics. A novel time-resolved competition assay was developed and applied to determine the K i of eight different A 3 R antagonists, using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the hA 3 R. In addition, a new kinetic real-time cell-binding approach was established to quantify the rate constants k on and k off , as well as the dedicated K d of the A 3 R agonist [ 125 I]-AB-MECA. Furthermore, lipophilicity measurements were conducted to control influences due to physicochemical properties of the used compounds. Two novel real-time cell-binding approaches were successfully developed and established. Both experimental procedures were found to visualize the kinetic binding characteristics with high spatial and temporal resolution, resulting in reliable affinity values, which are in good agreement with values previously reported with traditional methods. Taking into account the lipophilicity of the A 3 R antagonists, no influences on the experimental performance and the resulting affinity were investigated. Both kinetic binding approaches comprise tracer administration and subsequent binding to living cells, expressing the dedicated target protein. Therefore, the experiments resemble better the true in vivo physiological conditions and provide important markers of cellular feedback and biological response.

  6. Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  7. Modeling and simulation of tumor-influenced high resolution real-time physics-based breast models for model-guided robotic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, John; Hasse, Katelyn; Sheng, Ke; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2016-03-01

    Breast radiation therapy is typically delivered to the patient in either supine or prone position. Each of these positioning systems has its limitations in terms of tumor localization, dose to the surrounding normal structures, and patient comfort. We envision developing a pneumatically controlled breast immobilization device that will enable the benefits of both supine and prone positioning. In this paper, we present a physics-based breast deformable model that aids in both the design of the breast immobilization device as well as a control module for the device during every day positioning. The model geometry is generated from a subject's CT scan acquired during the treatment planning stage. A GPU based deformable model is then generated for the breast. A mass-spring-damper approach is then employed for the deformable model, with the spring modeled to represent a hyperelastic tissue behavior. Each voxel of the CT scan is then associated with a mass element, which gives the model its high resolution nature. The subject specific elasticity is then estimated from a CT scan in prone position. Our results show that the model can deform at >60 deformations per second, which satisfies the real-time requirement for robotic positioning. The model interacts with a computer designed immobilization device to position the breast and tumor anatomy in a reproducible location. The design of the immobilization device was also systematically varied based on the breast geometry, tumor location, elasticity distribution and the reproducibility of the desired tumor location.

  8. Predicting Near Real-Time Inundation Occurrence from Complimentary Satellite Microwave Brightness Temperature Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. K.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the world, there is an increasing need for new methods and data that can aid decision makers, emergency responders and scientists in the monitoring of flood events as they happen. In many regions, it is possible to examine the extent of historical and real-time inundation occurrence from visible and infrared imagery provided by sensors such as MODIS or the Landsat TM; however, this is not possible in regions that are densely vegetated or are under persistent cloud cover. In addition, there is often a temporal mismatch between the sampling of a particular sensor and a given flood event, leading to limited observations in near real-time. As a result, there is a need for alternative methods that take full advantage of complimentary remotely sensed data sources, such as available microwave brightness temperature observations (e.g., SMAP, SMOS, AMSR2, AMSR-E, and GMI), to aid in the estimation of global flooding. The objective of this work was to develop a high-resolution mapping of inundated areas derived from multiple satellite microwave sensor observations with a daily temporal resolution. This system consists of first retrieving water fractions from complimentary microwave sensors (AMSR-2 and SMAP) which may spatially and temporally overlap in the region of interest. Using additional information in a Random Forest classifier, including high resolution topography and multiple datasets of inundated area (both historical and empirical), the resulting retrievals are spatially downscaled to derive estimates of the extent of inundation at a scale relevant to management and flood response activities ( 90m or better) instead of the relatively coarse resolution water fractions, which are limited by the microwave sensor footprints ( 5-50km). Here we present the training and validation of this method for the 2015 floods that occurred in Houston, Texas. Comparing the predicted inundation against historical occurrence maps derived from the Landsat TM record and MODIS

  9. High-resolution melting-curve analysis of ligation-mediated real-time PCR for rapid evaluation of an epidemiological outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E; Schön, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE.

  10. High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR for Rapid Evaluation of an Epidemiological Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Schön, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE. PMID:21956981

  11. High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer for Real-time Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammad Hossein; Sinclair, Anthony N.; Coyle, Thomas W.

    A broadband ultrasonic transducer with a novel porous ceramic backing layer is introduced to operate at 700 °C. 36° Y-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal was selected for the piezoelectric element. By appropriate choice of constituent materials, porosity and pore size, the acoustic impedance and attenuation of a zirconia-based backing layer were optimized. An active brazing alloy with high temperature and chemical stability was selected to bond the transducer layers together. Prototype transducers have been tested at temperatures up to 700 °C. The experiments confirmed that transducer integrity was maintained.

  12. Real time algorithm temperature compensation in tunable laser / VCSEL based WDM-PON system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C.......We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C....

  13. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  14. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction with high resolution melting (real-time PCR-HRM) analysis for the detection and discrimination of nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Anna; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    The real-time PCR-HRM analysis was developed for the detection and discrimination of the quarantine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. A set of primers was designed to target the ITS region of rDNA. The results have demonstrated that this analysis is a valuable tool for differentiation of these both species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time reactor coolant system pressure/temperature limit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.G.; Schemmel, R.R.; Van Scooter, W.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an system, used in controlling the operating of a nuclear reactor coolant system, which automatically calculates and displays allowable reactor coolant system pressure/temperature limits within the nuclear reactor coolant system based upon real-time inputs. It comprises: means for producing signals representative of real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor cooling system; means for developing pressure and temperature limits relating the real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor coolant system, for normal and emergency operation thereof; means for processing the signals representative of real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor coolant system to perform calculations of a best estimate of signals, check manual inputs against permissible valves and test data acquisition hardware for validity and over/under range; and means for comparing the representative signals with limits for the real-time operating parameters to produce a signal for a real-time display of the pressure and temperature limits and of the real-time operating parameters use an operator in controlling the operation of the nuclear reactor coolant system

  16. Relation between Euclidean and real time calculations of Green functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, A.

    1993-01-01

    We find a relation between the semiclassical approximation of the temperature (Matsubara) two-point correlator and the corresponding classical Green function in real time at finite temperature. The anharmonic oscillator at finite temperature is used to illustrate our statement, which is however of rather general origin

  17. Topological transitions at finite temperatures: A real-time numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    We study topological transitions at finite temperatures within the (1+1)-dimensional abelian Higgs model by a numerical simulation in real time. Basic ideas of the real-time approach are presented and some peculiarities of the Metropolis technique are discussed. It is argued that the processes leading to topological transitions are of classical origin; the transitions can be observed by solving the classical field equations in real time. We show that the topological transitions actually pass via the sphaleron configuration. The transition rate as a function of temperature is found to be in good agreement with the analytical predictions. No extra suppression of the rate is observed. The conditions of applicability of our approach are discussed. The temperature interval where the low-temperature broken phase persists is estimated. (orig.)

  18. Design of a portable, intrinsically safe multichannel acquisition system for high-resolution, real-time processing HD-sEMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Umberto; Merletti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    A compact and portable system for real-time, multichannel, HD-sEMG acquisition is presented. The device is based on a modular, multiboard approach for scalability and to optimize power consumption for battery operating mode. The proposed modular approach allows us to configure the number of sEMG channels from 64 to 424. A plastic-optical-fiber-based 10/100 Ethernet link is implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based board for real-time, safety data transmission toward a personal computer or laptop for data storage and offline analysis. The high-performance A/D conversion stage, based on 24-bit ADC, allows us to automatically serialize the samples and transmits them on a single SPI bus connecting a sequence of up to 14 ADC chips in chain mode. The prototype is configured to work with 64 channels and a sample frequency of 2.441 ksps (derived from 25-MHz clock source), corresponding to a real data throughput of 3 Mbps. The prototype was assembled to demonstrate the available features (e.g., scalability) and evaluate the expected performances. The analog front end board could be dynamically configured to acquire sEMG signals in monopolar or single differential mode by means of FPGA I/O interface. The system can acquire continuously 64 channels for up to 5 h with a lightweight battery pack of 7.5 Vdc/2200 mAh. A PC-based application was also developed, by means of the open source Qt Development Kit from Nokia, for prototype characterization, sEMG measurements, and real-time visualization of 2-D maps.

  19. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotto Martial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.

  20. A new method for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) using real time PCR with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Recavarren, M; Pagnuco, I; Späth, E; Pérez, S; Odeón, A

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are antigenically and genetically similar. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable one-step real time PCR assay with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Optimization of assay conditions was performed with DNA from reference strains. Then, DNA from field isolates, clinical samples and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals were studied by real time PCR-HRM. An efficient amplification of real time PCR products was obtained, and a clear melting curve and appropriate melting peaks for both viruses were achieved in the HRM curve analysis for BoHV type identification. BoHV was identified in all of the isolates and clinical samples, and BoHV types were properly differentiated. Furthermore, viral DNA was detected in 12/18 and 7/18 samples from BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves, respectively. Real time PCR-HRM achieved a higher sensitivity compared with virus isolation or conventional PCR. In this study, HRM was used as a novel procedure. This method provides rapid, sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine alpha-herpesviruses DNA. Thus, this technique is an excellent tool for diagnosis, research and epidemiological studies of these viruses in cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Correspondence between imaginary-time and real-time finite-temperature field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobes, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is known that one-particle-irreducible graphs found using the imaginary-time formalism of finite-temperature field theory differ in general with those of the real-time formalism. Here it is shown that within the real-time formalism one can consider a sum of graphs, motivated by causality arguments, which at least in a number of simple examples agree with the corresponding analytically continued imaginary-time result. The occurrence of multiple statistical factors in this sum of graphs is discussed

  2. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    to separate geomorphic features. It is demonstrated that high resolution water skin temperature of small water bodies can be determined correctly, economically and less laboriously using space-based TIR/ASTER and that estimated temperature can be effectively...

  3. Real-time RT-PCR high-resolution melting curve analysis and multiplex RT-PCR to detect and differentiate grapevine leafroll-associated associated virus 3 variant groups I, II, III and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bester Rachelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3 is the main contributing agent of leafroll disease worldwide. Four of the six GLRaV-3 variant groups known have been found in South Africa, but their individual contribution to leafroll disease is unknown. In order to study the pathogenesis of leafroll disease, a sensitive and accurate diagnostic assay is required that can detect different variant groups of GLRaV-3. Methods In this study, a one-step real-time RT-PCR, followed by high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis for the simultaneous detection and identification of GLRaV-3 variants of groups I, II, III and VI, was developed. A melting point confidence interval for each variant group was calculated to include at least 90% of all melting points observed. A multiplex RT-PCR protocol was developed to these four variant groups in order to assess the efficacy of the real-time RT-PCR HRM assay. Results A universal primer set for GLRaV-3 targeting the heat shock protein 70 homologue (Hsp70h gene of GLRaV-3 was designed that is able to detect GLRaV-3 variant groups I, II, III and VI and differentiate between them with high-resolution melting curve analysis. The real-time RT-PCR HRM and the multiplex RT-PCR were optimized using 121 GLRaV-3 positive samples. Due to a considerable variation in melting profile observed within each GLRaV-3 group, a confidence interval of above 90% was calculated for each variant group, based on the range and distribution of melting points. The intervals of groups I and II could not be distinguished and a 95% joint confidence interval was calculated for simultaneous detection of group I and II variants. An additional primer pair targeting GLRaV-3 ORF1a was developed that can be used in a subsequent real-time RT-PCR HRM to differentiate between variants of groups I and II. Additionally, the multiplex RT-PCR successfully validated 94.64% of the infections detected with the real-time RT-PCR HRM

  4. Detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania and Leishmania (Viannia by SYBR green-based real-time PCR and high resolution melt analysis targeting kinetoplast minicircle DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ceccarelli

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a broad clinical spectrum which includes asymptomatic infection. A thorough diagnosis, able to distinguish and quantify Leishmania parasites in a clinical sample, constitutes a key step in choosing an appropriate therapy, making an accurate prognosis and performing epidemiological studies. Several molecular techniques have been shown to be effective in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. In particular, a number of PCR methods have been developed on various target DNA sequences including kinetoplast minicircle constant regions. The first aim of this study was to develop a SYBR green-based qPCR assay for Leishmania (Leishmania infantum detection and quantification, using kinetoplast minicircle constant region as target. To this end, two assays were compared: the first used previously published primer pairs (qPCR1, whereas the second used a nested primer pairs generating a shorter PCR product (qPCR2. The second aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to discriminate among subgenera Leishmania (Leishmania and Leishmania (Viannia using the qPCR2 assay followed by melting or High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis. Both assays used in this study showed good sensitivity and specificity, and a good correlation with standard IFAT methods in 62 canine clinical samples. However, the qPCR2 assay allowed to discriminate between Leishmania (Leishmania and Leishmania (Viannia subgenera through melting or HRM analysis. In addition to developing assays, we investigated the number and genetic variability of kinetoplast minicircles in the Leishmania (L. infantum WHO international reference strain (MHOM/TN/80/IPT1, highlighting the presence of minicircle subclasses and sequence heterogeneity. Specifically, the kinetoplast minicircle number per cell was estimated to be 26,566±1,192, while the subclass of minicircles amplifiable by qPCR2 was estimated to be 1,263±115. This heterogeneity, also observed in canine clinical

  5. SAGA GIS based processing of spatial high resolution temperature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Bechtel, Benjamin; Kawohl, Tobias; Boehner, Juergen; Zaksek, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Many climate change impact studies require surface and near surface temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The resolution of state of the art climate models and remote sensing data is often by far to coarse to represent the meso- and microscale distinctions of temperatures. This is particularly the case for regions with a huge variability of topoclimates, such as mountainous or urban areas. Statistical downscaling techniques are promising methods to refine gridded temperature data with limited spatial resolution, particularly due to their low demand for computer capacity. This paper presents two downscaling approaches - one for climate model output and one for remote sensing data. Both are methodically based on the FOSS-GIS platform SAGA. (orig.)

  6. Intra-hole fluid convection: High-resolution temperature monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Šafanda, Jan; Krešl, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 348, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 464-479 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : temperature monitoring * convection * fluid dynamics * borehole logging Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2008

  7. Imaging technique for real-time temperature monitoring during cryotherapy of lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena; Liopo, Anton; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Ermilov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive real-time temperature imaging during thermal therapies is able to significantly improve clinical outcomes. An optoacoustic (OA) temperature monitoring method is proposed for noninvasive real-time thermometry of vascularized tissue during cryotherapy. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) of red blood cells (RBCs) is employed to convert reconstructed OA images to temperature maps. To obtain the temperature calibration curve for intensity-normalized OA images, we measured ThOR of 10 porcine blood samples in the range of temperatures from 40°C to -16°C and analyzed the data for single measurement variations. The nonlinearity (ΔTmax) and the temperature of zero OA response (T0) of the calibration curve were found equal to 11.4±0.1°C and -13.8±0.1°C, respectively. The morphology of RBCs was examined before and after the data collection confirming cellular integrity and intracellular compartmentalization of hemoglobin. For temperatures below 0°C, which are of particular interest for cryotherapy, the accuracy of a single temperature measurement was ±1°C, which is consistent with the clinical requirements. Validation of the proposed OA temperature imaging technique was performed for slow and fast cooling of blood samples embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  8. Novel high-resolution temperature probe for radiofrequency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuderer, Juergen; Schmid, Thomas; Urban, Gerald; Samaras, Theodoros; Kuster, Niels

    2004-01-01

    A novel integrated thermistor probe for temperature evaluations in radiofrequency-heated environments was realized. The probe's sensitive area is based on a highly resistive 50 μm x 100 μm layer of amorphous germanium processed on a glass tip. The small dimensions allow measurements with a distance as close as 150 μm from solid boundaries. Due to its high temperature resolution of 4 mK and its short response time of the order of 10 ms, the sensor is very well suited for dosimetric measurements in strong absorption gradients. The influence of radiofrequency (RF) electric fields on the signal is minimized due to the high resistance of the sensor and the leads. The probe was successfully used to determine the highly nonuniform absorption distribution resulting from the RF exposure of cell cultures placed in Petri dishes. (note)

  9. Novel high-resolution temperature probe for radiofrequency dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuderer, Juergen [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Integrated Systems Laboratory IIS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Urban, Gerald [IMTEK, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Integrated Systems Laboratory IIS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-03-21

    A novel integrated thermistor probe for temperature evaluations in radiofrequency-heated environments was realized. The probe's sensitive area is based on a highly resistive 50 {mu}m x 100 {mu}m layer of amorphous germanium processed on a glass tip. The small dimensions allow measurements with a distance as close as 150 {mu}m from solid boundaries. Due to its high temperature resolution of 4 mK and its short response time of the order of 10 ms, the sensor is very well suited for dosimetric measurements in strong absorption gradients. The influence of radiofrequency (RF) electric fields on the signal is minimized due to the high resistance of the sensor and the leads. The probe was successfully used to determine the highly nonuniform absorption distribution resulting from the RF exposure of cell cultures placed in Petri dishes. (note)

  10. Electron Temperatures in W51 Complex from High Resolution, Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001-03-09

    Mar 9, 2001 ... kinematics and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) electron temperature (Te) of this region. H109α RRL observations by Wilsonet al.(1970) with a resolution of 4 and by Pankonin et al. (1979) with a resolution of 2.6 show that Te ∼ 6000 K in G49.5-0.4. Lower frequency observations for H137β and ...

  11. 3D Printed "Earable" Smart Devices for Real-Time Detection of Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroki; Chao, Minghan; Gao, Yuji; Wu, Eric; Tai, Li-Chia; Chen, Kevin; Matsuoka, Yasutomo; Iwai, Kosuke; Fahad, Hossain M; Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Lin, Liwei; Javey, Ali

    2017-07-28

    Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare. Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature, which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional (3D) printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane (i.e., ear drum) based on an infrared sensor. The device is fully integrated with data processing circuits and a wireless module for standalone functionality. Using this smart earable device, we demonstrate that the core body temperature can be accurately monitored regardless of the environment and activity of the user. In addition, a microphone and actuator are also integrated so that the device can also function as a bone conduction hearing aid. Using 3D printing as the fabrication method enables the device to be customized for the wearer for more personalized healthcare. This smart device provides an important advance in realizing personalized health care by enabling real-time monitoring of one of the most important medical parameters, core body temperature, employed in preliminary medical screening tests.

  12. A Real-Time Temperature Data Transmission Approach for Intelligent Cooling Control of Mass Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study presented in this paper is to propose a real-time temperature data transmission approach for intelligent cooling control of mass concrete. A mathematical description of a digital temperature control model is introduced in detail. Based on pipe mounted and electrically linked temperature sensors, together with postdata handling hardware and software, a stable, real-time, highly effective temperature data transmission solution technique is developed and utilized within the intelligent mass concrete cooling control system. Once the user has issued the relevant command, the proposed programmable logic controllers (PLC code performs all necessary steps without further interaction. The code can control the hardware, obtain, read, and perform calculations, and display the data accurately. Hardening concrete is an aggregate of complex physicochemical processes including the liberation of heat. The proposed control system prevented unwanted structural change within the massive concrete blocks caused by these exothermic processes based on an application case study analysis. In conclusion, the proposed temperature data transmission approach has proved very useful for the temperature monitoring of a high arch dam and is able to control thermal stresses in mass concrete for similar projects involving mass concrete.

  13. The GODAE High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, C.; Ghrsst-Pp Science Team

    2003-04-01

    This paper summarises Development and Implementation Plan of the GODAE High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP). The aim of the GHRSST-PP is to coordinate a new generation of global, multi-sensor, high-resolution (better than 10 km and 12 hours) SST products for the benefit of the operational and scientific community and for those with a potential interest in the products of GODAE. The GHRSST-PP project will deliver a demonstration system that integrates data from existing international satellite and in situ data sources using state-of-the-art communications and analysis tools. Primary GHRSST-PP products will be generated by fusing infrared and microwave satellite data obtained from sensors in near polar, geostationary and low earth orbits, constrained by in situ observations. Surface skin SST, sub-surface SST and SST at depth will be produced as both merged and analysed data products. Merged data products have a common grid but all input data retaining their error statistics whereas analysed data products use all data to derive a best estimate data source having one set of error statistics. Merged SST fields will not be interpolated thereby preserving the integrity of the source data as much as possible. Products will be first produced and validated using in situ observations for regional areas by regional data assembly centres (RDAC) and sent to a global data analysis centre (GDAC) for integration with other data to provide global coverage. GDAC and RDAC will be connected together with other data using a virtual dynamic distributed database (DDD). The GDAC will merge and analyse RDAC data together with other data (from the GTS and space agencies) to provide global coverage every 12 hours in real time. In all cases data products will be accurate to better than 0.5 K validated using data collected at globally distributed diagnostic data set (DDS) sites. A user information service (UIS) will work together with user applications and services

  14. The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, Craig; Casey, Kenneth; Minnett, Peter; Corlett, Gary

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, satellite Agencies, science, operational user/producer and Sea Surface Temperature practitioner communities have come together within the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) to create a new framework for generation, delivery and application of improved common format high-resolution (~1-10 km) satellite SST datasets for the benefit of society. The GHRSST data system is a mature, robust, and highly reliable near real time and delayed mode data system known as the GHRSST Regional/Global Task Sharing framework (R/GTS) and has operated in NRT since 2006. It consists of distributed Regional Data Assembly Centers (RDACs) around the world that submit their data to a Global Data Assembly Center (GDAC) maintained at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (JPL PO.DAAC), where all the data are available for 30 days. After that they are transferred to the GHRSST Long Term Stewardship and Reanalysis Facility (LTSRF) at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) for long-term preservation and distribution. The extensive user base includes many operational meteorological services, the scientific community, industry and Government. Since the R/GTS has operated, statistics show over 72,000 users have accessed the R/GTS in NRT, accessing over 100 million files amounting to more than 232 Tb of information. GHRSST has an organisation structure that has both fixed and flexible components allowing it to respond effectively and efficiently to new and emerging challenges. GHRSST has often been cited as a model for other Virtual Communities/Constellations. GHRSST is underpinned by an international Science Team and International Project Office together. Long-standing GHRSST Technical Advisory Groups (TAG) and ad hoc Working Groups (WG) are typically at the "cutting edge" of international SST activities delivering real coordination in space-based Earth observations for societal benefit through the prioritized

  15. Real-time finite-temperature correlators from AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Edwin; Vaman, Diana; Wu Chaolun; Arnold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence ideas in conjunction with insights from finite-temperature real-time field theory formalism to compute 3-point correlators of N=4 super Yang-Mills operators, in real time and at finite temperature. To this end, we propose that the gravity field action is integrated only over the right and left quadrants of the Penrose diagram of the anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild background, with a relative sign between the two terms. For concreteness we consider the case of a scalar field in the black hole background. Using the scalar field Schwinger-Keldysh bulk-to-boundary propagators, we give the general expression of a 3-point real-time Green's correlator. We then note that this particular prescription amounts to adapting the finite-temperature analog of Veltman's circling rules to tree-level Witten diagrams, and comment on the retarded and Feynman scalar bulk-to-boundary propagators. We subject our prescription to several checks: Kubo-Martin-Schwinger identities, the largest time equation, and the zero-temperature limit. When specializing to a particular retarded (causal) 3-point function, we find a very simple answer: the momentum-space correlator is given by three causal (two advanced and one retarded) bulk-to-boundary propagators, meeting at a vertex point which is integrated from spatial infinity to the horizon only. This result is expected based on analyticity, since the retarded n-point functions are obtained by analytic continuation from the imaginary-time Green's function, and based on causality considerations.

  16. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Troyer, Matthias; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model. (paper)

  17. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model.

  18. Real-time three-dimensional temperature mapping in photothermal therapy with optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaga Landa, Francisco Javier; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Ablation and photothermal therapy are widely employed medical protocols where the selective destruction of tissue is a necessity as in cancerous tissue removal or vascular and brain abnormalities. Tissue denaturation takes place when the temperature reaches a threshold value while the time of exposure determines the lesion size. Therefore, the spatio-temporal distribution of temperature plays a crucial role in the outcome of these clinical interventions. We demonstrate fast volumetric temperature mapping with optoacoustic tomography based on real-time optoacoustic readings from the treated region. The performance of the method was investigated in tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. The new ability to non-invasively measure temperature volumetrically in an entire treated region with high spatial and temporal resolutions holds potential for improving safety and efficacy of thermal ablation and to advance the general applicability of laser-based therapy.

  19. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion.

  20. Real time thermal hydraulic model for high temperature gas-cooled reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Zhe; Sun Jun; Ma Yuanle; Zhang Ruipeng

    2013-01-01

    A real-time thermal hydraulic model of the reactor core was described and integrated into the simulation system for the high temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor nuclear power plant, which was developed in the vPower platform, a new simulation environment for nuclear and fossil power plants. In the thermal hydraulic model, the helium flow paths were established by the flow network tools in order to obtain the flow rates and pressure distributions. Meanwhile, the heat structures, representing all the solid heat transfer elements in the pebble bed, graphite reflectors and carbon bricks, were connected by the heat transfer network in order to solve the temperature distributions in the reactor core. The flow network and heat transfer network were coupled and calculated in real time. Two steady states (100% and 50% full power) and two transients (inlet temperature step and flow step) were tested that the quantitative comparisons of the steady results with design data and qualitative analysis of the transients showed the good applicability of the present thermal hydraulic model. (authors)

  1. High temperature and high resolution uv photoelectron spectroscopy using supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng; Reutt-Robey, J.E.; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    A high temperature molecular beam source with electron bombardment heating has been built for high resolution photoelectron spectroscopic studies of high temperature species and clusters. This source has the advantages of: producing an intense, continuous, seeded molecular beam, eliminating the interference of the heating mechanism from the photoelectron measurement. Coupling the source with our hemispherical electron energy analyzer, we can obtain very high resolution HeIα (584 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of high temperature species. Vibrationally-resolved photoelectron spectra of PbSe, As 2 , As 4 , and ZnCl 2 are shown to demonstrate the performance of the new source. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  3. CeBr3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan Ding; Reed, Alexis; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr 3 ) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr 3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr 3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr 3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr 3 :Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  4. Real-time Continuous Esophageal High-resolution Manometry (HRM) During Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy and Dor Fundoplication for the Treatment of Achalasia. A Promising Novelty in Regards of Perfecting Surgical Technique: Could It Guide Surgical Technique Toward Excellent Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Tania; Doulami, Georgia; Papailiou, Joanna; Mantides, Apostolos; Zografos, Georgios; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold-standard diagnostic tool for achalasia of the esophagus. Laparoscopic Heller-Dor technique is the preferred surgical approach with success rate estimated 90%. The use of intraoperative HRM provides real-time estimation of intraluminal esophageal pressures and identifies the exact points of esophageal luminal pressure during laparoscopy. Ten patients with achalasia underwent surgery. All patients preoperatively completed 1 manometric study and Quality of Life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0) with Eckardt scores. We collected intraoperative manometry data and repeated manometric studies, EORTC QLQ-C30, and Eckardt scores postoperatively. Median Eckardt score was decreased from 7.5 to 0.5, mean resting pressure decreased from 51.4 to 11.9 mm Hg, whereas mean residual pressure diminished from 45.9 to 9.5 mm Hg postoperatively. The simultaneous use of HRM during the Heller-Dor technique may lead to an individualized management of the disease.

  5. Palmyra Atoll, 2006 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Palmyra Atoll, (5.88467, -162.10281 ) ARGOS ID 307-001. Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature and conductivity, and...

  6. Saipan 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Saipan, CNMI (15.2375N, 145.72283W) ARGOS Buoy ID 26105 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and surface...

  7. Maro Reef, NWHI 2004 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands (25.44643, -170.63366 ) ARGOS ID 21531 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature,...

  8. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  9. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Real-time transmission electron microscope observation of gold nanoclusters diffusing into silicon at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Nakajima, Yuuki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Endo, Junji; Collard, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Gold diffusion into silicon at room temperature was observed in real time with atomic resolution. Gold nanoclusters were formed on a silicon surface by an electrical discharge between a silicon tip and a gold coated tip inside an ultrahigh-vacuum transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimen chamber. At the moment of the gold nanocluster deposition, the gold nanoclusters had a crystalline structure. The crystalline structure gradually disappeared due to the interdiffusion between silicon and gold as observed after the deposition of gold nanoclusters. The shape of the nanocluster gradually changed due to the gold diffusion into the damaged silicon. The diffusion front between silicon and gold moved toward the silicon side. From the observations of the diffusion front, the gold diffusivity at room temperature was extracted. The extracted activation energy, 0.21 eV, matched the activation energy in bulk diffusion between damaged silicon and gold. This information is useful for optimizing the hybridization between solid-state and biological nanodevices in which gold is used as an adhesive layer between the two devices.

  11. A real-time heat strain risk classifier using heart rate and skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, Mark J; Latzka, William A; Yokota, Miyo; Tharion, William J; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Heat injury is a real concern to workers engaged in physically demanding tasks in high heat strain environments. Several real-time physiological monitoring systems exist that can provide indices of heat strain, e.g. physiological strain index (PSI), and provide alerts to medical personnel. However, these systems depend on core temperature measurement using expensive, ingestible thermometer pills. Seeking a better solution, we suggest the use of a model which can identify the probability that individuals are 'at risk' from heat injury using non-invasive measures. The intent is for the system to identify individuals who need monitoring more closely or who should apply heat strain mitigation strategies. We generated a model that can identify 'at risk' (PSI ≥ 7.5) workers from measures of heart rate and chest skin temperature. The model was built using data from six previously published exercise studies in which some subjects wore chemical protective equipment. The model has an overall classification error rate of 10% with one false negative error (2.7%), and outperforms an earlier model and a least squares regression model with classification errors of 21% and 14%, respectively. Additionally, the model allows the classification criteria to be adjusted based on the task and acceptable level of risk. We conclude that the model could be a valuable part of a multi-faceted heat strain management system. (note)

  12. Real-Time Prediction of Temperature Elevation During Robotic Bone Drilling Using the Torque Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Gavaghan, Kate; Stebinger, Manuel; Williamson, Tom; Weber, Stefan; Zysset, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Bone drilling is a surgical procedure commonly required in many surgical fields, particularly orthopedics, dentistry and head and neck surgeries. While the long-term effects of thermal bone necrosis are unknown, the thermal damage to nerves in spinal or otolaryngological surgeries might lead to partial paralysis. Previous models to predict the temperature elevation have been suggested, but were not validated or have the disadvantages of computation time and complexity which does not allow real time predictions. Within this study, an analytical temperature prediction model is proposed which uses the torque signal of the drilling process to model the heat production of the drill bit. A simple Green's disk source function is used to solve the three dimensional heat equation along the drilling axis. Additionally, an extensive experimental study was carried out to validate the model. A custom CNC-setup with a load cell and a thermal camera was used to measure the axial drilling torque and force as well as temperature elevations. Bones with different sets of bone volume fraction were drilled with two drill bits ([Formula: see text]1.8 mm and [Formula: see text]2.5 mm) and repeated eight times. The model was calibrated with 5 of 40 measurements and successfully validated with the rest of the data ([Formula: see text]C). It was also found that the temperature elevation can be predicted using only the torque signal of the drilling process. In the future, the model could be used to monitor and control the drilling process of surgeries close to vulnerable structures.

  13. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2011-02-21

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C3A or 3CaO·Al2O 3) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C3A or Na2Ca8Al6O18), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C3A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C3A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C3A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C3A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Assessment of ambient-temperature, high-resolution detectors for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution, gamma- and x-ray spectrometry are used routinely in nuclear safeguards verification measurements of plutonium and uranium in the field. These measurements are now performed with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors that require cooling liquid-nitrogen temperatures, thus limiting their utility in field and unattended safeguards measurement applications. Ambient temperature semiconductor detectors may complement HPGe detectors for certain safeguards verification applications. Their potential will be determined by criteria such as their performance, commercial availability, stage of development, and costs. We have conducted as assessment of ambient temperature detectors for safeguards measurement applications with these criteria in mind

  15. A real time measurement of junction temperature variation in high power IGBT modules for wind power converter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real time measurement of on-state forward voltage and estimating the junction temperature for a high power IGBT module during a power converter operation. The power converter is realized as it can be used for a wind turbine system. The peak of the junction temperature is dec...

  16. Study on Real-Time Simulation Analysis and Inverse Analysis System for Temperature and Stress of Concrete Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the concrete dam construction, it is very necessary to strengthen the real-time monitoring and scientific management of concrete temperature control. This paper constructs the analysis and inverse analysis system of temperature stress simulation, which is based on various useful data collected in real time in the process of concrete construction. The system can produce automatically data file of temperature and stress calculation and then achieve the remote real-time simulation calculation of temperature stress by using high performance computing techniques, so the inverse analysis can be carried out based on a basis of monitoring data in the database; it fulfills the automatic feedback calculation according to the error requirement and generates the corresponding curve and chart after the automatic processing and analysis of corresponding results. The system realizes the automation and intellectualization of complex data analysis and preparation work in simulation process and complex data adjustment in the inverse analysis process, which can facilitate the real-time tracking simulation and feedback analysis of concrete temperature stress in construction process and enable you to discover problems timely, take measures timely, and adjust construction scheme and can well instruct you how to ensure project quality.

  17. Temperature dependence of high-resolution resonant photoemission spectra of CeSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Kojiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Higashiguchi, Mitsuharu; Shimada, Kenya; Ichikawa, Kouichi; Taguchi, Yukihiro; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Aita, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution Ce 4d-4f resonant photoemission spectra near the Fermi level of CeSi with the Neel temperature of 5.9K have been measured at temperatures from 5.6 to 200K, in order to investigate the competition between the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida (RKKY) interaction and the Kondo effect. As temperature is decreasing down to 30K, the intensity due to the Ce 4f 5/2 1 final state increases because of the evolution of the heavy Fermion behaviour caused by the Kondo effect. The intensity, however, decreases gradually from 30 to 5.6K. This indicates that the heavy Fermion behaviour is strongly suppressed by the anti-ferromagnetic ordering due to the RKKY interaction

  18. Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

    2013-10-01

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56 °C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Realization of Temperature Monitoring System Based on Real-Time Kernel μC/OS and 1-wire Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional temperature monitoring system generally adopt some analog sensors for collecting data and a microcontroller for processing data for the purpose of temperature monitoring. However, this back-fore ground system has the disadvantages that the system has poor real-time property and single function, the amount of sensors is not easy to expand, and the software system has a difficulty in upgrading. Aiming at these disadvantages, the system designed in this paper adopts brand-new hardware and software structures: a digitaltemperature sensor array is connected to 1-wire bus and communicated with a control core through 1-wire bus protocol, thus a great convenience is provided for the expansion of the sensor; a real-time operating system is introduced into the software, an application program capable of realizing various functions runs on the real-time kernel μC/OS-II platform. The application of the real-time kernel also provides a good lower layer interface for the late-stage software upgrading.

  20. Documentation for The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) data archived at NCEI (NCEI Accession 0123222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) is an international open group for SST data producers, users, and scientists. It brings together...

  1. CDSD-4000: High-resolution, high-temperature carbon dioxide spectroscopic databank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashkun, S.A.; Perevalov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, high-temperature version of the Carbon Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank called CDSD-4000. The databank contains the line parameters (positions, intensities, air- and self-broadened half-widths, coefficients of temperature dependence of air- and self-broadened half-widths, and air-broadened pressure shifts) of the four most abundant isotopologues of CO 2 . A reference temperature is 296 K and an intensity cutoff is 10 -27 cm -1 /molecule cm -2 at 4000 K. The databank has 628,324,454 entries, covers the 226-8310 cm -1 spectral range and designed for the temperature range 2500-5000 K. Format of CDSD-4000 is similar to that of HITRAN-2008. The databank has been generated within the framework of the method of effective operators and based on the global fittings of spectroscopic parameters (parameters of the effective Hamiltonians and effective dipole moment operators) to observed data collected from the literature. The databank is useful for studying high-temperature radiative properties of CO 2 , including exoplanets atmospheres, aerothemal modeling for Mars entry missions, high-temperature laboratory spectra, and industrial applications. CDSD-4000 is freely accessible via the Internet site (ftp://ftp.iao.ru/pub/CDSD-4000).

  2. Using basic metrics to analyze high-resolution temperature data in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, Margaret; McCallum, James L.; Cook, Peter G.; Noorduijn, Saskia

    2017-08-01

    Time-series temperature data can be summarized to provide valuable information on spatial variation in subsurface flow, using simple metrics. Such computationally light analysis is often discounted in favor of more complex models. However, this study demonstrates the merits of summarizing high-resolution temperature data, obtained from a fiber optic cable installation at several depths within a water delivery channel, into daily amplitudes and mean temperatures. These results are compared to fluid flux estimates from a one-dimensional (1D) advection-conduction model and to the results of a previous study that used a full three-dimensional (3D) model. At a depth of 0.1 m below the channel, plots of amplitude suggested areas of advective water movement (as confirmed by the 1D and 3D models). Due to lack of diurnal signal at depths below 0.1 m, mean temperature was better able to identify probable areas of water movement at depths of 0.25-0.5 m below the channel. The high density of measurements provided a 3D picture of temperature change over time within the study reach, and would be suitable for long-term monitoring in man-made environments such as constructed wetlands, recharge basins, and water-delivery channels, where a firm understanding of spatial and temporal variation in infiltration is imperative for optimal functioning.

  3. ASD-1000: High-resolution, high-temperature acetylene spectroscopic databank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Perevalov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    We present a high-resolution, high-temperature version of the Acetylene Spectroscopic Databank called ASD-1000. The databank contains the line parameters (position, intensity, Einstein coefficient for spontaneous emission, term value of the lower states, self- and air-broadening coefficients, temperature dependence exponents of the self- and air-broadening coefficients) of the principal isotopologue of C2H2. The reference temperature for line intensity is 296 K and the intensity cutoff is 10-27 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 1000 K. The databank has 33,890,981 entries and covers the 3-10,000 cm-1 spectral range. The databank is based on the global modeling of the line positions and intensities performed within the framework of the method of effective operators. The parameters of the effective Hamiltonian and the effective dipole moment operator have been fitted to the observed values of the line positions and intensities collected from the literature. The broadening coefficients as well as their temperature dependence exponents were calculated using the empirical equations. The databank is useful for studying high-temperature radiative properties of C2H2. ASD-1000 is freely accessible via the Internet site of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS ftp://ftp.iao.ru/pub/ASD1000/.

  4. Full integrated system of real-time monitoring based on distributed architecture for the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subekti, Muhammad; Ohno, Tomio; Kudo, Kazuhiko; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    A new monitoring system scheme based on distributed architecture for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is proposed to assure consistency of the real-time process of expanded system. A distributed monitoring task on client PCs as an alternative architecture maximizes the throughput and capabilities of the system even if the monitoring tasks suffer a shortage of bandwidth. The prototype of the on-line monitoring system has been developed successfully and will be tested at the actual HTTR site. (author)

  5. High resolution x-ray diffraction analysis of annealed low-temperature gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyi, R. J.; Melloch, M. R.; Woodall, J. M.

    1992-05-01

    High resolution x-ray diffraction methods have been used to characterize GaAs grown at low substrate temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy and to examine the effects of post-growth annealing on the structure of the layers. Double crystal rocking curves from the as-deposited epitaxial layer show well-defined interference fringes, indicating a high level of structural perfection despite the presence of excess arsenic. Annealing at temperatures from 700 to 900 °C resulted in a decrease in the perpendicular lattice mismatch between the GaAs grown at low temperature and the substrate from 0.133% to 0.016% and a decrease (but not total elimination) of the visibility of the interference fringes. Triple-crystal diffraction scans around the 004 point in reciprocal space exhibited an increase in the apparent mosaic spread of the epitaxial layer with increasing anneal temperature. The observations are explained in terms of the growth of arsenic precipitates in the epitaxial layer.

  6. ASTER-Derived High-Resolution Ice Surface Temperature for the Arctic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Son

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ice surface temperature (IST controls the rate of sea ice growth and the heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean. In this study, high-resolution IST using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared region (TIR images was retrieved to observe the thermal change of coastal sea ice. The regression coefficients of the multi-channel equation using ASTER brightness temperatures ( B T and MODIS ISTs were derived. MODIS IST products (MOD29 were used as an in situ temperature substitute. The ASTER IST using five channels from band 10 ( B T 10 to band 14 ( B T 14 showed an RMSE of 0.746 K for the validation images on the Alaskan coast. The uncertainty of the two-channel ( B T 13 and B T 14 ASTER IST was 0.497 K, which was better than that of the five-channel. We thus concluded that the two-channel equation using ASTER B T 13 and B T 14 was an optimal model for the surface temperature retrieval of coastal sea ice. The two-channel ASTER IST showed similar accuracy at higher latitudes than in Alaska. Therefore, ASTER-derived IST with 90 m spatial resolution can be used to observe small-scale thermal variations on the sea ice surface along the Arctic coast.

  7. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  8. A CMOS high resolution, process/temperature variation tolerant RSSI for WIA-PA transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Jiang Yu; Li Jie; Guo Jiangfei; Chen Hua; Han Jingyu; Guo Guiliang; Yan Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high resolution, process/temperature variation tolerant received signal strength indicator (RSSI) for wireless networks for industrial automation process automation (WIA-PA) transceiver fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area of the RSSI is 0.24 mm 2 . Measurement results show that the proposed RSSI has a dynamic range more than 70 dB and the linearity error is within ±0.5 dB for an input power from −70 to 0 dBm (dBm to 50 Ω), the corresponding output voltage is from 0.81 to 1.657 V and the RSSI slope is 12.1 mV/dB while consuming all of 2 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. Furthermore, by the help of the integrated compensation circuit, the proposed RSSI shows the temperature error within ±1.5 dB from −40 to 85 °C, and process variation error within ±0.25 dB, which exhibits good temperature-independence and excellent robustness against process variation characteristics. (paper)

  9. Real-time temperature monitoring during radiofrequency treatments on ex-vivo animal model by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Giovanna; Tosi, Daniele; Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Ippolito, Juliet; Verze, Paolo; Carlomagno, Nicola; Tammaro, Vincenzo; Iadicicco, Agostino; Campopiano, Stefania

    2017-05-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors applied to bio-medical procedures such as surgery and rehabilitation are a valid alternative to traditional sensing techniques due to their unique characteristics. Herein we propose the use of FBG sensor arrays for accurate real-time temperature measurements during multi-step RadioFrequency Ablation (RFA) based thermal tumor treatment. Real-time temperature monitoring in the RF-applied region represents a valid feedback for the success of the thermo-ablation procedure. In order to create a thermal multi-point map around the tumor area to be treated, a proper sensing configuration was developed. In particular, the RF probe of a commercial medical instrumentation, has been equipped with properly packaged FBGs sensors. Moreover, in order to discriminate the treatment areas to be ablated as precisely as possible, a second array 3.5 cm long, made by several FBGs was used. The results of the temperature measurements during the RFA experiments conducted on ex-vivo animal liver and kidney tissues are presented herein. The proposed FBGs based solution has proven to be capable of distinguish different and consecutive discharges and for each of them, to measure the temperature profile with a resolution of 0.1 °C and a minimum spatial resolution of 5mm. Based upon our experiments, it is possible to confirm that the temperature decreases with distance from a RF peak ablation, in accordance with RF theory. The proposed solution promises to be very useful for the surgeon because a real-time temperature feedback allows for the adaptation of RFA parameters during surgery and better delineates the area under treatment.

  10. RIMS (real-time imprint monitoring by scattering of light) study of pressure, temperature and resist effects on nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhaoning; Gao He; Chou, Stephen Y

    2007-01-01

    To optimize nanoimprint lithography (NIL), it is essential to be able to characterize and control the NIL process in situ and in real time. Recently we have developed a real-time imprint monitoring by the scattering-of-light (RIMS) approach, which allows us to detect the degree of resist deformation and the duration of resist penetration by a mould during the imprint process in real time. In this paper we report the performances of RIMS under a broad range of working conditions. RIMS data shows that the resist penetration is facilitated by increasing processing temperature, pressure and the resist film thickness; a prolonged pre-NIL resist baking step, on the other hand, has the effect of slowing it down. Our results provide further demonstration of the effectiveness of this method under different working conditions. RIMS measurements show not only how long an imprint takes to complete, but also how an imprint progresses with time and how it is affected by differences in processing parameters. These measurements provide information crucial for a better understanding and process optimization in NIL

  11. High-resolution temperature-based optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H P; Haaren, P M A van; Kamer, J B Van de; Wiersma, J; Dijk, J D P Van; Crezee, J

    2005-01-01

    In regional hyperthermia, optimization techniques are valuable in order to obtain amplitude/phase settings for the applicators to achieve maximal tumour heating without toxicity to normal tissue. We implemented a temperature-based optimization technique and maximized tumour temperature with constraints on normal tissue temperature to prevent hot spots. E-field distributions are the primary input for the optimization method. Due to computer limitations we are restricted to a resolution of 1 x 1 x 1 cm 3 for E-field calculations, too low for reliable treatment planning. A major problem is the fact that hot spots at low-resolution (LR) do not always correspond to hot spots at high-resolution (HR), and vice versa. Thus, HR temperature-based optimization is necessary for adequate treatment planning and satisfactory results cannot be obtained with LR strategies. To obtain HR power density (PD) distributions from LR E-field calculations, a quasi-static zooming technique has been developed earlier at the UMC Utrecht. However, quasi-static zooming does not preserve phase information and therefore it does not provide the HR E-field information required for direct HR optimization. We combined quasi-static zooming with the optimization method to obtain a millimetre resolution temperature-based optimization strategy. First we performed a LR (1 cm) optimization and used the obtained settings to calculate the HR (2 mm) PD and corresponding HR temperature distribution. Next, we performed a HR optimization using an estimation of the new HR temperature distribution based on previous calculations. This estimation is based on the assumption that the HR and LR temperature distributions, though strongly different, respond in a similar way to amplitude/phase steering. To verify the newly obtained settings, we calculate the corresponding HR temperature distribution. This method was applied to several clinical situations and found to work very well. Deviations of this estimation method for

  12. Real-time observation of coadsorption layers on Ru(001) using a temperature-programmed ESDIAD/TOF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Itai, Y.; Iwasawa, Y.

    1997-11-01

    For the purpose of utilizing ESDIAD as a real-time probe for surface processes, we have developed an instrument which can measure ESDIAD images and time of flight (TOF) spectra of desorbing ions in temperature-programmed surface processes. TOF measurements are carried out to identify the mass and to determine the kinetic energy distribution of the desorbed ions. This temperature-programmed (TP-) ESDIAD/TOF system was used to observe coadsorption layers of methylamine and CO on Ru(001) which have been previously studied by our group using LEED, TPD and HREELS, also drawing upon a comparison of findings with the coadsorption system of CO and ammonia. ESDIAD images acquired for temperature-programmed surface processes in real time were found to provide new insight into the dynamic behaviour of the coadsorption layers. As to the pure adsorption of ammonia and methylamine, the second and the first (chemisorbed) layers can be easily discriminated in their different ESD detection efficiency due to the difference in neutralization rate. The intensity change of H + ions with temperature shows the process of the decomposition of methylamine to be dependent on CO coverage. The intensity of O + originating from CO changes due to the change of CO adsorption site in the reaction process. The angular distribution of H + ions which correspond to CH2NH…Ru species appears at 250-300 K in the presence of high CO pre-coverage.

  13. In-Situ Real-Time Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program addresses the need for interfacial and in-depth temperature monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS). Novel, linear drive, eddy current methods...

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir; Shukla, Gaurav; Ghosh, Joydeep; Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir; Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana; Varju, Josef; Pereira, Tiago; Gomes, Rui; Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger; Pisarik, Michael; Odstrcil, Tomas; Van Oost, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir, E-mail: vwei@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Shukla, Gaurav [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Ghosh, Joydeep [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Varju, Josef [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Pereira, Tiago [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, Rui [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pisarik, Michael [SQS Vlaknova optika a.s., Nova Paka (Czech Republic); Department of Electromagnetic Field, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, Tomas [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  16. Prospects of real-time ion temperature and rotation profiles based on neural-network charge exchange analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R W.T.; Von Hellermann, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Svensson, J [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-07-01

    A back-propagation neural network technique is used at JET to extract plasma parameters like ion temperature, rotation velocities or spectral line intensities from charge exchange (CX) spectra. It is shown that in the case of the C VI CX spectra, neural networks can give a good estimation (better than +-20% accuracy) for the main plasma parameters (Ti, V{sub rot}). Since the neural network approach involves no iterations or initial guesses the speed with which a spectrum is processed is so high (0.2 ms/spectrum) that real time analysis will be achieved in the near future. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Prospects of real-time ion temperature and rotation profiles based on neural-network charge exchange analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.W.T.; Von Hellermann, M.

    1994-01-01

    A back-propagation neural network technique is used at JET to extract plasma parameters like ion temperature, rotation velocities or spectral line intensities from charge exchange (CX) spectra. It is shown that in the case of the C VI CX spectra, neural networks can give a good estimation (better than +-20% accuracy) for the main plasma parameters (Ti, V rot ). Since the neural network approach involves no iterations or initial guesses the speed with which a spectrum is processed is so high (0.2 ms/spectrum) that real time analysis will be achieved in the near future. 4 refs., 8 figs

  18. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J; Hautanen, J; Laitinen, A [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  19. Real-time Monitoring on the Tunnel Wall Movement and Temperature Variation of KURT Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Koh, Young Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-04-15

    The optical fiber cable acting as a sensor was embedded in the underground research tunnel and portal area in order to monitor their stability and the spatial temperature variation. This system includes two types of sensing function to monitor the distributed strain and temperature along the line, where sensor cable is installed, not a point sensing. The measurement resolution for rock mass displacement is 1 mm per 1 m and it covers 30 km length with every 1 m interval in minimum. In temperature, the cable measures the range of -160{approx}600 .deg. C with 0.01 .deg. C resolution according to the cable types. This means that it would be applicable to monitoring system for the safe operation of various kinds of facilities having static and/or dynamic characteristics, such as chemical plant, pipeline, rail, huge building, long and slim structures, bridge, subway and marine vessel. etc

  20. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridib Debnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

  1. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  2. GHRSST Level 3P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 3 Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A platform...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  4. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  6. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  7. Real-time temperature feedback for nanoparticles based tumor thermal treatment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Tamir, Gil; Gannot, Israel

    2017-02-01

    Systemic hyperthermia therapy exploits the fact that cancer cells are more sensitive to elevated temperatures than healthy tissue. Systemic application of hyperthermia externally usually leads to low efficiency treatment. Recently, our group and others have proposed an antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) approach to overcome the limitation of systemic hyperthermia. MNPs can bind specifically to the tumor sites, thus delivering internal highly effective targeted hyperthermia. However, such internal mechanism requires more complicated controls and monitoring. This current work presents a deep tissue temperature monitoring method to control hyperthermia effectiveness and minimize collateral damage to surrounding tissues. A low-frequency narrowband modulation of the RF field used for MNP heating leads to the generation of diffused thermal waves which propagate to the tissue surface and captured by a thermal camera. A Fourier domain, analytical heat transfer model is used for temperature monitoring algorithm. The ill-posed thermal inverse problem is solved efficiently by iterating over the source power until both the amplitude and phase match the recorded thermal image sequence. The narrow bandwidth thermal stimulation enables acquiring deep signals with high SNR. We show that thermal transverse resolution improves as the stimulation frequency increases even slightly above DC, enabling better heat source transverse separation and margin identification in the case of distributed tumors. These results can be used as a part of an overall image and treat system for efficient detection of tumors, manipulation of MNPs and monitoring MNP based hyperthermia.

  8. Near-real-time feedback control system for liver thermal ablations based on self-referenced temperature imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keserci, Bilgin M.; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Kyohei; Kumamoto, Etsuko; Okada, Atsuya; Khankan, Azzam A.; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2006-01-01

    Our challenge was to design and implement a dedicated temperature imaging feedback control system to guide and assist in a thermal liver ablation procedure in a double-donut 0.5T open MR scanner. This system has near-real-time feedback capability based on a newly developed 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method using 'moving-slab' and complex-field-fitting techniques. Two phantom validation studies and one ex vivo experiment were performed to compare the newly developed self-referenced method with the conventional subtraction method and evaluate the ability of the feedback control system in the same MR scanner. The near-real-time feedback system was achieved by integrating the following primary functions: (1) imaging of the moving organ temperature; (2) on-line needle tip tracking; (3) automatic turn-on/off the heating devices; (4) a Windows operating system-based novel user-interfaces. In the first part of the validation studies, microwave heating was applied in an agar phantom using a fast spoiled gradient recalled echo in a steady state sequence. In the second part of the validation and ex vivo study, target visualization, treatment planning and monitoring, and temperature and thermal dose visualization with the graphical user interface of the thermal ablation software were demonstrated. Furthermore, MR imaging with the 'self-referenced' temperature imaging method has the ability to localize the hot spot in the heated region and measure temperature elevation during the experiment. In conclusion, we have demonstrated an interactively controllable feedback control system that offers a new method for the guidance of liver thermal ablation procedures, as well as improving the ability to assist ablation procedures in an open MR scanner

  9. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ming-Hung; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm) and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses). Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel. PMID:25923722

  11. High resolution humidity, temperature and aerosol profiling with MeteoSwiss Raman lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinoev, Todor; Arshinov, Yuri; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc B.; Simeonov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    Meteorological services rely, in part, on numerical weather prediction (NWP). Twice a day radiosonde observations of water vapor provide the required data for assimilation but this time resolution is insufficient to resolve certain meteorological phenomena. High time resolution temperature profiles from microwave radiometers are available as well but have rather low vertical resolution. The Raman LIDARs are able to provide temperature and humidity profiles with high time and range resolution, suitable for NWP model assimilation and validation. They are as well indispensible tools for continuous aerosol profiling for high resolution atmospheric boundary layer studies. To improve the database available for direct meteorological applications the Swiss meteo-service (MeteoSwiss), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) initiated a project to design and build an automated Raman lidar for day and night vertical profiling of tropospheric water vapor with the possibility to further upgrade it with an aerosol and temperature channels. The project was initiated in 2004 and RALMO (Raman Lidar for meteorological observations) was inaugurated in August 2008 at MeteoSwiss aerological station at Payerne. RALMO is currently operational and continuously profiles water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter ratio and aerosol extinction. The instrument is a fully automated, self-contained, eye-safe Raman lidar operated at 355 nm. Narrow field-of-view multi-telescope receiver and narrow band detection allow day and night-time vertical profiling of the atmospheric humidity. The rotational-vibrational Raman lidar responses from water vapor and nitrogen are spectrally separated by a high-throughput fiber coupled diffraction grating polychromator. The elastic backscatter and pure-rotational Raman lidar responses (PRR) from oxygen and nitrogen are spectrally isolated by a double grating polychromator and are used to

  12. A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haylock, M.; Hofstra, N.; Klein Tank, A.; Klok, L.; Jones, P.; New, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a European land-only daily high-resolution gridded data set for precipitation and minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperature for the period 1950–2006. This data set improves on previous products in its spatial resolution and extent, time period, number of contributing stations, and

  13. Facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis of a spherical covalent organic framework for high-resolution chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Liu, Chang; Cao, Yi-Meng; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-08-07

    A simple and facile room-temperature solution-phase synthesis was developed to fabricate a spherical covalent organic framework with large surface area, good solvent stability and high thermostability for high-resolution chromatographic separation of diverse important industrial analytes including alkanes, cyclohexane and benzene, α-pinene and β-pinene, and alcohols with high column efficiency and good precision.

  14. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  15. Real-time temperature estimation and monitoring of HIFU ablation through a combined modeling and passive acoustic mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C R; Cleveland, R O; Coussios, C C

    2013-01-01

    Passive acoustic mapping (PAM) has been recently demonstrated as a method of monitoring focused ultrasound therapy by reconstructing the emissions created by inertially cavitating bubbles (Jensen et al 2012 Radiology 262 252–61). The published method sums energy emitted by cavitation from the focal region within the tissue and uses a threshold to determine when sufficient energy has been delivered for ablation. The present work builds on this approach to provide a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring software that displays both real-time temperature maps and a prediction of the ablated tissue region. This is achieved by determining heat deposition from two sources: (i) acoustic absorption of the primary HIFU beam which is calculated via a nonlinear model, and (ii) absorption of energy from bubble acoustic emissions which is estimated from measurements. The two sources of heat are used as inputs to the bioheat equation that gives an estimate of the temperature of the tissue as well as estimates of tissue ablation. The method has been applied to ex vivo ox liver samples and the estimated temperature is compared to the measured temperature and shows good agreement, capturing the effect of cavitation-enhanced heating on temperature evolution. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by using PAM and predictions of heating it is possible to produce an evolving estimate of cell death during exposure in order to guide treatment for monitoring ablative HIFU therapy. (paper)

  16. High resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature and relative humidity: performance assessment of WRF for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Air temperature and relative humidity are two of the atmospheric variables with higher impact on human and natural systems, contributing to define the stress/comfortable conditions, affecting the productivity and health of the individuals as well as diminishing the resilience to other environmental hazards. Atmospheric regional models, driven by large scale forecasts from global circulation models, are the best way to reproduce such environmental conditions in high space-time resolution. This study is focused on the performance assessment of the WRF mesoscale model to perform high resolution dynamical downscaling for Portugal with three two-way nested grids, at 60 km, 20 km and 5 km horizontal resolution. The simulations of WRF models were produced with different initial and boundary forcing conditions. The NCEP-FNL Operational Global Analysis data available on 1-degree by 1-degree grid every six hours and ERA-Interim reanalyses dataset were used to drive the models. Two alternative configurations of the WRF model, including planetary boundary, layer schemes, microphysics, land-surface models, radiation schemes, were used and tested within the 5 km spatial resolution domain. Simulations of air temperature and relative humidity were produced for January and July of 2016 and compared with the observed datasets provided by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) for 83 weather stations. Different performance measures of bias, precision, and accuracy were used, namely normalized bias, standard deviation, mean absolute error, root mean square error, bias of root mean square error as well as correlation based measures (e.g., coefficient of determination) and goodness of fit measures (index of agreement). Main conclusions from the obtained results reveal: (i) great similarity between the spatial patterns of the simulated and observed fields; (ii) only small differences between simulations produced with ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL, in spite of some differences

  17. French Frigate Shoals, NWHI, 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced (Iridium) Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - French Frigate Shoals, NWHI (23.85678, -166.27183 ) ARGOS ID 261-003 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and...

  18. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Francisca; Bartolucci, Veronica; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-07-09

    This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ) system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts). The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.

  19. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC. These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC, the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts. The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.

  20. Large-strain optical fiber sensing and real-time FEM updating of steel structures under the high temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Xia; Xiao, Hai; Bevans, Wesley James; Chen, Genda; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Steel buildings are subjected to fire hazards during or immediately after a major earthquake. Under combined gravity and thermal loads, they have non-uniformly distributed stiffness and strength, and thus collapse progressively with large deformation. In this study, large-strain optical fiber sensors for high temperature applications and a temperature-dependent finite element model updating method are proposed for accurate prediction of structural behavior in real time. The optical fiber sensors can measure strains up to 10% at approximately 700 °C. Their measurements are in good agreement with those from strain gauges up to 0.5%. In comparison with the experimental results, the proposed model updating method can reduce the predicted strain errors from over 75% to below 20% at 800 °C. The minimum number of sensors in a fire zone that can properly characterize the vertical temperature distribution of heated air due to the gravity effect should be included in the proposed model updating scheme to achieve a predetermined simulation accuracy. (paper)

  1. Temperature-dependent release of volatile organic compounds of eucalypts by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleknia, Simin D; Vail, Teresa M; Cody, Robert B; Sparkman, David O; Bell, Tina L; Adams, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    A method is described for the rapid identification of biogenic, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants, including the analysis of the temperature dependence of those emissions. Direct analysis in real time (DART) enabled ionization of VOCs from stem and leaf of several eucalyptus species including E. cinerea, E. citriodora, E. nicholii and E. sideroxylon. Plant tissues were placed directly in the gap between the DART ionization source skimmer and the capillary inlet of the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Temperature-dependent emission of VOCs was achieved by adjusting the temperature of the helium gas into the DART ionization source at 50, 100, 200 and 300 degrees C, which enabled direct evaporation of compounds, up to the onset of pyrolysis of plant fibres (i.e. cellulose and lignin). Accurate mass measurements facilitated by TOF mass spectrometry provided elemental compositions for the VOCs. A wide range of compounds was detected from simple organic compounds (i.e. methanol and acetone) to a series of monoterpenes (i.e. pinene, camphene, cymene, eucalyptol) common to many plant species, as well as several less abundant sesquiterpenes and flavonoids (i.e. naringenin, spathulenol, eucalyptin) with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The leaf and stem tissues for all four eucalypt species showed similar compounds. The relative abundances of methanol and ethanol were greater in stem wood than in leaf tissue suggesting that DART could be used to investigate the tissue-specific transport and emissions of VOCs. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Heat Transport upon River-Water Infiltration investigated by Fiber-Optic High-Resolution Temperature Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Schirmer, M.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Infiltrating river water is of high relevance for drinking water supply by river bank filtration as well as for riparian groundwater ecology. Quantifying flow patterns and velocities, however, is hampered by temporal and spatial variations of exchange fluxes. In recent years, heat has become a popular natural tracer to estimate exchange rates between rivers and groundwater. Nevertheless, field investigations are often limited by insufficient sensors spacing or simplifying assumptions such as one-dimensional flow. Our interest lies in a detailed local survey of river water infiltration at a restored river section at the losing river Thur in northeast Switzerland. Here, we measured three high-resolution temperature profiles along an assumed flow path by means of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) using fiber optic cables wrapped around poles. Moreover, piezometers were equipped with standard temperature sensors for a comparison to the DTS data. Diurnal temperature oscillations were tracked in the river bed and the riparian groundwater and analyzed by means of dynamic harmonic regression and subsequent modeling of heat transport with sinusoidal boundary conditions to quantify seepage velocities and thermal diffusivities. Compared to the standard temperature sensors, the DTS data give a higher vertical resolution, facilitating the detection of process- and structure-dependent patterns of the spatiotemporal temperature field. This advantage overcompensates the scatter in the data due to instrument noise. In particular, we could demonstrate the impact of heat conduction through the unsaturated zone on the riparian groundwater by the high resolution temperature profiles.

  3. Impact of MODIS High-Resolution Sea-Surface Temperatures on WRF Forecasts at NWS Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Dembek, Scott R.; Santos, Pablo; Lapenta, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years,studies at the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center have suggested that the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite sea-surface temperature (SST) products in regional weather forecast models can have a significant positive impact on short-term numerical weather prediction in coastal regions. The recent paper by LaCasse et al. (2007, Monthly Weather Review) highlights lower atmospheric differences in regional numerical simulations over the Florida offshore waters using 2-km SST composites derived from the MODIS instrument aboard the polar-orbiting Aqua and Terra Earth Observing System satellites. To help quantify the value of this impact on NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs), the SPoRT Center and the NWS WFO at Miami, FL (MIA) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using the high-resolution MODIS SST fields within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The scientific hypothesis being tested is: More accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing within WRF will result in improved land/sea fluxes and hence, more accurate evolution of coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. The NWS MIA is currently running the WRF system in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software; The EMS is a standalone modeling system capable of downloading the necessary daily datasets, and initializing, running and displaying WRF forecasts in the NWS Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) with little intervention required by forecasters. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily with start times of 0300,0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and the far

  4. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W.; Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve; Seror, Olivier; Sesay, Musa-Bahazid; Grenier, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  5. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Seror, Olivier [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Sesay, Musa-Bahazid [Service d' Anesthesie Reanimation III, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Grenier, Nicolas [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2010-01-15

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  6. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  7. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  11. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  13. Coronal temperature diagnostics from high-resolution soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Claflin, E. S.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of deriving the temperature of the coronal plasma from soft X-ray spectra is discussed. Spectral atlas scans of the soft X-ray spectrum from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are compared with theoretical predictions of the relative intensities of some of the brighter lines to determine which line intensity ratios give the most reliable temperature diagnostics. The techniques considered include line widths, He-like G ratios, intensity ratios, and ratios of lines formed by different elements. It is found that the best temperature diagnostics come from the ratios of lines formed by successive ionization stages of the same element.

  14. High Resolution Temperature Measurement of Liquid Stainless Steel Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Devesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%. The measurements are made with a spatial resolution of 12 µm/pixel, justifying its use in applications where high temperature measurements with high spatial detail are desired, such as in the laser material processing and additive manufacturing fields.

  15. High resolution switching mode inductance-to-frequency converter with temperature compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro

    2014-10-16

    This article proposes a novel method for the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit to achieve better temperature stability of the converter. The novelty of this method lies in the switching-mode converter, the use of additionally connected impedances in parallel to the shunt capacitances of the quartz crystal, and two inductances in series to the quartz crystal. This brings a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. The oscillator switching method and the switching impedances connected to the quartz crystal do not only compensate for the crystal's natural temperature characteristics but also any other influences on the crystal such as ageing as well as from other oscillating circuit elements. In addition, the method also improves frequency sensitivity in inductance measurements. The experimental results show that through high temperature compensation improvement of the quartz crystal characteristics, this switching method theoretically enables a 2 pH resolution. It converts inductance to frequency in the range of 85-100 µH to 2-560 kHz.

  16. High Resolution Switching Mode Inductance-to-Frequency Converter with Temperature Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Matko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit to achieve better temperature stability of the converter. The novelty of this method lies in the switching-mode converter, the use of additionally connected impedances in parallel to the shunt capacitances of the quartz crystal, and two inductances in series to the quartz crystal. This brings a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. The oscillator switching method and the switching impedances connected to the quartz crystal do not only compensate for the crystal’s natural temperature characteristics but also any other influences on the crystal such as ageing as well as from other oscillating circuit elements. In addition, the method also improves frequency sensitivity in inductance measurements. The experimental results show that through high temperature compensation improvement of the quartz crystal characteristics, this switching method theoretically enables a 2 pH resolution. It converts inductance to frequency in the range of 85–100 µH to 2–560 kHz.

  17. High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling Ensemble Projections of Future Extreme Temperature Distributions for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Zachary; Wang, Jiali; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Kotamarthi, V. Rao

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine projections of extreme temperatures over the continental United States (CONUS) for the 21st century using an ensemble of high spatial resolution dynamically downscaled model simulations with different boundary conditions. The downscaling uses the Weather Research and Forecast model at a spatial resolution of 12 km along with outputs from three different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 global climate models that provide boundary conditions under two different future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration trajectories. The results from two decadal-length time slices (2045-2054 and 2085-2094) are compared with a historical decade (1995-2004). Probability density functions of daily maximum/minimum temperatures are analyzed over seven climatologically cohesive regions of the CONUS. The impacts of different boundary conditions as well as future GHG concentrations on extreme events such as heat waves and days with temperature higher than 95°F are also investigated. The results show that the intensity of extreme warm temperature in future summer is significantly increased, while the frequency of extreme cold temperature in future winter decreases. The distribution of summer daily maximum temperature experiences a significant warm-side shift and increased variability, while the distribution of winter daily minimum temperature is projected to have a less significant warm-side shift with decreased variability. Using "business-as-usual" scenario, 5-day heat waves are projected to occur at least 5-10 times per year in most CONUS and ≥95°F days will increase by 1-2 months by the end of the century.

  18. Transformations of gold nanoparticles investigated using variable temperature high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, N.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Huis, M.A. van; Zandbergen, H.W. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technolgy, Lorentzweg 1, NL-2628CJ, Delft, The Netherlands. (Netherlands); Xu, H. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, and Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Kirkland, A.I., E-mail: angus.kirkland@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Recently designed advanced in-situ specimen holders for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in studies of gold nanoparticles. We report results of variable temperature TEM experiments in which structural transformations have been correlated with specimen temperature, allowing general trends to be identified. Transformation to a decahedral morphology for particles in the size range 5-12 nm was observed for the majority of particles regardless of their initial structure. Following in-situ annealing, decahedra were found to be stable at room temperature, confirming this as the equilibrium morphology, in agreement with recently calculated phase diagrams. Other transitions at low temperature in addition to surface roughening have also been observed and correlated with the same nanoscale phase diagram. Investigations of gold particles at high temperature have revealed evidence for co-existing solid and liquid phases. Overall, these results are important in a more precise understanding of the structure and action of catalytic gold nanoparticles and in the experimental verification of theoretical calculations.

  19. High-resolution X-ray spectra from low-temperature, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1996-09-01

    The electron beam ion traps (EBIT) at Livermore were designed for studying the x-ray emission of highly charged ions produced and excited by a monoenergetic electron beam. The precision with which the x-ray emission can be analyzed has recently been increased markedly when it became possible to decouple the temperature of the ions from the energy of the electron beam by several orders of magnitude. By adjusting the trap parameters, ion temperatures as low as 15.8±4.4 eV for Ti 20+ and 59.4±9.9 eV for Cs 45+ were achieved. These temperatures were more than two orders of magnitude lower than the energy of the multi-keV electron beam used for the production and excitation of the ions. A discussion of the techniques used to produce and study low-temperature highly charged ions is presented in this progress report. The low ion temperatures enabled measurements heretofore impossible. As an example, a direct observation of the natural line width of fast electric dipole allowed x-ray transitions is described. From the observed natural line width and b making use of the time-energy relations of the uncertainty principle we were able to determine a radiative transition rate of 1.65 fs for the 2p-3d resonance transition in neonlike Cs 45+ . A brief discussion of other high-precision measurements enabled by our new technique is also given

  20. The Transition of High-Resolution NASA MODIS Sea Surface Temperatures into the WRF Environmental Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlove, Gary J.; Santos, Pablo; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composite at 2-km resolution that has been implemented in version 3 of the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The WRF EMS is a complete, full physics numerical weather prediction package that incorporates dynamical cores from both the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). The installation, configuration, and execution of either the ARW or NMM models is greatly simplified by the WRF EMS to encourage its use by NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and the university community. The WRF EMS is easy to run on most Linux workstations and clusters without the need for compilers. Version 3 of the WRF EMS contains the most recent public release of the WRF-NMM and ARW modeling system (version 3 of the ARW is described in Skamarock et al. 2008), the WRF Pre-processing System (WPS) utilities, and the WRF Post-Processing program. The system is developed and maintained by the NWS National Science Operations Officer Science and Training Resource Coordinator. To initialize the WRF EMS with high-resolution MODIS SSTs, SPoRT developed the composite product consisting of MODIS SSTs over oceans and large lakes with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) filling data over land points. Filling the land points is required due to minor inconsistencies between the WRF land-sea mask and that used to generate the MODIS SST composites. This methodology ensures a continuous field that adequately initializes all appropriate arrays in WRF. MODIS composites covering the Gulf of Mexico, western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean are generated daily at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC corresponding to overpass times of the NASA Aqua and Terra polar orbiting satellites. The MODIS SST product is output in gridded binary-1 (GRIB-1) data

  1. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  2. High-resolution transmission measurements of CO2 at high temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    . The spectra have been recorded in a high-temperature flow gas cell and using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.125 cm-1. The volume fractions of CO2 in the measurements were 1,10 and 100%. The measurements have been validated by comparison with medium...

  3. Helium temperature measurements in a hot filament magnetic mirror plasma using high resolution Doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, S.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ruth, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Langmuir probe and spectroscopic diagnostics are used to routinely measure electron temperature and density over a wide operating range in a reconfigured Double Plasma device at University College Cork, Ireland. The helium plasma, generated through thermionic emission from a negatively biased tungsten filament, is confined by an axisymmetric magnetic mirror configuration using two stacks of NdFeB permanent magnets, each of length 20 cm and diameter 3 cm placed just outside the 15 mm water cooling jacket enclosing a cylindrical vacuum vessel of internal diameter 25 cm. Plasma light is analysed using a Fourier Transform-type Bruker spectrometer with a highest achievable resolution of 0.08 cm-1 . In the present work, the conventional assumption of room temperature ions in the analysis of Langmuir probe data from low temperature plasmas is examined critically using Doppler spectroscopy of the 468.6 nm He II line. Results for ion temperatures obtained from spectroscopic data for a variety of engineering parameters (discharge voltage, gas pressure and plasma current) will be presented.

  4. High Resolution Mapping of Wind Speed Using Active Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayde, C.; Thomas, C. K.; Wagner, J.; Selker, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel approach to continuously measure wind speed simultaneously at thousands of locations using actively heated fiber optics with a distributed temperature sensing system (DTS). Analogous to a hot-wire anemometer, this approach is based on the principal of velocity-dependent heat transfer from a heated surface: The temperature difference between the heated surface and ambient air is a function of the convective cooling of the air flowing past the surface. By knowing the thermal properties of the heated surface, the heating input, and ambient temperature, wind speed can be calculated. In our case, the heated surface consists of a thin stainless steel tube that can exceed several km in length. A fiber optic is enclosed within the stainless steel tube to report the heated tube temperature, which in this case was sampled every 0.125 m. Ambient temperature were measured by an independent fiber optic cable located proximally to the stainless steel tube. We will present the theoretical bases of measuring wind speed using heated fiber optic as well as validation of this method in the field. In the field testing, more than 5000 simultaneous wind speed measurements were obtained every 5.5 second at 3 elevations (2m, 1m, and 0.5 m) every 0.125 m along a 230 m transects located across a shallow gulley in Nunn, CO. This method, which provides both air temperature and wind speed spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.1 - 1,000m) opens up many important opportunities for testing basic theories in micro-meteorology regarding spatial scales of turbulent length scales as a function of distance from the earth, development of internal boundary layers, applicability of Taylors hypothesis, etc. The equipment employed, including the heating system, which is available to all US scientists, was provided by CTEMPs.org thanks to the generous grant support from the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1129003. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or

  5. A high-resolution non-contact fluorescence-based temperature sensor for neonatal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, H T; Kostov, Y; Tolosa, L; Rao, G; Falk, S

    2012-01-01

    To date, thermistors are used to continuously monitor the body temperature of newborn babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. The thermistor probe is attached to the body with a strong adhesive tape to ensure that the probe stays in place. However, these strong adhesives are shown to increase microbial growth and cause serious skin injuries via epidermal stripping. The latter compromises the skin's ability to serve as a protective barrier leading to increase in water loss and further microbial infections. In this paper, a new approach is introduced that eliminates the need for an adhesive. Instead, two kinds of fluorophores are entrapped in a skin-friendly chitosan gel that can be easily wiped on and off of the skin, and has antimicrobial properties as well. A CCD camera is used to detect the temperature-dependent fluorescence of the fluorophore, tris(1,10-phenthroline)ruthenium(II) while 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid serves as the reference. This temperature sensor was found to have a resolution of at least 0.13 °C. (paper)

  6. Temperature-sensitive gating of hCx26: high-resolution Raman spectroscopy sheds light on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Yuan, Xiaogang; Roth, Bernhard; Seifert, Astrid; Fertig, Niels; Zeilinger, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    The temperature-sensitive gating of human Connexin 26 (hCx26) was analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. High-resolution Raman spectra covering the spectral range between 400 and 1500 rel. cm(-1) with a spectral resolution of 1 cm(-1) were fully annotated, revealing notable differences between the spectrum recorded from solubilized hCx26 in Ca(2+)-buffered POPC at 10°C and any other set of protein conditions (temperature, Ca(2+) presence, POPC presence). Spectral components originating from specific amino acids show that the TM1/EL1 parahelix and probably the TM4 trans-membrane helix and the plug domain are involved in the gating process responsible for fully closing the hemichannel.

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinzettl, Vladimír; Shukla, G.; Ghosh, J.; Melich, Radek; Pánek, Radomír; Tomeš, Matěj; Imríšek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana; Varju, Jozef; Pereira, T.; Gomes, R.; Abramovic, I.; Jaspers, R.; Písařík, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Van Oost, G.

    96-97, October (2015), s. 1006-1011 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology 2014(SOFT-28)/28./. San Sebastián, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA ČR GAP205/11/2341; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Plasma spectroscopy * Plasma rotation * Ion temperature * CXRS Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379615002355

  8. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases at elevated temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    measurements have to be done in a very aggressive and unstable in time hot gas environment which is realized, for example, in boilers, gasifires and engines. An optically based technique is beneficial because it is non-intrusive, accurate, fast and can be performed in situ for various extremely hard conditions....... The quality of the in situ gas composition measurements depends, among other things, on the quality of reference data (i.e. partial absorption spectra gases of interest) which are in general highly temperature dependent. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption...

  9. Silicon drift detectors for high resolution room temperature X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, P.; Eckbauer, S.; Hauff, D.; Strueder, L.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.

    1996-01-01

    New cylindrical silicon drift detectors have been designed, fabricated and tested. They comprise an integrated on-chip amplifier system with continuous reset, on-chip voltage divider, electron accumulation layer stabilizer, large area, homogeneous radiation entrance window and a drain for surface generated leakage current. The test of the 3.5 mm 2 large individual devices, which have also been grouped together to form a sensitive area up to 21 mm 2 have shown the following spectroscopic results: at room temperature (300 K) the devices have shown a full width at half maximum at the Mn Kα line of a radioactive 55 Fe source of 225 eV with shaping times of 250 to 500 ns. At -20 C the resolution improves to 152 eV at 2 μs Gaussian shaping. At temperatures below 200 K the energy resolution is below 140 eV. With the implementation of a digital filtering system the resolution approaches 130 eV. The system was operated with count rates up to 800 000 counts per second and per readout node, still conserving the spectroscopic qualities of the detector system. (orig.)

  10. Spatiotemporal estimation of air temperature patterns at the street level using high resolution satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelta, Ran; Chudnovsky, Alexandra A

    2017-02-01

    Although meteorological monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of Air Temperature (AT), their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus is often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. In many applications, satellite imagery measures energy flux, which is spatially continuous, and calculates Brightness Temperature (BT) that used as an input parameter. Although both quantities (AT-BT) are physically related, the correlation between them is not straightforward, and varies daily due to parameters such as meteorological conditions, surface moisture, land use, satellite-surface geometry and others. In this paper we first investigate the relationship between AT and BT as measured by 39 meteorological stations in Israel during 1984-2015. Thereafter, we apply mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Landsat BT data with monitored AT measurements for the period 1984-2015. Results show that AT can be predicted with high accuracy by using BT with high spatial resolution. The model shows relatively high accuracy estimation of AT (R 2 =0.92, RMSE=1.58°C, slope=0.90). Incorporating meteorological parameters into the model generates better accuracy (R 2 =0.935) than the AT-BT model (R 2 =0.92). Furthermore, based on the relatively high model accuracy, we investigated the spatial patterns of AT within the study domain. In the latter we focused on July-August, as these two months are characterized by relativity stable synoptic conditions in the study area. In addition, a temporal change in AT during the last 30years was estimated and verified using available meteorological stations and two additional remote sensing platforms. Finally, the impact of different land coverage on AT were estimated, as an example of future application of the presented approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Intersatellite Calibrated Clear-Sky High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Channel 12 Brightness Temperature Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) of intersatellite calibrated channel 12 brightness temperature (TB) product is a gridded global monthly time...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  14. Real Time Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip G.

    1985-12-01

    The call for abolishing photo reconnaissance in favor of real time is once more being heard. Ten years ago the same cries were being heard with the introduction of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD). The real time system problems that existed then and stopped real time proliferation have not been solved. The lack of an organized program by either DoD or industry has hampered any efforts to solve the problems, and as such, very little has happened in real time in the last ten years. Real time is not a replacement for photo, just as photo is not a replacement for infra-red or radar. Operational real time sensors can be designed only after their role has been defined and improvements made to the weak links in the system. Plodding ahead on a real time reconnaissance suite without benefit of evaluation of utility will allow this same paper to be used ten years from now.

  15. Comparison of Direct Sequencing, Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis for Genotyping of Common Thiopurine Intolerant Variant Alleles NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Wai-Ying; Ho, Chi-Chun; Poon, Wing-Tat

    2017-05-12

    Thiopurine intolerance and treatment-related toxicity, such as fatal myelosuppression, is related to non-function genetic variants encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15). Genetic testing of the common variants NUDT15:NM_018283.2:c.415C>T (Arg139Cys, dbSNP rs116855232 T allele) and TPMT: NM_000367.4:c.719A>G (TPMT*3C, dbSNP rs1142345 G allele) in East Asians including Chinese can potentially prevent treatment-related complications. Two complementary genotyping approaches, real-time PCR-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-restriction fragment length morphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis were evaluated using conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing genotyping as the gold standard. Sixty patient samples were tested, revealing seven patients (11.7%) heterozygous for NUDT15 c.415C>T, one patient homozygous for the variant and one patient heterozygous for the TPMT*3C non-function allele. No patient was found to harbor both variants. In total, nine out of 60 (15%) patients tested had genotypic evidence of thiopurine intolerance, which may require dosage adjustment or alternative medication should they be started on azathioprine, mercaptopurine or thioguanine. The two newly developed assays were more efficient and showed complete concordance (60/60, 100%) compared to the Sanger sequencing results. Accurate and cost-effective genotyping assays by real-time PCR-HRM and PCR-RFLP for NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT*3C were successfully developed. Further studies may establish their roles in genotype-informed clinical decision-making in the prevention of morbidity and mortality due to thiopurine intolerance.

  16. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  17. Analysis of a high-resolution regional climate simulation for Alpine temperature. Validation and influence of the NAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proemmel, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    To determine whether the increase in resolution of climate models improves the representation of climate is a crucial topic in regional climate modelling. An improvement over coarser-scale models is expected especially in areas with complex orography or along coastlines. However, some studies have shown no clear added value for regional climate models. In this study a high-resolution regional climate model simulation performed with REMO over the period 1958-1998 is analysed for 2m temperature over the orographically complex European Alps and their surroundings called the Greater Alpine Region (GAR). The model setup is in hindcast mode meaning that the simulation is driven with perfect boundary conditions by the ERA40 reanalysis through prescribing the values at the lateral boundaries and spectral nudging of the large-scale wind field inside the model domain. The added value is analysed between the regional climate simulation with a resolution of 1/6 and the driving reanalysis with a resolution of 1.125 . Before analysing the added value both the REMO simulation and the ERA40 reanalysis are validated against different station datasets of monthly and daily mean 2m temperature. The largest dataset is the dense, homogenised and quality controlled HISTALP dataset covering the whole GAR, which gave the opportunity for the validation undertaken in this study. The temporal variability of temperature, as quantified by correlation, is well represented by both REMO and ERA40. However, both show considerable biases. The REMO bias reaches 3 K in summer in regions known to experience a problem with summer drying in a number of regional models. In winter the bias is strongly influenced by the choice of the temperature lapse rate, which is applied to compare grid box and station data at different altitudes, and has the strongest influence on inner Alpine subregions where the altitude differences are largest. By applying a constant lapse rate the REMO bias in winter in the high

  18. Real-Time Monitoring of Neutron Capture Cross Section in the IPR-R1 TRIGA Research Reactor as a Fuel Temperature Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, D.A.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, General Severiano Street, 90, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mesquita, A.Z.; Souza, R.M.G.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Martinez, A.S. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Bloco G, 21941- 914, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactor operators have to monitor the behaviour of different nuclear and design parameters that vary in time to ensure the operating safety of the reactor. In recent years several operating parameters for the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor were monitored and indicated in real-time by the data acquisition system developed for the reactor, with all the data being stored in a hard disk in the data acquisition computer, to build in this way a database. The goal of this work is to insert in the set of parameters already collected the neutron capture cross sections for the fuel, from the power and temperature numbers obtained in real-time. The experimental data was obtained by using a fuel element instrumented with temperature sensors, located in the core of the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor at the CDTN - Centre for Development of Nuclear. This information is useful for the continuous monitoring of the reaction rate in neutron capture. For that, a new analytical formulation is used for the Doppler broadening function proposed by Palma and Martinez which is free from special functions in its functional form and with easy computing implementation. The results obtained were satisfactory from the standpoint of accuracy in comparison with the numerical reference method and indicate that it is possible to carry out real-time monitoring of the neutron capture cross section in the fuel. (author)

  19. Comparison of multiple DNA dyes for real-time PCR: effects of dye concentration and sequence composition on DNA amplification and melting temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðnason, Haukur; Dufva, Hans Martin; Bang, Dang Duong

    2007-01-01

    investigate 15 different intercalating DNA dyes for their inhibitory effects on PCR, effects on DNA melting temperature and possible preferential binding to GC-rich sequences. Our results demonstrated that in contrast to the results of SYBR Green I, two intercalating dyes SYTO-13 and SYTO-82 do not inhibit......The importance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased steadily in clinical applications over the last decade. Many applications utilize SYBR Green I dye to follow the accumulation of amplicons in real time. SYBR Green I has, however, a number of limitations that include...... the inhibition of PCR, preferential binding to GC-rich sequences and effects on melting curve analysis. Although a few alternative dyes without some of these limitations have been recently proposed, no large-scale investigation into the properties of intercalating dyes has been performed. In this study, we...

  20. Mean and extreme temperatures in a warming climate: EURO CORDEX and WRF regional climate high-resolution projections for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Large temperature spatio-temporal gradients are a common feature of Mediterranean climates. The Portuguese complex topography and coastlines enhances such features, and in a small region large temperature gradients with high interannual variability is detected. In this study, the EURO-CORDEX high-resolution regional climate simulations (0.11° and 0.44° resolutions) are used to investigate the maximum and minimum temperature projections across the twenty-first century according to RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. An additional WRF simulation with even higher resolution (9 km) for RCP8.5 scenario is also examined. All simulations for the historical period (1971-2000) are evaluated against the available station observations and the EURO-CORDEX model results are ranked in order to build multi-model ensembles. In present climate models are able to reproduce the main topography/coast related temperature gradients. Although there are discernible differences between models, most present a cold bias. The multi-model ensembles improve the overall representation of the temperature. The ensembles project a significant increase of the maximum and minimum temperatures in all seasons and scenarios. Maximum increments of 8 °C in summer and autumn and between 2 and 4 °C in winter and spring are projected in RCP8.5. The temperature distributions for all models show a significant increase in the upper tails of the PDFs. In RCP8.5 more than half of the extended summer (MJJAS) has maximum temperatures exceeding the historical 90th percentile and, on average, 60 tropical nights are projected for the end of the century, whilst there are only 7 tropical nights in the historical period. Conversely, the number of cold days almost disappears. The yearly average number of heat waves increases by seven to ninefold by 2100 and the most frequent length rises from 5 to 22 days throughout the twenty-first century. 5% of the longest events will last for more than one month. The amplitude is overwhelming

  1. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  2. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  3. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  6. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  7. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  8. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  9. A wireless batteryless in vivo EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with 60 Hz suppression technique for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanonart, Nattapon; Young, Darrin J

    2009-01-01

    A wireless, batteryless, and implantable EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with adaptive RF powering for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring is designed, implemented, and in vivo characterized. A packaged microsystem, exhibiting a total size of 9 mm x 7 mm x 3 mm with a weight of 400 mg including a pair of stainless-steel EKG electrodes, is implanted in a mouse abdomen for real-time monitoring. A low power 2 mm x 2 mm ASIC, consisting of an EKG amplifier, a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT)-based temperature sensor, an RF power sensing circuit, an RF-DC power converter, an 8-bit ADC, digital control circuitry, and a 433 MHz FSK transmitter, is powered by an adaptively controlled external RF energy source at 4 MHz to ensure a stable 2V supply with 156microA current driving capability for the overall microsystem. An electrical model for analyzing 60 Hz interference based on 2-electrode and 3-electrode configurations is proposed and compared with in vivo evaluation results. Due to the small laboratory animal chest area, a 60 Hz suppression technique by employing input termination resistors is chosen for two-EKG-electrode implant configuration.

  10. A real time zero-dimensional diagnostic model for the calculation of in-cylinder temperatures, HRR and nitrogen oxides in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finesso, Roberto; Spessa, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time zero-dimensional three-zone diagnostic combustion model. • Capable of evaluating in-cylinder temperatures, HRR and NOx in DI diesel engines. • Able to be integrated in the engine ECU for control applications. • Able to be integrated in the test bed acquisition software for calibration tasks. • Tested under both steady state and fast transient conditions. - Abstract: A real-time zero-dimensional diagnostic combustion model has been developed and assessed to evaluate in-cylinder temperatures, HRR (heat release rate) and NOx (nitrogen oxides) in DI (Direct Injection) diesel engines under steady state and transient conditions. The approach requires very little computational time, that is, of the order of a few milliseconds, and is therefore suitable for real-time applications. It could, for example, be implemented in an ECU (Engine Control Unit) for the on-board diagnostics of combustion and emission formation processes, or it could be integrated in acquisition software installed on an engine test bench for indicated analysis. The model could also be used for post-processing analysis of previously acquired experimental data. The methodology is based on a three-zone thermodynamic model: the combustion chamber is divided into a fuel zone, an unburned gas zone and a stoichiometric burned gas zone, to which the energy and mass conservation equations are applied. The main novelty of the proposed method is that the equations can be solved in closed form, thus making the approach suitable for real-time applications. The evaluation of the temperature of burned gases allows the in-cylinder NOx concentration to be calculated, on the basis of prompt and Zeldovich thermal mechanisms. The procedure also takes into account the NOx level in the intake charge, and is therefore suitable for engines equipped with traditional short-route EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) systems, and engines equipped with SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and long

  11. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  12. Two-dimensional real-time blood flow and temperature of soft tissue around maxillary anterior implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Kanao, Masato; Kondo, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Norihiro; Masaki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the basic nature of soft tissue surrounding maxillary anterior implants by simultaneous measurements of blood flow and surface temperature and (2) analyze differences with and without bone grafting associated with implant placement to try to detect the signs of surface morphology change. Twenty maxillary anterior implant patients, 10 bone grafting and 10 graftless, were involved in this clinical trial. Soft tissue around the implant was evaluated with 2-dimensional laser speckle imaging and a thermograph. Blood flow was significantly lower in attached gingiva surrounding implants in graftless patients (P = 0.0468). On the other hand, it was significantly lower in dental papillae (P = 0.0254), free gingiva (P = 0.0198), and attached gingiva (P = 0.00805) in bone graft patients. Temperature was significantly higher in free gingiva (P = 0.00819) and attached gingiva (P = 0.00593) in graftless patients, whereas it was significantly higher in dental papilla and free gingiva in implants with bone grafting. The results suggest that simultaneous measurements of soft-tissue blood flow and temperature is a useful technique to evaluate the microcirculation of soft tissue surrounding implants.

  13. High-resolution room-temperature sample scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope configurable for geological and biomagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, L. E.; Holzer, J. R.; McBride, K. K.; Lima, E. A.; Baudenbacher, F.; Radparvar, M.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope system with interchangeable sensor configurations for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature (RT) samples with submillimeter resolution. The low-critical-temperature (Tc) niobium-based monolithic SQUID sensors are mounted on the tip of a sapphire and thermally anchored to the helium reservoir. A 25μm sapphire window separates the vacuum space from the RT sample. A positioning mechanism allows us to adjust the sample-to-sensor spacing from the top of the Dewar. We achieved a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm, which could be maintained for periods of up to four weeks. Different SQUID sensor designs are necessary to achieve the best combination of spatial resolution and field sensitivity for a given source configuration. For imaging thin sections of geological samples, we used a custom-designed monolithic low-Tc niobium bare SQUID sensor, with an effective diameter of 80μm, and achieved a field sensitivity of 1.5pT/Hz1/2 and a magnetic moment sensitivity of 5.4×10-18Am2/Hz1/2 at a sensor-to-sample spacing of 100μm in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz. Imaging action currents in cardiac tissue requires a higher field sensitivity, which can only be achieved by compromising spatial resolution. We developed a monolithic low-Tc niobium multiloop SQUID sensor, with sensor sizes ranging from 250μm to 1mm, and achieved sensitivities of 480-180fT /Hz1/2 in the white noise region for frequencies above 100Hz, respectively. For all sensor configurations, the spatial resolution was comparable to the effective diameter and limited by the sensor-to-sample spacing. Spatial registration allowed us to compare high-resolution images of magnetic fields associated with action currents and optical recordings of transmembrane potentials to study the bidomain nature of cardiac tissue or to match petrography to magnetic field maps in thin sections of geological samples.

  14. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  15. "Soft"or "hard" ionisation? Investigation of metastable gas temperature effect on direct analysis in real-time analysis of Voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapthorn, Cris; Pullen, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the direct analysis in real-time (DART) technique was evaluated across a range of metastable gas temperatures for a pharmaceutical compound, Voriconazole, in order to investigate the effect of metastable gas temperature on molecular ion intensity and fragmentation. The DART source has been used to analyse a range of analytes and from a range of matrices including drugs in solid tablet form and preparations, active ingredients in ointment, naturally occurring plant alkaloids, flavours and fragrances, from thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates, melting point tubes and biological matrices including hair, urine and blood. The advantages of this technique include rapid analysis time (as little as 5 s), a reduction in sample preparation requirements, elimination of mobile phase requirement and analysis of samples not typically amenable to atmospheric pressure ionisation (API) techniques. This technology has therefore been proposed as an everyday tool for identification of components in crude organic reaction mixtures.

  16. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Comet 2PlEncke: Unusual Organic Composition and Low Rotational Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution infrared spectroscopic measurements of the ecliptic comet 2P/Encke, observed on 4-6 Nov. 2003 during its close approach to the Earth, using the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We present flux-calibrated spectra, production rates, and mixing ratios for H2O, CH3OH, HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO. Comet 2P/Encke is a dynamical end-member among comets because of its short period of 3.3 years. Relative to "organics-normal" comets, we determined that 2PlEncke is depleted in HCN, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4 and CO, but it is enriched in CH3OH. We compared mixing ratios of these organic species measured on separate dates, and we see no evidence of macroscopic chemical heterogeneity in the nucleus of 2P/Encke, however, this conclusion is limited by sparse temporal sampling. The depleted abundances of most measured species suggest that 2P/Encke may have formed closer to the young Sun, before its insertion to the Kuiper belt, compared with "organics-normal" comets - as was previously suggested for other depleted comets (e.g. C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)). We measured very low rotational temperatures of 20 - 30 K for H2O, CH3OH and HCN in the near nucleus region of 2P/Encke, which correlate with one of the lowest cometary gas production rates (approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 27) molecules/s) measured thus far in the infrared. This suggests that we are seeing the effects of more efficient radiative cooling, insufficient collisional excitation, and/or inefficient heating by fast H-atoms (and icy grains) in the observed region of the coma. Its extremely short orbital period, very low gas production rate, and classification as an ecliptic comet, make 2PlEncke an important addition to our growing database, and contribute significantly to the establishment of a chemical taxonomy of comets.

  17. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  18. A Real-Time Simulink Interfaced Fast-Charging Methodology of Lithium-Ion Batteries under Temperature Feedback with Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery has high energy and power density, long life cycle, low toxicity, low discharge rate, more reliability, and better efficiency compared to other batteries. On the other hand, the issue of a reduction in charging time of the lithium-ion battery is still a bottleneck for the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs. Therefore, an approach to charge lithium-ion batteries at a faster rate is needed. This paper proposes an efficient, real-time, fast-charging methodology of lithium-ion batteries. Fuzzy logic was adopted to drive the charging current trajectory. A temperature control unit was also implemented to evade the effects of fast charging on the aging mechanism. The proposed method of charging also protects the battery from overvoltage and overheating. Extensive testing and comprehensive analysis were conducted to examine the proposed charging technique. The results show that the proposed charging strategy favors a full battery recharging in 9.76% less time than the conventional constant-current–constant-voltage (CC/CV method. The strategy charges the battery at a 99.26% state of charge (SOC without significant degradation. The entire scheme was implemented in real time, using Arduino interfaced with MATLABTM Simulink. This decrease in charging time assists in the fast charging of cell phones and notebooks and in the large-scale deployment of EVs.

  19. Advanced real time radioscopy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, Ch.; Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Wiacker, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes three x-ray inspection systems. One radioscopic system is designed for the inspection of castings. The next integrates a radioscopic and a tomographic mode. The radioscopy has a high resolution camera and real time image processor. Radiation sources are a 450 kV industrial and a 200 kV microfocus tube. The third system is a tomographic system with 30 scintillation detectors for the inspection of nuclear waste containers. (author)

  20. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  1. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  2. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  3. Real Time Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  4. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  5. Real time psychrometric data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  6. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  7. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  8. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  9. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  10. Real-time measurement system for tracking birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during drying of solution cast coatings and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, E.; Drum, J.; Yucel, O.; Nugay, I. I.; Yalcin, B.; Cakmak, M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new instrument to track temporal changes in physical parameters during the drying behavior of solutions, as well as curing of monomers. This real-time instrument follows in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during the course of solidification of coatings and films through solvent evaporation and thermal or photocuring in a controlled atmosphere. It is specifically designed to simulate behavior of polymer solutions inside an industrial size, continuous roll-to-roll solution casting line and other coating operations where resins are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) curing from monomer precursors. Controlled processing parameters include air speed, temperature, initial cast thickness, and solute concentration, while measured parameters are thickness, weight, film temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of this instrument with solution cast and dried poly (amide-imide)/DMAc (Dimethylacetamide) solution, water based black paint, and organo-modified clay/NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone) solution. In addition, the physical changes that take place during UV photo polymerization of a monomer are tracked. This instrument is designed to be generic and it can be used for tracking any drying/swelling/solidification systems including paper, foodstuffs such as; grains, milk as well as pharmaceutical thin paste and slurries.

  11. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  12. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  13. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  14. Real time urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Varona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the technological revolution of the society of information, the administrative management of the cities faces a new problem not as related to the projection of the urban space as to the capacity of controlling and measuring the process of direct and centralized production of the cities by part of some non-homogeneous social multitudes, in a hyper-accelerated time towards instantaneity. Against libertarian apologies of the new “participative urbanisms”, the article puts forward a discourse that shows the lost associated to the new problem of temporal instantaneity. In this regard we claim new process of mediation that allow administrations and urbanist monitoring the production of the city. To that end, a previous and necessary step will be the redefinition of the role of a new real time urbanist.

  15. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  16. Six Month In Situ High-Resolution Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature Study on a Coral Reef Flat Reveals Asynchronous pH and Temperature Anomalies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Kline

    Full Text Available Understanding the temporal dynamics of present thermal and pH exposure on coral reefs is crucial for elucidating reef response to future global change. Diel ranges in temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters coupled with seasonal changes in the mean conditions define periods during the year when a reef habitat is exposed to anomalous thermal and/or pH exposure. Anomalous conditions are defined as values that exceed an empirically estimated threshold for each variable. We present a 200-day time series from June through December 2010 of carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters measured on the Heron Island reef flat. These data reveal that aragonite saturation state, pH, and pCO2 were primarily modulated by biologically-driven changes in dissolved organic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA, rather than salinity and temperature. The largest diel temperature ranges occurred in austral spring, in October (1.5 - 6.6°C and lowest diel ranges (0.9 - 3.2°C were observed in July, at the peak of winter. We observed large diel total pH variability, with a maximum range of 7.7 - 8.5 total pH units, with minimum diel average pH values occurring during spring and maximum during fall. As with many other reefs, the nighttime pH minima on the reef flat were far lower than pH values predicted for the open ocean by 2100. DIC and TA both increased from June (end of Fall to December (end of Spring. Using this high-resolution dataset, we developed exposure metrics of pH and temperature individually for intensity, duration, and severity of low pH and high temperature events, as well as a combined metric. Periods of anomalous temperature and pH exposure were asynchronous on the Heron Island reef flat, which underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of co-occurrence of multiple stressors on coastal ecosystems.

  17. Six Month In Situ High-Resolution Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature Study on a Coral Reef Flat Reveals Asynchronous pH and Temperature Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, David I; Teneva, Lida; Hauri, Claudine; Schneider, Kenneth; Miard, Thomas; Chai, Aaron; Marker, Malcolm; Dunbar, Rob; Caldeira, Ken; Lazar, Boaz; Rivlin, Tanya; Mitchell, Brian Gregory; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the temporal dynamics of present thermal and pH exposure on coral reefs is crucial for elucidating reef response to future global change. Diel ranges in temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters coupled with seasonal changes in the mean conditions define periods during the year when a reef habitat is exposed to anomalous thermal and/or pH exposure. Anomalous conditions are defined as values that exceed an empirically estimated threshold for each variable. We present a 200-day time series from June through December 2010 of carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters measured on the Heron Island reef flat. These data reveal that aragonite saturation state, pH, and pCO2 were primarily modulated by biologically-driven changes in dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA), rather than salinity and temperature. The largest diel temperature ranges occurred in austral spring, in October (1.5 - 6.6°C) and lowest diel ranges (0.9 - 3.2°C) were observed in July, at the peak of winter. We observed large diel total pH variability, with a maximum range of 7.7 - 8.5 total pH units, with minimum diel average pH values occurring during spring and maximum during fall. As with many other reefs, the nighttime pH minima on the reef flat were far lower than pH values predicted for the open ocean by 2100. DIC and TA both increased from June (end of Fall) to December (end of Spring). Using this high-resolution dataset, we developed exposure metrics of pH and temperature individually for intensity, duration, and severity of low pH and high temperature events, as well as a combined metric. Periods of anomalous temperature and pH exposure were asynchronous on the Heron Island reef flat, which underlines the importance of understanding the dynamics of co-occurrence of multiple stressors on coastal ecosystems.

  18. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO2/Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Omi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O2/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 °C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 °C in O2/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 °C. The I15/2-I13/2 Er3+ photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the 2H11/2 levels of Er3+ ions of the erbium compounds.

  19. Dynamics of Penicillium camemberti growth quantified by real-time PCR on Camembert-type cheeses under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Picque, Daniel; Martin Del Campo Barba, Sandra Teresita; Monnet, Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Penicillium camemberti plays a major role in the flavor and appearance of Camembert-type cheeses. However, little is known about its mycelium growth kinetics during ripening. We monitored the growth of P. camemberti mycelium in Camembert-type cheeses using real-time PCR in 4 ripening runs, performed at 2 temperatures (8 and 16°C) and 2 relative humidities (88 and 98%). These findings were compared with P. camemberti quantification by spore concentration. During the first phase, the mycelium grew but no spores were produced, regardless of the ripening conditions. During the second phase, which began when lactose was depleted, the concentration of spores increased, especially in the cheeses ripened at 16°C. Sporulation was associated with a large decrease in the mycelial concentration in the cheeses ripened at 16°C and 98% relative humidity. It was hypothesized that lactose is the main energy source for the growth of P. camemberti mycelium at the beginning of ripening and that its depletion would trigger stress, resulting in sporulation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calorimetric low - temperature detectors for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy on stored highly stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleile, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kraft, S.; Meier, H.J.; Shrivastava, A.; Weber, M.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.

    2001-09-01

    The accurate determination of the Lamb shift in heavy hydrogen-like ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields, not accessible otherwise. For the investigation of the Lyman-α transitions in 208 Pb 81+ or 238 U 91+ with sufficient accuracy, a high resolution calorimetric detector for hard X-rays (E ≤ 100 keV) is presently being developed. The detector modules consist of arrays of silicon thermistors and of X-ray absorbers made of high-Z material to optimize the absorption efficiency. The detectors are housed in a specially designed 3 He/ 4 He dilution refrigerator with a side arm which fits to the internal target geometry of the storage ring ESR at GSI Darmstadt. The detector performance presently achieved is already close to fulfill the demands of the Lamb shift experiment. For a prototype detector pixel with a 0.2 mm 2 x 47 μm Pb absorber an energy resolution of ΔE FWHM = 65 eV is obtained for 60 keV X-rays. (orig.)

  1. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  2. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100-300 Å spectral banda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-01

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li+ or Li2 +, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li+ and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li2 + lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  3. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  4. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by EUMETSAT (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  6. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-B satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  7. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  11. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  12. HIRS-AMTS satellite sounding system test - Theoretical and empirical vertical resolving power. [High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder - Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the vertical resolving power of satellite-borne temperature sounding instruments. Information is presented on the capabilities of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and a proposed sounding instrument called the Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Two quite different methods for assessing the vertical resolving power of satellite sounders are discussed. The first is the theoretical method of Conrath (1972) which was patterned after the work of Backus and Gilbert (1968) The Backus-Gilbert-Conrath (BGC) approach includes a formalism for deriving a retrieval algorithm for optimizing the vertical resolving power. However, a retrieval algorithm constructed in the BGC optimal fashion is not necessarily optimal as far as actual temperature retrievals are concerned. Thus, an independent criterion for vertical resolving power is discussed. The criterion is based on actual retrievals of signal structure in the temperature field.

  13. High resolution temperature mapping of gas turbine combustor simulator exhaust with femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert B.; Yun, Sangsig; Ding, Huimin; Charbonneau, Michel; Coulas, David; Lu, Ping; Mihailov, Stephen J.; Ramachandran, Nanthan

    2017-04-01

    Femtosecond infrared (fs-IR) laser written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), have demonstrated great potential for extreme sensing. Such conditions are inherent in advanced gas turbine engines under development to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and the ability to measure temperature gradients in these harsh environments is currently limited by the lack of sensors and controls capable of withstanding the high temperature, pressure and corrosive conditions present. This paper discusses fabrication and deployment of several fs-IR written FBG arrays, for monitoring exhaust temperature gradients of a gas turbine combustor simulator. Results include: contour plots of measured temperature gradients, contrast with thermocouple data.

  14. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 500–2100cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 500–2100 cm -1 at temperatures up to1027 1C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1013±20 mbar) are measured. NH3 concentrations of 1000 ppm,0.5% and 1% in volume fraction were used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in high tempera...... to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. Approximately 2000 lines have been assigned, of which 851are newly assigned to mainly hot bands involving vibrational states as high as v2=5....

  15. New methods for modeling stream temperature using high resolution LiDAR, solar radiation analysis and flow accumulated values

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-stream temperature directly effects a variety of biotic organisms, communities and processes. Changes in stream temperature can render formally suitable habitat unsuitable for aquatic organisms, particularly native cold water species that are not able to adjust. In order to an...

  16. All-inkjet-printed flexible electronics fabrication on a polymer substrate by low-temperature high-resolution selective laser sintering of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seung H; Pan Heng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Luscombe, Christine K; Frechet, Jean M J; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    All-printed electronics is the key technology to ultra-low-cost, large-area electronics. As a critical step in this direction, we demonstrate that laser sintering of inkjet-printed metal nanoparticles enables low-temperature metal deposition as well as high-resolution patterning to overcome the resolution limitation of the current inkjet direct writing processes. To demonstrate this process combined with the implementation of air-stable carboxylate-functionalized polythiophenes, high-resolution organic transistors were fabricated in ambient pressure and room temperature without utilizing any photolithographic steps or requiring a vacuum deposition process. Local thermal control of the laser sintering process could minimize the heat-affected zone and the thermal damage to the substrate and further enhance the resolution of the process. This local nanoparticle deposition and energy coupling enable an environmentally friendly and cost-effective process as well as a low-temperature manufacturing sequence to realize large-area, flexible electronics on polymer substrates

  17. Development of an Urban High-Resolution Air Temperature Forecast System for Local Weather Information Services Based on Statistical Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyeon Yi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula has complex and diverse weather phenomena, and the Korea Meteorological Administration has been working on various numerical models to produce better forecasting data. The Unified Model Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System is a limited-area working model with a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km for estimating local-scale weather forecasts on the Korean peninsula. However, in order to numerically predict the detailed temperature characteristics of the urban space, in which surface characteristics change rapidly in a small spatial area, a city temperature prediction model with higher resolution spatial decomposition capabilities is required. As an alternative to this, a building-scale temperature model was developed, and a 25 m air temperature resolution was determined for the Seoul area. The spatial information was processed using statistical methods, such as linear regression models and machine learning. By comparing the accuracy of the estimated air temperatures with observational data during the summer, the machine learning was improved. In addition, horizontal and vertical characteristics of the urban space were better represented, and the air temperature was better resolved spatially. Air temperature information can be used to manage the response to heat-waves and tropical nights in administrative districts of urban areas.

  18. Temperature-salinity structure of the AMOC in high-resolution ocean simulations and in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Xu, X.; Chassignet, E.

    2017-12-01

    On average, the CMIP5 models represent the AMOC structure, water properties, Heat transport and Freshwater transport reasonably well. For temperature, CMIP5 models exhibit a colder northward upper limb and a warmer southward lower limb. the temperature contrast induces weaker heat transport than observation. For salinity, CMIP5 models exhibit saltier southward lower limb, thus contributes to weaker column freshwater transport. Models have large spread, among them, AMOC strength contributes to Heat transport but not freshwater transport. AMOC structure (the overturning depth) contributes to transport-weighted temperature not transport-weighted salinity in southward lower limb. The salinity contrast in upper and lower limb contributes to freshwater transport, but temperature contrast do not contribute to heat transport.

  19. High-resolution fast temperature mapping of a gas turbine combustor simulator with femtosecond infrared laser written fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert B.; Yun, Sangsig; Ding, Huimin; Charbonneau, Michel; Coulas, David; Ramachandran, Nanthan; Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    Femtosecond infrared (fs-IR) written fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), have demonstrated great potential for extreme sensing. Such conditions are inherent to the advanced gas turbine engines under development to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and the ability to measure temperature gradients in these harsh environments is currently limited by the lack of sensors and controls capable of withstanding the high temperature, pressure and corrosive conditions present. This paper discusses fabrication and deployment of several fs-IR written FBG arrays, for monitoring the sidewall and exhaust temperature gradients of a gas turbine combustor simulator. Results include: contour plots of measured temperature gradients contrasted with thermocouple data, discussion of deployment strategies and comments on reliability.

  20. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  1. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-493, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  2. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  3. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.L.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E.F.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Lee, S.G.; Rice, J.E.; Scott, S.; Barnsley, R.

    2008-01-01

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of T i and ν φ on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER

  4. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  5. Covariability of seasonal temperature and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula in high-resolution regional climate simulations (1001-2099)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montes, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Rodrigo, F. S.; García-Valero, J. A.; Montávez, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation and surface temperature are interdependent variables, both as a response to atmospheric dynamics and due to intrinsic thermodynamic relationships and feedbacks between them. This study analyzes the covariability of seasonal temperature (T) and precipitation (P) across the Iberian Peninsula (IP) using regional climate paleosimulations for the period 1001-1990, driven by reconstructions of external forcings. Future climate (1990-2099) was simulated according to SRES scenarios A2 and B2. These simulations enable exploring, at high spatial resolution, robust and physically consistent relationships. In winter, positive P-T correlations dominate west-central IP (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = + 0.43, for 1001-1990), due to prevalent cold-dry and warm-wet conditions, while this relationship weakens and become negative towards mountainous, northern and eastern regions. In autumn, negative correlations appear in similar regions as in winter, whereas for summer they extend also to the N/NW of the IP. In spring, the whole IP depicts significant negative correlations, strongest for eastern regions (ρ = - 0.51). This is due to prevalent frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes in these regions and seasons. At the temporal scale, regional correlation series between seasonal anomalies of temperature and precipitation (assessed in 31 years running windows in 1001-1990) show very large multidecadal variability. For winter and spring, periodicities of about 50-60 years arise. The frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes appears correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), explaining mainly co-variability changes in spring. For winter and some regions in autumn, maximum and minimum P-T correlations appear in periods with enhanced meridional or easterly circulation (low or high pressure anomalies in the Mediterranean and Europe). In spring and summer, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation shows some fingerprint on the frequency of warm/cold modes. For

  6. High-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy of high-temperature plasmas using an array of quantum microcalorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel B; Gu, Ming F; Brown, Greg V; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Porter, F Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A; Kelley, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    Quantum microcalorimeters show promise in being able to fully resolve x-ray spectra from heavy highly charged ions, such as would be found in hot plasmas with temperatures in excess of 50 keV. Quantum microcalorimeter arrays are able to achieve this as they have a high-resolving power and good effective quantum efficiency for hard x-ray photons up to 60 keV. To demonstrate this, we present a measurement using an array of thin HgTe quantum microcalorimeters to measure the K-shell spectrum of hydrogenlike through carbonlike praseodymium (Z=57). With this device we are able to attain a resolving power, E/DeltaE, of 1000 at a photon energy of 37 keV.

  7. Effect of Cleaving Temperature on the Surface and Bulk Fermi Surface of Sr2RuO4 Investigated by High Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan-Yu; Zhang Wen-Tao; Weng Hong-Ming; Zhao Lin; Liu Hai-Yun; Jia Xiao-Wen; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Dai Xi; Fang Zhong; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Mao Zhi-Qiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2012-01-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements are carried out to systematically investigate the effect of cleaving temperature on the electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of Sr 2 RuO 4 . Unlike previous reports, which found that a high cleaving temperature can suppress the surface Fermi surface, we find that the surface Fermi surface remains obvious and strong in Sr 2 RuO 4 cleaved at high temperature, even at room temperature. This indicates that cleaving temperature is not a key effective factor in suppressing surface bands. On the other hand, the bulk bands can be enhanced in an aged surface of Sr 2 RuO 4 that has been cleaved and held for a long time. We have also carried out laser ARPES measurements on Sr 2 RuO 4 by using a vacuum ultra-violet laser (photon energy at 6.994 eV) and found an obvious enhancement of bulk bands even for samples cleaved at low temperature. This information is important for realizing an effective approach to manipulating and detecting the surface and bulk electronic structure of Sr 2 RuO 4 . In particular, the enhancement of bulk sensitivity, along with the super-high instrumental resolution of VUV laser ARPES, will be advantageous in investigating fine electronic structure and superconducting properties of Sr 2 RuO 4 in the future. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Advantages of a Vertical High-Resolution Distributed-Temperature-Sensing System Used to Evaluate the Thermal Behavior of Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Cousiño, J. A.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C. A.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Leiva, E.; Pasten, P.

    2015-12-01

    Technological innovations used for sustainable urban development, green roofs offer a range of benefits, including reduced heat island effect, rooftop runoff, roof surface temperatures, energy consumption, and noise levels inside buildings, as well as increased urban biodiversity. Green roofs feature layered construction, with the most important layers being the vegetation and the substrate layers located above the traditional roof. These layers provide both insulation and warm season cooling by latent heat flux, reducing the thermal load to the building. To understand and improve the processes driving this thermal energy reduction, it is important to observe the thermal dynamics of a green roof at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Traditionally, to observe the thermal behavior of green roofs, a series of thermocouples have been installed at discrete depths within the layers of the roof. Here, we present a vertical high-resolution distributed-temperature-sensing (DTS) system installed in different green roof modules of the Laboratory of Vegetated Infrastructure for Buildings (LIVE -its acronym in Spanish) of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. This DTS system allows near-continuous measurement of the thermal profile at spatial and temporal resolutions of approximately 1 cm and 30 s, respectively. In this investigation, the temperature observations from the DTS system are compared with the measurements of a series of thermocouples installed in the green roofs. This comparison makes it possible to assess the value of thermal observations at better spatial and temporal resolutions. We show that the errors associated with lower resolution observations (i.e., from the thermocouples) are propagated in the calculations of the heat fluxes through the different layers of the green roof. Our results highlight the value of having a vertical high-resolution DTS system to observe the thermal dynamics in green roofs.

  9. The Impact of High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperatures on the Simulated Nocturnal Florida Marine Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCasse, Katherine M.; Splitt, Michael E.; Lazarus, Steven M.; Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    High- and low-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products are used to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model for May 2004 for short-term forecasts over Florida and surrounding waters. Initial and boundary conditions for the simulations were provided by a combination of observations, large-scale model output, and analysis products. The impact of using a 1-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) SST composite on subsequent evolution of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is assessed through simulation comparisons and limited validation. Model results are presented for individual simulations, as well as for aggregates of easterly- and westerly-dominated low-level flows. The simulation comparisons show that the use of MODIS SST composites results in enhanced convergence zones. earlier and more intense horizontal convective rolls. and an increase in precipitation as well as a change in precipitation location. Validation of 10-m winds with buoys shows a slight improvement in wind speed. The most significant results of this study are that 1) vertical wind stress divergence and pressure gradient accelerations across the Florida Current region vary in importance as a function of flow direction and stability and 2) the warmer Florida Current in the MODIS product transports heat vertically and downwind of this heat source, modifying the thermal structure and the MABL wind field primarily through pressure gradient adjustments.

  10. Diurnal Cycles of High Resolution Land Surface Temperatures (LSTs) Determined from UAV Platforms Across a Range of Surface Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M.; Rosas Aguilar, J.; Parkes, S. D.; Aragon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Observation of land surface temperature (LST) has many practical uses, from studying boundary layer dynamics and land-atmosphere coupling, to investigating surface properties such as soil moisture status, heat stress and surface heat fluxes. Typically, LST is observed via satellite based sensors such as LandSat or via point measurements using IR radiometers. These measurements provide either good spatial coverage and resolution or good temporal coverage. However, neither are able to provide the needed spatial and temporal resolution for many of the research applications described above. Technological developments in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), together with small thermal frame cameras, has enabled a capacity to overcome this spatiotemporal constraint. Utilising UAV platforms to collect LST measurements across diurnal cycles provides an opportunity to study how meteorological and surface properties vary in both space and time. Here we describe the collection of LST data from a multi-rotor UAV across a study domain that is observed multiple times throughout the day. Flights over crops of Rhodes grass and alfalfa, along with a bare desert surface, were repeated with between 8 and 11 surveys covering the period from early morning to sunset. Analysis of the collected thermal imagery shows that the constructed LST maps illustrate a strong diurnal cycle consistent with expected trends, but with considerable spatial and temporal variability observed within and between the different domains. These results offer new insights into the dynamics of land surface behavior in both dry and wet soil conditions and at spatiotemporal scales that are unable to be replicated using traditional satellite platforms.

  11. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  12. Real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Kim, Ho Kyun; Sung, Nak Kwan; Kim, Soon Yong

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a predominantly accurate, relatively simple unique diagnostic method of obstructive jaundice. The ultrasonographic findings of obstructive jaundice are dilated intra- and extrahepatic duct with intraluminal hyper reflective echo or mass in and/ or around the bile duct. The superiority of high resolution real time ultrasonography for the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice is bases on the easy detectability of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts by its multiple sectional images in a short time, the flexibility of probe and small crystal size. Author evaluated real time sonographic findings 46 obstructive jaundice patients confirmed by surgery or radiographical examinations. The results were: 1. Diameter of extrahepatic duct in obstructive jaundice were varied from normal to 4.0 Cm, mostly 8 to 10 mm in diameter (26%). Degree of dilatation of biliary duct appeared more prominent in cancer patients than other causes of obstruction. 2. The site of obstruction was detected in 85% (39/46) and its common site was common bile duct in 63% (29/46). 3. The diagnostic accuracy of choledocholithiasis and cancer was 82% (22/27) and 44% (4/9), respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the real time ultrasonography in obstructive jaundice was over all 75% (34/46)

  13. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  14. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S.; Nesterenko, Pavel N.; Smith, Norman W.; Barron, Leon P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • IC selectivity at high contents of organic solvent in eluent and elevated temperature is studied. • Solvent-enhanced IC coupled to high resolution MS is beneficial for sensitive detection of ions. • The first application of IC-HRMS to the detection of low explosives in fingermarks is shown. - Abstract: There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5–50 mM hydroxide with 0–80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20–45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30–40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks

  15. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S. [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Nesterenko, Pavel N. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Smith, Norman W. [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Barron, Leon P., E-mail: leon.barron@kcl.ac.uk [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • IC selectivity at high contents of organic solvent in eluent and elevated temperature is studied. • Solvent-enhanced IC coupled to high resolution MS is beneficial for sensitive detection of ions. • The first application of IC-HRMS to the detection of low explosives in fingermarks is shown. - Abstract: There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5–50 mM hydroxide with 0–80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20–45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30–40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks.

  16. Real-time resource allocation for tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bouma, H.

    2017-01-01

    Automated tracking is key to many computer vision applications. However, many tracking systems struggle to perform in real-time due to the high computational cost of detecting people, especially in ultra high resolution images. We propose a new algorithm called PartiMax that greatly reduces this

  17. High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Meyzonnat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which

  18. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  19. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Major, Syed S

    2017-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  20. Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Analysis Fields Inter-Comparisons. Part 2. Near Real Time Web-based Level 4 SST Quality Monitor (L4-SQUAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Reynoldsr, Viva Banzon*. Helen Beggs h, Jean-Francois Cayula1, Yi Chaoj, Robert Grumbinek, Eileen Maturia, Andy Harrisal. Jonathan Mittaza•’, John...number of valid OSTIA SSTs because NN matching is done to OSTIA grid. A dotted gray line shows an ideal Gaussian fit, X~N(Median, RSD...show significant differences. In the right panels, AT, statistics are annotated on the left side of the histograms, dotted gray line shows an ideal

  1. Real-time modeling of heat distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei; Yarlanki, Srinivas

    2018-01-02

    Techniques for real-time modeling temperature distributions based on streaming sensor data are provided. In one aspect, a method for creating a three-dimensional temperature distribution model for a room having a floor and a ceiling is provided. The method includes the following steps. A ceiling temperature distribution in the room is determined. A floor temperature distribution in the room is determined. An interpolation between the ceiling temperature distribution and the floor temperature distribution is used to obtain the three-dimensional temperature distribution model for the room.

  2. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  3. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  4. Functional Assessment of Cardiac Responses of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio to Acute and Chronic Temperature Change Using High-Resolution Echocardiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lee

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio is an important organism as a model for understanding vertebrate cardiovascular development. However, little is known about adult ZF cardiac function and how contractile function changes to cope with fluctuations in ambient temperature. The goals of this study were to: 1 determine if high resolution echocardiography (HRE in the presence of reduced cardiodepressant anesthetics could be used to accurately investigate the structural and functional properties of the ZF heart and 2 if the effect of ambient temperature changes both acutely and chronically could be determined non-invasively using HRE in vivo. Heart rate (HR appears to be the critical factor in modifying cardiac output (CO with ambient temperature fluctuation as it increases from 78 ± 5.9 bpm at 18°C to 162 ± 9.7 bpm at 28°C regardless of acclimation state (cold acclimated CA- 18°C; warm acclimated WA- 28°C. Stroke volume (SV is highest when the ambient temperature matches the acclimation temperature, though this difference did not constitute a significant effect (CA 1.17 ± 0.15 μL at 18°C vs 1.06 ± 0.14 μl at 28°C; WA 1.10 ± 0.13 μL at 18°C vs 1.12 ± 0.12 μl at 28°C. The isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT was significantly shorter in CA fish at 18°C. The CA group showed improved systolic function at 18°C in comparison to the WA group with significant increases in both ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreases in IVCT. The decreased early peak (E velocity and early peak velocity / atrial peak velocity (E/A ratio in the CA group are likely associated with increased reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular filling.

  5. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  6. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  7. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  9. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  10. Surface segregation of Ge during Si growth on Ge/Si(0 0 1) at low temperature observed by high-resolution RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Hosaka, N.; Hattori, T.; Kimura, K.

    2002-01-01

    The Si/Ge/Si(0 0 1) multilayer with about 1 ML Ge layer is fabricated by evaporating Si overlayer on a Ge/Si(0 0 1) surface at 20-300 deg. C. The depth profile of the Ge atoms is observed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy to investigate the possibility of Ge delta doping in Si. The observed profile of the Ge atoms spreads over several atomic layers even at 20 deg. C and a significant amount of Ge is located in the surface layer at higher temperatures. The results at 20-150 deg. C are well explained with two-layer model for surface segregation of the Ge atoms and the segregation rates are estimated. The activation energy for surface segregation of Ge atoms in amorphous Si is evaluated to be 0.035 eV, which is much smaller than the value reported for Si deposition at 500 deg. C. The small activation energy suggests that local heating during the Si deposition is dominant at low temperature

  11. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of graphite materials prepared by high-temperature treatment of unburned carbon concentrates from combustion fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Cabielles; Jean-Nol Rouzaud; Ana B. Garcia [Instituto Nacional del Carbn (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used in this work to study the microstructural (structure and microtexture) changes occurring during the high-temperature treatment of the unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes. Emphasis was placed on two aspects: (i) the development of graphitic carbon structures and (ii) the disordered carbon forms remaining in the graphitized samples. In addition, by coupling HRTEM with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, the transformations with the temperature of the inorganic matter (mainly iron- and silicon-based phases) of the unburned carbon concentrates were evidenced. The HRTEM results were compared to the averaged structural order of the materials as evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. As indicated by XRD and Raman parameters, more-ordered materials were obtained from the unburned carbon concentrates with higher mineral/inorganic matter, thus inferring the catalytic effect of some of their components. However, the average character of the information provided by these instrumental techniques seems to be inconclusive in discriminating between carbon structures with different degrees of order (stricto sensu graphite, graphitic, turbostratic, etc.) in a given graphitized unburned carbon. Unlike XRD and Raman, HRTEM is a useful tool for imaging directly the profile of the polyaromatic layers (graphene planes), thus allowing the sample heterogeneity to be looked at, specifically the presence of disordered carbon phases. 49 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. In-situ changes in the elastic wave velocity of rock with increasing temperature using high-resolution coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Luke; Heap, Michael; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baud, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Rock undergoes fluctuations in temperature in various settings in Earth's crust, including areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, or industrial environments such as hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoirs. Changes in temperature can cause thermal stresses that can result in the formation of microcracks, which affect the mechanical, physical, and transport properties of rocks. Of the affected physical properties, the elastic wave velocity of rock is particularly sensitive to microcracking. Monitoring the evolution of elastic wave velocity during the thermal stressing of rock therefore provides valuable insight into thermal cracking processes. One monitoring technique is Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), which infers high-resolution changes in the medium from changes in multiple-scattered elastic waves. We have designed a new experimental setup to perform CWI whilst cyclically heating and cooling samples of granite (cylinders of 20 mm diameter and 40 mm length). In our setup, the samples are held between two pistons within a tube furnace and are heated and cooled at a rate of 1 °C/min to temperatures of up to 300 °C. Two high temperature piezo-transducers are each in contact with an opposing face of the rock sample. The servo-controlled uniaxial press compensates for the thermal expansion and contraction of the pistons and the sample, keeping the coupling between the transducers and the sample, and the axial force acting on the sample, constant throughout. Our setup is designed for simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring (AE is commonly used as a proxy for microcracking), and so we can follow thermal microcracking precisely by combining the AE and CWI techniques. We find that during the first heating/cooling cycle, the onset of thermal microcracking occurs at a relatively low temperature of around 65 °C. The CWI shows that elastic wave velocity decreases with increasing temperature and increases during cooling. Upon cooling, back to room temperature, there is an

  13. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  14. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  15. Empirical-statistical downscaling of reanalysis data to high-resolution air temperature and specific humidity above a glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Marlis; MöLg, Thomas; Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg

    2010-06-01

    Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term, atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. We present an empirical-statistical downscaling (ESD) model that links 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis data to air temperature and specific humidity, measured at the tropical glacier Artesonraju (northern Cordillera Blanca). The ESD modeling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses and a double cross-validation scheme for model evaluation. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modeling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice using both single-field and mixed-field predictors. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day. The forecast skill largely depends on month and time of day, ranging from 0 to 0.8. The mixed-field predictors perform better than the single-field predictors. The ESD model shows added value, at all time scales, against simpler reference models (e.g., the direct use of reanalysis grid point values). The ESD model forecast 1960-2008 clearly reflects interannual variability related to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation but is sensitive to the chosen predictor type.

  16. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  17. The effect of the vertical part of the path on the real time Feynman rules in finite temperature field theory 2-point functions and vacuum diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the contribution of the vertical part of the real time path is studied completely in the case of two points functions and vacuum diagrams. Indeed, this vertical part generally contributes in the calculation of a given graph. Moreover, this contribution is essential in order to have a consistent equilibrium theory: thanks to this contribution, the Green functions are effectively invariant by time translation, as they should be. As a by product, it is shown that the perturbative calculations give a result which does not depend on the initial time t I and final time t F of the path. The property of independence with respect to t I is closely related to the KMS conditions, i.e. to the fact the system is in thermal equilibrium. In the case of two point functions and vacuum diagrams, the contribution of the vertical part can be taken into account by the n(vertical stroke k 0 vertical stroke) prescription in the usual RTF Feynman rules. The extra Feynman rule needed for vacuum diagrams is shown not to be related directly to the contribution of the vertical part of the path. (orig.). With 4 figs

  18. High-Resolution Mg/Ca Ratios in a Coralline Red Alga as a Proxy for Bering Sea Temperature Variations and Teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfar, J.; Steffen, H.; Kronz, A.; Steneck, R. S.; Adey, W.; Lebednik, P. A.

    2009-05-01

    We present the first continuous high-resolution record of Mg/Ca variations within an encrusting coralline red alga of the species Clathromorphum nereostratum from Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands. Mg/Ca ratios of individual growth increments were analyzed by measuring a single point electron microprobe transect yielding a resolution of 15 samples/year on average, generating a continuous record from 1830 to 1967 of algal Mg/Ca variations. Results show that Mg/Ca ratios in the high-Mg calcite skeleton display pronounced annual cyclicity and archive late spring to late fall sea surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the main season of algal growth. Mg/Ca values correlate well to local SST (ERSSTJun-Nov, 1902-1967; r = 0.73 for 5-year mean), as well as to an air temperature record from the same region. Our data correlate well to a shorter Mg/Ca record from a second site, corroborating the ability of the alga to reliably record regional environmental signals. In addition, Mg/Ca ratios relate well to a 29-year stable oxygen isotope time series measured on the same sample, which provides additional support for the use of Mg as a paleotemperature proxy in coralline red algae, that is, unlike stable oxygen isotopes, not influenced by salinity fluctuations. High spatial correlation to large-scale SST variability in the North Pacific is observed, with patterns of strongest correlation following the direction of major oceanographic features (i.e., the signature of the Alaska Current and the Alaskan Stream), which play a key role in the exchange of water masses between the North Pacific and the Bering Sea through Aleutian Island passages. The time series further displays significant teleconnections with the signature of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the northeast Pacific and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  19. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  20. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  1. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  2. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  3. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  4. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel ® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  5. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  6. New methods for modeling stream temperature using high resolution LiDAR, solar radiation analysis and flow accumulated values to predict stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-stream temperature directly effects a variety of biotic organisms, communities and processes. Changes in stream temperature can render formally suitable habitat unsuitable for aquatic organisms, particularly native cold water species that are not able to adjust. In order to...

  7. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  8. Iron in the Fire: Searching for Fire's Magnetic Fingerprint using Controlled Heating Experiments, High-Resolution FORCs, IRM Coercivity Spectra, and Low-Temperature Remanence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Reiners, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for recent climate-wildfire linkages underscores the need for better understanding of relationships between wildfire and major climate shifts in Earth history, which in turn offers the potential for prognoses for wildfire and human adaptations to it. In particular, what are the links between seasonality and wildfire frequency and severity, and what are the feedbacks between wildfire, landscape evolution, and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and iron cycles? A key first step in addressing these questions is recovering well-described wildfire records from a variety of paleolandscapes and paleoclimate regimes. Although charcoal and organic biomarkers are commonly used indicators of fire, taphonomic processes and time-consuming analytical preparations often preclude their routine use in some environments and in high-stratigraphic resolution paleowildfire surveying. The phenomenological relationship between fire and magnetic susceptibility can make it a useful surveying tool, but increased magnetic susceptibility in sediments is not unique to fire, and thus limits its diagnostic power. Here we utilize component-specific rock magnetic methods and analytical techniques to identify the rock magnetic fingerprint of wildfire. We use a custom-designed air furnace, a series of iron-free laboratory soils, natural saprolites and soils, and fuels from Arizona Ponderosa pine forests and grasslands to simulate wildfire in a controlled and monitored environment. Soil-ash residues and soil and fuel controls were then characterized using First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) patterns, DC backfield IRM coercivity spectra, low-temperature SIRM demagnetization behavior, and low-temperature cycling of room-temperature SIRM behavior. We will complement these magnetic analyses with high-resolution TEM of magnetic extracts. Here we summarize the systematic changes to sediment magnetism as pyrolitized organic matter is incorporated into artificial and natural soils. These

  9. A real-time Global Warming Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K; Allen, M R; Forster, P M; Otto, F E L; Mitchell, D M; Matthews, H D; Frame, D J

    2017-11-13

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change.

  10. Unmanned air vehicles - real time intelligence without the risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, James Bryan.

    1988-01-01

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are capable of supporting the officer in tactical command (OTC) by gathering intelligence in real- or near real-time. UAVs now under development will be able to collect high-resolution imagery, and thus provide the OTC with the option of gathering tactical intelligence without using manned reconnaissance platforms. This thesis asserts that UAVs should be used to supplement existing intelligence sensors, particularly in those cases where current sources are too amb...

  11. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  12. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  13. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  14. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  15. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  16. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  17. A Flexible Three-in-One Microsensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Internal Temperature, Voltage and Current of Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Peng, Huan-Chih; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Hung, I-Ming; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiou, Chuan-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Ming; Huang, Yen-Pu

    2015-05-19

    Lithium batteries are widely used in notebook computers, mobile phones, 3C electronic products, and electric vehicles. However, under a high charge/discharge rate, the internal temperature of lithium battery may rise sharply, thus causing safety problems. On the other hand, when the lithium battery is overcharged, the voltage and current may be affected, resulting in battery instability. This study applies the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology on a flexible substrate, and develops a flexible three-in-one microsensor that can withstand the internal harsh environment of a lithium battery and instantly measure the internal temperature, voltage and current of the battery. Then, the internal information can be fed back to the outside in advance for the purpose of safety management without damaging the lithium battery structure. The proposed flexible three-in-one microsensor should prove helpful for the improvement of lithium battery design or material development in the future.

  18. A Flexible Three-in-One Microsensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Internal Temperature, Voltage and Current of Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium batteries are widely used in notebook computers, mobile phones, 3C electronic products, and electric vehicles. However, under a high charge/discharge rate, the internal temperature of lithium battery may rise sharply, thus causing safety problems. On the other hand, when the lithium battery is overcharged, the voltage and current may be affected, resulting in battery instability. This study applies the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology on a flexible substrate, and develops a flexible three-in-one microsensor that can withstand the internal harsh environment of a lithium battery and instantly measure the internal temperature, voltage and current of the battery. Then, the internal information can be fed back to the outside in advance for the purpose of safety management without damaging the lithium battery structure. The proposed flexible three-in-one microsensor should prove helpful for the improvement of lithium battery design or material development in the future.

  19. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S

    2004-07-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to {radical}(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  20. Infrared surface temperature measurements for long pulse operation, and real time feedback control in Tore-Supra, an actively cooled Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, D.; Adjeroud, B.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Bertrand, B.; Bondil, J.L.; Desgranges, C.; Gauthier, E.; Lipa, M.; Messina, P.; Missirlian, M.; Mitteau, R.; Moulin, D.; Pocheau, C.; Portafaix, C.; Reichle, R.; Roche, H.; Saille, A.; Vallet, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tore-Supra has a steady-state magnetic field using super-conducting magnets and water-cooled plasma facing components for high performances long pulse plasma discharges. When not actively cooled, plasma-facing components can only accumulate a limited amount of energy since the temperature increase continuously (T proportional to √(t)) during the discharge until radiation cooling is equal to the incoming heat flux (T > 1800 K). Such an environment is found in most today Tokamaks. In the present paper we report the recent results of Tore-Supra, especially the design of the new generation of infrared endoscopes to measure the surface temperature of the plasma facing components. The Tore-Supra infrared thermography system is composed of 7 infrared endoscopes, this system is described in details in the paper, the new JET infrared thermography system is presented and some insights of the ITER set of visible/infrared endoscope is given. (authors)

  1. Preparation of High-Resolution Screen-printing Low-temperature Silver Paste%高分辨率丝印低温银浆的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸七四; 李文琳; 李章炜; 王珂

    2016-01-01

    The effects of solvent, resin, thixotropic agent and silver content on printing resolution of a low temperature silver paste were investigated. Resin, solvent and thixotropic agent had great influence on printing performance of the paste while silver content was directly related to the conductivity. The optimized formula of silver paste consisted of DBE (38.5%) as solvent, saturated polyester resin(10%) as vehicle, polyamide wax (0.5%) as thixotropic agent, and silver flake powder (51%) displayed a high printing resolution. The thixotropic index and viscosity of the paste were 26.8 and 36.5 Pa·s, respectively. After the paste was printed on PET, PC and ITO substrates with a line width of 100 µm in less than 10% broadening deviation on bothx andy direction, the sheet resistance was measured to be 12 mΩ/□, meeting the requirements for high resolution fine printing.%研究了有机载体中溶剂、树脂、触变剂和银粉含量对低温银浆印刷分辨率的影响。结果表明,不同载体的树脂、溶剂和触变剂对银浆的印刷性有很大影响,银粉的含量对浆料的电性能直接相关。优选的以二价酸酯(38.5%)为溶剂、饱和聚酯(10%)为载体、聚酰胺蜡(0.5%)为触变剂、片状银粉(51%)制备出的低温银浆印刷分辨率高。浆料性能如下:粘度为36.5 Pa·s、触变指数为26.8,在PET、PC、ITO等基材上,用于印刷线宽为100µm时,在x轴和y轴方向扩边率均小于10%,方阻12 mΩ/□,满足高分辨率精密印刷的要求。

  2. Real-time observation of growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases on a Sm-211 whisker substrate by high-temperature optical microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, J.L.; Huang, Y.B.; Cheng, L.; Yao, X.; Lai, Y.J.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), 898-902 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : high-temperature optical microscopy * growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases * Sm-211 whisker substrate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  3. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  4. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  5. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2014-05-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European (pre-alpine) water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were

  6. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  7. Low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-DIC system and its application in high-temperature deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yuxi; Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2018-05-01

    A low-cost, portable, robust and high-resolution single-camera stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) system for accurate surface three-dimensional (3D) shape and deformation measurements is described. This system adopts a single consumer-grade high-resolution digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera and a four-mirror adaptor, rather than two synchronized industrial digital cameras, for stereo image acquisition. In addition, monochromatic blue light illumination and coupled bandpass filter imaging are integrated to ensure the robustness of the system against ambient light variations. In contrast to conventional binocular stereo-DIC systems, the developed pseudo-stereo-DIC system offers the advantages of low cost, portability, robustness against ambient light variations, and high resolution. The accuracy and precision of the developed single SLR camera-based stereo-DIC system were validated by measuring the 3D shape of a stationary sphere along with in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a translated planar plate. Application of the established system to thermal deformation measurement of an alumina ceramic plate and a stainless-steel plate subjected to radiation heating was also demonstrated.

  8. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  9. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  10. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  11. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-B satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in real-time...

  12. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  13. Real-time observation of the dehydrogenation processes of methanol on clean Ru(001) and Ru(001)-p(2×2) O surfaces by a temperature-programmed electron-stimulated desorption ion angular distribution/time-of-flight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takehiko; Itai, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    1999-12-01

    Decomposition processes of methanol on clean and oxygen-precovered Ru(001) surfaces have been visualized in real time with a temperature-programmed (TP) electron-stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD)/time-of-flight (TOF) system. The mass of desorbed ions during temperature-programmed surface processes was identified by TOF measurements. In the case of methanol (CH 3OD) adsorption on Ru(001)-p(2×2)-O, a halo pattern of H + from the methyl group of methoxy species was observed at 100-200 K, followed by a broad pattern from the methyl group at 230-250 K and by a near-center pattern from O + ions originating from adsorbed CO above 300 K. The halo pattern is attributed to a perpendicular conformation of the CO bond axis of the methoxy species, leading to off-normal CH bond scission. On the other hand, methanol adsorbed on clean Ru(001) did not give any halo pattern but a broad pattern was observed along the surface normal, indicating that the conformation of the methoxy species is not ordered on the clean surface. Comparison between the ESDIAD images of the oxygen-precovered surface and the clean surface suggests that the precovered oxygen adatoms induce ordering of the methoxy species. Real-time ESDIAD measurements revealed that the oxygen atoms at the Ru(001)-p(2×2)-O surface have a positive effect on selective dehydrogenation of the methoxy species to CO+H 2 and a blocking effect on CO bond breaking of the methoxy species.

  14. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  15. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  16. Real time 3D photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  17. Toward real-time temperature monitoring in fat and aqueous tissue during magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound using a three-dimensional proton resonance frequency T1 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, Mahamadou; Odéen, Henrik; Todd, Nick; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L

    2014-07-01

    To present a three-dimensional (3D) segmented echoplanar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence implementation that provides simultaneously the proton resonance frequency shift temperature of aqueous tissue and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1 ) of fat during thermal ablation. The hybrid sequence was implemented by combining a 3D segmented flyback EPI sequence, the extended two-point Dixon fat and water separation, and the double flip angle T1 mapping techniques. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) heating experiments were performed at three different acoustic powers on excised human breast fat embedded in ex vivo porcine muscle. Furthermore, T1 calibrations with temperature in four different excised breast fat samples were performed, yielding an estimate of the average and variation of dT1 /dT across subjects. The water only images were used to mask the complex original data before computing the proton resonance frequency shift. T1 values were calculated from the fat-only images. The relative temperature coefficients were found in five fat tissue samples from different patients and ranged from 1.2% to 2.6%/°C. The results demonstrate the capability of real-time simultaneous temperature mapping in aqueous tissue and T1 mapping in fat during HIFU ablation, providing a potential tool for treatment monitoring in organs with large fat content, such as the breast. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diffraction-limited real-time terahertz imaging by optical frequency up-conversion in a DAST crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Takida, Yuma; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2015-03-23

    Real-time terahertz (THz) wave imaging has wide applications in areas such as security, industry, biology, medicine, pharmacy, and the arts. This report describes real-time room-temperature THz imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in an organic 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystal, with high resolution reaching the diffraction limit. THz-wave images were converted to the near infrared region and then captured using an InGaAs camera in a tandem imaging system. The resolution of the imaging system was analyzed. Diffraction and interference of THz wave were observed in the experiments. Videos are supplied to show the interference pattern variation that occurs with sample moving and tilting.

  19. Scalable Real-Time Negotiation Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Victor

    2004-01-01

    ... to implement an adaptive distributed sensor network. These activities involved the development of a distributed soft, real-time heuristic resource allocation protocol, the development of a domain-independent soft, real time agent architecture...

  20. Hard Real-Time Networking on Firewire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Orlic, Bojan; Visser, Peter; Broenink, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using standard, low-cost, widely used FireWire as a new generation fieldbus medium for real-time distributed control applications. A real-time software subsys- tem, RT-FireWire was designed that can, in combination with Linux-based real-time operating

  1. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  2. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential

  3. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  4. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The use of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and direct analysis real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) defines a new scenario in the analysis of thermal-induced toxicants, such as acrylamide. Several factors contribute to the definition of the

  5. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

    2004-12-10

    The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology

  6. The Danish real-time SAR processor: first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm; Netterstrøm, Anders

    1993-01-01

    A real-time processor (RTP) for the Danish airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been designed and constructed at the Electromagnetics Institute. The implementation was completed in mid 1992, and since then the RTP has been operated successfully on several test and demonstration flights....... The processor is capable of focusing the entire swath of the raw SAR data into full resolution, and depending on the choice made by the on-board operator, either a high resolution one-look zoom image or a spatially multilooked overview image is displayed. After a brief design review, the paper addresses various...

  7. Real Time Surface Registration for PET Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    to create point clouds representing parts of the patient's face. The movement is estimated by a rigid registration of the point clouds. The registration should be done using a robust algorithm that can handle partial overlap and ideally operate in real time. We present an optimized Iterative Closest Point......Head movement during high resolution Positron Emission Tomography brain studies causes blur and artifacts in the images. Therefore, attempts are being made to continuously monitor the pose of the head and correct for this movement. Specifically, our method uses a structured light scanner system...... algorithm that operates at 10 frames per second on partial human face surfaces. © 2011 Springer-Verlag....

  8. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  9. High-resolution melt-curve analysis of random-amplified-polymorphic-DNA markers, for the characterisation of pathogenic Leptospira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Craig, S B; Graham, G C

    2010-01-01

    A new test for pathogenic Leptospira isolates, based on RAPD-PCR and high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis (which measures the melting temperature of amplicons in real time, using a fluorescent DNA-binding dye), has recently been developed. A characteristic profile of the amplicons can be used...... typed against 13 previously published RAPD primers, using a real-time cycler (the Corbett Life Science RotorGene 6000) and the optimised reagents from a commercial kit (Quantace SensiMix). RAPD-HRM at specific temperatures generated defining amplicon melt profiles for each of the tested serovars....... These profiles were evaluated as difference-curve graphs generated using the RotorGene software package, with a cut-off of at least 8 'U' (plus or minus). The results demonstrated that RAPD-HRM can be used to measure serovar diversity and establish identity, with a high degree of stability. The characterisation...

  10. Impacts of spectral nudging on the simulated surface air temperature in summer compared with the selection of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics parameterization in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun; Hwang, Seung-On

    2017-11-01

    The impact of a spectral nudging technique for the dynamical downscaling of the summer surface air temperature in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model is assessed. The performance of this technique is measured by comparing 16 analysis-driven simulation sets of physical parameterization combinations of two shortwave radiation and four land surface model schemes of the model, which are known to be crucial for the simulation of the surface air temperature. It is found that the application of spectral nudging to the outermost domain has a greater impact on the regional climate than any combination of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics schemes. The optimal choice of two model physics parameterizations is helpful for obtaining more realistic spatiotemporal distributions of land surface variables such as the surface air temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes. However, employing spectral nudging adds more value to the results; the improvement is greater than using sophisticated shortwave radiation and land surface model physical parameterizations. This result indicates that spectral nudging applied to the outermost domain provides a more accurate lateral boundary condition to the innermost domain when forced by analysis data by securing the consistency with large-scale forcing over a regional domain. This consequently indirectly helps two physical parameterizations to produce small-scale features closer to the observed values, leading to a better representation of the surface air temperature in a high-resolution downscaled climate.

  11. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  12. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  13. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  14. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  15. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  16. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  17. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  18. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  19. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  20. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 01/03/2012 (NCEI Accession 0083185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted since 1999-10-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time current, wave, temperature, salinity, and meteorological data from Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) buoys, 11/30/2003 - 12/7/2003 (NODC Accession 0001259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) collected real-time data with buoy-mounted instruments (e.g., accelerometers and Acoustic Doppler Current...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/23/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001907)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the POLARSTERN in the Antarctic and South Atlantic in 1992 (NODC Accession 0000463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using plankton net, bottle, and CTD casts from the POLARSTERN in the Southern Oceans. Data were...

  6. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  7. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  8. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  9. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  10. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  11. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  12. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  13. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  14. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  15. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  16. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  17. High resolution vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity obtained by computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data from the ITCZ experiment of 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, E. F.; Hipskind, R. S.; Gaines, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer processing and digital filtering of radiosonde and radar tracking data obtained during the ITCZ experiment when coordinated measurements were taken daily over a 16 day period across the Panama Canal Zone. The temperature relative humidity and wind velocity profiles are discussed.

  18. Chemical structure changes in coals after low-temperature oxidation and demineralization by acid treatment as revealed by high resolution solid state 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekely, P.; Nicole, D.; Delpuech, J.-J.; Totino, E.; Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    13 C CP/MAS NMR has been used for characterization of chemical structure changes in coals after low-temperature oxidation and prolonged demineralization by acid treatment. In both cases the changes take place mainly in the aliphatic part of coal molecules. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Data Assimilation of the High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Obtained from the Aqua-Terra Satellites (MODIS-SST Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Waseda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop an assimilation method of high horizontal resolution sea surface temperature data, provided from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-SST sensors boarded on the Aqua and Terra satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, focusing on the reproducibility of the Kuroshio front variations south of Japan in February 2010. Major concerns associated with the development are (1 negative temperature bias due to the cloud effects, and (2 the representation of error covariance for detection of highly variable phenomena. We treat them by utilizing an advanced data assimilation method allowing use of spatiotemporally varying error covariance: the Local Ensemble Transformation Kalman Filter (LETKF. It is found that the quality control, by comparing the model forecast variable with the MODIS-SST data, is useful to remove the negative temperature bias and results in the mean negative bias within −0.4 °C. The additional assimilation of MODIS-SST enhances spatial variability of analysis SST over 50 km to 25 km scales. The ensemble spread variance is effectively utilized for excluding the erroneous temperature data from the assimilation process.

  20. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  1. A nonlinear multi-proxy model based on manifold learning to reconstruct water temperature from high resolution trace element profiles in biogenic carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bauwens

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A long standing problem in paleoceanography concerns the reconstruction of water temperature from δ18O carbonate. It is problematic in the case of freshwater influenced environments because the δ18O isotopic composition of the ambient water (related to salinity needs to be known. In this paper we argue for the use of a nonlinear multi-proxy method called Weight Determination by Manifold Regularization (WDMR to develop a temperature reconstruction model that is less sensitive to salinity variations. The motivation for using this type of model is twofold: firstly, observed nonlinear relations between specific proxies and water temperature motivate the use of nonlinear models. Secondly, the use of multi-proxy models enables salinity related variations of a given temperature proxy to be explained by salinity-related information carried by a separate proxy. Our findings confirm that Mg/Ca is a powerful paleothermometer and highlight that reconstruction performance based on this proxy is improved significantly by combining its information with the information for other trace elements in multi-proxy models. Although the models presented here are black-box models that do not use any prior knowledge about the proxies, the comparison of model reconstruction performances based on different proxy combinations do yield useful information about proxy characteristics. Using Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Pb/Ca the WDMR model enables a temperature reconstruction with a root mean squared error of ± 2.19 °C for a salinity range between 15 and 32.

  2. MARTe: A Multiplatform Real-Time Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, André C.; Sartori, Filippo; Piccolo, Fabio; Vitelli, Riccardo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Zabeo, Luca; Barbalace, Antonio; Fernandes, Horacio; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Batista, Antonio J. N.

    2010-04-01

    Development of real-time applications is usually associated with nonportable code targeted at specific real-time operating systems. The boundary between hardware drivers, system services, and user code is commonly not well defined, making the development in the target host significantly difficult. The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a framework built over a multiplatform library that allows the execution of the same code in different operating systems. The framework provides the high-level interfaces with hardware, external configuration programs, and user interfaces, assuring at the same time hard real-time performances. End-users of the framework are required to define and implement algorithms inside a well-defined block of software, named Generic Application Module (GAM), that is executed by the real-time scheduler. Each GAM is reconfigurable with a set of predefined configuration meta-parameters and interchanges information using a set of data pipes that are provided as inputs and required as output. Using these connections, different GAMs can be chained either in series or parallel. GAMs can be developed and debugged in a non-real-time system and, only once the robustness of the code and correctness of the algorithm are verified, deployed to the real-time system. The software also supplies a large set of utilities that greatly ease the interaction and debugging of a running system. Among the most useful are a highly efficient real-time logger, HTTP introspection of real-time objects, and HTTP remote configuration. MARTe is currently being used to successfully drive the plasma vertical stabilization controller on the largest magnetic confinement fusion device in the world, with a control loop cycle of 50 ?s and a jitter under 1 ?s. In this particular project, MARTe is used with the Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI)/Linux operating system exploiting the new ?86 multicore processors technology.

  3. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Shaqura, Mohammad; Claudel, Christian G.; Gueaieb, Wail

    2013-01-01

    with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters

  4. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation II: Real-time Online earthquake Simulation (ROS) of Taiwan earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2014-06-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 min after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). A new island-wide, high resolution SEM mesh model is developed for the whole Taiwan in this study. We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 min for a 70 s ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  5. Evaluation of the the temperature and humidity effect in the Atrazine degradation in the Saldana soil (Tolima) for liquid chromatography of high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Buitrago Baudilio; Guerrero Jairo A; Lozano Amanda; Fuentes Cilia

    2000-01-01

    In this study was designed an experiment under laboratory conditions with temperature and soil moisture controlled. The effect of these two factors was evaluated in atrazine degradation in silty loam soil, pH 6.23 (1:1 w), and 1.48% organic carbon. The extraction process of AT and deetilatrazine (DEA), and deisopropilatrazine (DIA) metabolites of the soil was carried out with methanol followed by a clean up with dichloromethane-buffer phosphate pH 10,0.01 M. Separation and quantification of the compounds was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soil moisture was not a significant factor in atrazine degradation process, while the temperature was the factor that regulates the herbicide degradation. Atrazine degradation at 30oC was faster than at 20o C. DIA and DEA metabolites were not detected in any soil field samples

  6. Deriving temperature, mass, and age of evolved stars from high-resolution spectra. Application to field stars and the open cluster IC 4651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Pasquini, L.; Girardi, L.; Frasca, A.; da Silva, L.; Setiawan, J.; Marilli, E.; Hatzes, A. P.; Catalano, S.

    2007-12-01

    Aims:We test our capability of deriving stellar physical parameters of giant stars by analysing a sample of field stars and the well studied open cluster IC 4651 with different spectroscopic methods. Methods: The use of a technique based on line-depth ratios (LDRs) allows us to determine with high precision the effective temperature of the stars and to compare the results with those obtained with a classical LTE abundance analysis. Results: (i) For the field stars we find that the temperatures derived by means of the LDR method are in excellent agreement with those found by the spectral synthesis. This result is extremely encouraging because it shows that spectra can be used to firmly derive population characteristics (e.g., mass and age) of the observed stars. (ii) For the IC 4651 stars we use the determined effective temperature to derive the following results. a) The reddening E(B-V) of the cluster is 0.12±0.02, largely independent of the color-temperature calibration used. b) The age of the cluster is 1.2±0.2 Gyr. c) The typical mass of the analysed giant stars is 2.0±0.2~M⊙. Moreover, we find a systematic difference of about 0.2 dex in log g between spectroscopic and evolutionary values. Conclusions: We conclude that, in spite of known limitations, a classical spectroscopic analysis of giant stars may indeed result in very reliable stellar parameters. We caution that the quality of the agreement, on the other hand, depends on the details of the adopted spectroscopic analysis. Based on observations collected at the ESO telescopes at the Paranal and La Silla Observatories, Chile.

  7. A Real Time Investigation of Morphological Evolution During Solidification of Different Alloy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification phenomenon which occur at the solid/liquid (s/I) interface play a major role in the determination of structure and hence the technologically important properties of a casting. However, metals being opaque, conclusions related to several important phenomenon such as boundary layer thickness, morphological evolution, and eutectic and cell spacing are deduced from quenching experiments and subsequent post solidification metallographic analysis. Consequently, limited information is obtained about the dynamics of the process. This paper will discuss the recent efforts at the Space Science Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, to view and quantify in-situ and in real time the dynamics of the solidification process and to measure interfacial undercooling. First, a high resolution x-ray transmission microscope (XTM) has been developed to monitor fundamental interfacial phenomena during directional solidification of metals and alloys. The XTM operates in the range of 10-100 KeV and through projection is capable of achieving magnification of up to 16OX. Secondly, an innovative collapsible furnace has been designed to quantify interfacial undercooling by measuring the temperature of a moving s/I interface in reference to a fixed s/l interface. This measurement technique is non-intrusive in nature and is based on the Seebeck principle. In this paper real time results obtained to characterize the dynamics of irregular eutectic spacing will be presented. As an example fiber to lamella or plate transition in the Al-Al2Au eutectic system will be discussed. Further, a resolution limit of 25 micron has permitted viewing in real time morphological instability and cellular growth in Al-Au and Al-Ag systems. Simultaneously, a systematic investigation has been carried out to measure interfacial undercooling for Pb-1 wt.% Sn at and near the marginal stability regime. In conjunction with the XTM observations this study attempts to validate existing relationships

  8. Low-temperature binding of NO adsorbed on MIL-100(Al)-A case study for the application of high resolution pulsed EPR methods and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendt, Matthias; Barth, Benjamin; Hartmann, Martin; Pöppl, Andreas

    2017-12-14

    The low-temperature binding of nitric oxide (NO) in the metal-organic framework MIL-100(Al) has been investigated by pulsed electron nuclear double resonance and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy. Three NO adsorption species have been identified. Among them, one species has been verified experimentally to bind directly to an 27 Al atom and all its relevant 14 N and 27 Al hyperfine interaction parameters have been determined spectroscopically. Those parameters fit well to the calculated ones of a theoretical cluster model, which was derived by density functional theory (DFT) in the present work and describes the low temperature binding of NO to the regular coordinatively unsaturated Al 3+ site of the MIL-100(Al) structure. As a result, the Lewis acidity of that site has been characterized using the NO molecule as an electron paramagnetic resonance active probe. The DFT derived wave function analysis revealed a bent end-on coordination of the NO molecule adsorbed at that site which is almost purely ionic and has a weak binding energy. The calculated flat potential energy surface of this species indicates the ability of the NO molecule to freely rotate at intermediate temperatures while it is still binding to the Al 3+ site. For the other two NO adsorption species, no structural models could be derived, but one of them is indicated to be adsorbed at the organic part of the metal-organic framework. Hyperfine interactions with protons, weakly coupled to the observed NO adsorption species, have also been measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance and found to be consistent with their attribution to protons of the MIL-100(Al) benzenetricarboxylate ligand molecules.

  9. Low-temperature binding of NO adsorbed on MIL-100(Al)—A case study for the application of high resolution pulsed EPR methods and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendt, Matthias; Barth, Benjamin; Hartmann, Martin; Pöppl, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature binding of nitric oxide (NO) in the metal-organic framework MIL-100(Al) has been investigated by pulsed electron nuclear double resonance and hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy. Three NO adsorption species have been identified. Among them, one species has been verified experimentally to bind directly to an 27Al atom and all its relevant 14N and 27Al hyperfine interaction parameters have been determined spectroscopically. Those parameters fit well to the calculated ones of a theoretical cluster model, which was derived by density functional theory (DFT) in the present work and describes the low temperature binding of NO to the regular coordinatively unsaturated Al3+ site of the MIL-100(Al) structure. As a result, the Lewis acidity of that site has been characterized using the NO molecule as an electron paramagnetic resonance active probe. The DFT derived wave function analysis revealed a bent end-on coordination of the NO molecule adsorbed at that site which is almost purely ionic and has a weak binding energy. The calculated flat potential energy surface of this species indicates the ability of the NO molecule to freely rotate at intermediate temperatures while it is still binding to the Al3+ site. For the other two NO adsorption species, no structural models could be derived, but one of them is indicated to be adsorbed at the organic part of the metal-organic framework. Hyperfine interactions with protons, weakly coupled to the observed NO adsorption species, have also been measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance and found to be consistent with their attribution to protons of the MIL-100(Al) benzenetricarboxylate ligand molecules.

  10. Research of real-time communication software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  11. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  12. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs

  13. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  14. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  15. Real-time Cure Monitoring of Composites Using a Guided wave-based System with High Temperature Piezoelectric Transducers, Fiber Bragg Gratings, and Phase-shifted Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tyler Blake

    -FBG throughout the cure cycle. Also, the residual strain can be readily determined at the end of the cure. This system demonstrated a real-time, in-situ, cure monitoring system using embedded multiplexed FBG/PS-FBG sensors to record both guided wave-based signals and strain. The distinct advantages of a fiber optic-based system include multiplexing, small size, embedding, utilization in harsh environments, electrically passive operation, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. The embedded multiplexed FBG/PS-FBG fiber optic sensor can monitor the entire life-cycle of the composite structure from curing, post-cure/assembly, and in-service for creating "smart structures".

  16. Very high resolution detection of gamma radiation at room-temperature using P-I-N detectors of CdZnTe and HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. J.; Rhiger, D. R.; Sen, S.; Kalisher, M. H.; James, K.; Reid, C. P.; Gerrish, V.; Baccash, C. O.

    1994-08-01

    High-energy photon detectors have been constructed by engineering and fabricating p-i-n diode structures consisting of bulk CdZnTe and epitaxial HgCdTe. The p-i-n structure was obtained by liquid-phase epitaxial growth of p and n doped HgCdTe layers on 'intrinsic' CdZnTe material about 1mm thick and approximately 25mm square. Curve tracing shows I-V curves with diode characteristics having resistivity above 1011 Omega -cm and leakage current of less than 400 pA to about - 60V reverse bias on a typical test piece approximately 5 x 8 x 1 mm. Spectra of similar test pieces have been obtained at room temperature with various nuclear isotopic sources over the range of 22 keV to 662 keV which show exceptionally high energy resolution. Resolution as good as 1.82% FWHM was obtained for the 356 keV line of 133Ba with a P/V = 3.4. The performance of these detectors combined with contemporary infrared technology capable of fabricating 2D arrays of these II-VI materials opens up manifold exciting applications in astrophysics, medical, industrial, environmental, and defense spectroscopy and imaging.

  17. Power minimisation for real-time dataflow applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Andrew; Moreira, O.; Molnos, A.M.; Stuijk, S.; Nguyen, B.T.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Kitsos, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficient execution of applications is important for many reasons, e.g. time between battery charges, device temperature. Voltage and Frequency Scaling (VFS) enables applications to be run at lower frequencies on hardware resources thereby consuming less power. Real-time applications have

  18. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  19. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  20. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  1. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M; Guénon, S; Lever, F; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4 He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO 3 . The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  2. A high-resolution combined scanning laser and widefield polarizing microscope for imaging at temperatures from 4 K to 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M.; Guénon, S.; Lever, F.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.

    2017-12-01

    Polarized light microscopy, as a contrast-enhancing technique for optically anisotropic materials, is a method well suited for the investigation of a wide variety of effects in solid-state physics, as, for example, birefringence in crystals or the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). We present a microscopy setup that combines a widefield microscope and a confocal scanning laser microscope with polarization-sensitive detectors. By using a high numerical aperture objective, a spatial resolution of about 240 nm at a wavelength of 405 nm is achieved. The sample is mounted on a 4He continuous flow cryostat providing a temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, and electromagnets are used to apply magnetic fields of up to 800 mT with variable in-plane orientation and 20 mT with out-of-plane orientation. Typical applications of the polarizing microscope are the imaging of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization via the longitudinal and polar MOKE, imaging of magnetic flux structures in superconductors covered with a magneto-optical indicator film via the Faraday effect, or imaging of structural features, such as twin-walls in tetragonal SrTiO3. The scanning laser microscope furthermore offers the possibility to gain local information on electric transport properties of a sample by detecting the beam-induced voltage change across a current-biased sample. This combination of magnetic, structural, and electric imaging capabilities makes the microscope a viable tool for research in the fields of oxide electronics, spintronics, magnetism, and superconductivity.

  3. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  4. Real time monitoring of electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Kneeland, D.R.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    A real time radiation monitor (RTRM) has been developed for monitoring the dose rate (current density) of electron beam processors. The system provides continuous monitoring of processor output, electron beam uniformity, and an independent measure of operating voltage or electron energy. In view of the device's ability to replace labor-intensive dosimetry in verification of machine performance on a real-time basis, its application to providing archival performance data for in-line processing is discussed. (author)

  5. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High-Resolution P'P' Precursor Imaging of Nazca-South America Plate Boundary Zones and Inferences for Transition Zone Temperature and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of upper mantle transition zone stratification and composition is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract and properly interpret small seismic arrivals. A promising high-frequency seismic phase group particularly suitable for a global analysis is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of approximately 5 and 200 km, respectively, owing to their shallow incidence angle and small, quasi-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a simultaneous analysis of SS and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, Radon transform and depth migration. Our multi-resolution survey of the mantle near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveals both olivine and garnet related transitions at depth below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, especially near the plate boundary zone where anomalously high reflection amplitudes result from a sharp (~10 km thick) mineral phase change resonant with the dominant frequency of the P'P' precursors. Near the base of the upper mantle, the migration of SS precursors shows no evidence of split reflections near the 660-km discontinuity, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. At nominal mantle temperatures these two phase changes may be seismically indistinguishable, but colder mantle conditions from the descending Nazca plate, the presence of water and variable Fe contents may cause sufficient separation for a reliable analysis. In addition, our preliminary results provide compelling evidence for multiple shallow lower-mantle reflections (at ~800 km) along the

  7. Benefits of real-time gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolty, R.; Dolezalek, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In today's competitive gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation business environment, the requirements to do business are continually changing. These changes arise from government regulations such as the amendments to the Clean Air Act concerning the environment and FERC Order 636 concerning business practices. Other changes are due to advances in technology such as electronic flow measurement (EFM) and real-time communications capabilities within the gas industry. Gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation companies must be flexible in adapting to these changes to remain competitive. These dynamic requirements can be met with an open, real-time gas management computer information system. Such a system provides flexible services with a variety of software applications. Allocations, nominations management and gas dispatching are examples of applications that are provided on a real-time basis. By providing real-time services, the gas management system enables operations personnel to make timely adjustments within the current accounting period. Benefits realized from implementing a real-time gas management system include reduced unaccountable gas, reduced imbalance penalties, reduced regulatory violations, improved facility operations and better service to customers. These benefits give a company the competitive edge. This article discusses the applications provided, the benefits from implementing a real-time gas management system, and the definition of such a system

  8. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  9. Detection of a weak meddy-like anomaly from high-resolution satellite SST maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Emelianov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable impact of meddies on climate through the long-distance transport of properties, a consistent observation of meddy generation and propagation in the ocean is rather elusive. Meddies propagate at about 1000 m below the ocean surface, so satellite sensors are not able to detect them directly and finding them in the open ocean is more fortuitous than intentional. However, a consistent census of meddies and their paths is required in order to gain knowledge about their role in transporting properties such as heat and salt. In this paper we propose a new methodology for processing high-resolution sea surface temperature maps in order to detect meddy-like anomalies in the open ocean on a near-real-time basis. We present an example of detection, involving an atypical meddy-like anomaly that was confirmed as such by in situ measurements.

  10. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  11. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  12. Structural analysis of GaN using high-resolution X-ray diffraction at variable temperatures; Analyse struktureller Eigenschaften von GaN mittels hochaufloesender Roentgenbeugung bei variabler Messtemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roder, C.

    2007-02-26

    The main topic of this thesis was the study of stress phenomena in GaN layers by application of high-resolution X-ray diffractometry at variable measurement temperature. For this a broad spectrum of different GaN samples was studied, which extended from bulk GaN crystals as well as thick c-plane oriented HVPE-GaN layers on c-plane sapphire over laterlaly overgrown c-plane GaN Layers on Si(111) substrates toon-polar a-plnae GaN layers on r-plane sapphire. The main topic of the measurements was the determination of the lattice parameters. Supplementarily the curvature of the waver as well as the excitonic resosance energies were studied by means of photoluminescence respectively photoreflection spectroscopy. By the measurement of the temperature-dependent lattice parameters of different GaN bulk crystals for the first time a closed set of thermal-expansion coefficients of GaN was determined from 12 to 1205 K with large accuracy. Analoguously the thermal-expansion coefficents of the substrate material sapphire were determinde over a temperature range from 10 to 1166 K.

  13. Toward real-time regional earthquake simulation of Taiwan earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a Real-time Online earthquake Simulation system (ROS) to simulate regional earthquakes in Taiwan. The ROS uses a centroid moment tensor solution of seismic events from a Real-time Moment Tensor monitoring system (RMT), which provides all the point source parameters including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism within 2 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. Then, all of the source parameters are automatically forwarded to the ROS to perform an earthquake simulation, which is based on a spectral-element method (SEM). We have improved SEM mesh quality by introducing a thin high-resolution mesh layer near the surface to accommodate steep and rapidly varying topography. The mesh for the shallow sedimentary basin is adjusted to reflect its complex geometry and sharp lateral velocity contrasts. The grid resolution at the surface is about 545 m, which is sufficient to resolve topography and tomography data for simulations accurate up to 1.0 Hz. The ROS is also an infrastructural service, making online earthquake simulation feasible. Users can conduct their own earthquake simulation by providing a set of source parameters through the ROS webpage. For visualization, a ShakeMovie and ShakeMap are produced during the simulation. The time needed for one event is roughly 3 minutes for a 70 sec ground motion simulation. The ROS is operated online at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (http://ros.earth.sinica.edu.tw/). Our long-term goal for the ROS system is to contribute to public earth science outreach and to realize seismic ground motion prediction in real-time.

  14. Testing of real-time-software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesland, G.; Ovenhausen, H.

    1975-05-01

    The situation in the area of testing real-time-software is unsatisfactory. During the first phase of the project PROMOTE (prozessorientiertes Modul- und Gesamttestsystem) an analysis of the momentary situation took place, results of which are summarized in the following study about some user interviews and an analysis of relevant literature. 22 users (industry, software-houses, hardware-manufacturers, and institutes) have been interviewed. Discussions were held about reliability of real-time software with special interest to error avoidance, testing, and debugging. Main aims of the analysis of the literature were elaboration of standard terms, comparison of existing test methods and -systems, and the definition of boundaries to related areas. During the further steps of this project some means and techniques will be worked out to systematically test real-time software. (orig.) [de

  15. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  16. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  17. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  19. Real Time Linux - The RTOS for Astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P. N.

    The BoF was attended by about 30 participants and a free CD of real time Linux-based upon RedHat 5.2-was available. There was a detailed presentation on the nature of real time Linux and the variants for hard real time: New Mexico Tech's RTL and DIAPM's RTAI. Comparison tables between standard Linux and real time Linux responses to time interval generation and interrupt response latency were presented (see elsewhere in these proceedings). The present recommendations are to use RTL for UP machines running the 2.0.x kernels and RTAI for SMP machines running the 2.2.x kernel. Support, both academically and commercially, is available. Some known limitations were presented and the solutions reported e.g., debugging and hardware support. The features of RTAI (scheduler, fifos, shared memory, semaphores, message queues and RPCs) were described. Typical performance statistics were presented: Pentium-based oneshot tasks running > 30kHz, 486-based oneshot tasks running at ~ 10 kHz, periodic timer tasks running in excess of 90 kHz with average zero jitter peaking to ~ 13 mus (UP) and ~ 30 mus (SMP). Some detail on kernel module programming, including coding examples, were presented showing a typical data acquisition system generating simulated (random) data writing to a shared memory buffer and a fifo buffer to communicate between real time Linux and user space. All coding examples were complete and tested under RTAI v0.6 and the 2.2.12 kernel. Finally, arguments were raised in support of real time Linux: it's open source, free under GPL, enables rapid prototyping, has good support and the ability to have a fully functioning workstation capable of co-existing hard real time performance. The counter weight-the negatives-of lack of platforms (x86 and PowerPC only at present), lack of board support, promiscuous root access and the danger of ignorance of real time programming issues were also discussed. See ftp://orion.tuc.noao.edu/pub/pnd/rtlbof.tgz for the StarOffice overheads

  20. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  1. Replacing OSE with Real Time capable Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Simon; Rutgersson, Olof

    2009-01-01

    For many years OSE has been a common used operating system, with real time extensions enhancements, in embed-ded systems. But in the last decades, Linux has grown and became a competitor to common operating systems and, in recent years, even as an operating system with real time extensions. With this in mind, ÅF was interested in replacing the quite expensive OSE with some distribution of the open source based Linux on a PowerPC MPC8360. Therefore, our purpose with thesis is to implement Linu...

  2. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  3. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  4. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  5. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  6. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  7. Automated real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  8. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  9. Study of the feasibility of a compact gamma camera for real-time cancer assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero Ontanaya, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Results from the simulations of a Compton gamma camera based on compact configuration of detectors consisting in two detection modules, each of them having two stages of high-resolution position- and energy sensitive radiation detectors operated in time-coincidence are presented. Monolithic scintillation crystals instead of pixelated crystals in order to reduce dead areas have been simulated. In order to study the system feasibility to produce real-time images, different setups are considered. Performance in terms of acquisition times have been calculated to determine the real-time capabilities and limitations of such a system.

  10. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  11. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  12. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  13. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  14. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...

  15. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop...

  16. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  17. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off...

  18. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  20. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  1. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  2. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  3. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  4. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  5. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  6. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  7. Composing Synchronisation and Real-Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    There have been a number of publications illustrating the successes of object-oriented techniques in creating highly reusable software systems. Several concurrent languages have been proposed for specifying reusable synchronization specifications. Recently, a number of real-time object-oriented

  8. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  9. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  10. Growth of an Ultrathin Zirconia Film on Pt3Zr Examined by High-Resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Temperature-Programmed Desorption, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Choi, Joong-Il Jake; Mayr-Schmölzer, Wernfried; Weilach, Christian; Rameshan, Christoph; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef; Schmid, Michael; Rupprechter, Günther

    2015-02-05

    Ultrathin (∼3 Å) zirconium oxide films were grown on a single-crystalline Pt 3 Zr(0001) substrate by oxidation in 1 × 10 -7 mbar of O 2 at 673 K, followed by annealing at temperatures up to 1023 K. The ZrO 2 films are intended to serve as model supports for reforming catalysts and fuel cell anodes. The atomic and electronic structure and composition of the ZrO 2 films were determined by synchrotron-based high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) (including depth profiling), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oxidation mainly leads to ultrathin trilayer (O-Zr-O) films on the alloy; only a small area fraction (10-15%) is covered by ZrO 2 clusters (thickness ∼0.5-10 nm). The amount of clusters decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO was utilized to confirm complete coverage of the Pt 3 Zr substrate by ZrO 2 , that is, formation of a closed oxide overlayer. Experiments and DFT calculations show that the core level shifts of Zr in the trilayer ZrO 2 films are between those of metallic Zr and thick (bulklike) ZrO 2 . Therefore, the assignment of such XPS core level shifts to substoichiometric ZrO x is not necessarily correct, because these XPS signals may equally well arise from ultrathin ZrO 2 films or metal/ZrO 2 interfaces. Furthermore, our results indicate that the common approach of calculating core level shifts by DFT including final-state effects should be taken with care for thicker insulating films, clusters, and bulk insulators.

  11. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  12. Modeling fire behavior on tropical islands with high-resolution weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benoit; Francis M. Fujioka; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we consider fire behavior simulation in tropical island scenarios such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The development of a system to provide real-time fire behavior prediction in Hawaii is discussed. This involves obtaining fuels and topography information at a fine scale, as well as supplying daily high-resolution weather forecast data for the area of...

  13. Machine vision-based high-resolution weed mapping and patch-sprayer performance simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, L.; Tian, L.F.; Steward, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental machine vision-based patch-sprayer was developed. This sprayer was primarily designed to do real-time weed density estimation and variable herbicide application rate control. However, the sprayer also had the capability to do high-resolution weed mapping if proper mapping techniques

  14. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Howard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H...H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  15. REAL-TIME VIDEO SCALING BASED ON CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    S Safinaz; A V Ravi Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames t...

  16. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  17. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  18. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  19. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  20. Real-time sonography in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1978-03-01

    Three hundred fifty real-time scans were performed on pregnant women for various indications. Placental localization was satisfactorily obtained in 173 of 174 studies. Estimates of fetal gestation from directly measured biparietal diameter were +/-2 weeks of actual gestation in 153 of 172 (88.9%) measurements. The presence or absence of fetal motion and cardiac activity established a diagnosis of fetal viability or fetal death in 32 patients after the first trimester. Accurate diagnosis was made in 52 of 57 patients with threatened abortions, and two of these errors occurred in scans performed before completion of the eighth postmenstrual week. Because of the ability to demonstrate fetal motion, real-time sonography should have many applications in obstetrics.

  1. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  2. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-02-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  3. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made......, increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...... several aspects of real time structured light systems and presents contributions within calibration, scene coding and motion correction aspects. The problem of reliable and fast calibration of such systems is addressed with a novel calibration scheme utilising radial basis functions [Contribution B...

  4. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  5. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  6. Real-time high-resolution PC-based system for measurement of errors on compact disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Babak; Howe, Dennis G.

    1994-10-01

    Hardware and software utilities are developed to directly monitor the Eight-to-Fourteen (EFM) demodulated data bytes at the input of a CD player's Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) block decoder. The hardware is capable of identifying erroneous data with single-byte resolution in the serial data stream read from a Compact Disc by a CDD 461 Philips CD-ROM drive. In addition, the system produces graphical maps that show the physical location of the measured errors on the entire disc, or via a zooming and planning feature, on user selectable local disc regions.

  7. High-resolution real-time optical studies of radiological air sample filtration processes in an environmental continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Schery, Stephen D.; Alcantara, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    The need for a continuous air monitor capable of quick and accurate measurements of airborne radioactivity in close proximity to the work environment during waste management, site restoration, and D&D operations led to the Los Alamos National Laboratory development of an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM). Monitoring the hostile work environment of waste recovery, for example, presents unique challenges for detector design for detectors previously used for the clean room conditions of the typical plutonium laboratory. The environmental and atmospheric conditions (dust, high wind, etc.) influence aerosol particle penetration into the ECAM sampling head as well as the build-up of deposits on the ECAM filter.

  8. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    petroleum hydrocarbon fuels due to higher densities, lower viscosities , and increased weathering (mass depletion) of residual chlorinated solvent DNAPL...generally classified as stratified layers of fine sand and silt with few clay layers. A silt layer was penetrated consistently at a depth of about 45...e.g., stiff clays ) there is potential for the thickness of the dye interaction zone to increase to approximately 1-2 mm. Intuition suggests that this

  9. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High-Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    due to higher densities, lower viscosities , and increased weathering (mass depletion) of residual chlorinated solvent DNAPL compared to those other...demonstration area can be generally classified as stratified layers of fine sand and silt with few clay layers. A silt layer was penetrated consistently at...toxic and carcinogenic. Another potential issue evaluated was that in plastic soils (stiff clays for example) there is potential for the thickness of

  10. Real-time interactive treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient’s treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ∼2–20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. ‘drag’ a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ∼1–5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. (paper)

  11. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  12. Probabilistic real-time contingency ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic, N.A.; Stojnic, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time contingency method based on a probabilistic index-expected energy not supplied. This way it is possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the electric power system equipment outages. This approach enables more comprehensive ranking of contingencies and it is possible to form reliability cost values that can form the basis for hourly spot price calculations. The electric power system of Serbia is used as an example for the method proposed. (author)

  13. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  14. Real-time controller for hydrostatic transmission

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M. Ing. (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) This dissertation describes the development of a modular real-time controller implemented on a personal computer for a hydrostatically driven vehicle. In such a vehicle the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced with a hydrostatic pump and two hydrostatic motors, making use of the secondary control principle. The infinitely variable transmission and wheel pair controller gives the vehicle superior traction and mobility over conventi...

  15. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  16. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  17. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  18. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  19. Real-time multiple image manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, J.S.; Shalev, S.; Legris, J.; Goertzen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    There are many situations in which it is desired to manipulate two or more images under real-time operator control. The authors have investigated a number of such cases in order to determine their value and applicability in clinical medicine and laboratory research. Several examples are presented in detail. The DICOM-8 video image computer system was used due to its capability of storing two 512 x 512 x 8 bit images and operating on them, and/or an incoming video frame, with any of a number of real time operations including addition, subtraction, inversion, averaging, logical AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR and XNOR, as well as combinations of these. Some applications involve manipulations of or among the stored images. In others, a stored image is used as a mask or template for positioning or adjusting a second image to be grabbed via a video camera. The accuracy of radiotherapy treatment is verified by comparing port films with the original radiographic planning film, which is previously digitized and stored. Moving the port film on the light box while viewing the real-time subtraction image allows for adjustments of zoom, translation and rotation, together with contrast and edge enhancement

  20. Real-time video quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Narvekar, Niranjan; Wang, Beibei; Ding, Ran; Zou, Dekun; Cash, Glenn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Bloom, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    The ITU-T Recommendation G.1070 is a standardized opinion model for video telephony applications that uses video bitrate, frame rate, and packet-loss rate to measure the video quality. However, this model was original designed as an offline quality planning tool. It cannot be directly used for quality monitoring since the above three input parameters are not readily available within a network or at the decoder. And there is a great room for the performance improvement of this quality metric. In this article, we present a real-time video quality monitoring solution based on this Recommendation. We first propose a scheme to efficiently estimate the three parameters from video bitstreams, so that it can be used as a real-time video quality monitoring tool. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm based on the G.1070 model that provides more accurate quality prediction is proposed. Finally, to use this metric in real-world applications, we present an example emerging application of real-time quality measurement to the management of transmitted videos, especially those delivered to mobile devices.

  1. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  2. The Raptor Real-Time Processing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, M.; Starr, D.; Wozniak, P.; Brozdin, K.

    The primary goal of Raptor is ambitious: to identify interesting optical transients from very wide field of view telescopes in real time, and then to quickly point the higher resolution Raptor ``fovea'' cameras and spectrometer to the location of the optical transient. The most interesting of Raptor's many applications is the real-time search for orphan optical counterparts of Gamma Ray Bursts. The sequence of steps (data acquisition, basic calibration, source extraction, astrometry, relative photometry, the smarts of transient identification and elimination of false positives, telescope pointing feedback, etc.) is implemented with a ``component'' approach. All basic elements of the pipeline functionality have been written from scratch or adapted (as in the case of SExtractor for source extraction) to form a consistent modern API operating on memory resident images and source lists. The result is a pipeline which meets our real-time requirements and which can easily operate as a monolithic or distributed processing system. Finally, the Raptor architecture is entirely based on free software (sometimes referred to as ``open source'' software). In this paper we also discuss the interplay between various free software technologies in this type of astronomical problem.

  3. Tuning Linux to meet real time requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Richard S.; Le, Dang N.

    2007-04-01

    There is a desire to use Linux in military systems. Customers are requesting contractors to use open source to the maximal possible extent in contracts. Linux is probably the best operating system of choice to meet this need. It is widely used. It is free. It is royalty free, and, best of all, it is completely open source. However, there is a problem. Linux was not originally built to be a real time operating system. There are many places where interrupts can and will be blocked for an indeterminate amount of time. There have been several attempts to bridge this gap. One of them is from RTLinux, which attempts to build a microkernel underneath Linux. The microkernel will handle all interrupts and then pass it up to the Linux operating system. This does insure good interrupt latency; however, it is not free [1]. Another is RTAI, which provides a similar typed interface; however, the PowerPC platform, which is used widely in real time embedded community, was stated as "recovering" [2]. Thus this is not suited for military usage. This paper provides a method for tuning a standard Linux kernel so it can meet the real time requirement of an embedded system.

  4. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  5. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  6. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  7. A near real-time satellite-based global drought climate data record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Reliable drought monitoring requires long-term and continuous precipitation data. High resolution satellite measurements provide valuable precipitation information on a quasi-global scale. However, their short lengths of records limit their applications in drought monitoring. In addition to this limitation, long-term low resolution satellite-based gauge-adjusted data sets such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one are not available in near real-time form for timely drought monitoring. This study bridges the gap between low resolution long-term satellite gauge-adjusted data and the emerging high resolution satellite precipitation data sets to create a long-term climate data record of droughts. To accomplish this, a Bayesian correction algorithm is used to combine GPCP data with real-time satellite precipitation data sets for drought monitoring and analysis. The results showed that the combined data sets after the Bayesian correction were a significant improvement compared to the uncorrected data. Furthermore, several recent major droughts such as the 2011 Texas, 2010 Amazon and 2010 Horn of Africa droughts were detected in the combined real-time and long-term satellite observations. This highlights the potential application of satellite precipitation data for regional to global drought monitoring. The final product is a real-time data-driven satellite-based standardized precipitation index that can be used for drought monitoring especially over remote and/or ungauged regions. (letter)

  8. Evaluation of real time ultrasonography of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Ko, Y. T.; Kim, S. Y.; Ahn, C. Y.

    1981-01-01

    91 cases who were free of pancreatic disease and the related conditions, were studied by high resolution and wide field real time ultrasonographic scanner with 3.5 MHz linear array electronically focusing transducers. The pancreatic examination method and the anatomic structures in and around the pancreas were investigated, and the normal pancreatic findings by real time ultrasonography were as follows: 1. Among all 91 cases, 44 cases were male and 47 cases female, and the frequent age groups were the 4th to the sixth decade. 2. The pancreatic images were obtained in 86% and the good images in 65%. 3. The shapes of pancreas were sausage (40%), dumb-bell (34%), tadpole (9%), and club (17%). 4. Pancreatic size was 1.56 ± 0.37, 2.4, 0.8 cm (Mean ± SD, Max., Min.) in head, 1.32 ± 0.29, 2.0, 0.8 cm in isthmus, and 1.62 ± 0.31, 2.4, 1.0 cm in tail. 5. The successful rate of pancreatic duct visualization was 46%. The shapes of pancreatic duct were linear (22%), tramline (16%), and tubular (8%). 6. The pancreatic echogenecity is greater than that of the liver in 68%, and equivalent to that of the liver in 32%, and no normal pancreas displayed less echogenecity than the liver. 7. Pancreatic echogenecity is lesser than that of adjacent soft tissue in 79% and equivalent to that of adjacent soft tissue in 21%. 8. The pancreatic echogenecity is homogenous in 79%. 9. The pancreatic margin is smooth in 62%, undulated in 11%, and ill defined in 27%

  9. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Large Saccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiying; Jiang, Qing; Dai, Diya; Li, Hongli; Bi, Wentao; Da Yong Chen, David

    2018-03-06

    Polysaccharide characterization posts the most difficult challenge to available analytical technologies compared to other types of biomolecules. Plant polysaccharides are reported to have numerous medicinal values, but their effect can be different based on the types of plants, and even regions of productions and conditions of cultivation. However, the molecular basis of the differences of these polysaccharides is largely unknown. In this study, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was used to generate polysaccharide fingerprints. Large saccharides can break down into characteristic small fragments in the DART source via pyrolysis, and the products are then detected by high resolution MS. Temperature was shown to be a crucial parameter for the decomposition of large polysaccharide. The general behavior of carbohydrates in DART-MS was also studied through the investigation of a number of mono- and oligosaccharide standards. The chemical formula and putative ionic forms of the fragments were proposed based on accurate mass with less than 10 ppm mass errors. Multivariate data analysis shows the clear differentiation of different plant species. Intensities of marker ions compared among samples also showed obvious differences. The combination of DART-MS analysis and mechanochemical extraction method used in this work demonstrates a simple, fast, and high throughput analytical protocol for the efficient evaluation of molecular features in plant polysaccharides.

  10. Evaluation of real-time ice concentration inside pipeline by the refractive index method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Kang, Chae Dong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Yeol; Peck, Jong Hyeon [KITECH, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Ice fraction (or ice concentration, IC) of the ice slurry flowing through the pipe is very difficult to measure directly and in real time in ice slurry type system in thermal energy storage system. Measuring IC is very important to calculate the capacity of cold energy supplied through a pipeline. Ice fraction measurement methods have been reported as using density, electric resistance, electric conductivity, freezing point etc. However, the conventional methods are not perfect in terms of the resolution and accuracy. In this study, a new method is suggested to measure the IC of the ice slurry flowing through a pipe, which is used for a refractometer with low electrical noise and high resolution. To measure IC of the flowing ice slurry aqueous solution in pipe, it was installed in the test section to mass flow meter, refractometer, cyclone, and RTD Resistance temperature detector) sensor. From the experiment, IC measurement method by using refractive index showed better result than others for the ice slurry in pipeline flowing or slurry tank.

  11. Real time measurement of air radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Craciunescu, T.; Teles, S.

    1998-01-01

    commands to the logger according to the command protocol. - ODAS reads the configuration from logger. At initialization the software sends to the logger the desired configuration which is overlooked in the following operations. It calculates the averages of readings over 10 minute and other parameters. Following that the software records the data into a file (one line of data at every 10 min). The interrogation of logger and data collection is repeated at every 10 minute. - After every file recording, ODAS sends a code signal to the workstation. Transmission of data to RODOS workstation is done periodically (every 10 min) or when requested by users. Advantages of our Local Meteorological and Radiological Monitoring System are the following: - it is automate, able to acquire, calculate and transmit data in non-stop mode; - it is a real-time and on-line system; - it is easy to upgrade due to the fact that it was developed as modules working independently. (authors)

  12. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  13. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  14. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  15. Simultaneous real-time data collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klincsek, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of electronic test equipment which executes, supervises, and reports on various tests. This validation process uses computers to analyze test results and report conclusions. The test equipment consists of an electronics component and the data collection and reporting unit. The PC software, display screens, and real-time data-base are described. Pass-fail procedures and data replay are discussed. The OS2 operating system and Presentation Manager user interface system were used to create a highly interactive automated system. The system outputs are hardcopy printouts and MS DOS format files which may be used as input for other PC programs.

  16. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  17. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  18. Real-time PCR in virology

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian M.; Arden, Katherine E.; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of P...

  19. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  20. Real-Time Thevenin Impedance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    operating state, and strict time constraints are difficult to adhere to as the complexity of the grid increases. Several suggested approaches for real-time stability assessment require Thevenin impedances to be determined for the observed system conditions. By combining matrix factorization, graph reduction......, and parallelization, we develop an algorithm for computing Thevenin impedances an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. We test the factor-and-solve algorithm with data from several power grids of varying complexity, and we show how the algorithm allows realtime stability assessment of complex power...

  1. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  2. General purpose computers in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    I see three main trends in the use of general purpose computers in real time. The first is more processing power. The second is the use of higher speed interconnects between computers (allowing more data to be delivered to the processors). The third is the use of larger programs running in the computers. Although there is still work that needs to be done, I believe that all indications are that the online need for general purpose computers should be available for the SCC and LHC machines. 2 figs

  3. CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in argon: high resolution ESR spectra and analysis by three-dimensional quantum rotor model. A case study of low temperature quantum effects on radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotani, Masaru; Yamada, Tomoya; Komaguchi, Kenji [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Benetis, N.P.; Lund, A.; Soernes, A.R.

    1998-10-01

    The present study deals with high resolution isotropic ESR spectra of the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in solid argon matrix at low temperature from 4 K to 40 K. Argon gases mixed with methane (Ar/methane {approx_equal} 500 mole ratio) were condensed at the end of Suprasile ESR tube at 4.2 K. Methyl radicals were generated by X-ray irradiation at 4 K and subjected to an ESR study. The 6.0 K ESR spectrum of the CH{sub 4}/Ar system is shown in Fig. 1. For CH{sub 3} radical the {sup 1}H hyperfine (hf) quartet was observed with an equal intensity (A-lines). The E-lines were absent at 4 K, but became visible at m{sub F} = {+-}1/2 positions above 12 K increased with temperature. The CD{sub 3} gave a peculiar spectrum at 4 K with an abnormally strong central singlet superimposed on a much weaker seven line spectrum of a freely rotating CD{sub 3}. The temperature dependent spectra showed clear quantum effects due to three-dimensional spin-rotation couplings. The spectra were analyzed with the following assumptions: (a) a planar D{sub 3} geometry, (b) a free and three-dimensional quantum rotation and (c) a thermally isolated radical. Application of the Pauli principle in combination to the D{sub 3} point group resulted in interesting selections for ESR-transitions for both the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} spectra. That is, the {sup 1}H hf quartet of CH{sub 3} radical (A-lines) was attributed to the rotational ground state, J=0, with totally symmetric A{sub 1} nuclear states. The central strong singlet of CD{sub 3} was attributed to one spin-rotation state with A{sub 2} antisymmetric nuclear states at the lowest rotational level of J=0. (author)

  4. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  5. Software Design Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This module describes the concepts and methods used in the software design of real time systems . It outlines the characteristics of real time systems , describes...the role of software design in real time system development, surveys and compares some software design methods for real - time systems , and

  6. Real-time inextensible surgical thread simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2018-03-27

    This paper discusses a real-time simulation method of inextensible surgical thread based on the Cosserat rod theory using position-based dynamics (PBD). The method realizes stable twining and knotting of surgical thread while including inextensibility, bending, twisting and coupling effects. The Cosserat rod theory is used to model the nonlinear elastic behavior of surgical thread. The surgical thread model is solved with PBD to achieve a real-time, extremely stable simulation. Due to the one-dimensional linear structure of surgical thread, the direct solution of the distance constraint based on tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to enhance stretching resistance in every constraint projection iteration. In addition, continuous collision detection and collision response guarantee a large time step and high performance. Furthermore, friction is integrated into the constraint projection process to stabilize the twining of multiple threads and complex contact situations. Through comparisons with existing methods, the surgical thread maintains constant length under large deformation after applying the direct distance constraint in our method. The twining and knotting of multiple threads correspond to stable solutions to contact and friction forces. A surgical suture scene is also modeled to demonstrate the practicality and simplicity of our method. Our method achieves stable and fast simulation of inextensible surgical thread. Benefiting from the unified particle framework, the rigid body, elastic rod, and soft body can be simultaneously simulated. The method is appropriate for applications in virtual surgery that require multiple dynamic bodies.

  7. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs

  8. A real-time radiation mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.; VanEtten, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype of a real-time radiation mapping system, Ranger, was developed to respond to an accident involving the release of plutonium for the Department of Energy's Accident Response Group. In 1987 Ranger demonstrated that it can provide an efficient method of monitoring large areas of land for radioactive contamination. With the experience gained from the operation of the prototype, the external computer and software are being upgraded in order to obtain a fully operational system. The new system uses the prototype's commercially available line-of-sight microwave system for determining position and the same radiation detection instruments. The data obtained from the radiation detection instrument(s) are linked back to the external computer along with the relative position of the measurement through the ranging system. The data are displayed on a gridded map as colored circles and permanently stored in real-time. The different colors represent different contamination levels. Contours can be drawn using the permanently stored data. 4 figs

  9. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  10. Interfacing real-time information with OILMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Spaulding, M.

    1993-01-01

    OILMAP is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based oil spill response system applicable to oil spill contingency planning and real-time response for any location in the world. OILMAP has a graphic user interface and was designed in a modular framework so that different spill models could be incorporated into the system, as well as a suite of sophisticated data management tools, without increasing the complexity of the user interface. The basic OILMAP configuration contains a surface trajectory model intended for rapid, first-order estimates of spill movement. A variety of additional models are available within the OILMAP shell to address issues such as weathering, cleanup activities, and probabilities of oiling. A simplified geographic information system (GIS) allows display and manipulation of point, line, and area data geographically referenced to the spill domain. The GIS can import raster data so that images collected by satellite and aerial photography may be displayed. Several new capabilities have been implemented for OILMAP that allow real-time data to be integrated. These features include linking with the OILTRACKER free-floating buoys via a global positioning system, linking of hydrodynamic data from the Ocean Data and Information Network, the Harvard ocean forecasting system, and SeaSonde radar, and the capability of importing spill observations from any remotely sensed data. A further link between OILMAP's GIS and spill models has been developed which allows model predictions to be corrected to observed oil locations while the model runs. 13 refs., 6 figs

  11. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Real-time applications of neural nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed

  13. Noncontact optical motion sensing for real-time analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Bradley R.; Imai, Hiromichi

    1990-08-01

    The adaptation of an image dissector tube (IDT) within the OPTFOLLOW system provides high resolution displacement measurement of a light discontinuity. Due to the high speed response of the IDT and the advanced servo loop circuitry, the system is capable of real time analysis of the object under test. The image of the discontinuity may be contoured by direct or reflected light and ranges spectrally within the field of visible light. The image is monitored to 500 kHz through a lens configuration which transposes the optical image upon the photocathode of the IDT. The photoelectric effect accelerates the resultant electrons through a photomultiplier and an enhanced current is emitted from the anode. A servo loop controls the electron beam, continually centering it within the IDT using magnetic focusing of deflection coils. The output analog voltage from the servo amplifier is thereby proportional to the displacement of the target. The system is controlled by a microprocessor with a 32kbyte memory and provides a digital display as well as instructional readout on a color monitor allowing for offset image tracking and automatic system calibration.

  14. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  15. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  16. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  17. Real-time classification of auditory sentences using evoked cortical activity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, David A.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chang, Edward F.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Recent research has characterized the anatomical and functional basis of speech perception in the human auditory cortex. These advances have made it possible to decode speech information from activity in brain regions like the superior temporal gyrus, but no published work has demonstrated this ability in real-time, which is necessary for neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces. Approach. Here, we introduce a real-time neural speech recognition (rtNSR) software package, which was used to classify spoken input from high-resolution electrocorticography signals in real-time. We tested the system with two human subjects implanted with electrode arrays over the lateral brain surface. Subjects listened to multiple repetitions of ten sentences, and rtNSR classified what was heard in real-time from neural activity patterns using direct sentence-level and HMM-based phoneme-level classification schemes. Main results. We observed single-trial sentence classification accuracies of 90% or higher for each subject with less than 7 minutes of training data, demonstrating the ability of rtNSR to use cortical recordings to perform accurate real-time speech decoding in a limited vocabulary setting. Significance. Further development and testing of the package with different speech paradigms could influence the design of future speech neuroprosthetic applications.

  18. Performance and Quality Assessment of the Forthcoming Copernicus Marine Service Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting Real-Time System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, J. M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Regnier, C.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean currently delivers in real-time daily services (weekly analyses and daily forecast) with a global 1/12° high resolution system. The model component is the NEMO platform driven at the surface by the IFS ECMWF atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Along track altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity.Since May 2015, Mercator Ocean opened the Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) and is in charge of the global ocean analyses and forecast, at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities have been conducted at Mercator Ocean these last years in order to improve the real-time 1/12° global system for the next CMS version in 2016. The ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme benefit among others from the following improvements: large-scale and objective correction of atmospheric quantities with satellite data, new Mean Dynamic Topography taking into account the last version of GOCE geoid, new adaptive tuning of some observational errors, new Quality Control on the assimilated temperature and salinity vertical profiles based on dynamic height criteria, assimilation of satellite sea-ice concentration, new freshwater runoff from ice sheets melting …This presentation doesn't focus on the impact of each update, but rather on the overall behavior of the system integrating all updates. This assessment reports on the products quality improvements, highlighting the level of performance and the reliability of the new system.

  19. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the high temperature crystal structures of GexSb2Te3+x (x=1,2,3) phase change material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structures of GeSb2Te4, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ge3Sb2Te6 were determined using electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The structure determined for the former two crystals deviates from the ones proposed in the literature. These crystal structures were

  20. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...