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Sample records for high-resolution lake sediment

  1. High resolution analysis of northern Patagonia lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S. W.; Croudace, I. W.; Langdon, P. G.; Rindby, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment cores covering the period from the last glacial maximum through the Holocene to the present have been collected from sites in the Chacubuco valley, southern Chile (around 47°08'S, 72°25'W, to the east of the North Patagonian Icecap). Cores were taken from five lakes and one recently dried lake bed. Short cores (0.2 to 0.5m), covering approximately the last two hundred years, were taken from all the lakes. Additionally, long sequences were obtained from one of the lakes and from the dried lake bed, the latter sequence extending back to the last glacial maximum as indicated by thick clay at the base. Each of the lakes are small-medium sized and are open systems situated at 300-1000m above sea level. The shorter cores comprise predominantly clastic gyttja but show a number of distinct changes in colour and chemical composition that suggest major environmental changes over the period of sediment accumulation. This is also reflected in variations in the loss on ignition of samples from the cores and in elemental profiles produced by scanning the cores with the Itrax micro-XRF corescanner at 200μm resolution. The long sequence from the dried lake bed has very low organic content glacial clay at the base, interpreted as last glacial maximum basal clay following determination in the field that this layer exceeded 2m in thickness. Similar sediments occur within a stratigraphically discrete section of approximately 14cm and may relate to a stadial event. The latter section also shows a drop in organic content and appears to be glacial clay incorporating some coarse sandy components indicative of detrital input from the catchment. The second long sequence, from a carbonate lake, includes two mineral layers indicating increased detrital input from the catchment. The deeper and thicker of these layers appears similar to the 14cm layer in the first long sequence, while the upper layer comprises a fine grain size indicative of rock flour and hence also of glacial

  2. Scanning SRXF analysis and isotopes of uranium series from bottom sediments of Siberian lakes for high-resolution climate reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E.L.; Grachev, M.A.; Chebykin, E.P.; Phedorin, M.A.; Kalugin, I.A.; Khlystov, O.M.; Zolotarev, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution scanning X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Synchrotron Radiation (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in Lake Baikal and Lake Teletskoye. Physical modeling of river runoff taking into account the chemistry of U series isotopes and their concentrations in sediments allowed a decade-scale reconstruction of Holocene (0-11 ky) river input to Lake Baikal. Holocene moisture peaks in East Siberia are synchronous with abrupt spells in the Atlantic. The multi-element data from Lake Teletskoye were used to predict the function of geochemical response to climate change in plainland Altai and to reconstruct the trends of annual (winter) air temperatures and atmospheric precipitation for the past 500 years

  3. High resolution magnetostratigraphy and raio-isotope dating of early Pleistocene lake sediments from southern Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirscher, U.; Bruch, A.A.; Gabrielyan, I.; Scharrer, S.; Kuiper, K.F.; Bachtadse, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Pleistocene geology of Armenia is dominated by widespread occurrence of sediments recording recurring rapid and drastic changes of the environmental conditions during at least the last 2 million years. These sediments, predominantly diatomites, contain a huge variety of various fossil remains,

  4. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-15

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L{sup −1} for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L{sup −1} for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1} and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm{sup −2} d{sup −1}, respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion

  5. In situ high-resolution evaluation of labile arsenic and mercury in sediment of a large shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Yao, Yu; Wang, Peifang; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin; Yuan, Ye; Fan, Xiulei

    2016-01-01

    The precise evaluation of arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) bioavailability in sediment is crucial to controlling As and Hg contamination, but traditional ex situ measurements hamper comprehensive analysis of labile As and Hg in sediment. In this study, we characterized in situ labile As and Hg in sediment of Lake Hongze using the zirconium (Zr) oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and 3-mercaptopropyl functionalized silica gel DGT, respectively. The concentrations of DGT-labile As and Hg in the sediment profiles were found to exhibit considerable variation, ranging from 0.15 to 4.15 μg L −1 for As and from 0.04 to 1.35 μg L −1 for Hg. As and Hg flux values, calculated based on the concentration gradients measured from the DGT profiles for both the overlying water and sediment close to the sediment–water interface, were used to determine the contamination status of As and Hg. Flux values of As and Hg were between − 0.066 and 0.067 ng cm −2 d −1 and between − 0.0187 and 0.0181 ng cm −2 d −1 , respectively. The GNU's Not Unix R (GNU R) programming language was used to identify outliers of As and Hg at various depths at the sampling sites. The results indicate that the sites with the most outliers were all located in the regions that were seriously affected by contaminants from the Huai River. The DGT-labile As and Hg concentrations in the 0–30 mm layer were found to be significantly correlated with concentrations of labile As and Hg, total dissolved As and Hg, and total As and Hg in the overlying water, as indicated by ex situ measurements. Results show that DGT is a reliable and high-resolution technique that can be used for in situ monitoring of the labile fractions of As and Hg in sediment in fresh water bodies. - Graphical abstract: The principle of DGT is based on the diffusion of dissolved species through a well-defined gel and subsequent accumulation on an ion-exchange resin. A diffusion gel and a filter membrane (to

  6. High-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus and its relationship with iron redox state in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yulu; Liang, Tao; Tian, Shuhan

    2016-01-01

    a regional summer algal bloom. Two-dimensional distributions of labile P in sediments were imaged with the Zr-Oxide DGT without destruction of the original structure of the sediment layer at four sites of the lake. The concentration of DGT-labile P in the sediments, ranging from 0.007 to 0.206 mg L(-1......), was highly heterogeneous across the profiles. The values of apparent diffusion flux (Fd) and release flux (Fr) of P varied between -0.027-0.197 mg m(-2) d(-1) and 0.037-0.332 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Labile P showed a high and positive correlation (p

  7. High-resolution OSL chronology of a sediment core from Lake Nam Co on the southern Tibetan Plateau: Comparison with radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Haberzettl, Torsten; Fuchs, Markus; Frechen, Manfred; Wang, Junbo

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies on lake sediment cores from the Tibetan Plateau aimed to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes of the late Glacial and Holocene monsoon variations, which are characterized by fluctuations in precipitation and expansion of monsoonal air masses across the Plateau. Accurate and reliable dating of lacustrine deposits is of crucial importance in both the reconstruction of palaeolake and palaeoclimate evolution and the understanding of the mechanisms for climate changes, especially abrupt changes of regional-hemispheric hydrological circulation. Radiocarbon dating is the most commonly used method for establishing chronologies of lake sediments. However, 14C dating of such sediments could be problematic due to the lack of organic matter or a reservoir effect, which appears common in radiocarbon dating of lacustrine sediments from the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, ca. 10.5 m long core (NC core) was retrieved from the water depth of 93 m at Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest saline lake in China, located on the southern Tibetan Plateau. For this core, high-resolution samples (23 samples) were obtained for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Quartz of fine-grain (4-11 μm) fraction were extracted from this samples for OSL dating, which is compared with the 14C chronology of NC core based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of bulk organic matter of 22 samples. The sample from the top of NC core was dated to approximate zero age, indicating the sediments bleached well before deposition. Luminescence behaviors of the study samples further confirmed the robustness of OSL ages. Comparison between OSL and 14C ages suggested that: (1) two kinds of ages are in agreement within error from top to 1.8 m, (2) from 1.8 m to the base of NC core, the 14C ages show a general trend to ca. 4 ka higher ages than the OSL ages. Although 14C dating overestimate the ages from 1.8 m to base, they still show the general trend in sedimentation rate

  8. High-resolution lake sediment reconstruction of industrial impact in a world-class mining and smelting center, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Michael; Kamber, Balz S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High-resolution sampling of a lake-sediment core. • Resolution of historical events in a smelter-impacted area. • Perturbation of Cu and Ni in a sediment core. • Fingerprinting sediments and pollutants using Pb isotopes and trace elements. - Abstract: A lake sediment core from Vermillion Lake, Sudbury, Ontario was tightly sampled and analyzed for a wide range of trace elements as well as for Pb isotopes. The data resolve multiple historical events in the 140-a history of logging and mining in the Sudbury area in unprecedented detail. Lead-210 data, 137 Cs activity and historical information on the start of anthropogenic activities in the Sudbury area were combined to derive an age model for the sedimentary column. Using the age information, it is possible to identify sediment sections enriched and depleted in trace metal(loid)s, particularly Ni and Cu, the two most relevant metals in the Sudbury area. Maxima and minima in the chronology of Ni and Cu coincide well with local production values for both elements until environmental regulations in the 1990s resulted in a decrease in their emission and drainage into Vermillion Lake. Differences in the deposition rates of Ni and Cu, trace-metal distribution patterns throughout the sedimentary column, Pb-isotope data, and comparison with data for local rocks and ores in the Sudbury area were used to identify the sources of pollutants in the early and late periods of mining activities. In addition, the environmental impact on the sediment itself was also studied via the variation of water content and organic matter. Finally, a surficial Fe–Mn-enriched layer with elevated concentrations of the oxy-anions (PO 4 ) 3− , (AsO 4 ) 4− , and (MoO 4 ) 2− was identified. This can be distinguished from accumulation of Zn and an increase in the Y / Ho ratio in the upper core sections, which likely imply increasing drainage of fertilizers into the Vermillion River watershed. The chemistry, mineralogy, and

  9. Holocene climate variability in arid Central Asia as revealed from high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analyses of laminated sediments from Lake Chatyr Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Dulski, P.; Mingram, J.; Prasad, S.

    2013-12-01

    A pronounced trend from a predominantly wet climate during the early Holocene towards significantly drier conditions since the mid-Holocene, mainly attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, climate in the adjacent regions of mid-latitude arid Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is supposed to have been characterized by pronounced dry conditions during the early Holocene, wet conditions during the mid-Holocene and a rather moderate drying during the late Holocene, which is mainly attributed to the complex interplay between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. However, although mid-latitude Central Asia thus might represent a key region for the understanding of teleconnections between the ASM system and the Westerlies, knowledge about past climate development in this region is still ambiguous due to the limited number of high-resolution palaeoclimate records. Hence, new well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from this region are expected to provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, a sediment core of about 6.25 m length has been recovered from alpine Lake Chatyr Kol (40°36' N, 75°14' E, 3530 m a. s. l., surface area ~170 km2, maximum depth ~20 m), located in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Sediment microfacies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections reveals continuously sub-mm scale laminated sediments throughout the record except for the uppermost ca. 60 cm. Microsedimentological characterization of these laminae, which are most probably

  10. High-resolution lake sediment archives of midcontinental atmospheric and hydroclimate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. W.; Wilson, J. J.; Gilhooly, W., III; Steinman, B. A.; Stamps, L. G.; Ahmed, M. N.; Abbott, M. B.; Pompeani, D. P.; Hillman, A. L.; Finkenbinder, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydroclimate variability in the midcontinental United States (US) during the last 2000 years is not well characterized because there are few high-resolution paleoclimate records from the region. The majority of information about late Holocene midcontinental hydroclimate variability comes from scattered lake and bog sediment archives (primarily north of 42˚N) and gridded Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data calculated from a network of tree-ring records. The density of tree-ring records is lowest in the midcontinent, however, and decreases precipitously with time. In order to address this midcontinental paleoclimate data gap, we are developing a series of new lake-sediment-based hydroclimate records spanning 85˚ to 98˚W and 38˚ to 45˚N. New results from the eastern and central portions of the study area indicate large hydroclimate changes during the last 2000 years. Specifically, the Ohio and central Mississippi River valleys were wetter during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1250 CE), but drier during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1350-1850 CE) with an especially severe, multi-decadal drought between 1350-1450 CE. Comparison with western (west of 96˚W) drought and fire records supports the existence of a hydroclimate dipole, with opposite hydroclimate conditions west and east of 96˚W. Isotopic changes in precipitation during the MCA and LIA suggest hydroclimate anomalies during these events were associated with mean state atmospheric circulation changes that resemble modern Pacific North American Mode (PNA) variability. Midcontinental Native American populations appear to have responded to MCA and LIA hydroclimate variability, with the latter event contributing to midcontinental depopulation between 1350-1500 CE.

  11. History of human activity in last 800 years reconstructed from combined archive data and high-resolution analyses of varved lake sediments from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Ott, Florian; Obremska, Milena; Kaczmarek, Halina; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to reconstruct human and landscape development in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 800 years. We apply an approach that combines historic maps and documents with pollen data. Pollen data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of 5 years. The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). We applied the REVEALS model to translate pollen percentage data into regional plant abundances. The interpretation of the pollen record is furthermore based on pollen accumulation rate data. The pollen record and historic documents show similar trends in vegetation development. During the first phase (AD 1200-1412), the Lake Czechowskie area was still largely forested with Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus forests. Vegetation was more open during the second phase (AD 1412-1776), and reached maximum openness during the third phase (AD 1776-1905). Furthermore, intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests during this period. Since the early 20th century, the forest cover increased again with dominance of the Scots pine in the stand. While pollen and historic data show similar trends, they differ substantially in the degree of openness during the four phases with pollen data commonly suggesting more open conditions. We discuss potential causes for this discrepancy, which include unsuitable parameters settings in REVEALS and unknown changes in forest structure. Using pollen accumulation data as a third proxy record we aim to identify the most probable causes. Finally, we discuss the observed vegetation change in relation the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10

  12. The tempo of Holocene climatic change in the eastern Mediterranean region : new high-resolution crater-lake sediment data from central Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, JM; Leng, MJ; Kuzucuoglu, C; Fontugne, M; Bertaux, J; Bottema, S; Black, S; Hunt, E; Karabiyikoglu, M; Woldring, H.

    2001-01-01

    This study presents results from a multi-proxy analysis of cores taken in a crater-lake sequence from Eski Acigol in central Turkey which cover the period from pre-c. 16000 cal. yr BP to the present. The sediments comprise an upper unit of generally non-laminated, banded to massive silts and peats

  13. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimate and alpine glacier fluctuations recorded by high-resolution grain-size data from an alpine lake sediment core, Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Davis, P.; Machalett, Björn; Gosse, John

    2013-04-01

    Varved lake sediments, which provide ideal high-resolution climate proxies, are not commonly available in many geographic areas over long time scales. This paper utilizes high-resolution grain-size analyses (n = 1040) from a 520-cm long sediment core from Lower Titcomb Lake (LTL), which lies just outside the type Titcomb Basin (TTB) moraines in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. The TTB moraines lie between Lower Titcomb Lake and Upper Titcomb Lake (UTL), about 3 km beyond, and 200 m lower than the modern glacier margin and Gannett Peak (Little Ice Age) moraines in the basin. Based on cosmogenic exposure dating, the TTB moraines are believed to be Younger Dryas (YD) age (Gosse et al., 1995) and lie in a geomorphic position similar to several other outer cirque moraines throughout the western American Cordillera. Until recently, many of these outer cirque moraines were believed to be Neoglacial age. The sediment core discussed here is one of five obtained from the two Titcomb Lakes, but is by the far the longest with the oldest sediment depositional record. Two AMS radiocarbon ages from the 445- and 455-cm core depths (about 2% loss on ignition, LOI) suggest that the lake basin may have been ice-free as early as 16.1 or even 16.8 cal 14C kyr, consistent with 10Be and 26Al exposure ages from boulders and bedrock surfaces outside the TTB moraines. The 257-cm depth in the core marks an abrupt transition from inorganic, sticky gray silt below (rock flour production between the 257 and 466 cm core depths appear to be roughly correlative with the YD-Alleröd-Bölling-Meiendorf-Heinrich 1 climate events recognized in other terrestrial records and Northern Atlantic Ocean marine cores, but provide much higher resolution than most of those records from a climate-sensitive alpine region in North America.

  14. Inferring sediment connectivity from high-resolution DEMs of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Vericat, Damià

    2017-04-01

    Topographic changes due to the erosion and deposition of bedrock, sediments and soil can be measured by differencing Digital Elevation Models (DEM) acquired at different points in time. So-called morphological sediment budgets can be computed from such DEMs of Difference (DoD) on an areal rather than a point basis. The advent of high-resolution and highly accurate surveying techniques (e.g. LiDAR, SfM), together with recent advances of survey platforms (e.g. UaVs) provides opportunities to improve the spatial and temporal scale (in terms of extent and resolution), the availability and quality of such measurements. Many studies have used DoD to investigate and interpret the spatial pattern of positive and negative vertical differences in terms of erosion and deposition, or of horizontal movement. Vertical differences can be converted to volumes, and negative (erosion) and positive (deposition) volumetric changes aggregated for spatial units (e.g., landforms, hillslopes, river channels) have been used to compute net balances. We argue that flow routing algorithms common in digital terrain analysis provide a means to enrich DoD-based investigations with some information about (potential) sediment pathways - something that has been widely neglected in previous studies. Where the DoD indicates a positive surface change, flow routing delineates the upslope area where the deposited sediment has potentially been derived from. In the downslope direction, flow routing indicates probable downslope pathways of material eroded/detached/entrained where the DoD shows negative surface change. This material has either been deposited along these pathways or been flushed out of the area of investigation. This is a question of sediment connectivity, a property of a system (i.e. a hillslope, a sub-/catchment) that describes its potential to move sediment through itself. The sediment pathways derived from the DEM are related to structural connectivity, while the spatial pattern of (net

  15. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  16. High-resolution paleolimnology opens new management perspectives for lakes adaptation to climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Elodie ePerga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Varved lake sediments provide opportunities for high-resolution paleolimnological investigations that may extend monitoring surveys in order to target priority management actions under climate warming. This paper provides the synthesis of an international research program relying on >150 years-long, varved records for three managed perialpine lakes in Europe (Lakes Geneva, Annecy and Bourget. The dynamics of the dominant, local human pressures, as well as the ecological responses in the pelagic, benthic and littoral habitats were reconstructed using classical and newly developed paleo-proxies. Statistical modelling achieved the hierarchization of the drivers of their ecological trajectories. All three lakes underwent different levels of eutrophication in the first half of the XXth century, followed by re-oligotrophication. Climate warming came along with a 2°C increase in air temperature over the last century, to which lakes were unequally thermally vulnerable. Unsurprisingly, phosphorous concentration has been the dominant ecological driver over the last century. Yet, other human-influenced, local environmental drivers (fisheries management practices, river regulations have also significantly inflected ecological trajectories. Climate change has been impacting all habitats at rates that, in some cases, exceeded those of local factors. The amplitude and ecological responses to similar climate change varied between lakes, but, at least for pelagic habitats, rather depended on the intensity of local human pressures than on the thermal effect of climate change. Deep habitats yet showed higher sensitivity to climate change but substantial influence of river flows. As a consequence, adapted local management strategies, fully integrating nutrient inputs, fisheries management and hydrological regulations, may enable mitigating the deleterious consequences of ongoing climate change on these ecosystems.

  17. Generating High-Resolution Lake Bathymetry over Lake Mead using the ICESat-2 Airborne Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gao, H.; Jasinski, M. F.; Zhang, S.; Stoll, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precise lake bathymetry (i.e., elevation/contour) mapping is essential for optimal decision making in water resources management. Although the advancement of remote sensing has made it possible to monitor global reservoirs from space, most of the existing studies focus on estimating the elevation, area, and storage of reservoirs—and not on estimating the bathymetry. This limitation is attributed to the low spatial resolution of satellite altimeters. With the significant enhancement of ICESat-2—the Ice, Cloud & Land Elevation Satellite #2, which is scheduled to launch in 2018—producing satellite-based bathymetry becomes feasible. Here we present a pilot study for deriving the bathymetry of Lake Mead by combining Landsat area estimations with airborne elevation data using the prototype of ICESat-2—the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). First, an ISODATA classifier was adopted to extract the lake area from Landsat images during the period from 1982 to 2017. Then the lake area classifications were paired with MABEL elevations to establish an Area-Elevation (AE) relationship, which in turn was applied to the classification contour map to obtain the bathymetry. Finally, the Lake Mead bathymetry image was embedded onto the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), to replace the existing constant values. Validation against sediment survey data indicates that the bathymetry derived from this study is reliable. This algorithm has the potential for generating global lake bathymetry when ICESat-2 data become available after next year's launch.

  18. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  19. A high-resolution, 60 kyr record of the relative geomagnetic field intensity from Lake Towuti, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirana, Kartika Hajar; Bijaksana, Satria; King, John; Tamuntuan, Gerald Hendrik; Russell, James; Ngkoimani, La Ode; Dahrin, Darharta; Fajar, Silvia Jannatul

    2018-02-01

    Past changes in the Earth's magnetic field can be highlighted through reconstructions of magnetic paleointensity. Many magnetic field variation features are global, and can be used for the detailed correlation and dating of sedimentary records. On the other hand, sedimentary magnetic records also exhibit features on a regional, rather than a global scale. Therefore, the development of regional scale magnetic field reconstructions is necessary to optimize magnetic paleointensity dating. In this paper, a 60 thousand year (kyr) paleointensity record is presented, using the core TOW10-9B of Lake Towuti, located in the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, as a part of the ongoing research towards understanding the Indonesian environmental history, and reconstructing a high-resolution regional magnetic record from dating the sediments. Located in the East Sulawesi Ophiolite Belt, the bedrock surrounding Lake Towuti consists of ultramafic rocks that render the lake sediments magnetically strong, creating challenges in the reconstruction of the paleointensity record. These sediment samples were subject to a series of magnetic measurements, followed by testing the obtained paleointensity records resulting from normalizing natural remanent magnetization (NRM) against different normalizing parameters. These paleointensity records were then compared to other regional, as well as global, records of magnetic paleointensity. The results show that for the magnetically strong Lake Towuti sediments, an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) is the best normalizer. A series of magnetic paleointensity excursions are observed during the last 60 kyr, including the Laschamp excursion at 40 kyr BP, that provide new information about the magnetic history and stratigraphy of the western tropical Pacific region. We conclude that the paleointensity record of Lake Towuti is reliable and in accordance with the high-quality regional and global trends.

  20. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of a sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugisaki, S.; Buylaert, J. P.; Murray, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    (D-e), with stimulation by both infrared and blue light. The suitability of the measurement procedure was confirmed using dose recovery tests. A high resolution record (similar to 2 OSL ages/m) identified clear sedimentation rate changes down the core. The OSL ages are significantly dependent......Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is now widely accepted as a chronometer for terrestrial sediment. More recently, it has been suggested that OSL may also be useful in the dating of deep-sea marine sediments. In this paper, we test the usefulness of high resolution quartz OSL dating...... in application to a 19 m marine sediment core (MR0604-PC04A) taken from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk, immediately to the north of Hokkaido, Japan. Fine-grained quartz (4 to 11 mu m) was chosen as the dosimeter, and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol was used for the determination of equivalent dose...

  1. Evidence for sub-lacustrine volcanic activity in Lake Bolsena (central Italy) revealed by high resolution seismic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd; Schuerer, Anke

    2017-06-01

    The Bolsena caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.2 Ma has a well preserved structural rim, which makes it an ideal site to study the tectonic and volcanic evolution of calderas. However, the main area is covered by a 150 m deep lake which makes it rather difficult to investigate the subsurface structure directly. To overcome this problem new high resolution hydro-acoustic surveys using a multichannel reflection seismic system and a sediment echo-sounder system were conducted in September 2012. As space was limited we used a rowing boat towed by a rubber boat to handle a 36 m long and 24 channel streamer to receive seismic reflections produced using a Mini GI-Gun (0.25 l). The subsurface structure of Lake Bolsena was imaged up to a sediment depth of 190 m, which is estimated to have filled over a period of 333 kyrs. However, massive pyroclastic flow deposits found in the deeper parts of the basin indicate an initial infill of volcanic deposits from two adjacent younger calderas, the Latera (W) and Montefiascone (SE) calderas. Our data suggest that the caldera has a long history of active volcanism, because the lacustrine sediments show post-sedimentary influences of geothermal fluids. We mapped several mound structures at various stratigraphic depths. Two volcanic structures outcrop at the modern lake surface implying recent activity. One of these structures is hardly covered by sediments and has a crater-like feature in its summit. The other structure shows a pockmark-like depression on top. Another observable feature is a partially sediment filled crater located in the western part of the lake which further implies the existence of a magma chamber located beneath the Bolsena caldera. Since the late Pleistocene and Holocene, the sedimentation was mainly hemipelagic evidenced by a sediment drape of up to 10 m thick sediment drape on the uppermost sediments. Beneath the drape we found evidence for a distal tephra layer likely related to an explosive eruption from

  2. Origin and Formation of Giant Mounds in Lake Ladoga (Russia) from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Lebas, E.; Krastel, S.; Averes, T.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the German-Russian project `PLOT - Paleolimnological Transect' (for an overview of the project see Gromig et al., this meeting), a pilot seismic survey was carried out in Lake Ladoga (Russia) in late summer 2013. In total, 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles have been acquired using a mini-GI gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. The high-resolution of the seismic data allows us to document in detail the sedimentary processes that occurred in the lake during the preglacial and postglacial history. The seismic stratigraphic architecture of the lake shows, from top to bottom, acoustically well-stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions are usually bordered by a hard reflector underneath, which may represent coarse-grained sediments or a till. The nature of the material composing the uppermost units have been tied to coring information from core Co1309, which was retrieved during the same survey. Of particular interest, are the single to composite, giant (kilometer-scale) mounds directly overlying the hard reflector. Internal architecture of the mounds reveals a complex formation history, with mound types showing significant structural deformation of different degrees; and other mound types showing a central deformation area, which strongly contrasts with the titled reflections or undisturbed stratification visible at the edges. The deepest seismic unit underlying the mounds is characterized by well-bedded, tilted reflectors in the southeastern part of the lake, while clear synclines are identified in the northwestern part of the lake. An erosional truncation separates the deepest unit from the overlying ones. In the work presented here, we focus on the understanding of the origin and the formation of the giant mounds with respect to the glacial history of Lake Ladoga.

  3. High-resolution passive sampling of dissolved methane in the water column of lakes in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A. E.; Cadieux, S. B.; White, J. R.; Pratt, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic lakes are important participants in the global carbon cycle, releasing methane in a warming climate and contributing to a positive feedback to climate change. In order to yield detailed methane budgets and understand the implications of warming on methane dynamics, high-resolution profiles revealing methane behavior within the water column need to be obtained. Single day sampling using disruptive techniques has the potential to result in biases. In order to obtain high-resolution, undisturbed profiles of methane concentration and isotopic composition, this study evaluates a passive sampling method over a multi-day equilibration period. Selected for this study were two small lakes (Gatos Research Methane Carbon Isotope Analyzer. PDB sampling and pump sampling resulted in statistically similar concentrations (R2=0.89), ranging from 0.85 to 135 uM from PDB and 0.74 to 143 uM from pump sampling. In anoxic waters of the lake, where concentrations were high enough to yield robust isotopic results on the LGR MCIA, δ13C were also similar between the two methods, yielding -73‰ from PDB and -74‰ from pump sampling. Further investigation will produce results for a second lake and methane carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition for both lakes. Preliminary results for this passive sampling method are promising. We envision the use of this technique in future studies of dissolved methane and expect that it will provide a more finely resolved vertical profile, allowing for a more complete understanding of lacustrine methane dynamics.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels in lake sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eroglu, H.; Kabadayi, O.

    2013-01-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in lake sediments collected from 15 different stations at Altinkaya dam lake and 12 different stations at Derbent dam lake in Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial HPGe detector system coupled to the Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 19.5, 27.7 and 460 Bq kg -1 in Altinkaya dam, whereas the activity concentrations were 18.8, 25.5 and 365 Bq kg -1 in Derbent dam, respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the present study have been compared with similar measurements from different locations in the world. (authors)

  5. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  6. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  7. A high-resolution Early Holocene-late MIS 3 environmental rock- and palaeomagnetic record from Lake Sf. Ana, Carpathian Mts, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel VERES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments are excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information because they usually provide continuous and high-resolution records. In centraleastern Europe however lacustrine records that extend beyond the Holocene are rather sparse.Palaeomagnetic records from this region are also insufficiently explored, and usually associated with terrestrial deposits such as loess. In this context, the lacustrine record of Lake Sf. Ana, a volcanic crater lake in the East Carpathians, Romania, provides an important archive for reconstructing past paleomagnetic secular variation in the region from early Holocene to late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3.

  8. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake sediment records provide an excellent means to reconstruct past climate and environmental change because they typically provide long, high-resolution and continuous archives of environmental change. Lake sediment records typically exhibit high sedimentation rates (centennial to millennial scale variability is common and annual resolution is possible in some sites), contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, tend to exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to reconstruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sediment cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Normalizing XRF-scanner data: A cautionary note on the interpretation of high-resolution records from organic-rich lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwemark, L.; Chen, H.-F.; Yang, T.-N.; Kylander, M.; Yu, E.-F.; Hsu, Y.-W.; Lee, T.-Q.; Song, S.-R.; Jarvis, S.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning of unlithified, untreated sediment cores is becoming an increasingly common method used to obtain paleoproxy data from lake records. XRF-scanning is fast and delivers high-resolution records of relative variations in the elemental composition of the sediment. However, lake sediments display extreme variations in their organic matter content, which can vary from just a few percent to well over 50%. As XRF scanners are largely insensitive to organic material in the sediment, increasing levels of organic material effectively dilute those components that can be measured, such as the lithogenic material (the closed-sum effect). Consequently, in sediments with large variations in organic material, the measured variations in an element will to a large extent mirror the changes in organic material. It is therefore necessary to normalize the elements in the lithogenic component of the sediment against a conservative element to allow changes in the input of the elements to be addressed. In this study we show that Al, which is the lightest element that can be measured using the Itrax XRF-scanner, can be used to effectively normalize the elements of the lithogenic fraction of the sediment against variations in organic content. We also show that care must be taken when choosing resolution and exposure time to ensure optimal output from the measurements.

  10. Spatial dynamics of thermokarst and thermo-erosion at lakes and ponds in North Siberia and Northwest Alaska using high-resolution remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Tillapaugh, M.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Walter, K. M.; Plug, L. J.

    2008-12-01

    Formation, growth, and drainage of thermokarst lakes in ice-rich permafrost deposits are important factors of landscape dynamics in extent Arctic lowlands. Monitoring of spatial and temporal dynamics of such lakes will allow an assessment of permafrost stability and enhance the capabilities for modelling and quantifying biogeochemical processes related to permafrost degradation in a warming Arctic. In this study we use high-resolution remote sensing and GIS to analyze the development of thermokarst lakes and ponds in two study regions in North Siberia and Northwest Alaska. The sites are 1) the Cherskii region in the Kolyma lowland (Siberia) and 2) the Kitluk River area on the northern Seward Peninsula (Alaska). Both regions are characterized by continuous permafrost, a highly dissected and dynamic thermokarst landscape, uplands of Late Pleistocene permafrost deposits with high excess ice contents, and a large total volume of permafrost-stored carbon. These ice-rich Yedoma or Yedoma-like deposits are highly vulnerable to permafrost degradation forced by climate warming or other surface disturbance. Time series of high- resolution imagery (aerial, Corona, Ikonos, Alos Prism) covering more than 50 years of lake dynamics allow detailed assessments of processes and spatial patterns of thermokarst lake expansion and drainage in continuous permafrost. Time series of high-resolution imagery (aerial, Corona, Ikonos, Alos Prism) covering more than 50 years of lake dynamics allow detailed assessments of processes and spatial patterns of thermokarst lake expansion and drainage in continuous permafrost. Processes identified include thaw slumping, wave undercutting of frozen sediments or peat blocks and subsequent mass wasting, thaw collapse of near-shore zones, sinkhole formation and ice-wedge tunnelling, and gully formation by thermo-erosion. We use GIS-based tools to relate the remote sensing results to field data (ground ice content, topography, lithology, and relative age

  11. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments

  12. High-resolution chronology of sediment below CCD based on Holocene paleomagnetic secular variations in the Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Usami, Kazuko; McHugh, Cecilia M. G.; Ikehara, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Using high-resolution paleomagnetic data, we examined the potential for obtaining precise ages from sediment core samples recovered from deep-sea basins close to rupture zones of the 2011 and earlier earthquakes off Tohoku, Japan. Obtaining detailed stratigraphic ages from deep-sea sediments below the calcium compensation depth (CCD) is difficult, but we found that the samples contain excellent paleomagnetic secular variation records to constrain age models. Variations in paleomagnetic directions obtained from the sediments reveal systematic changes in the cores. A stacked paleomagnetic profile closely matches the Lake Biwa data sets in southwest Japan for the past 7000 years, one can establish age models based on secular variations of the geomagnetic field on sediments recovered uniquely below the CCD. Comparison of paleomagnetic directions near a tephra and a paleomagnetic direction of contemporaneous pyroclastic flow deposits acquired by different magnetization processes shows precise depositional ages reflecting the magnetization delay of the marine sediment record.Plain Language SummaryGenerally obtaining detailed ages from deep-sea sediments is difficult, because available dating method is very limited. We found that the deep-see sediment off North Japan recorded past sequential geomagnetic directions. If those records correlate well with the reference record in past 7000 years, then we could estimate age of sediment by pattern matching. Additionally a volcanic ash emitted in 915 A.D., which was intercalated in our samples, indicates a time lag in our age model. This observation makes our age model more precise.

  13. Varves in lake sediments - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolitschka, Bernd; Francus, Pierre; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-06-01

    Downcore counting of laminations in varved sediments offers a direct and incremental dating technique for high-resolution climatic and environmental archives with at least annual and sometimes even seasonal resolution. The pioneering definition of varves by De Geer (1912) had been restricted to rhythmically deposited proglacial clays. One century later the meaning of 'varve' has been expanded to include all annually deposited laminae in terrestrial and marine settings. Under favourable basin configurations and environmental conditions, limnic varves are formed due to seasonality of depositional processes from the lake's water column and/or transport from the catchment area. Subsequent to deposition of topmost laminae, the physical preservation of the accumulating varved sequence requires the sustained absence of sediment mixing, for example via wave action or macrobenthic bioturbation. Individual (sub)laminae in varved lake sediments typically express contrasting colours, always differ in terms of their organic, chemical and/or mineralogical compositions, and often also differ with regard to grain-size. Various predominating climatic and depositional conditions may result in clastic, biogenic or endogenic (incl. evaporitic) varved sediments and their mixtures. To reliably establish a varve chronology, the annual character of laminations needs to be determined and verified in a multidisciplinary fashion. Sources and influences of possible errors in varve chronologies are best determined and constrained by repeated varve counts, and by including radioisotopes and correlation with historically documented events. A well-established varve chronology greatly enhances the scientific value of laminated limnic archives by securely anchoring the wealth of multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental information in the form of time-series for multidisciplinary investigations. Applications of varved records are discussed with special reference to advances since the 1980s. These span fields

  14. High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

  15. High-resolution tephrochronology of the Wilson Creek Formation (Mono Lake, California) and Laschamp event using 238U-230Th SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and tephras yield discordant results due to open-system effects and radiocarbon reservoir uncertainties as well as abundant xenocrysts. New ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yield ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and delimit the timing of basal Wilson Creek sedimentation to the interval between 26.8±2.1 and 61.7±1.9 ka. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields an age of 40.8±1.9 ka, indicating that the event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The new ages support a depositional chronology from magnetostratigraphy that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to regional climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation.

  16. Analysis of High Resolution Satellite imagery to acsees Glacier Mass Balance and Lake Hazards in Sikkim Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, S.; Shean, D. E.; Haritashya, U. K.; Arendt, A. A.; Syed, T. H.; Setiawan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods can impact downstream communities due to the sudden outflux of huge quantities of stored water. In this study, we develop a hazard assessment of the moraine dammed glacial lakes in Sikkim Himalayas by analyzing the morphometry of proglacial features, and the surface velocity and mass balance of glaciers. We generated high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) using the open-source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) and use other open-source tools to calculate surface velocity and patterns of glacier downwasting over time. Geodetic glacier mass balance is obtained for three periods using high-resolution WorldView/GeoEye stereo DEMs (8 m posting, 2014-2016), Cartosat-1 stereo DEMs (10 m, 2006-2008) and SRTM (30 m, 2000). Initial results reveal a region-wide mass balance of -0.31±0.13 m w.eq.a-1 for the 2007-2015 period, with some debris covered glaciers showing a very low mass loss rate. Additionally, 12 annual glacier velocity fields spanning from 1991 to 2017.derived from Landsat imagery are used to explore the relationship between glacier dynamics and changes in proglacial lakes. Multi-temporal glacial lake mapping is conducted using Landsat and Cartosat imagery. Avalanche and rockfall modeling are combined with morphometric analysis of the proglacial lake area to assess the likelihood of glacial lake dam failure. The above parameters are integrated into a decision tree approach enabling categorization of moraine-dammed lakes according to their potential for outburst events.

  17. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  18. High Resolution CH4 Emissions and Dissolved CH4 Measurements Elucidate Surface Gas Exchange Processes in Toolik Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sontro, T.; Sollberger, S.; Kling, G. W.; Shaver, G. R.; Eugster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 14% of the Alaskan North Slope is covered in lakes of various sizes and depths. Diffusive carbon emissions (CH4 and CO2) from these lakes offset the tundra sink by ~20 %, but the offset would substantially increase if ebullitive CH4 emissions were also considered. Ultimately, arctic lake CH4 emissions are not insignificant in the global CH4 budget and their contribution is bound to increase due to impacts from climate change. Here we present high resolution CH4 emission data as measured via eddy covariance and a Los Gatos gas analyzer during the ice free period from Toolik Lake, a deep (20 m) Arctic lake located on the Alaskan North Slope, over the last few summers. Emissions are relatively low (Gatos gas analyzer. Thus, having both the flux and the CH4 gradient across the air-water interface measured directly, we can calculate k and investigate the processes influencing CH4 gas exchange in this lake. Preliminary results indicate that there are two regimes in wind speed that impact k - one at low wind speeds up to ~5 m s-1 and another at higher wind speeds (max ~10 m s-1). The differential wind speeds during night and day may compound the effect of convective mixing and cause the diurnal variation in observed fluxes.

  19. A new method to generate a high-resolution global distribution map of lake chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Michael J; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bunnell, David B.; Raymer, Zachary B; Rogers, Mark W.; Woelmer, Whitney; Bennion, David; Brooks, Colin N.; Whitley, Matthew A.; Warner, David M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed, evaluated, and applied to generate a global dataset of growing-season chlorophyll-a (chl) concentrations in 2011 for freshwater lakes. Chl observations from freshwater lakes are valuable for estimating lake productivity as well as assessing the role that these lakes play in carbon budgets. The standard 4 km NASA OceanColor L3 chlorophyll concentration products generated from MODIS and MERIS sensor data are not sufficiently representative of global chl values because these can only resolve larger lakes, which generally have lower chl concentrations than lakes of smaller surface area. Our new methodology utilizes the 300 m-resolution MERIS full-resolution full-swath (FRS) global dataset as input and does not rely on the land mask used to generate standard NASA products, which masks many lakes that are otherwise resolvable in MERIS imagery. The new method produced chl concentration values for 78,938 and 1,074 lakes in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The mean chl for lakes visible in the MERIS composite was 19.2 ± 19.2, the median was 13.3, and the interquartile range was 3.90–28.6 mg m−3. The accuracy of the MERIS-derived values was assessed by comparison with temporally near-coincident and globally distributed in situmeasurements from the literature (n = 185, RMSE = 9.39, R2 = 0.72). This represents the first global-scale dataset of satellite-derived chl estimates for medium to large lakes.

  20. Comparison of infrared spectroscopy techniques: developing an efficient method for high resolution analysis of sediment properties from long records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Rosén, Peter; Kliem, Pierre; Ohlendorf, Christian; Persson, Per; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of sediment samples in visible to mid-infrared spectra is ideal for high-resolution records. It requires only small amounts (0.01-0.1g dry weight) of sample material and facilitates rapid and cost efficient analysis of a wide variety of biogeochemical properties on minerogenic and organic substances (Kellner et al. 1998). One of these techniques, the Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (DRIFTS), has already been successfully applied to lake sediment from very different settings and has shown to be a promising technique for high resolution analyses of long sedimentary records on glacial-interglacial timescales (Rosén et al. 2009). However, the DRIFTS technique includes a time-consuming step where sediment samples are mixed with KBr. To assess if alternative and more rapid infrared (IR) techniques can be used, four different IR spectroscopy techniques are compared for core catcher sediment samples from Laguna Potrok Aike - an ICDP site located in southernmost South America. Partial least square (PLS) calibration models were developed using the DRIFTS technique. The correlation coefficients (R) for correlations between DRIFTS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties show values of 0.80 for biogenic silica (BSi), 0.95 for total organic carbon (TOC), 0.91 for total nitrogen (TN), and 0.92 for total inorganic carbon (TIC). Good statistical performance was also obtained by using the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ATR-FTIRS technique which requires less sample preparation. Two devices were used, the full-sized Bruker Equinox 252 and the smaller and less expensive Bruker Alpha. R for ATR-FTIRS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties were 0.87 (BSi), 0.93 (TOC), 0.90 (TN), and 0.91 (TIC) for the Alpha, and 0.78 (TOC), 0.85 (TN), 0.79 (TIC) for the Equinox 252 device. As the penetration depth of the IR beam is frequency dependent, a firm surface contact of

  1. Iron-coupled inactivation of phosphorus in sediments by macrozoobenthos (chironomid larvae) bioturbation: Evidences from high-resolution dynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Musong; Ding, Shiming; Liu, Ling; Xu, Di; Han, Chao; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    The effects of chironomid larvae bioturbation on the lability of phosphorus (P) in sediments were investigated through sediment incubation for 140 days. High-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) techniques were applied to obtain soluble and labile P/Fe profiles at a millimeter resolution, respectively. The larvae bioturbation decreased concentrations of soluble/labile P and Fe by up to over half of the control at the sediment depths of influence up to 70 and 90 mm respectively. These effects continued over 116 days and disappeared on the 140th days due to eclosion of chironomid larvae. Labile P was highly correlated with labile Fe, while a weak correlation was observed between soluble P and soluble Fe. It was concluded that Fe(II) oxidation and its enhanced adsorption were the major mechanisms responsible for the decreases of soluble and labile P. - Highlights: • High resolution techniques were employed to study bioturbation effects on P. • Larvae bioturbation decreased the concentrations of soluble/labile P and Fe. • Bioturbation effects continued over 116 days and disappeared on the 140th days. • Labile P was more sensitive than pore water SRP in response to bioturbation. • It proved the mechanism of Fe-coupled inactivation of P in bioturbation sediments. - Chironomid larvae bioturation decreased the lability of P in sediments from Fe(II) oxidation and enhanced adsorption of P

  2. Arctic deltaic lake sediments as recorders of fluvial organic matter deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien E Vonk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arctic deltas are dynamic and vulnerable regions that play a key role in land-ocean interactions and the global carbon cycle. Delta lakes may provide valuable historical records of the quality and quantity of fluvial fluxes, parameters that are challenging to investigate in these remote regions. Here we study lakes from across the Mackenzie Delta, Arctic Canada, that receive fluvial sediments from the Mackenzie River when spring flood water levels rise above natural levees. We compare downcore lake sediments with suspended sediments collected during the spring flood, using bulk (% organic carbon, % total nitrogen, 13C, 14C and molecular organic geochemistry (lignin, leaf waxes. High-resolution age models (137Cs, 210Pb of downcore lake sediment records (n=11 along with lamina counting on high-resolution radiographs show sediment deposition frequencies ranging between annually to every 15 years. Down-core geochemical variability in a representative delta lake sediment core is consistent with historical variability in spring flood hydrology (variability in peak discharge, ice jamming, peak water levels. Comparison with earlier published Mackenzie River depth profiles shows that (i lake sediments reflect the riverine surface suspended load, and (ii hydrodynamic sorting patterns related to spring flood characteristics are reflected in the lake sediments. Bulk and molecular geochemistry of suspended particulate matter from the spring flood peak and lake sediments are relatively similar showing a mixture of modern higher-plant derived material, older terrestrial permafrost material, and old rock-derived material. This suggests that deltaic lake sedimentary records hold great promise as recorders of past (century-scale riverine fluxes and may prove instrumental in shedding light on past behaviour of arctic rivers, as well as how they respond to a changing climate.

  3. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  4. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  5. Lake sediments as natural seismographs: Earthquake-related deformations (seismites) in central Canadian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.; Wallace, K.; Boyce, J. I.

    2014-11-01

    Central Canada experiences numerous intraplate earthquakes but their recurrence and source areas remain obscure due to shortness of the instrumental and historic records. Unconsolidated fine-grained sediments in lake basins are 'natural seismographs' with the potential to record ancient earthquakes during the last 10,000 years since the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Many lake basins are cut into bedrock and are structurally-controlled by the same Precambrian basement structures (shear zones, terrane boundaries and other lineaments) implicated as the source of ongoing mid-plate earthquake activity. A regional seismic sub-bottom profiling of lakes Gull, Muskoka, Joseph, Rousseau, Ontario, Wanapitei, Fairbanks, Vermilion, Nipissing, Georgian Bay, Mazinaw, Simcoe, Timiskaming, Kipawa, Parry Sound and Lake of Bays, encompassing a total of more than 2000 kilometres of high-resolution track line data supplemented by multibeam and sidescan sonar survey records show a consistent sub-bottom stratigraphy of relatively-thick lowermost lateglacial facies composed of interbedded semi-transparent mass flow facies (debrites, slumps) and rhythmically-laminated silty-clays. Mass flows together with cratered ('kettled') lake floors and associated deformations reflect a dynamic ice-contact glaciolacustrine environment. Exceptionally thick mass flow successions in Lake Timiskaming along the floor of the Timiskaming Graben within the seismically-active Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ), point to a higher frequency of earthquakes and slope failure during deglaciation and rapid glacio-isostatic rebound though faulting continues into the postglacial. Lateglacial faulting, diapiric deformation and slumping of coeval lateglacial sediments is observed in Parry Sound, Lake Muskoka and Lake Joseph, which are all located above prominent Precambrian terrane boundaries. Lateglacial sediments are sharply overlain by relatively-thin rhythmically-laminated and often semi

  6. Change detection studies in and around Kolleru Lake using high resolution data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.V.; Rao. K.H.; Ramana, I.V.; Sasamal, S.K.; Choudhury, S.B.; Bhan, S.K.

    with the administrative boundaries have been prepared. The satellite data from Landsat and IRS have been analysed and classified, after geometric rectification of the images. The area under fish culture in the lake in each mandal has been estimated and presented...

  7. Proglacial lake sediments – a basis for uninterrupted chronicles of the Holocene glacier variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Alexandrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the origin of paleolimnological method in glaciology, concerns the theoretical background of the approach, and focuses on the principal methods of analysis of the lake sediments and creating the sedimentary age-depth models. Lake sediments can provide a basis for creating uninterrupted reconstructions of the Holocene glacier variations with high resolution. The fundament of paleolimnological method is based on the differences between glacial and non-glacial components of the bottom sediments of proglacial lakes. The glacial signal in the lake sediments was originally distinguished by measuring the organic content of the sediment (normally with loss-on-ignition and the magnetic properties of the sediment. Subsequent methods of analysis could yield more precision and normally include geochemical composition (with the use of high-resolution scanning x-ray fluorescence analysis, use of biogenic indicators (such as pollen and diatoms contained in the sediment and more. Obtaining the most accurate age of the sediment is a crucial question in subsequent application of the sediment parameters for reconstruction of glacier variability. The article covers various methods of dating the lake sediment – radiocarbon, Cs- and Pb-isotope dating, varve counting. Techniques of creating age-depth models are taken into account. A state-of-the-art application of sedimentary properties in paleoglaciology yields a reconstruction of a former equilibrium line altitude – ELA. The article focuses on the basis of the ELA reconstruction approach. Successful examples of reconstructions of glacier variations based on the lake sediments can be found throughout the majority of the glaciated regions of the planet. The article states the most prominent of them and gives an update on the current progress in paleolimnological research in the Caucasus Mountains.

  8. Speciation of arsenic in water, sediment, and plants of the Moira watershed, Canada, using HPLC coupled to high resolution ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Dzurko, Mark Stephen [Department of Chemistry, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, K9J 7B8, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution sector field ICP-MS was applied to the speciation of arsenic in environmental samples collected from the Moira watershed, Ontario, Canada. Arsenic contamination in Moira River and Moira Lake from historic gold mine operations is of increasing environmental concern to the local community. In this study, the current arsenic contamination status in water, sediment, and plants was investigated. Elevated levels of arsenic in the surface water of up to 75 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira River and 50 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira Lake were detected, 98% of which was present as arsenate. High concentrations of arsenic (>300 ng mL{sup -1}), mainly present as arsenite, were detected in sediment porewaters. A sediment profile of As from the West basin of Moira Lake showed lower As concentrations compared with data from the 1990s. An optimized extraction procedure using a phosphoric acid-ascorbic acid mixture demonstrated that an unknown ''As-complex'' which may consist of As, sulfide and organic matter is potentially responsible for the release of arsenite from the sediment to the overlying water column. Arsenic concentrations in plant samples ranged from 2.6 to 117 mg kg{sup -1}, dry weight. Accumulation of arsenic was observed in submerged plants collected from Moira River and Moira Lake. Only a small part of the arsenic (6.3-16.1%) in the plants was extractable with methanol-water (9:1), and most of this arsenic (70-93%) was inorganic arsenic. A variety of organic arsenic compounds, including simple methylated compounds (methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), trimethylarsine oxide, and tetramethylarsonium cation were detected at trace levels. No arsenobetaine and arsenocholine was found in any plant sample. An unknown compound, most probably an arsenosugar was detected in the two submerged plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and long-stemmed waterwort (Elatine triandra). These

  9. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  10. Headwater sediment dynamics in a debris flow catchment constrained by high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loye, Alexandre; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Theule, Joshua Isaac; Liébault, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows have been recognized to be linked to the amounts of material temporarily stored in torrent channels. Hence, sediment supply and storage changes from low-order channels of the Manival catchment, a small tributary valley with an active torrent system located exclusively in sedimentary rocks of the Chartreuse Massif (French Alps), were surveyed periodically for 16 months using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to study the coupling between sediment dynamics and torrent responses in terms of debris flow events, which occurred twice during the monitoring period. Sediment transfer in the main torrent was monitored with cross-section surveys. Sediment budgets were generated seasonally using sequential TLS data differencing and morphological extrapolations. Debris production depends strongly on rockfall occurring during the winter-early spring season, following a power law distribution for volumes of rockfall events above 0.1 m3, while hillslope sediment reworking dominates debris recharge in spring and autumn, which shows effective hillslope-channel coupling. The occurrence of both debris flow events that occurred during the monitoring was linked to recharge from previous debris pulses coming from the hillside and from bedload transfer. Headwater debris sources display an ambiguous behaviour in sediment transfer: low geomorphic activity occurred in the production zone, despite rainstorms inducing debris flows in the torrent; still, a general reactivation of sediment transport in headwater channels was observed in autumn without new debris supply, suggesting that the stored debris was not exhausted. The seasonal cycle of sediment yield seems to depend not only on debris supply and runoff (flow capacity) but also on geomorphic conditions that destabilize remnant debris stocks. This study shows that monitoring the changes within a torrent's in-channel storage and its debris supply can improve knowledge on recharge thresholds leading to debris flow.

  11. High resolution field study of sediment dynamics on a strongly heterogeneous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly Du Bois, P.; Blanpain, O.; Lafite, R.; Cugier, P.; Lunven, M.

    2010-12-01

    Extensive field measurements have been carried out at several stations in a macrotidal inner continental shelf in the English Channel (around 25 m depth) during spring tide period. The strong tidal current measured (up to 1.6 m.s-1) allowed sediment dynamics on a bed characterised by a mixture of size with coarse grains to be dominant. Data acquired in such hydro-sedimentary conditions are scarce. A new instrument, the DYnamic Sediment Profile Imagery (DySPI) system, was specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected covered: 1) grain size range (side scan sonar, video observations, Shipeck grab samples, DySPI images) and vertical sorting (stratigraphic sampling by divers) of sediment cover, 2) hydrodynamic features (acoustic Doppler velocimeter, acoustic Doppler profiler), 3) suspended load nature and dynamics (optical backscatter, chlorophyll fluorometer, particle size analyser, Niskin bottles, scanning electron microscopy), 4) sand and gravel bedload transport estimates (DySPI image processing), 5) transfer dynamics of fine grains within a coarse matrix and their depth of penetration (radionuclides measurements in stratigraphic samples). The four stations present different grain size vertical sorting from a quasi-permanent armouring to a homogenous distribution. The sediment cover condition is directly linked to hydrodynamic capacity and sediment availability. Fine grain ratio within deep sediment layers (up to 10 cm) is higher when the bed armouring is durable. However, fine sediments are not permanently depth trapped: deep layers are composed of few years-old radionuclide tracers fixed on fine grains and a vertical mixing coefficient has been evaluated for each sediment cover. Fine grain dynamics within a coarse matrix is inversely proportional to the robustness of the armour layer. For current

  12. Characterization and consequences of intermittent sediment oxygenation by macrofauna: interpretation of high-resolution data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meile, C. D.; Dwyer, I.; Zhu, Q.; Polerecky, L.; Volkenborn, N.

    2017-12-01

    Mineralization of organic matter in marine sediments leads to the depletion of oxygen, while activities of infauna introduce oxygenated seawater to the subsurface. In permeable sediments solutes can be transported from animals and their burrows into the surrounding sediment through advection over several centimeters. The intermittency of pumping leads to a spatially heterogeneous distribution of oxidants, with the temporal dynamics depending on sediment reactivity and activity patterns of the macrofauna. Here, we present results from a series of experiments in which these dynamics are studied at high spatial and temporal resolution using planar optodes. From O2, pH and pCO2 optode data, we quantify rates of O2 consumption and dissolved inorganic carbon production, as well alkalinity dynamics, with millimeter-scale resolution. Simulating intermittent irrigation by imposed pumping patterns in thin aquaria, we derive porewater flow patterns, which together with the production and consumption rates cause the chemical distributions and the establishment of reaction fronts. Our analysis thus establishes a quantitative connection between the locally dynamic redox conditions relevant for biogeochemical transformations and macroscopic observations commonly made with sediment cores.

  13. Geochemistry records from laminated sediments of Shira Lake (Russian Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phedorin, M.; Vologina, E.; Drebuschak, M.; Tolomeev, A.; Kirichenko, I.; Toyabin, A.

    2009-04-01

    ) and in Lake Khubsugul sediments (Phedorin et al., 2008). The cores we studied provide us with high-resolution geochemical records of last century for further meteorological correlations and regressions back to the past. We plan to reconstruct regional trends proceeding with the investigation of this kind and studying sediments of some other Khakas lakes. The investigation was supported by the grant from RFBR (09-05-98027) and grant from the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science. Phedorin M.A., Goldberg E.L., Grachev M.A., Levina O.L., Khlystov O.M., Dolbnya I.P. The Comparison of Biogenic Silica, Br and Nd Distributions in the Sediments of Lake Baikal as Proxies of Changing Paleoclimates of the Last 480 ky. // Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, 2000, V. A448, № 1-2, pp. 400-406. Phedorin M.A., Goldberg E.L. Prediction of absolute concentrations of elements from SR XRF scan measurements of natural wet sediments. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005), p. 274-279. Phedorin M.A., Fedotov A.P., Vorobieva S.S., Ziborova G.A.. Signature of long supercycles in the Pleistocene history of Asian limnic systems. J Paleolimnol, 2008, 40/1, pp. 445-452. Zolotarev K.V., Goldberg E.L., Kondratyev V.I., Kulipanov G.N., Miginsky E.G., Tsukanov V.M., Phedorin M.A., Kolmogorov Y.P. Scanning SR-XRF beamline for analysis of bottom sediments. // Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, 2001, V. A470, N 1-2, pp. 376-379.

  14. Resolving the age of Wilson Creek Formation tephras and the Mono Lake excursion using high-resolution SIMS dating of allanite and zircon rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Lidzbarski, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and interbedded rhyolitic tephras yield discordant 14C and 40Ar/39Ar results due to open-system effects, carbon reservoir uncertainties, as well as abundant xenocrysts entrained during eruption. Ion microprobe (SIMS) 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yields ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and resolve age uncertainties about the Wilson Creek stratigraphy. To date the final several micrometers of crystal growth, individual allanite and zircon crystals were embedded in soft indium to allow sampling of unpolished rims. Isochron ages derived from rims on coexisting allanite and zircon (± glass) from hand-selected pumiceous pyroclasts delimit the timing of Wilson Creek sedimentation between Ashes 7 and 19 (numbering of Lajoie, 1968) to the interval between ca. 27 to ca. 62 ka. The interiors of individual allanite and zircon crystals sectioned in standard SIMS mounts yield model 238U-230Th ages that are mostly hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation. Moreover, the results demonstrate that high-spatial resolution SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims is an alternative and promising approach for resolving the depositional ages of silicic tephras containing minerals that crystallized over protracted intervals or that are plagued by incorporation of xenocrysts

  15. A 3500 14C yr High-Resolution Record of Water-Level Changes in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mark B.; Binford, Michael W.; Brenner, Mark; Kelts, Kerry R.

    1997-03-01

    Sediment cores collected from the southern basin of Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) on a transect from 4.6 m above overflow level to 15.1 m below overflow level are used to identify a new century-scale chronology of Holocene lake-level variations. The results indicate that lithologic and geochemical analyses on a transect of cores can be used to identify and date century-scale lake-level changes. Detailed sedimentary analyses of subfacies and radiocarbon dating were conducted on four representative cores. A chronology based on 60 accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurements constrains the timing of water-level fluctuations. Two methods were used to estimate the 14C reservoir age. Both indicate that it has remained nearly constant at ˜250 14C yr during the late Holocene. Core studies based on lithology and geochemistry establish the timing and magnitude of five periods of low lake level, implying negative moisture balance for the northern Andean altiplano over the last 3500 cal yr. Between 3500 and 3350 cal yr B.P., a transition from massive, inorganic-clay facies to laminated organic-matter-rich silts in each of the four cores signals a water-level rise after a prolonged mid-Holocene dry phase. Evidence of other significant low lake levels occurs 2900-2800, 2400-2200, 2000-1700, and 900-500 cal yr B.P. Several of the low lake levels coincided with cultural changes in the region, including the collapse of the Tiwanaku civilization.

  16. Patterns of volcanism, weathering, and climate history from high-resolution geochemistry of the BINGO core, Mono Lake, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, S. R.; Starratt, S.; Hemming, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Mono Lake, California is a closed-basin lake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, and inflow from snowmelt dominates the modern hydrology. Changes in wetness during the last glacial period (>12,000 years ago) and over the last 2,000 years have been extensively described, but are poorly known for the intervening period. We have recovered a 6.25 m-long core from ~3 m of water in the western embayment of Mono Lake, which is shown by initial radiocarbon dates to cover at least the last 10,000 years. The sediments of the core are variable, ranging from black to gray silts near the base, laminated olive-green silt through the center, to layers of peach-colored carbonate nodules interbedded with gray and olive silts and pea-green organic ooze. Volcanic tephras from Bodie and Adobe Hills to the north, east, and south. The rhyolitic tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters are much lower in TiO2 than the bedrock (10,000 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) higher in the core, and significant disruption of the fine layers, this interval likely indicates a relatively deep lake persisting into the early Holocene, after the initial dramatic regression from late Pleistocene levels. The finely laminated olive-green silt of the period ~10,700 to ~7500 cal yr BP is very homogenous chemically, probably indicating a stable, stratified lake and a relatively wet climate. This section merits mm-scale scanning and petrographic examination in the future. The upper boundary of the laminated section shows rising Ca/K and decreasing Ti and Si/K, marking the appearance of authigenic carbonate layers. After ~7500 cal yr BP, the sediment in BINGO becomes highly variable, with increased occurrence of tephra layers and carbonate, indicating a lower and more variable lake level. A short interval of olive-green, laminated fine sand/silt just above a radiocarbon date of 3870 ± 360 cal yr BP may record the Dechambeau Ranch highstand of Stine (1990; PPP v. 78 pp 333-381), and is marked by a distinct

  17. Sedimentation influx and volcanic interactions in the Fuji Five Lakes: implications for paleoseismological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamair, Laura; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Yamamoto, Shinya; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Garrett, Ed; Shishikura, Masanobu; Schmidt, Sabine; Boes, Evelien; Obrochta, Stephen; Nakamura, Atsunori; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The Fuji Fives Lakes are located at the foot of Mount Fuji volcano close to the triple junction, where the North American Plate, the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea Plate meet. These lakes are ideally situated to study Mount Fuji volcanism and the interaction between volcanism, changes in lake sedimentation rates and the ability of lakes to record paleoearthquakes. Here, we present newly acquired geological data of Lake Yamanaka and Lake Motosu, including seismic reflection profiles, gravity and piston cores. These two lakes and their respective watersheds were affected by several eruptions of Mount Fuji. Lake Yamanaka, a very shallow lake (max. depth 14 m), was heavily impacted by the scoria fall-out of the A.D. 1707 Hoei eruption of Mount Fuji. A detailed investigation of the effect of the Hoei eruption was conducted on short gravity cores, using high resolution XRD, C/N and 210Pb/137Cs analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the sedimentation rate of Lake Yamanaka drastically reduced after the Hoei eruption, followed by an increase until the present day. Similarly, lacustrine sedimentation in Lake Motosu (max. depth 122 m) was disturbed by Mount Fuji volcanism at a larger scale. The watershed of Lake Motosu was impacted by several lava flows and scoria cones. For example, the Omuro scoria cone reduced the catchment size of Lake Motosu and modified its physiography. The related scoria fall out covered an extensive part of the lake catchment and reduced terrigenous sedimentary influx to Lake Motosu. Within the deep basin of Lake Motosu, seismic reflection data shows two different periods that are distinguished by a major change in the dominant sedimentary processes. During the first period, sublacustrine landslides and turbidity currents were the dominant sedimentation processes. During the second one, the seismic stratigraphy evidences only deposition of numerous turbidites interrupting the hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in sedimentary processes

  18. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (physical and social records coupled with high-resolution, sub-annual simulations of catchment-to-lake soil erosion and sedimentation. This choice of modelling period represents a compromise between the length of record and data availability for model parameterisation. We combine historic datasets for climate and land cover from four lake catchments in Britain with a fully revised catchment-scale modelling approach based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  19. A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Byers, Harry; Beckers, Liza-Marie; Prothmann, Jens; Brack, Werner; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC-HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate-acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone-formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol-10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL -1 , we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract-(93 ± 23)%-and for the combined acidic/basic extracts-(42 ± 16)%-after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.

  20. Comparative analysis of cesium 137 behavior in the lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenchenko, S.A.; Zimelis, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    The results for Cs 137 distribution in the lake sediments with different contamination of the organic materials were compared. The role of the horizontal migration is shown for radioactive pollution of the lake sediment

  1. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, Rick; Jilbert, Tom; Mason, Paul R D; de Lange, Gert J.; Reichart, Gert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (μm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  2. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R.; Jilbert, T.; de Lange, G.J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (µm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  3. Multistage 8.2 kyr event revealed through high-resolution XRF core scanning of Cuban sinkhole sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, Matthew; Collins, Shawn; G'Meiner, Anna Agosta; Reinhardt, Eduard; Pupo, Felipe Matos

    2017-07-01

    We use sediments from a flooded sinkhole (Cenote Jennifer) in northern Cuba to provide new, well-dated, high-resolution evidence for the 8.2 kyr event. From 7600 to 8700 cal yr B.P. the sinkhole contained shallow, low-salinity water, which supported a marsh dominated by cattail and grass. Peaks in Cl and Br—occurring at 8150, 8200, and 8250 cal yr B.P.—are attributable to increased evaporation due to regional drying associated with the 8.2 kyr event. The three peaks in these elements also closely correspond to the greyscale record from the Cariaco Basin, indicative of increased upwelling in the southern Caribbean Sea at this time, supporting the notion of a multistage 8.2 kyr event. Our work provides new data that help to clarify the initiation, behavior, and impacts of the 8.2 kyr event in the northern tropics.

  4. Chemical composition of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (18.2 km2, 1.3 km3, 143 m max. depth has been severely polluted since industrialisation of its watershed began in 1926, at which time the lake began to receive industrial effluents containing high concentrations of copper and ammonia. Chromium-, nickel-, and zinc-rich effluents from plating factories have also contributed to pollution levels, and pH -levels dropped below 4.0 as a result of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrates. More than 60 papers have documented the evolution of the chemical characteristics of both water and sediment, and the sudden decline of plankton, as well as benthos and fish. As a remedial action the lake was limed from May 1989 to June 1990 with 10,900 tons of CaCO3. The treatment was immediately effective in raising the pH and decreasing the metal concentrations in the water column, and plankton and fish communities quickly rebounded. However, the chemical characteristics of sediments were influenced by the liming to a much lesser extent. Since 900 tons of copper and the same amount of chromium were contained in the top 10 cm of sediment, it appears likely that the sediment could potentially act as a current and future source of these metals to the water column. This observation has resulted in the implementation of a vigorous monitoring regime to track the post-liming recovery of Lake Orta.

  5. Sedimentation rates in Lake Pukaki, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchburn, R.G.; McCabe, W.J.

    1977-10-01

    The layers of Lake Pukaki sediments and their possible relationship to other cyclic events have been considered with a view to determining the rate of sediment deposition. There was no evidence to determine whether the rhytmic layers in the sediments are annual deposits or controlled by flood conditions. In the hope of resolving the question, radiometric dating techniques were applied to sediment cores in which the concentrations of radionuclides such as lead 210 and caesium 137 were measured with respect to depth and then related to some known input pattern. 210 Pb and 137 Cs were determined in all three cores investigated. 147 Pr and 144 Ce were also determined in one of the cores. The 137 Cs measurements indicated sedimentation rates of 14 kg/y/m 2 for one core and 17 kg/y/m 2 for the other two

  6. Century-scale high-resolution black carbon records in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Hong, Yuehui; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Lirong; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) has received increasing attention in the last 20 years because it is not only an absorbent of toxic pollutants but also a greenhouse substance, preserving fire-history records, and more importantly, acting as an indicator of biogeochemical cycles and global changes. By adopting an improved chemothermal oxidation method (WXY), this study reconstructed the century-scale high-resolution records of BC deposition from two fine-grained sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in the South Yellow Sea. The BC records were divided into five stages, which exhibited specific sequences with three BC peaks at approximately 1891, 1921, and 2007 AD, representing times at which the first heavy storms appeared just after the termination of long-term droughts. The significant correlation between the times of the BC peaks in the cores and heavy storms in the area of the Huanghe (Yellow) River demonstrated that BC peaks could result from markedly strengthened sedimentation due to surface runoff, which augmented the atmospheric deposition. Stable carbon isotope analysis indicated that the evident increase in carbon isotope ratios of BC in Stage 5 might have resulted from the input of weathered rock-derived graphitic carbon cardinally induced by the annual anthropogenic modulation of water-borne sediment in the Huanghe River since 2005 AD. Numerical calculations demonstrated that the input fraction of graphitic carbon was 22.97% for Stage 5, whereas no graphitic carbon entered during Stages 1 and 3. The obtained data provide new and important understanding of the source-sink history of BC in the Yellow Sea.

  7. Inputting history of heavy metals into the inland lake recorded in sediment profiles: Poyang Lake in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoli; Liu Chen; Chen Long; Yang Zhongfang

    2011-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, As and Cr) in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake (3050 km 2 ) in China, were studied based on the sedimentary profiles. For this purpose, eight sedimentary cores were selected which located at lake area, outfall of lake and the main branch rivers, respectively. High-resolution profiles with interval 2 cm were used for analyzing the concentration of metals, and the ages of them were determined by 210 Pb and 137 Cs isotopic dating. While studying the change of metals concentration with the age in profile, it is found that the concentration of them in sediments was influenced not only by the sources in history but also by the sediment types. Based on this detailed work, the inventory and burden of heavy metals per decade were estimated in lake area during the past 50 years. Significantly, rivers-contribution ratio per decade was estimated to distinguish each river's contribution of heavy metals into lake while river-flux in history and metals concentration in profiles were considered as calculating factors. So, our research provides a proof to well understand the sedimentary history and the inputting history of heavy metals from main rivers into an inland lake.

  8. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  9. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author).

  11. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  12. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  13. Determination of BMAA and three alkaloid cyanotoxins in lake water using dansyl chloride derivatization and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the detection of alkaloid cyanotoxins in harmful algal blooms. The detection of the nonproteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and two of its conformation isomers, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG), as well as three alkaloid cyanotoxins, anatoxin-a (ANA-a), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and saxitoxin (STX), is presented. The use of a chemical derivatization with dansyl chloride (DNS) allows easier separation with reversed phase liquid chromatography. Detection with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with the Q-Exactive enables high selectivity with specific fragmentation as well as exact mass detection, reducing considerably the possibilities of isobaric interferences. Previous to analysis, a solid phase extraction (SPE) step is used for purification and preconcentration. After DNS derivatization, samples are submitted to ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with heated electrospray ionisation and the Q-Exactive mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HESI-HRMS). With an internal calibration using isotopically-labeled DAB-D3, the method was validated with good linearity (R (2)  > 0.998), and method limits of detection and quantification (MLD and MLQ) for target compounds ranged from 0.007 to 0.01 μg L(-1) and from 0.02 to 0.04 μg L(-1), respectively. Accuracy and within-day/between-days variation coefficients were below 15%. SPE recovery values ranged between 86 and 103%, and matrix effects recovery values ranged between 75 and 96%. The developed analytical method was successfully validated with 12 different lakes samples, and concentrations were found ranging between 0.009 and 0.3 μg L(-1) except for STX which was not found in any sample.

  14. Anthropogenic mercury deposition to arctic lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.H. [Westchester University, Westchester, PA (United States). Dept. of Health

    1998-01-01

    The history of atmospheric mercury inputs to remote arctic regions can be measured in lake sediment cores using lead-210 chronology. In the investigation, total mercury deposition is measured in sediments from Imitavik and Annak Lakes on the Belcher Islands in southeastern Hudson Bay, an area in the southern Canadian Arctic with no history of local industrial or agricultural sources of contamination. Both lakes received background and atmospheric inputs of mercury while Annak also received mercury from raw domestic sewage from the Hamlet of Sanikiluaq, a growing Inuit community of about 550 established in the late 1960s. Results from Imitavik show that anthropogenic mercury inputs, apparently transported through the atmosphere, began to appear in the mid-eighteenth century, and continued to the 1990s. Annak had a similar mercury history until the late 1960s when disposal of domestic sewage led to increased sediment and contaminant accumulation. The high input of mercury to Annak confirms that Sanikiluaq residents are exposed to mercury through native food sources. 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A 500 year sediment lake record of anthropogenic and natural inputs to Windermere (English Lake District) using double-spike lead isotopes, radiochronology, and sediment microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen; Croudace, Ian W; Bull, Jonathan M; Cotterill, Carol J; Dix, Justin K; Taylor, Rex N

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution record of pollution is preserved in recent sediments from Windermere, the largest lake in the English Lake District. Data derived from X-ray core scanning (validated against wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence), radiochronological techniques ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) and ultrahigh precision, double-spike mass spectrometry for lead isotopes are combined to decipher the anthropogenic inputs to the lake. The sediment record suggests that while most element concentrations have been stable, there has been a significant increase in lead, zinc, and copper concentrations since the 1930s. Lead isotope down-core variations identify three major contributory sources of anthropogenic (industrial) lead, comprising gasoline lead, coal combustion lead (most likely source is coal-fired steam ships), and lead derived from Carboniferous Pb-Zn mineralization (mining activities). Periods of metal workings do not correlate with peaks in heavy metals due to the trapping efficiency of up-system lakes in the catchment. Heavy metal increases could be due to flood-induced metal inwash after the cessation of mining and the weathering of bedrock in the catchment. The combination of sediment analysis techniques used provides new insights into the pollutant depositional history of Windermere and could be similarly applied to other lake systems to determine the timing and scale of anthropogenic inputs.

  16. High-resolution insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals on natural sediment by site energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Jin, Qiang; Tandon, Puja; Li, Aimin; Shan, Aidang; Du, Jiajie

    2018-04-01

    Investigating competitive adsorption on river/lake sediments is valuable for understanding the fate and transport of heavy metals. Most studies have studied the adsorption isotherms of competitive heavy metals, which mainly comparing the adsorption information on the same concentration. However, intrinsically, the concentration of each heavy metal on competitive adsorption sites is different, while the adsorption energy is identical. Thus, this paper introduced the site energy distribution theory to increase insight into the competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Zn). The site energy distributions of each metal with and without other coexisting heavy metals were obtained. It illustrated that site energy distributions provide much more information than adsorption isotherms through screening of the full energy range. The results showed the superior heavy metal in each site energy area and the influence of competitive metals on the site energy distribution of target heavy metal. Site energy distributions can further help in determining the competitive sites and ratios of coexisting metals. In particular, in the high-energy area, which has great environmental significance, the ratios of heavy metals in the competitive adsorption sites obtained for various competitive systems were as follows: slightly more than 3:1 (Cu-Cd), slightly less than 3:1 (Cu-Zn), slightly more than 1:1 (Cd-Zn), and nearly 7:2:2 (Cu-Cd-Zn). The results from this study are helpful to deeply understand competitive adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn) on sediment. Therefore, this study was effective in presenting a general pattern for future reference in competitive adsorption studies on sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long livestock farming history and human landscape shaping revealed by lake sediment DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguet-Covex, Charline; Pansu, Johan; Arnaud, Fabien; Rey, Pierre-Jérôme; Griggo, Christophe; Gielly, Ludovic; Domaizon, Isabelle; Coissac, Eric; David, Fernand; Choler, Philippe; Poulenard, Jérôme; Taberlet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of human-driven, Earth-shaping dynamics is important for understanding past human/environment interactions and for helping human societies that currently face global changes. However, it is often challenging to distinguish the effects of the climate from human activities on environmental changes. Here we evaluate an approach based on DNA metabarcoding used on lake sediments to provide the first high-resolution reconstruction of plant cover and livestock farming history since the Neolithic Period. By comparing these data with a previous reconstruction of erosive event frequency, we show that the most intense erosion period was caused by deforestation and overgrazing by sheep and cowherds during the Late Iron Age and Roman Period. Tracking plants and domestic mammals using lake sediment DNA (lake sedDNA) is a new, promising method for tracing past human practices, and it provides a new outlook of the effects of anthropogenic factors on landscape-scale changes.

  18. [Limnology of high mountain tropical lake, in Ecuador: characteristics of sediments and rate of sedimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, Günter

    2003-06-01

    Equatorial high mountain lakes are a special type of lake occurring mainly in the South American Andes as well as in Central Africa and Asia. They occur at altitudes of a few thousand meters above sea level and are cold-water lakes (limnological study was therefore undertaken at Lake San Pablo, Ecuador, to analyze the basic limnological processes of the lake, which has a tendency for eutrophication. Sediment quality of San Pablo Lake is given under consideration of horizontal and vertical distribution using sediment cores. Significance of sediments for eutrophication process of lakes is demonstrated using phosphorus concentration of sediments as well as the phosphorus retention capacity of the sediments by ratio Fe/P. Dating of the sediments is done using 137Cs and 210Pb, but the activity of 137Cs in the sediment was very low nearly at the detection level. Sedimentation rate is determined to be 3.5 mm/year and the sediment cores represent about 110 years. P concentration of the sediments is high (approximately 5 g/kg dry substance), and P retention capacity by Fe is insufficient (Fe/P = 4). The sediment quality did not change significantly during the past decades, and the trophic state of San Pablo Lake was already less or more eutrophic 110 years ago. The contamination of the lake sediments by heavy metals is insignificant.

  19. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2014-05-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European (pre-alpine) water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were

  20. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  2. Study of the environmental impacts of the natural radioactivity presents in beach sand and Lake Sediment samples Idku, Behara, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, N.M.; El-Khatib, A.; Abd El-Salam, Y.M.; Naim, M.A.; Shalaby, M.H.; El-Gally, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural radionuclides belonging to 232 Th, 238 U decay chains, 40 K and 137 Cs in contents of beach sands and bottom sediments collected at various locations over Idku coast and Idku lake, respectively have been determined using low background computerized high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. A distribution map for each radionuclide distribution was presented for idku lake as well as radium equivalent and the external hazard index which resulted from the natural radionuclides in sediments are also calculated and tabulated for the analyzed samples.

  3. A High-Resolution Biogenic Silica Record From Lake Titicaca, Peru-Bolivia: South American Millennial-Scale Climate Variability From 18-60 Kya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, E. J.; Fritz, S. C.; Stevens, L. R.; Baker, P. A.; Seltzer, G. O.

    2004-12-01

    Sediments recovered from a deep basin in Lake Titicaca, Peru-Boliva, were analyzed for biogenic silica (BSi) content by extraction of freeze dried sediments in 1% sodium carbonate. Sediments were dated using an age model developed from multiple 14C dates on bulk sediments. The BSi record shows distinct fluctuations in concentration and accumulation rate from 18 to 60 kya. Multi-taper method spectral analysis reveals a significant millennial-scale component to these fluctuations centered at 1370 years. High BSi accumulation rates correlate with enhanced benthic diatom preservation, suggesting that the BSi record is related to variations in lake water level. Modern-day Lake Titicaca lake level and precipitation are strongly related to northern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures, with cooler SSTs related to wetter conditions. Subsequently, the spectral behavior of the GRIP ice core δ 18O record was investigated in order to estimate coherency and linkages between North Atlantic and tropical South American climate. GRIP data exhibit a significant 1370-year spectral peak which comprises approximately 26% of the total variability in the record. Despite a high degree of coherency between millennial-scale periodicities in Lake Titicaca BSi and GRIP δ 18O records, the Lake Titicaca silica record does not show longer term cooling cycles characteristic of D-O cycles found in the GRIP record. Rather, the Lake Titicaca record is highly periodic and more similar in nature to several Antarctic climate proxy records. These results suggest that while South American tropical climate varies in phase with North Atlantic climate, additional forcing mechanisms are manifest in the region which may include tropical Pacific and Southern Ocean variability.

  4. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  5. Trace element composition in sediments of the Amazonian Lake Cristalino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Lake Cristalino is a small lake adjacent to the Negro River near Manaus and not far from the Amazonas River, in the central Amazon basin. The lake is fed seasonally by waters of the Negro River, a blackwater river with low levels of nutrients and suspended solids (7 g m -3 ). However, some investigations have established that Lake Cristalino has a high sedimentation rate (0.4-0.5 cm year -l ) similar to those in the alluvial floodplain lakes of the Amazonas River (suspended solids 200-300 g m -3 ). Sediment cores were taken during the low-water period and the trace-element composition and the natural radioactivity in the lake were examined. The results show a core (31 cm length) relatively uniform in concentrations of trace elements (Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and Zn), and the presence of 137 Cs in the first half. Concentrations of trace elements in Lake Cristalino sediments were not correlated with concentrations in the sediments of its parent river, the Negro River, or with concentrations in soils of the local area. However, significant correlation was found between the sediments of the lake and those of the Amazonas River. On the basis of these results, and water-level data at Manaus port, it is concluded that the lake occasionally receives variable amounts of sediment from the Amazonas River. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Using high-resolution in situ radon measurements to determine groundwater discharge at a remote location: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Chanyotha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about fourfold. We hypothesize that nutrients are at least partially delivered via groundwater discharge, especially during the draining portion of the annual flood cycle. We surveyed over 200 km in the northern section of the lake using a customized system that measures natural 222 Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth while underway. Results showed that there were portions of the lake with significant enrichments in radon, indicating likely groundwater inputs. These same areas were generally characterized by lower electrical conductivities. Samples collected from nearby wells also showed a general inverse relationship between radon and conductivity. Our data suggest that groundwater pathways are important, accounting for roughly 10-20 % of the freshwater flow of the Tonle Sap tributary (connection to the Mekong River), the largest single source of fresh water to the lake. Nutrient inputs from these inputs, because of higher concentrations in groundwater, will be correspondingly higher. (author)

  7. Modern limnology, sediment accumulation and varve formation processes in Lake Żabińskie, northeastern Poland: comprehensive process studies as a key to understand the sediment record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bonk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental data from sediment records require a thorough knowledge of the physical, chemical and biological factors that influence sediment-formation processes and signal preservation in lake sediments. Lake Żabińskie, an eutrophic hardwater lake located in northeastern Poland (Masurian Lake District, provides an unique environment for the investigation of processes that lead to the varve formation. During a two-year long observation period we investigated limnological and hydrochemical conditions within the water column, recent sediment fluxes and laminations preserved in the sediments of this lake to understand the relationship between the lake water properties and the sediment formation processes. We demonstrate that different mixing patterns may occur in Lake Żabińskie, from dimictic to meromictic depending on the meteorological conditions. Regardless of the water mixing pattern, the lake was stratified during much of the year which led to significant differences between surface and near-bottom water environments. The hypolimnion was characterized by higher conductivity and anoxic conditions with only short periods of better oxygenation, which created conditions ideal for the formation and preservation of biogenic varves. The material collected from the sediment trap revealed notable changes in sediment fluxes with characteristic spring maxima and, optionally, a second late fall maxima. Considerable variability was also observed for the fluxes of total organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcite. Microscopic investigation of the topmost sediments revealed a complex structure of the varves showing a distinct spring calcite lamina followed by several fine calcite laminae interbedded with diatom-rich laminae and, finally, by an organic-rich lamina with minerogenic admixtures deposited during winter. This seasonal variability was also reflected in the chemical composition inferred from high-resolution

  8. Estimating Sediment Delivery to The Rio Maranon, Peru Prior to Large-Scale Hydropower Developments Using High Resolution Imagery from Google Earth and a DJI Phantom 3 Drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, J. R.; Candelaria, T.; Kramer, N. R.; Hill, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    As global energy demands increase, generating hydroelectric power by constructing dams and reservoirs on large river systems is increasingly seen as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, especially in emerging economies. Many large-scale hydropower projects are located in steep mountainous terrain, where environmental factors have the potential to conspire against the sustainability and success of such projects. As reservoir storage capacity decreases when sediment builds up behind dams, high sediment yields can limit project life expectancy and overall hydropower viability. In addition, episodically delivered sediment from landslides can make quantifying sediment loads difficult. These factors, combined with remote access, limit the critical data needed to effectively evaluate development decisions. In the summer of 2015, we conducted a basic survey to characterize the geomorphology, hydrology and ecology of 620 km of the Rio Maranon, Peru - a major tributary to the Amazon River, which flows north from the semi-arid Peruvian Andes - prior to its dissection by several large hydropower dams. Here we present one component of this larger study: a first order analysis of potential sediment inputs to the Rio Maranon, Peru. To evaluate sediment delivery and storage in this system, we used high resolution Google Earth imagery to delineate landslides, combined with high resolution imagery from a DJI Phantom 3 Drone, flown at alluvial fan inputs to the river in the field. Because hillslope-derived sediment inputs from headwater tributaries are important to overall ecosystem health in large river systems, our study has the potential to contribute to the understanding the impacts of large Andean dams on sediment connectivity to the Amazon basin.

  9. Natural and artificial radioactivity assessment of dam lakes sediments in Coruh River, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar Kobya; Sabit Korcak; Cafer Mert Yesilkanat

    2015-01-01

    In the sediment samples collected from 3 different dam reservoirs and 10 different stations on Coruh River, U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 activity concentration levels were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 were found to be 15.8, 13.9, 551.5 and 18.1 Bq/kg in Deriner Dam Lake, 3.7, 12.5, 473.8 and 6.8 Bq/kg in Borcka Dam Lake, 14.4, 30.0, 491.7 and 18.2 Bq/kg in Muratli Dam Lake, respectively. Estimation calculations were made for the non-sampling zones by using Kriging method. Furthermore, results were compared with the similar studies done in different countries. (author)

  10. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  11. A 150 kyr-long hydroclimate record from Southern California using Searles Lake sediments: initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Olson, K. J.; McGee, D.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Smoot, J. P.; Janick, J. J.; Lund, S.; Peaple, M.; Chen, C. Y.; Feakins, S. J.; Litwin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Over decadal to millennial scales, the southwestern U.S has experienced large shifts in hydroclimate ranging from pluvial conditions to extreme droughts. Direct observations, modeling and proxy data suggest precipitation amount and distribution are controlled by multiple factors including the position of the Hadley Cell, strength of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, ENSO and the path of winter storm tracks. Sediment records from closed basin lakes provide a means for assessing how hydrologic conditions have responded to past climate changes; however, long (>50 ka) paleoclimate records from lakes are rare and high-resolution age models are challenging to obtain. Searles Lake, in southeastern California, contains a sedimentary record that spans from the Holocene to the Pliocene at high resolution. Previous drill core studies from the basin used stratigraphy and sediment mineralogy to interpret paleoenvironmental changes and have demonstrated that the lake's sediments are able to be precisely dated. These results provide a strong foundation for new high-resolution investigations of the lake sediments. In January 2017, our group collected a new 80 m-long core with the aim of reconstructing hydrologic changes over the last 150 ka at millennial or better resolution. The core was split at the National Lacustrine Core Facility (LacCore) in June. The core contains alternating evaporite layers and finely laminated muds which likely indicate times of dryer and wetter conditions. Despite the challenge of alternating lithologies, core recovery and quality are extremely high. Here, we will present our initial chronological and stratigraphic findings. The core record will be dated using a combination of U/Th, 14C and magnetostratigraphy. We will compare our initial stratigraphic description to the existing Searles Lake literature as well as other records from the region, such as data from Devils Hole. These results provide the framework upon which we will develop detailed

  12. Mesoscale spiral vortex embedded within a Lake Michigan snow squall band - High resolution satellite observations and numerical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark; Pease, Steven R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that Great Lakes snow squall convection occurs in a variety of different modes depending on various factors such as air-water temperature contrast, boundary-layer wind shear, and geostrophic wind direction. An exceptional and often neglected source of data for mesoscale cloud studies is the ultrahigh resolution multispectral data produced by Landsat satellites. On October 19, 1972, a clearly defined spiral vortex was noted in a Landsat-1 image near the southern end of Lake Michigan during an exceptionally early cold air outbreak over a still very warm lake. In a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation mesoscale model with an initially uniform wind field, a definite analog to the observed vortex was generated. This suggests that intense surface heating can be a principal cause in the development of a low-level mesoscale vortex.

  13. 20th-century glacial-marine sedimentation in Vitus Lake, Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B.F.; Post, A.; Carlson, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vitus Lake, the ice-marginal basin at the southeastern edge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., is a site of modern, rapid, glacial-marine sedimentation. Rather than being a fresh-water lake, Vitus Lake is a tidally influenced, marine to brackish embayment connected to the Pacific Ocean by an inlet, the Seal River. Vitus Lake consists of five deep bedrock basins, separated by interbasinal highs. Glacial erosion has cut these basins as much as 250 m below sea level. High-resolution seismic reflection surveys conducted in 1991 and 1993 of four of Vitus Lake's basins reveal a complex, variable three-component acoustic stratigraphy. Although not fully sampled, the stratigraphy is inferred to be primarily glacial-marine units of (1) basal contorted and deformed glacial-marine and glacial sediments deposited by basal ice-contact processes and submarine mass-wasting; (2) acoustically well-stratified glacial-marine sediment, which unconformably overlies the basal unit and which grades upward into (3) acoustically transparent or nearly transparent glacial-marine sediment. Maximum thicknesses of conformable glacial-marine sediment exceed 100 m. All of the acoustically transparent and stratified deposits in Vitus Lake are modern in age, having accumulated between 1967 and 1993. The basins where these three-part sequences of "present-day" glacial-marine sediment are accumulating are themselves cut into older sequences of stratified glacial and glacial-marine deposits. These older units outcrop on the islands in Vitus Lake. In 1967, as the result of a major surge, glacier ice completely filled all five basins. Subsequent terminus retreat, which continued through August 1993, exposed these basins, providing new locations for glacial-marine sediment accumulation. A correlation of sediment thicknesses measured from seismic profiles at specific locations within the basins, with the year that each location became ice-free, shows that the sediment accumulation at some locations

  14. Conditions affecting the release of phosphorus from surface lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophoridis, Christophoros; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of pH and redox conditions, as well as the effect of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, on the release of ortho-phosphates in lake sediments taken from Lakes Koronia and Volvi (Northern Greece). Results were evaluated in combination with experiments to determine P fractionation in the sediment. The study revealed the major effect of redox potential and pH on the release of P from lake sediments. Both lakes showed increased release rates under reductive conditions and high pH values. The fractionation experiments revealed increased mobility of the reductive P fraction as well as of the NaOH-P fraction, indicating participation of both fractions in the overall release of sediment-bound P, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The results were assessed in combination with the release patterns of Fe, Mn, Ca, Al, and organic matter, enabling the identification of more specific processes of P release for each lake. The basic release patterns included the redox induced reductive dissolution of P-bearing metal oxides and the competitive exchange of phosphate anions with OH- at high pH values. The formation of an oxidized surface microlayer under oxic conditions acted as a protective film, preventing further P release from the sediments of Lake Volvi, while sediments from Lake Koronia exhibited a continuous and increased tendency to release P under various physicochemical conditions, acting as a constant source of internal P loading.

  15. Sediment characteristics and wind-induced sediment dynamics in shallow Lake Markermeer, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, P.; Ang'weya, R.O.; De Rozari, P.; Vijverberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007/08, a study was undertaken on the sediment dynamics in shallow Lake Markermeer (the Netherlands). Firstly, sediment characteristics were determined at 49 sites in the lake. Parameters such as median grain size and loss on ignition showed a spatial as well as water depth related pattern,

  16. Impact of methane flow through deformable lake sediments on atmospheric release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandella, B.; Juanes, R.

    2010-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is generated geothermally and biologically in lake and ocean sediments. Free gas bubbles may escape oxidative traps and contribute more to the atmospheric source than dissolved methane, but the details of the methane release depend on the interactions between the multiple fluid phases and the deformable porous medium. We present a model and supporting laboratory experiments of methane release through “breathing” dynamic flow conduits that open in response to drops in the hydrostatic load on lake sediments, which has been validated against a high-resolution record of free gas flux and hydrostatic pressure in Upper Mystic Lake, MA. In contrast to previous linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis of gassy sediments, the evolution of gas transport in a deformable compliant sediment is presented within the framework of multiphase poroplasticity. Experiments address how strongly the mode and rate of gas flow, captured by our model, impacts the size of bubbles released into the water column. A bubble's size in turn determines how efficiently it transports methane to the atmosphere, and integrating this effect will be critical to improving estimates of the atmospheric methane source from lakes. Cross-sectional schematic of lake sediments showing two venting sites: one open at left and one closed at right. The vertical release of gas bubbles (red) at the open venting site creates a local pressure drop, which drives both bubble formation from the methane-rich pore water (higher concentrations shaded darker red) and lateral advection of dissolved methane (purple arrows). Even as bubbles in the open site escape, those at the closed site remain trapped.

  17. 137Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with 210 Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with 137 Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Isotopic fingerprints of anthropogenic molybdenum in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2012-10-16

    We measured the molybdenum isotope compositions (δ(98)Mo) of well-dated sediment cores from two lakes in eastern Canada in an effort to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic contributions to these freshwater aquatic systems. Previously, Chappaz et al. (1) ascribed pronounced 20th-century Mo concentration enrichments in these lakes to anthropogenic inputs. δ(98)Mo values in the deeper sediments (reflecting predominantly natural Mo sources) differ dramatically between the two lakes: -0.32 ± 0.17‰ for oxic Lake Tantare and +0.64 ± 0.09‰ for anoxic Lake Vose. Sediment layers previously identified as enriched in anthropogenic Mo, however, reveal significant δ(98)Mo shifts of ± 0.3‰, resulting in isotopically heavier values of +0.05 ± 0.18‰ in Lake Tantare and lighter values of +0.31 ± 0.03‰ in Lake Vose. We argue that anthropogenic Mo modifies the isotopic composition of the recent sediments, and we determine δ(98)Mo(anthropogenic) values of 0.1 ± 0.1‰ (Lake Vose) and 0.2 ± 0.2‰ (Lake Tantare). These calculated inputs are consistent with the δ(98)Mo of molybdenite (MoS(2)) likely delivered to the lakes via smelting of porphyry copper deposits (Lake Vose) or through combustion of coal and oil also containing Mo (Lake Tantare). Our results confirm the utility of Mo isotopes as a promising fingerprint of human impacts and perhaps the specific sources of contamination. Importantly, the magnitudes of the anthropogenic inputs are large enough, relative to the natural Mo cycles in each lake, to have an impact on the microbiological communities.

  19. Lithostratigraphy and microfacies analyses of the Lateglacial and early Holocene sediment record from Lake Haemelsee (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter; Engels, Stefan; Lane, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Annually laminated sediments are unique continental archives holding essential paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information providing the opportunity (i) to evaluate the climate variability at inter-annual to decadal scale and (ii) to construct independent and reliable chronologies. Lake Haemelsee in northern Germany (19.5 m a.s.l) is a key site for tracing high-resolution climatic and environmental evolution in W Europe because of its partly varved sediments. Here, we apply lithostratigraphical, geochemical and micro-facies analyses for the bottom sediments (~1700 to 1300 cm sediment depth) in order to investigate the driving mechanisms, timing and amplitude of Lateglacial abrupt climate changes to the onset of the Holocene warming. Detailed investigation includes micro-facies analyses on petrographic thin sections combined with high-resolution µ-XRF element scanning on both fresh sediment core halves (200 µm resolution) and impregnated sediment blocks (50µm resolution). Based on these analyses, the sediment composite profile (378 cm) has been divided in ten lithozones, each exhibiting different sedimentation modes in response to regional and local climatic and environmental changes. Micro-facies analyses revealed that sediments consist of organic matter, siderite, calcite, clay/silt and sand. The basal sediments consist of glacio-fluvial material. Fine laminations are best preserved in lithozone 5 (1522-1573 cm), where minima in element proxies for detrital sediments (Ti, K, Si) and maxima in Fe and Mn indicate the prevalence of anoxic meromictic conditions. Three different varve facies types were distinguished: i) the clastic-organic varves are specific for the intervals 1571-1573 cm and 1536-1541 cm; ii) calcite/siderite-organic varves appear between 1568-1571 and 1541-1545 cm; iii) the siderite-organic varves are characteristic for the middle of the lithozone 5 spanning from 1545-1568 cm. These changes in varve facies reflect the complex answer of

  20. Determination of 241Am in sediments by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarande, M; Benzoubir, S; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D

    2001-08-01

    Trace levels (pg kg(-1)) of 241Am in sediments were determined by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS) using a microconcentric nebulizer. 241Am was isolated from major elements like Ca and Fe by different selective precipitations. In further steps. Am was first separated from other transuranic elements and purified by anion exchange and extraction chromatography prior to the mass spectrometric measurements. The ID HR ICP-MS results are compared with isotope dilution alpha spectrometry.

  1. Use of Cs-137 as tracer in lake sediment investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinescu, L.; Vasile, E.; Timofte, L.; Cernisov, G.; Dorcioman, R.

    1997-01-01

    137 Cs vertical profile and total inventories were determined in four lakes located in Danube Delta and surroundings and in channel Dunavat. The radiocaesium total inventory of 1800 Bq/m 2 in Matita and Merhei-Middle Part, very closed to the atmospheric fallout value and a very low sedimentation rate, suggest a relative isolation of these two lakes related to the main Danube branches. The vertical profile obtained in Merhei lake (the Southern part) shows three distinct peaks corresponding to nuclear weapons tests performed in 1954 and 1963 and to Chernobyl event in 1986. Radiocaesium total inventory of 3270 Bq/m 2 was explained by an important 137 Cs contribution from the sediment transported by the channel linking lake Merhei to Dunarea Veche (Chilia branch). For the lakes Leahova and Razim, located in the immediate vicinity of the Black Sea, the total inventories of 600 Bq/m2 suggest an important transfer of sediments from the lakes to Black Sea. 137 Cs vertical profile in Dunavat channel shows two peaks, corresponding to Chernobyl event and nuclear tests. The total inventory of 2600 Bq/m 2 is due to atmospheric fallout and to the sediments transported by the river Danube and then by channel Dunavat. The sedimentation rate of 0.7 cm/year obtained from both peaks, suggests a constant sediment accumulation in the last 33 years. Other environmental tracers were used for recent lake sediment dating. The obtained results (considered as preliminary results) were compared with 137 Cs results. The results obtained from 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 241 Am measurements demonstrated that the environmental tracers are a valuable tool in sediment origin, transport and accumulation investigation. The research is in progress. (authors)

  2. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several sediment samples in Lake Burullus have been affected by the discharges of heavy metals through different drains. The study aimed to analyze the chemical speciation of these metals. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in sediments collected in spring season were studied using a ...

  3. High-resolution modelling of atmospheric dispersion of dense gas using TWODEE-2.1: application to the 1986 Lake Nyos limnic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Arnau; Barcons, Jordi; Kozono, Tomofumi; Costa, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric dispersal of a gas denser than air can threat the environment and surrounding communities if the terrain and meteorological conditions favour its accumulation in topographic depressions, thereby reaching toxic concentration levels. Numerical modelling of atmospheric gas dispersion constitutes a useful tool for gas hazard assessment studies, essential for planning risk mitigation actions. In complex terrains, microscale winds and local orographic features can have a strong influence on the gas cloud behaviour, potentially leading to inaccurate results if not captured by coarser-scale modelling. We introduce a methodology for microscale wind field characterisation based on transfer functions that couple a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model with a microscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting time-dependent high-resolution microscale wind field is used as input for a shallow-layer gas dispersal model (TWODEE-2.1) to simulate the time evolution of CO2 gas concentration at different heights above the terrain. The strategy is applied to review simulations of the 1986 Lake Nyos event in Cameroon, where a huge CO2 cloud released by a limnic eruption spread downslopes from the lake, suffocating thousands of people and animals across the Nyos and adjacent secondary valleys. Besides several new features introduced in the new version of the gas dispersal code (TWODEE-2.1), we have also implemented a novel impact criterion based on the percentage of human fatalities depending on CO2 concentration and exposure time. New model results are quantitatively validated using the reported percentage of fatalities at several locations. The comparison with previous simulations that assumed coarser-scale steady winds and topography illustrates the importance of high-resolution modelling in complex terrains.

  4. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  5. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  6. A colorimetric DET technique for the high-resolution measurement of two-dimensional alkalinity distributions in sediment porewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William W.; Welsh, David T.; Serriere, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of porewater alkalinity are fundamental to the study of organic matter mineralization in sediments, which plays an essential role in the global cycles of carbon and nutrients. A new colorimetric diffusive equilibration in thin film (DET) technique is described for measuring two-dimen...

  7. Age determination of bottom sediments from Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazumi; Nakamura, Toshio; Duller, Geoff; Hasebe, Noriko; Kashiwaya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Dating plays a key role in determining past environmental changes in lake sediments cores. The feldspar post-IR infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) procedure is one of the IRSL procedures and has a great potential to date older samples compared to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). In this study, the post-IR IRSL (pIRIR) procedure was applied to the polymineral fine grained sediments from Lake Khuvsgul (Hovsgol), Mongolia, and these ages were compared to 14 C ages of bulk samples from the certain depths. The pIRIR ages are always younger than 14 C ages from bulk samples, however, it was possible to construct the suitable age model based on luminescence and 14 C ages. Therefore, pIRIR 225 protocol can be contributed to estimate the sedimentation age of lake sediments as well as 14 C dating. (author)

  8. Contemporary and historical trace metal loadings to the sediments of four lakes of the Lake Washington drainage. Completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyridakis, D.E.; Barnes, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary and historical loadings of lead, zinc, and copper to the profundal sediments of Lakes Washington, Sammamish, Chester Morse, and Findley were determined using chemical analysis and 210 Pb dating of sediment cores. Elemental sedimentation rates, a cross product of the sedimentation rate, and sediment concentration of a given element, were corrected for natural background concentrations and rates, and extrapolated across established sediment accumulating areas to give a conservative estimate of the pollutional trace metal loadings to each lake. The resulting chronological loadings appeared consistent with the known cultural history of the individual watersheds. Substantial alterations in sedimentation rates were noted in all lakes where deforestation, road building, suburbanization or urbanization had occurred in the lake's watershed. The quantities, elemental ratios and pollutional histories of copper, lead and zinc in the lake sediments indicate that aeolian inputs are the dominant source of trace metal pollution to the lake sediments at the present time

  9. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  10. Signature of Transpressional Tectonics in the Holocene Stratigraphy of Lake Azuei, Haiti: Preliminary Results From a High-Resolution Subbottom Profiling Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M. H.; Sloan, H.; Boisson, D.; Brown, B.; Guerrier, K.; Hearn, C. K.; Heil, C. W., Jr.; Kelly, R. P.; King, J. W.; Knotts, P.; Lucier, O. F.; Momplaisir, R.; Stempel, R.; Symithe, S. J.; Ulysse, S. M. J.; Wattrus, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF) is one of two transform systems that define the Northern Caribbean plate boundary zone. Relative motion across its trace ( 10 mm/yr) evolves from nearly pure strike-slip in western Haiti to transpressional in eastern Haiti, where the fault system may terminate against a south-dipping oblique reverse fault. Lake Azuei is a large (10 km x 25 km) and shallow (turbidity currents. The fact that young turbidites pinch out in upward curves suggests that the folds are actively growing, and that active contractional structures (folds and/or blind thrust faults) control much of the periphery of the lake. A few sediment cores were strategically located where beds are pinching out in order to maximize stratigraphic records. Two of these cores successfully penetrated strata imaged by the CHIRP profiles. On-going Pb210 dating of sediment samples from the cores should constrain sedimentation rates and thus help quantify the rates of the tectonic deformation.

  11. High resolution characterization of uranium in sediments by DGT and DET techniques ACA-S-12-2197

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregušová, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 763, FEB 6 (2013), s. 50-56 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Diffusive gradient in thin films technique * Diffusive equilibrium technique * Uranium * Sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?fedsrfIntegrator=COSMADRALI-SCOCIT&origin=fedsrf&view=basic&eid=2-s2.0-84872594514

  12. Mapping and monitoring of sediment budgets and river change by means of UAS multi-scale, high-resolution imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island Taiwan. Global warming and sea-level rise with increasing frequency and magnitude of storms and typhoons has resulted in an increase of natural hazards, and strong impacts on human life. A consequence of a change of the rainfall regime, increase of intensity and in a reduction of the duration of the events may have dramatic impacts. Heavy rainfall precipitations are one of the major triggering factors for landslides. Typhoon Morakot in 2009 brought extreme and long-time rainfall, and caused severe disasters. After 2009, numerous debris and sediment deposition increased greatly due to the severe landslides in upstream area. Detail morphological records may able to reveal the environment changes. This kind of analysis is based on the concept of DEM of difference (DoD) to evaluate the sediment budgets during climate and geo-hazard events. The aerial photographs generated digital surface models (DSMs) before and after Typhoon Morakot, and the subsequent multi-periods of imageries is thus been conducted in this study. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. In order quantify the hazards in different time; we try to integrate several technologies, especially by unmanned aircraft system (UAS), to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In order to monitoring the sediment budget of the study area, we integrates several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by UAS and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS in-site geomatic measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAS and aerial photos. We finally acquired 7 DEMs, prior to post-events, from 2009-2015. The precision of

  13. First High-Resolution Record of Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, Revealed by Multi-proxy Analysis of Drift Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Esper, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is experiencing rapid mass loss and there is a pressing need to place the contemporary ice-sheet changes into a longer term context. The continental rise in this region is characterised by large sediment mounds that are shaped by westward flowing bottom currents and that resemble contouritic drifts existing offshore from the Antarctic Peninsula. Similar to the Antarctic Peninsula drifts, marine sediment cores from the poorly studied sediment mounds in the Amundsen Sea have the potential to provide reliable records of dynamical ice-sheet behaviour in West Antarctica and palaeoceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the Late Quaternary that can be reconstructed from their terrestrial, biogenic and authigenic components. Here we use multi-proxy data from three sediment cores recovered from two of the Amundsen Sea mounds to present the first high-resolution study of environmental changes on this part of the West Antarctic continental margin over the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Late Quaternary. Age constraints for the records are derived from biostratigraphy, AMS 14C dates and lithostratigraphy. We focus on the investigation of processes for drift formation, thereby using grain size and sortable silt data to reconstruct changes in bottom current speed and to identify episodes of current winnowing. Data on geochemical and mineralogical sediment composition and physical properties are used to infer both changes in terrigenous sediment supply in response to the advance and retreat of the WAIS across the Amundsen Sea shelf and changes in biological productivity that are mainly controlled by the duration of annual sea-ice coverage. We compare our data sets from the Amundsen Sea mounds to those from the well-studied Antarctic Peninsula drifts, thereby highlighting similarities and discrepancies in depositional processes and climatically-driven environmental changes.

  14. Acoustic stratigraphy of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho: late Quaternary sedimentation patterns in a simple half-graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    A 277-km network of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, supplemented with a sidescan-sonar mosaic of the lake floor, was collected in Bear Lake, Utah–Idaho, in order to explore the sedimentary framework of the lake's paleoclimate record. The acoustic stratigraphy is tied to a 120 m deep, continuously cored drill hole in the lake. Based on the age model for the drill core, the oldest continuously mapped acoustic reflector in the data set has an age of about 100 ka, although older sediments were locally imaged. The acoustic stratigraphy of the sediments below the lake indicates that the basin developed primarily as a simple half-graben, with a steep normal-fault margin on the east and a flexural margin on the west. As expected for a basin controlled by a listric master fault, seismic reflections steepen and diverge toward the fault, bounding eastward-thickening sediment wedges. Secondary normal faults west of the master fault were imaged beneath the lake and many of these faults show progressively increasing offset with depth and age. Several faults cut the youngest sediments in the lake as well as the modern lake floor. The relative simplicity of the sedimentary sequence is interrupted in the northwestern part of the basin by a unit that is interpreted as a large (4 × 10 km) paleodelta of the Bear River. The delta overlies a horizon with an age of about 97 ka, outcrops at the lake floor and is onlapped by much of the uppermost sequence of lake sediments. A feature interpreted as a wave-cut bench occurs in many places on the western side of the lake. The base of this bench occurs at a depth (22–24 m) similar to that (20–25 m) of the distal surface of the paleodelta. Pinch-outs of sedimentary units are common in relatively shallow water on the gentle western margin of the basin and little Holocene sediment has accumulated in water depths of less than 30 m. On the steep eastern margin of the basin, sediments commonly onlap the hanging wall of the East

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis of lake sedimentation under reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Pilgrim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal land cover changes can reduce or accelerate lake sedimentation. This study was conducted to examine morphometry and bathymetry, and the long-term changes (over 75 years in sedimentation in the Lake Issaqueena reservoir, South Carolina. The watershed and catchment areas were delineated using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR based data. Trends in lake surface area and riparian buffer condition (vegetated or unvegetated were determined from historical aerial photography. From 1938 to 2009, the lake experienced a decrease in surface area of approximately 11.33 ha while catchment area increased by 6.99 ha, and lake volume decreased by 320,800.00 m3. Lake surface area decreased in years corresponding to equal coverage or largely unvegetated riparian buffers. Surface area and average annual precipitation were not correlated; therefore other factors such as soil type, riparian buffer condition and changes in land use likely contributed to sedimentation. Shift from agricultural land to forestland in this watershed resulted in a decrease in sedimentation rates by 88.28%. Keywords: Bathymetry, Erosion, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, Land cover, Riparian buffer, Soils

  16. Early steroid sulfurisation in surface sediments of a permanebtly stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Robertson, L.; Volkman, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Surface sediments (0 25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C27-C29 steroids.

  17. Climatic changes inferred fron analyses of lake-sediment cores, Walker Lake, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, In Che.

    1989-01-01

    Organic and inorganic fractions of sediment collected from the bottom of Walker Lake, Nevada, have been dated by carbon-14 techniques. Sedimentation rates and the organic-carbon content of the sediment were correlated with climatic change. The cold climate between 25,000 and 21,000 years ago caused little runoff, snow accumulation on the mountains, and rapid substantial glacial advances; this period of cold climate resulted in a slow sedimentation rate (0.20 millimeter per year) and in a small organic-carbon content in the sediment. Also, organic-carbon accumulation rates in the lake during this period were slow. The most recent period of slow sedimentation rate and small organic-carbon content occurred between 10,000 and 5500 years ago, indicative of low lake stage and dry climatic conditions. This period of dry climate also was evidenced by dry conditions for Lake Lahontan in Nevada and Searles Lake in California, as cited in the literature. Walker Lake filled rapidly with water between 5500 and 4500 years ago. The data published in this report was not produced under an approved Site Investigation Plan (SIP) or Study Plan (SP) and will not be used in the licensing process. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. The magnetic properties of the Lake Bolshoe Yarovoe (Altai Region, Russia) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriia; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Kuzina, Diliara; Antonenko, Vadim; Akhmerov, Rinaz; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Vorob'ev, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic minerals of modern lake sediments provide unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally as environmental variations are recorded by them with high resolution. Here we report results of magnetic analysis of the endorheic bitter-salty lake Bolshoe Yarovoe located in the Altai Region, Russia. The lake is the deepest one in the Kulunda Steppe with the average depth 4 m and with the catchment area about 560 km2. Five cores were drileld during field research conducted by the Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technologies (Kazan Federal University, Russia) in 2008. Average length of cores is 4 m. The samples were studied using radiocarbon dating, magnetic susceptibility, NRM measurements, coercivity spectrometry, thermomagnetic analysis, TEM and SEM microscopy. The main components of the sediments magnetization, their variability, defined features of sedimentation processes, also the contribution of the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic components are identified. Data variability of the paramagnetic component revealed that the lower part of the section is characterized by a gradual increase in revenues of the clay material. The presence of erosion was detected around of 7500 years ago marking occurrence of a fall of the lake level during this period. After this the flow of clay particles was steady with small fluctuations only, indicating the stabilization of sedimentation processes. Ferromagnetic fraction is mainly represented by magnitofossils of different forms, sizes and grain preservation. Such changes may be related to many factors, such as climate, nutrient availability, and environmental variability. Possible relationships between magnitofossil morphology, their magnetic signal and the depositional environment changes are proposed. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  19. Structural contour, isopach and feature maps of quaternary sediments in Western Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.F.M.; King, E.L.; Todd, B.J.; Blasco, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A systematic high-resolution acoustic reconnaissance survey of Quaternary sediments (> 50 m thick, in places) and the underlying bedrock surface was completed for western Lake Ontario between Burlington and Port Hope, Ontario, to determine if geophysical lineaments through the area of Pickering and Darlington nuclear power stations are potentially seismically active. A total of 2530 line-km of data were obtained along N-S and E-W lines spaced 10 and 5 km respectively, using a high-resolution subbottom profiler (boomer and IKB-SEISTEC), a 100 kHz sidescan sonar (150-m range) with 3.5 kHz profiler, a 10 or 40 cu. in. sleeve gun seismic reflection system, and, intermittently, a marine magnetometer. Six piston cores up to 15-m long were collected to compare sediment lithology with key regional seismic reflectors. Sediments deposited over the past 13,000 years were imaged with vertical resolution in the order of 10-30 cm just below the lakebed and less than 1 m at the bedrock surface; resolution for the sleeve gun system is approximately 3-5 m. Digital processing and rescaling of selected seismic profiles aided interpretation. Structural contour maps for three Quaternary sequence boundaries and the bedrock surface were generated together with the related sequence isopach maps. Three additional maps portray lakebed features identified on sidescan sonar records and subsurface features identified on seismic profiles. All maps are at 1:250,000 scale. (author). 2 tabs., 48 figs., 12 maps

  20. Spatiotemporal climatic, hydrological, and environmental variations based on records of annually laminated lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, W.; Blanke, L.; Kinder, M.; Loewe, T.; Mayr, C.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-12-01

    In northern Poland there is the unique opportunity to compare varved lake sediment records with distinct climatic trends along a 700 km long W-E transect. Annually laminated Holocene sediment sequences from Lake Lubinskie, Lake Suminko, Lake Lazduny, and Lake Szurpily were cored for high-resolution multiproxy climate and environmental reconstruction in the framework of the Polish-German project “Northern Polish Lake Research” (NORPOLAR). First results from a 139 cm long gravity core of Lake Lazduny (53°51.4’N, 21°57.3’E) document deposition of an organic (mean organic matter: 13.9%; mean biogenic opal: 9.8%) and highly carbonaceous gyttja (mean calcite content: 61.6%). The finely laminated sediment consists of biochemical varves. Pale spring/summer layers composed of autochthonous carbonates alternate with dark fall/winter layers made of organic and minerogenic detritus. The established chronology for the last 1500 calendar-years is based on thin section analysis supported by independent radiometric dating (C-14, Pb-210). Sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out with a decadal temporal resolution. Additionally, non-destructive and high-resolution XRF scanning data reveal a rhythmic variation in the Ca content that reflects seasonal calcite deposition. Redox-sensitive elements like Fe, Mn and S are interpreted to be the response to mean winter temperatures: colder winter temperatures → extended lake ice cover → intensification of meromixis → increased Fe/Mn ratio. In turn, these parameters can be linked to NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) variability, because a negative NAO is related to colder and drier conditions in northeastern Europe. Climate variability is also mirrored by the δ13C record of the endogenic calcite fraction. In mid-latitude lakes calcite precipitation is dominated by productivity-controlled consumption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. Thus the δ13C record potentially provides a

  1. Integrating the Holocene tephrostratigraphy for East Asia using a high-resolution cryptotephra study from Lake Suigetsu (SG14 core), central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Danielle; Albert, Paul G.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takehiko; Staff, Richard A.; Yamada, Keitaro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Junko; Smith, Victoria C.; SG14 Project Members

    2018-03-01

    Tephra (volcanic ash) layers have the potential to synchronise disparate palaeoenvironmental archives on regional to hemispheric scales. Highly productive arc regions, like those in East Asia, offer a considerable number of widespread isochrons, but before records can be confidently correlated using these layers, a refined and integrated framework of these eruptive events is required. Here we present the first high-resolution Holocene cryptotephra study in East Asia, using the Lake Suigetsu sedimentary archive in central Japan. The Holocene tephrostratigraphy has been extended from four to twenty ash layers using cryptotephra extraction techniques, which integrates the deposits from explosive eruptions from North Korea/China, South Korea and along the Japanese arc. This Lake Suigetsu tephrostratigraphy is now the most comprehensive record of East Asian volcanism, and the linchpin site for correlating sequences across this region. Major element glass geochemical compositions are presented for the tephra layers in the sequence, which have been compared to proximal datasets to correlate them to their volcanic source and specific eruptions. This study has significantly extended the ash dispersal of many key Holocene marker layers, and has identified the first distal occurrence of isochrons from Ulleungdo and Changbaishan volcanoes. Utilising the high-precision Lake Suigetsu chronology, we are able to provide constrained eruption ages for the tephra layers, which can be transferred into other site-specific age models containing these markers. This new framework indicates that several isochrons stratigraphically bracket abrupt climate intervals in Japan, and could be used to precisely assess the regional and hemispheric synchronicity of these events.

  2. Modern processes of sediment formation in Lake Towuti, Indonesia, as derived from the composition of lake surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, Ascelina; Melles, Martin; Morlock, Marina; Vogel, Hendrik; Russel, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2015, a drilling operation funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia. The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) recovered more than 1000 meters of sediment core from three sites. At all three sites replicate cores down to 133, 154, and 174 m below lake floor have penetrated the entire lake sediment record, which is expected to comprise the past ca. 650.000 years continuously. Lake Towutís sediment record thus can provide unique information for instance concerning the climatic and environmental history in the Indo-Pacific-Warm-Pool (IPWP) and concerning the evolutionary biology in SE Asia. For a better understanding of the palaeoenvironmental proxies to be analyzed on the drill cores, the modern processes of sediment formation in the lake and in its catchment - under known environmental conditions - were investigated on a set of 84 lake sediment surface samples. Sampling was conducted by grab sampler (UWITEC Corp., Austria) in a grid of 1 to 4 km resolution that covers the entire lake. The samples were analyzed for inorganic geochemical composition (XRF powder scans and ICP-MS), magnetic susceptibility (Kappabridge), grain-size distribution (laser scanner), biogenic components (smear-slide analyses), biogenic silica contents (leaching), and carbonate, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), and sulfur (TS) concentrations (elemental analyzer). The sediments close to the lake shores and in front of the major river inlets are characterized by mean grain sizes coarser than average and high magnetic susceptibilities presented by high ratios of Cr, Ni, Co, and Zr. This reflects higher energies due to wave action and fluvial sediment supply, as well as the occurrence of magnetic minerals particularly in the sand and gravel fractions of the sediments. In regions of deeper waters and more distal to

  3. High-resolution magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of Ethiopian traps-related products in Oligocene sediments from the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Yannick; Rochette, Pierre; Aubry, Marie Pierre; Michard, Annie

    2003-02-01

    Volcanic traps correspond typically to aerial emissions of more than 10 6 km 3 of magma over 1 Myr periods. The potential global impact of such emissions makes the precise correlation of traps with the global magnetobiochronologic timescale an important task. Our study is focused on the Ethiopian traps which correspond to the birth of the Afar hotspot at the triple junction between the Red Sea, Aden Gulf and East-African rift. The Ethiopian traps have a significant acidic component (about 10% of the traps by volume) which enables more efficient stratospheric aerosol diffusion than for the main basaltic eruptions. Furthermore, a magnetostratigraphy is well established for the traps: traps activity began in Chron C11r.2r and ended in Chron C11r.1r or C10r, with well clustered 40Ar/ 39Ar ages at 30±0.5 Ma. Four tephra layers, marked by prominent magnetic susceptibility peaks, occur in Oligocene sections of sites from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 115, drilled in the southern Indian Ocean near Madingley Rise, 2600 km away from the Ethiopian traps. In order to demonstrate that these tephra layers are related to the Ethiopian traps, a high-resolution study of sites 709 and 711 was undertaken, involving magnetostratigraphy and nannofossil stratigraphy, together with isotopic and geochemical characterization of the tephra. Geochemical analyses and isotope ratios of the glass shards indicate the same acid continental source for these tephras which is compatible with the Ethiopian signature. Moreover, Hole 711A provides a reliable magnetostratigraphy for the Oligocene (Chrons 13-9). The tephra layers occur in the interval spanning Chrons C11n.2n-C11n.1n which agrees with the positions of acidic layers in the traps. Calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy confirms the magnetostratigraphic interpretation, with the NP23/24 zonal boundary occurring within the interval containing the tephra layers. Hole 709B supports the results from Hole 711A. Thus, the Ethiopian traps can be

  4. Coastal Sediment Distribution Patterns Following Category 5 Hurricanes (Irma and Maria): Pre and Post Hurricane High Resolution Multibeam Surveys of Eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, T. N.; Sawyer, D. E.; Russell, P.

    2017-12-01

    In August of 2017 we collected high resolution multibeam data of the seafloor in a large embayment in eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands (USVI). One month later, the eyewall of Category 5 Hurricane Irma directly hit St. John as one of the largest hurricanes on record in the Atlantic Ocean. A week later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria passed over St. John. While the full extent of the impacts are still being assessed, the island experienced a severe loss of vegetation, infrastructure, buildings, roads, and boats. We mobilized less than two months afterward to conduct a repeat survey of the same area on St. John. We then compared these data to document and quantify the sediment influx and movement that occurred in coastal embayments as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. The preliminary result of the intense rain, wind, and storm surge likely yields an event deposit that can be mapped and volumetrically quantified in the bays of eastern St. John. The results of this study allow for a detailed understanding of the post-hurricane pulse of sediment that enters the marine environment, the sediment flux seaward, and the morphological changes to the bay floor.

  5. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in lake sediments in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgun, T.V.; Putyrskaya, V.V.; Klemt, E.; Goncharova, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs was studied in one of the glacial lakes situated in the region of Tuchola Forest National Park (Poland). Radiocaesium was used for sedimentation rates estimation and dating of the sediment layers of the lake.

  6. Geochemical Anomalies in the Sediments of Lake Druksiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinas, A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on natural processes in Lake Druksiai and accumulation of pollutants, in 19931997, carrying on the state scientific program, the Marine Geochemistry Division of the Institute of Geography performed lithological geochemical mapping of lake bottom sediments on a scale of 1 .50 000. The results obtained enabled to distinguish zones of higher anthropogenous geochemical load, where geochemical anomalies of pollutants, including oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals, had been taken into account. Applying concentration coefficients for oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and their natural background, the attempt was made to differentiate natural and technogenous components in the geochemical anomalies As expected, the finer sediments -aleurite-pelite mud - showed amounts of oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals being 12.1 times higher than in fine sand - the most coarse of the sediments studied Sediments with organic mater exceeding 20% contained 11.7 times more pollutants than those with organic matter below 1 .5%. Calculations of concentration coefficients (CC) showed no elements in no stations exceeded 10 - the sediments did not reach the category of high pollution However, in many sites, the coefficients exceeded values of 1-2, thus, showing sediments attributable to the categories of weakly polluted or just polluted. Mapping model done by GIS methods (by superimposing schemes of pollutant CCs distribution in the lake and summing them) for geochemical anomalies two derivative map-schemes were obtained for oil hydrocarbons and heavy metals. They showed that clean sediments cover just 24.75% (according to the pollutant background for soil types) and 12.35% (according to the organic matter background for its amount intervals) lake bottom area. Zones slightly polluted by an element at least cover 69.7 and 80.29% of lake area, correspondingly; whereas zones slightly polluted by all

  7. Lake topography and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial dynamics of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, pwind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, pwind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.

  8. Monitoring climate signal transfer into the varved lake sediments of Lake Czechowskie, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß-Schmölders, Miriam; Ott, Florian; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kaszubski, Michał; Kienel, Ulrike; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 we started a monitoring program at Lake Czechowskie, Poland, because the lake comprises a long Holocene time series of calcite varves until recent times. The aim of the program is to understand how environmental and climatic conditions influence the hydrological conditions and, ultimately, the sediment deposition processes of the lake. Lake Czechowskie is located in the north of Poland in the Pomeranian Lake District and is part of the national park Tuchola Forest. The landscape and the lake is formed by the glacier retreat after the last glaciation (Weichselian). Lake Czechowskie is a typical hardwater lake and has a length of 1.4 km, an average width of 600 m and a lake surface area of ca 4 km. The maximum depth of 32 m is reached in a rather small hollow in the eastern part of the lake. Two different types of sediment traps provide sediment samples with monthly resolution from different water depths (12m, 26m). In addition, hydrological data including water temperature in different depths, water inflow, throughflow and outflow and the depth of visibility are measured. These data allow to describe strength and duration of lake mixing in spring and autumn and its influence on sedimentation. The sediment samples were analyzed with respect to their dry weight (used to calculate mean daily sediment flux), their inorganic and organic carbon contents, the stable C- and O-isotopes of organic matter and calcite as well as N-isotopes of organic matter. For selected samples dominant diatom taxa are determined. Our first results demonstrate the strong influence of the long winter with ice cover until April in 2013 on the sedimentation. A rapid warming in only 9 days starting on April 9th from -0,3 C° to 15,2 C° resulted in fast ice break-up and a short but intensive lake mixing. In consequence of this short mixing period a strong algal bloom especially of Fragilaria and Crysophycea commenced in April and had its maximum in May. This bloom further induced biogenic

  9. A high-resolution paleosecular variation record from Black Sea sediments indicating fast directional changes associated with low field intensities during marine isotope stage (MIS) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Jiabo, Liu; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.

    2018-02-01

    A total of nine sediment cores recovered from the Archangelsky Ridge in the SE Black Sea were systematically subjected to intense paleo- and mineral magnetic analyses. Besides 16 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages available for another core from this area, dating was accomplished by correlation of short-term warming events during the last glacial monitored by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning as maxima in both Ca/Ti and K/Ti ratios in Black Sea sediments to the so-called 'Dansgaard-Oeschger events' recognized from Greenland ice cores. Thus, several hiatuses could be identified in the various cores during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Finally, core sections documenting marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 at high resolution back to 69 ka were selected for detailed analyses. At 64.5 ka, according to obtained results from Black Sea sediments, the second deepest minimum in relative paleointensity during the past 69 ka occurred, with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion at 41 ka being associated with the lowest field intensities. The field minimum during MIS 4 is associated with large declination swings beginning about 3 ka before the minimum. While a swing to 50°E is associated with steep inclinations (50-60°) according to the coring site at 42°N, the subsequent declination swing to 30°W is associated with shallow inclinations of down to 40°. Nevertheless, these large deviations from the direction of a geocentric axial dipole field (I = 61 °, D = 0 °) still can not yet be termed as 'excursional', since latitudes of corresponding virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) only reach down to 51.5°N (120°E) and 61.5°N (75°W), respectively. However, these VGP positions at opposite sides of the globe are linked with VGP drift rates of up to 0.2° per year in between. These extreme secular variations might be the mid-latitude expression of a geomagnetic excursion with partly reversed inclinations found at several sites much further North in Arctic

  10. A high-resolution record of Holocene millennial-scale oscillations of surface water, foraminiferal paleoecology and sediment redox chemistry in the SE Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene millennial-scale oscillations and Bond Events (Bond et al. 1997) are well reported in the North Atlantic as consequence of fresh water input and weaking of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been hypothesized that the effect of weaking of AMOC would lead to warming in the South Atlantic due to "heat piracy", causing surface waters to warm and a reorganization of surface circulation. There are few reconstructions of AMOC strength in the South Atlantic, and none with a high resolution Holocene record of changes of productivity and the biological pump. We reconstruct past changes in the surface water mass hydrography, productivity, and sediment redox changes in high-resolution in the core KCF10-01B, located 128 mbsl water depth off Cabo Frio, Brazil, a location where upwelling is strongly linked to surface ocean hydrography. We use Benthic Foraminiferal Accumulation Rate (BFAR) to reconstruct productivity, which reveals a 1.3kyr cyclicity during the mid- and late-Holocene. The geochemistry of trace and rare earth elements on foraminiferal Fe-Mn oxide coatings show changes in redox-sensitive elements indicating that during periods of high productivity there were more reducing conditions in sediment porewaters, producing a Ce anomaly and reduction and re-precipitation of Mn oxides. Bond events 1-7 were identified by a productivity increase along with reducing sediment conditions which was likely caused by Brazil Current displacement offshore allowing upwelling of the nutritive bottom water South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) to the euphotic zone and a stronger local biological pump. In a global context, correlation with other records show that this occurred during weakened AMOC and southward displacement of the ITCZ. We conclude that Bond climatic events and millennial-scale variability of AMOC caused sea surface hydrographic changes off the Brazilian Margin leading to biological and geochemical changes recorded in coastal records

  11. Excess unsupported sup(210)Pb in lake sediment from Rocky Mountain lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.A.; Hess, C.T.; Blake, G.M.; Morrison, M.L.; Baron, J.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment cores from four high-altitude (approximately 3200 m) lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, were dated by sup(210)Pb chronology. Background (supported) sup(210)Pb activities for the four cores range from 0.26 to 0.93 Beq/g dry weight, high for typical oligotrophic lakes. Integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb ranges from 0.81 (a typical value for most lakes) to 11.0 Beq/cmsup(2). The sup(210)Pb activity in the surface sediments ranges from 1.48 to 22.2 Beq/g dry weight. Sedimentation from Lake Louise, the most unusual of the four, has 22.2 Beq/g dry weight at the sediment surface, an integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb=11.0 Beq/cmsup(2), and supported sup(210)Pb=0.74 Beq/g dry weight. sup(226)Ra content of the sediment is insufficient to explain either the high unsupported sup(210)Pb or the sup(222)Rn content of the water column of Lake Louise, which averaged 96.2 Beq/L. We concluded that sup(222)Rn-rich groundwater entering the lake is the source of the high sup(222)Rn in the water column. This, in turn, is capable of supporting the unusually high sup(210)Pb flux to the sediment surface. Groundwater with high sup(222)Rn may control the sup(210)Pb budget of lakes where sediment cores have integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb greater than 2 Beq/cmsup(2)

  12. High resolution LiDAR measurements reveal fine internal structure and variability of sediment-carrying coastal plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Pelevin, V. V.; Belyaev, N. A.; Izhitskiy, A. S.; Konovalov, B. V.; Krementskiy, V. V.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Soloviev, D. M.; Garcia, C. A. E.; Pereira, E. S.; Sartorato, L.; Moller, O. O.

    2018-05-01

    We report results of a field survey conducted in the buoyant, sediment-carrying coastal plume generated by the discharge from the Patos Lagoon, the World's largest choked lagoon. The concentration of total suspended matter (TSM) and organic matter (as represented by total organic carbon, TOC) were mapped using an ultraviolet fluorescent LiDAR, which allowed for extensive data coverage (total of 79,387 simultaneous determinations of TSM and TOC) during 3 consecutive days. These observations were accompanied by hydrographic measurements from the ship and at a mooring station. We first describe synoptic variability of the plume, which responded energetically to wind forcing. We then analyze the TSM, TOC and hydrographic data jointly and develop a simple approach to estimate the rates of suspended matter removal from the upper layer due to gravitational settling and turbulent mixing based on relative changes in TSM and TOC concentrations. Four distinct regions within the plume exhibiting different dynamics of suspended and dissolved constituents were identified on this basis.

  13. Lake Michigan sediments: in-situ tracer measurements using a rare-earth element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezoski, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A rare-earth-element (REE) tracer technique is used to describe in-situ biogenic and physical sediment reworking in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Europium, a stable, high neutron capture cross section REE, added as Eu 2 O 3 to the sediment-water interface of quadrants of natural bottom muds, served as a tracer of surficial sediment redistribution in an oligochaete-chironomid-sphaerid benthic community. Sixty days after applying a millimeter thick layer of Eu to the undisturbed sediments, divers collected cores from within and around the experimental quadrants that were sectioned in 1 cm intervals to 10 cm and were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Minute amounts of the activated REE in the sediment, detectable through high resolution gamma spectroscopy, revealed significant burial (to 2.4 cm) and broadening of the marked layer. A calculated bio-diffusion coefficient (K/sub B/ = 2.26 +/- 1.56 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 ), based on a model from earlier microcosm studies, compares remarkably well with experimentally determined values and represents the first application of this model to field data. The method provides reliable estimates of in-situ reworking rates and is more accurate than time-averaged geochronology studies which rely on atmospherically derived radionuclides

  14. Fine sediment erodibility in Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam

    1989-01-01

    The critical need to predict the turbidity in water due to fine-grained sediment suspension under wave action over mud deposits for sedimentation and erosion studies, as well as sorbed contaminant transport, is well known. Since fall velocities of fine sediment particles are very small, they can be easily transported by hydrodynamic flows such as waves and currents. The presence of these particles in the water column affects accoustic transmission, heat absorption and depth of ...

  15. Design and maintenance of a network for collecting high-resolution suspended-sediment data at remote locations on rivers, with examples from the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Andrews, Timothy; Bennett, Glenn E.; Sabol, Thomas A.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2012-01-01

    instruments have been constructed and verified by using either equal-discharge-increment (EDI) or equal-width-increment (EWI) measurements of the velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration and grain-size distribution. The suspended-silt-and-clay concentration parts of these calibration relations have also included information from EDI- or EWI-calibrated samples collected by automatic pump samplers. Three of the monitoring stations are equipped with two-way satellite broadband telemetry systems that operate once a day to remotely monitor and program the instruments and download data. Data from these stations are typically downloaded twice per month; data from stations without satellite-telemetry systems are downloaded during site visits, which occur every 2 months or semiannually, depending on the remoteness of the site. Upon downloading and processing, suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended-sand median grain size are posted on the World Wide Web. Satellite telemetry in combination with the high-resolution sediment surrogate measurements can generate near-real-time suspended-sediment-concentration and grain-size data (limited only by the time required to download the instruments and process the data). The approach for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using this monitoring network is more practical, and can be done at a much lower cost and with higher temporal resolution, than any other method.

  16. Circulation and sedimentation in a tidal-influenced fjord lake: Lake McKerrow, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrill, R. A.; Irwin, J.; Shakespeare, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Lake McKerrow is a tide-influenced fjord lake, separated from the open sea by a Holocene barrier spit. Fresh, oxygenated waters of the epilimnion overlie saline, deoxygenated waters of the hypolimnion. During winter, water from the Upper Hollyford River interflows along the pycnocline, depositing coarse silt on the steep delta and transporting finer sediment down-lake. An extensive sub-lacustrine channel system on the foreset delta slope is possibly maintained by turbidity currents. Saline waters of the hypolimnion are periodically replenished. During high tides and low lake levels saline water flows into the lake and downslope into the lake basin as a density current in a well defined channel.

  17. Sediment processes and mercury transport in a frozen freshwater fluvial lake (Lake St. Louis, QC, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canário, João; Poissant, Laurier; O'Driscoll, Nelson; Vale, Carlos; Pilote, Martin; Lean, David

    2009-04-01

    An open-bottom and a closed-bottom mesocosm were developed to investigate the release of mercury from sediments to the water column in a frozen freshwater lake. The mesoscosms were deployed in a hole in the ice and particulate mercury (Hg(P)) and total dissolved mercury (TDHg) were measured in sediments and in water column vertical profiles. In addition, dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in water and mercury water/airflux were quantified. Concentrations of TDHg, DGM, and mercury flux were all higher in the open-bottom mesocosm than in the closed-bottom mesocosm. In this paper we focus on the molecular diffusion of mercury from the sediment in comparison with the TDHg accumulation in the water column. We conclude that the molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension play a minor role in mercury release from sediments suggesting that solute release during ebullition is an important transport process for mercury in the lake.

  18. The environmental state of Lake Ladoga sediments, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, J.; Ristola, T.; Kukkonen, J.; Leppaenen, M.; Hoof, P.L. van; Robbins, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors collected sediments in the summer 1993 from Lake Ladoga for chemical analyses and toxicity tests to assess the state of the lake. The sediments were analyzed for heavy metals, fluorides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and certain radionuclides related to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, the concentrations of toxic chemicals were low. Most chemicals were below the limit of detection. The range of the total concentration of 17 PCB congeners was from 6 to 30 ng/kg dw; the highest value was at the pulp and paper mill located in the northeastern shore of the lake (Pitkaeranta). The highest concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb were 10, 42, 46, 36, 188, and 143 μg/g dw, respectively. Arsene was not detected at all and Cd only at one out of 12 sites studied. The toxicological testing with larvae of a midge, Chironomus riparius, and Daphnia magna resulted in only slight effects which may in part be related to different physical characteristics of the sediments rather than to toxic effects. The highest mortality was 75% at the deepest part of the lake (close to Valamo Island) which was believed to be the least polluted. The highest heavy metal concentrations and slow development of the larvae were observed for the same site. In the south of the lake at the Volhov Bay which receives effluents from forest and aluminum industry, the mortality was 10--50%

  19. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    Key words: Heavy metals, chemical speciation, sediments, Burullus, Lake. INTRODUCTION ..... fuel for use in internal combustion engines and in making batteries. ..... (Tuner, 1989). According to this model, human risk assessment was .... 593 - 594. Hökanson L (1980). "Ecological Risk Index for Aquatic Pollution. Control.

  20. The release of dissolved phosphorus from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, P.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction: Eutrophication is one of the world's major water quality problems. Attempts to alleviate eutrophication of lakes have involved the control of phosphorus loadings. In such cases, an internal loading of phosphorus from the sediments may

  1. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

    2015-06-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds.

  2. Linking high-resolution geomorphic mapping, sediment sources, and channel types in a formerly glaciated basin of northeastern Alto-Adige/Sudtirol, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brardinoni, F.; Perina, E.; Bonfanti, G.; Falsitta, G.; Agliardi, F.

    2012-04-01

    To characterize channel-network morphodynamics and response potential in the Gadria-Strimm basin (14.8 km^2) we conduct a concerted effort entailing: (i) high-resolution mapping of landforms, channel reaches, and sediment sources; and (ii) historical evolution of colluvial channel disturbance through sequential aerial photosets (1945-59-69-82-90-00-06-11). The mapping was carried out via stereographic inspection of aerial photographs, examination of 2.5-m gridded DTM and DSM, and extensive field work. The study area is a formerly glaciated basin characterized by peculiar landform assemblages imposed by a combination of tectonic and glacial first-order structures. The most striking feature in Strimm Creek is a structurally-controlled valley step separating an upper hanging valley, dominated by periglacial and fluvial processes, and a V-notched lower part in which lateral colluvial channels are directly connected to Strimm's main stem. In Gadria Creek, massive kame terraces located in proximity of the headwaters provide virtually unlimited sediment supply to frequent debris-flow activity, making this sub-catchment an ideal site for monitoring, hence studying the mechanics of these processes. Preliminary results point to a high spatial variability of the colluvial channel network, in which sub-sectors have remained consistently active during the study period while others have become progressively dormant with notable forest re-growth. In an attempt to link sediment flux to topography and substrate type, future work will involve photogrammetric analysis across the sequential aerial photosets as well as a morphometric/geomechanical characterization of the surficial materials.

  3. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Strontium-90 in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Puhakainen, M.; Saxen, R

    1999-07-01

    The {sup 90}Sr concentrations in surface waters varied from 14 to 29 Bq m{sup -3} in 1988 and from 16 to 23 Bq m{sup -3} in 1990. In Lake Pielinen almost all the {sup 90}Sr seemed to originate from weapons test fallout, whereas in Lakes Ontojaervi, Naesijaervi and Pyhaejaervi the share of the Chernobyl fallout was equal to that of weapons test fallout. In the sediments, the total amount of {sup 90}Sr per square metre varied from 97 to 1060 Bq m{sup -2} in 1988 and from 310 to 1160 Bq m{sup -2} in 1990. The maximum values occurred in Lake Naesijaervi. The local amount of deposition and the type of sediment were the most important factors affecting strontium values in sediments. In addition, the large variation in total amounts of {sup 90}Sr was due to other environmental factors. The total amounts of {sup 90}Sr in sediments were generally of the same order of magnitude as the {sup 90}Sr deposition on the ground in the area. The concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in surface waters also conformed quite well to the distribution pattern of the deposition values. At some stations there was a clear maximum in a deeper sediment layer, which could be construed as a marker of the nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. (orig.)

  5. Possible pitfalls in the search for uranium deposits using lake sediments and lake waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, A.A.; Bland, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    The organic-rich sediments from the centres of Canadian lakes are a valuable sampling medium in the search for uranium. However, because of the young age of hydromorphically transported uranium in these sediments, which must post-date the last period of glaciation, there has been insufficient time for the isotope 214 Bi to reach equilibrium with its ancestor 238 U. This results in equivalent uranium (eU) values significantly lower than actual uranium values determined by fluorometry or delayed neutron activation analysis. Radiometric ( 226 Ra) analyses of 12 centre-lake sediments from Seahorse Lake, Saskatchewan illustrate the potential pitfalls which may be encountered using gamma-ray spectrometry, as only 3-8% of the actual uranium present in most of the samples would have been detected. (author)

  6. Sedimentology, geochronology and micropaleontology of post- and immediately pre-European Lake Tekapo sediment (based on analysis of core L1395)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Alloway, B.V.; Cochran, U.; Cook, R.A.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Mildenhall, D.C.; Morgenstern, U.; Prior, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report details sedimentological, geochronological and micropaleontological research on Lake Tekapo sediment core L1395, extracted by NIWA in November 1991. In addition to assessing the reliability of classical 'varve' counting to determine sedimentation rates, the report outlines various options for dating glacial lake sediments in southern New Zealand, and makes recommendations with respect to planned drilling of nearby Lake Pukaki. An ambitious project was launched in July 2002 within GNS's 'Global Change Through Time' PGST research program (C05X0202) to investigate New Zealand's Holocene climatic record via a deep drill core into Lake Pukaki sediment. Lake Pukaki, a pro-glacial lake similar to Lake Tekapo is located on the eastern side of the Southern Alps adjacent to Mount Cook (Aoraki), and has received ca. 400m of sediment from its catchment since forming ca. 16 k.y. ago. Its sedimentary record, therefore, has the potential to reveal a high resolution record of paleo-climatic fluctuations, provided that the appropriate climatic proxies can be identified and a robust and precise chronology can be established. This report focuses on sedimentological analysis, the principal radiometric methods available for dating lacustrine sediments within a 0-50 k.y. time-frame, and preliminary micropaleontological investigations. Lake Tekapo contains an almost complete record of sedimentation covering the past ca. 16 k.y. and hence also a record of storm events and more subtle changes in climate during that time. However, the temperate climate of the region contrasts with that of many previous lake bed studies in North America and Europe, creating new challenges for deriving robust climate proxies from the sedimentary record. (author). 124 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs

  7. A sediment resuspension and water quality model of Lake Okeechobee

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R.T.; Martin, J.; Wool, T.; Wang, P.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of sediment resuspension on the water quality of shallow lakes is well documented. However, a search of the literature reveals no deterministic mass-balance eutrophication models that explicitly include resuspension. We modified the Lake Okeeehobee water quality model - which uses the Water Analysis Simulation Package (WASP) to simulate algal dynamics and phosphorus, nitrogen, and oxygen cycles - to include inorganic suspended solids and algorithms that: (1) define changes in depth with changes in volume; (2) compute sediment resuspension based on bottom shear stress; (3) compute partition coefficients for ammonia and ortho-phosphorus to solids; and (4) relate light attenuation to solids concentrations. The model calibration and validation were successful with the exception of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species which did not correspond well to observed data in the validation phase. This could be attributed to an inaccurate formulation of algal nitrogen preference and/or the absence of nitrogen fixation in the model. The model correctly predicted that the lake is lightlimited from resuspended solids, and algae are primarily nitrogen limited. The model simulation suggested that biological fluxes greatly exceed external loads of dissolved nutrients; and sedimentwater interactions of organic nitrogen and phosphorus far exceed external loads. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that parameters affecting resuspension, settling, sediment nutrient and solids concentrations, mineralization, algal productivity, and algal stoichiometry are factors requiring further study to improve our understanding of the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  8. Sediment Source Fingerprinting of the Lake Urmia Sand Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Agahi, Edris; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Erfanian, Mahdi

    2018-01-09

    Aeolian sand dunes are continuously being discovered in inner dry lands and coastal areas, most of which have been formed over the Last Glacial Maximum. Presently, due to some natural and anthropogenic implications on earth, newly-born sand dunes are quickly emerging. Lake Urmia, the world's second largest permanent hypersaline lake, has started shrinking, vast lands comprising sand dunes over the western shore of the lake have appeared and one question has been playing on the minds of nearby dwellers: where are these sand dunes coming from, What there was not 15 years ago!! In the present study, the determination of the source of the Lake Urmia sand dunes in terms of the quantifying relative contribution of each upstream geomorphological/lithological unit has been performed using geochemical fingerprinting techniques. The findings demonstrate that the alluvial and the fluvial sediments of the western upstream catchment have been transported by water erosion and they accumulated in the lower reaches of the Kahriz River. Wind erosion, as a secondary agent, have carried the aeolian sand-sized sediments to the sand dune area. Hence, the Lake Urmia sand dunes have been originating from simultaneous and joint actions of alluvial, fluvial and aeolian processes.

  9. Historical variations of Bera Lake (Malaysia) sediments geochemistry using radioisotopes and sediment quality indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadreza Gharibreza; John Kuna Raj; Ismail Yusoff; Zainudin Othman; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The Bera Lake basin is a lacustrine mire system and the largest natural lake in Peninsular Malaysia. Three cores were collected from the lake sediments in order to assess sediment quality and ecological risks for aquatic life and human health. An index analysis approach (C f , C d , E r , and IR) and fallout 210 Pb and 137 Cs radioisotopes were applied to assess the impacts of environmental evolutionary changes. Sediment chronology was determined using the Constant Rate of Supply model with the resultant ages verified by 137 Cs horizons. Although the general contamination factors indicate low risk conditions in Bera Lake the risks associated with individual layers ranged from moderate to considerable. Five deforestation phases can be identified in the dated sediment cores with distinct variations in heavy metal influxes since 1972. These phases are in excellent agreement with the dates of land clearance and development projects undertaken over the past four decades. This study has highlighted the capability of contamination factors and chronological methods in environmental evolutionary studies where catchments have experienced extensive land use changes. The destiny of heavy metal influxes into a lake can also be revealed using this methodology. (author)

  10. Sedimentology, tephrostratigraphy, and chronology of the DEEP site sediment record, Lake Ohrid (Albania, FYROM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher, Niklas; Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Just, Janna; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Nomade, Sebastien

    2017-04-01

    Lake Ohrid, located on the Balkan Peninsula, is one of the very few lakes in the world that provides a continuous and high-resolution record of environmental change of >1.3 Ma. The sedimentary archive was drilled in spring 2013 within the scope of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in order to investigate local and regional geological and paleoclimatic processes, as well as triggers of evolutionary patterns and endemic biodiversity. The continuous composite profile (584 m) of the main drill site DEEP was logged (XRF, MSCL) and subsampled for biogeochemical (TIC, TOC, TN, TS) and sedimentological (grain size) analyses. The lithology of the DEEP site indicates that the history of Lake Ohrid can roughly be separated into two parts, with the older section between 584 and 450 m depth being characterised by a sedimentary facies indicating shallow water conditions, which is likely younger than ca. 1.9 Ma. In the lowermost few meters of the succession gravels and pebbles hampered a deeper drilling penetration and indicate that fluvial conditions existed during the onset of lake formation. Together with geotectonic, seismic, and biological information, the data imply that the Ohrid basin formed by transtension during the Miocene, opened during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and that the lake established between 1.9 and 1.3 Ma ago. The sediments of the younger part (DEEP site sequence and are subject of ongoing investigations aimed at identifying their specific volcanic sources and equivalent known tephra by using geochemical fingerprinting of glass fragments. This was already successfully approved for tephra horizons in the upper 247.8 m of the sequence, obtaining important chronological information from 11 well dated tephra layers. These tephrochronological constraints were complemented by ages obtained from tuning the consistent pattern of the

  11. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  12. Validation of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  13. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  14. Mono Lake sediments preserve a record of recent environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    Modern Mono Lake is a geochemically unique closed-basin, hypersaline soda lake. Since 1941, anthropogenic water diversions have decreased the lake's volume and water level, driving changes in water chemistry and ecology. Mono Lake sediments offer an opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of these changes. We analyzed a 70 cm sediment core from the center of Mono Lake recording the past 116 years of deposition. At the time of recovery, the entire core was dark green. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated a sedimentary bacterial community dominated by Cyanobacteria. SEM imaging revealed abundant, well-preserved diatom frustules below 10 cm core depth, in contrast they are nearly absent above 10 cm depth. Fatty acid (FAME) biomarkers for diatoms and algal sterols were present throughout the core in varying concentrations. Phytol was exceptionally abundant in the core; ratios of phytol/C-18 FAME were commonly >200. The δ13Corg ranged between -17.5 and -20‰ in the lower 52 cm of the core while the upper part shows significant decrease of δ13Corg to -28‰. We interpret the shift in δ13Corg as an ecological transition from mainly diatoms in the lower core towards the green alga Picocystis, which is the main primary producer today and has a δ13Corg value of -32.5‰. The onset of this change dates back 23 years, which roughly coincides with the highest reported salinity, 88 g/L in 1995. We hypothesize that diatoms gradually became marginalized as a result of hypersaline conditions. We also observed a variety of trends that may be characterized as unique fingerprints of Mono Lake. The unusually high abundance of phytol was consistent with the core's pervasive green coloring and could potentially indicate a higher preservation potential of phytol under alkaline conditions. Throughout the core, δ15Norg fluctuated between +10 and +13‰. Such atypical enrichment in δ15Norg could be explained by NH4 dissociation and subsequent NH3 volatilization under high p

  15. AMS radiocarbon analyses from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Challenges of dating sediments from a large, oligotrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.; Rubin, M.; King, J.W.; Peck, J.A.; Orem, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    A suite of 146 new accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon ages provides the first reliable chronology for late Quaternary sediments in Lake Baikal. In this large, highly oligotrophic lake, biogenic and authigenic carbonate are absent, and plant macrofossils are extremely rare. Total organic carbon is therefore the primary material available for dating. Several problems are associated with the TOC ages. One is the mixture of carbon sources in TOC, not all of which are syndepositional in age. This problem manifests itself in apparent ages for the sediment surface that are greater than zero. However, because most of the organic carbon in Lake Baikal sediments is algal (autochthonous) in origin, this effect is limited to about 1000+500 years, which can be corrected, at least for young deposits. The other major problem with dating Lake Baikal sediments is the very low carbon contents of glacial-age deposits, which makes them extremely susceptible to contamination with modern carbon. This problem can be minimized by careful sampling and handling procedures. The ages show almost an order of magnitude difference in sediment-accumulation rates among different sedimentary environments in Lake Baikal, from about 0.04 mm/year on isolated banks such as Academician Ridge, to nearly 0.3 mm/year in the turbidite depositional areas beneath the deep basin floors, such as the Central Basin. The new AMS ages clearly indicate that the dramatic increase in diatom productivity in the lake, as evidenced by increases in biogenic silica and organic carbon, began about 13 ka, in contrast to previous estimates of 7 ka for the age of this transition. Holocene net sedimentation rates may be less than, equal to, or greater than those in the late Pleistocene, depending on the site. This variability reflects the balance between variable terrigenous sedimentation and increased biogenic sedimentation during interglaciations. The ages reported here, and the temporal and spatial variation in

  16. Determination of inositol phosphate ester in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Armstrong, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of the total inositol polyphosphate content of lake sediments is presented and evaluated. This technique involves extraction with NaOH, cleanup of the extract, and isolation and identification of two groups of inositol phosphate esters by ion-exchange chromatography. Radioisotope dilution is employed to correct for losses during the extraction, cleanup and isolation steps. Recoveries of the radiotracer inositol phosphates have averaged 85% during the analysis of approximately 40 calcareous and non-calcareous sediment samples and more than 20 soil samples

  17. Paleosecular Type Curves for South America Based on Holocene-Pleistocene Lake Sediments Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. S.

    2007-05-01

    Most of the high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) results were obtained from records on sediments from the Northern Hemisphere. Experimental results from South America are scarce. The first results were obtained by Creer et al. (1983) and have been continued since few years ago by the author and collaborators. This review deals with studies of PSV records from bottom sediments from three lakes: Escondido, Moreno and El Trébol (south-western Argentina, 41° S, 71° 30'W). Measurements of directions (declination D and inclination I) and intensity of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility at low and high frequency (specific, X and volumetric, k), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and back field were carried out. Stability of the NRM was investigated by alternating-field demagnetization. Rock magnetic studies suggest that the main carriers of magnetization are ferrimagnetic minerals, predominantly pseudo single domain magnetite. The correlation between cores was based on magnetic parameters as X and NRM. The tephra layers were identified from the lithologic profiles and also from the magnetic susceptibility logs. Due to their different chronological meaning and their rather bad behavior as magnetic recorder, these layers were removed from the sequence and the gaps that were produced along the profiles by the removal were closed, obtaining a "shortened depth". Radiocarbon age estimates from these cores and from earlier studies allow us to construct paleosecular variation records for the past 22,000 years. Inclination and declination curves (Gogorza et al., 2000a; Gogorza et al., 2002; Irurzun et al., 2006) show trends that are similar to a paleomagnetic secular variation curve for SW of Argentina (Gogorza et al., 2000b). References Creer, K.M., Tucholka, P. and Barton, C.E. 1983. Paleomagnetism of lake sediments, in Geomagnetism of Baked Clays and Recent Sediments, edited

  18. pH dependent dissolution of sediment aluminum in six Danish lakes treated with aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, Kasper; Jensen, Henning S.; Egemose, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The possible pH dependent dissolution of aluminum hydroxides (Al(OH)(3)) from lake sediments was studied in six lakes previously treated with Al to bind excess phosphorus (P). Surface sediment was suspended for 2 h in lake water of pH 7.5, 8.5, or 9.5 with resulting stepwise increments in dissolved...

  19. Parametrization of environment by geochemistry of the varved clastic and bio- chemogenic lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Babich, Valery; Markovich, Tatiana; Meydan, Feray

    2017-04-01

    As it well known, recent quantitative estimations of high-resolution environmental variability are based on geochemical records in lake sediments. Naturally, annually laminated sediments (varves) are the best objects for paleoclimatic study, because they allow to investigate seasonal variability for understanding long-term environmental pattern. Also, varved sediments seem to be applied as the model for identification of element-indicators for non-laminated sediments. The XRF scanner on Synchrotron Radiation provides big geochemical dataset for next mathematic treatment, including time series construction. XRF scanning realizes rapid and non-destructive determinations more than 30 trace elements in a range of concentration from 1 up to 10000 ppm in annual layers. That makes sedimentary cores comparable with tree-rings. Geochemical and physicochemical investigation of lake sediments provides basic information to identify geochemical signals with paleoclimate. In general, sediment consists of mineral component, organics and carbonates. The proportions between these components are affected by environmental parameters, because measured element content or their combinations show correlation with meteodata on instrumental time interval. That allows applying geochemical variability to reconstruct the environmental parameters in the form of time series. The proportions between main components are controlled by temperature, atmospheric precipitation, water salinity and other external forcings. So, layered structure of lake bottom sediments and detectable elements content variability both represent a continuous record of environmental history. Element composition and it's climatic response. Bottom sediments represent conditions of physical weathering, temperate bioproductivity and aridity, which concern to mountain lakes within extra tropical zone. The numerical values of the parameters can be computed by software of physical-chemical modeling for gas+water+rock multisystems

  20. Trace elements in lake sediments measured by the PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Luciana V.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Artaxo, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Lakes are ecosystems where there is a great potential of metal accumulation in sediments due to their depositional characteristics. Total concentration of trace elements was measured on a 50 cm long sediment core from the Infernao Lake, that is an oxbow lake of the Moji-Guacu River basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dating of the core shows up to 180 yrs old sediment layers. The use of the PIXE technique for elemental analysis avoids the traditional acid digestion procedure common in other techniques. The multielemental characteristic of PIXE allows a simultaneous determination of about 20 elements in the sediment samples, such as, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Pb. Average values for the elemental composition were found to be similar to the bulk crustal composition. The lake flooding pattern strongly influences the time series of the elemental profiles. Factor analysis of the elemental variability shows five factors. Two of the factors represent the mineralogical matrix, and others represent the organic component, a factor with lead, and another loaded with chromium. The mineralogical component consists of elements such as, Fe, Al, V, Ti, Mn, Ni, K, Zr, Sr, Cu and Zn. The variability of Si is explained by two distinct factors, because it is influenced by two different sources, aluminum-silicates and quartz, and the effect of inundation are different for each other. The organic matter is strongly associated with calcium, and also bounded with S, Zn, Cu and P. Lead and chromium appears as separated factors, although it is not clear the evidences for their anthropogenic origin. The techniques developed for sample preparation and PIXE analysis was proven as advantageous and provided very good reproducibility and accuracy

  1. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  2. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  3. Late-Quaternary glacial to postglacial sedimentation in three adjacent fjord-lakes of the Québec North Shore (eastern Canadian Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Antoine G.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Normandeau, Alexandre; Francus, Pierre; St-Onge, Guillaume; Nzekwe, Obinna P.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution swath bathymetry imagery allowed mapping in great detail the sublacustrine geomorphology of lakes Pentecôte, Walker and Pasteur, three deep adjacent fjord-lakes of the Québec North Shore (eastern Canada). These sedimentary basins have been glacio-isostatically uplifted to form deep steep-sided elongated lakes. Their key geographical position and limnogeological characteristics typical of fjords suggest exceptional potential for long-term high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstitutions. Acoustic subbottom profiles acquired using a bi-frequency Chirp echosounder (3.5 & 12 kHz), together with cm- and m-long sediment core data, reveal the presence of four acoustic stratigraphic units. The acoustic basement (Unit 1) represents the structural bedrock and/or the ice-contact sediments of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and reveals V-shaped bedrock valleys at the bottom of the lakes occupied by ice-loaded sediments in a basin-fill geometry (Unit 2). Moraines observed at the bottom of lakes and in their structural valleys indicate a deglaciation punctuated by short-term ice margin stabilizations. Following ice retreat and their isolation, the fjord-lakes were filled by a thick draping sequence of rhythmically laminated silts and clays (Unit 3) deposited during glaciomarine and/or glaciolacustrine settings. These sediments were episodically disturbed by mass-movements during deglaciation due to glacial-isostatic rebound. AMS 14C dating reveal that the transition between deglaciation of the lakes Pentecôte and Walker watersheds and the development of para- and post-glacial conditions occurred around 8000 cal BP. The development of the lake-head river delta plain during the Holocene provided a constant source of fluvial sediment supply to the lakes and the formation of turbidity current bedforms on the sublacustrine delta slopes. The upper sediment succession (i.e., ∼4-∼6.5 m) consists of a continuous para-to post-glacial sediment drape (Unit 4) that contains

  4. Preliminary characteristics of laminations in recent sediments from lakes Kamenduł and Perty in the Suwałki Landscape Park, northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylmann Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Varved lake sediments are well known archives used for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. They provide continuous, high-resolution and calendar-year chronologies of past environmental changes. From lakes Kamenduł and Perty, located in the Suwałki Landscape Park, short cores of laminated sediments were collected and investigated using microfacies analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF scanning. Sediments of Lake Kamenduł form biogenic (calcite varves with pale lamina containing precipitated calcite and dark lamina composed of mixed organic and clastic material. There is a visible difference between varves in the lower and the topmost part of the core. The varve thickness and clastic material content decrease upcore. Analysed sediments of Lake Perty also show laminated structures which are biogenic varves composed of calcite laminas interbedded with layers of mixed material and dark laminas containing mostly organic material with some clastic particles. Our study shows that further analysis of sediments from these lakes may provide valuable information about past land use changes in their catchments as well as changes in the water column, i.e. mixing regimes and redox conditions.

  5. Sedimentation rates and erosion changes recorded in recent sediments of Lake Piaseczno, south-eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Turczyński, Marek; Kinder, Małgorzata

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the dating results and basic analyses of recent sediments from Lake Piaseczno. The age of sediments was determined using the 210Pb method and constant flux: constant sedimentation (CF: CS) model. The estimated timescale was in agreement with the AMS14C date from the base of the core. The mean sediment accumulation rate during the last 100 years was calculated as 0.025 g cm-2 a-1. Based on the radiocarbon date, the rate of sediment accumulation below the 210Pb dating horizon was estimated as 0.066 g cm-2 a-1. The variability of main physical properties and sediment components along the core was analysed as well. The sediments were characterised by a very high water content (>80%). Carbonates were either not present or at a very low level (interesting record of increasing erosion intensity in the catchment area. Analysis of archival cartographic materials demonstrated that the most likely reason for the enhanced transport of minerogenic matter to the lake was deforestation caused by human activity in the beginning of the 20th century.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  7. High-resolution Mass Spectrometry of Skin Mucus for Monitoring Physiological Impacts in Fish Exposed to Wastewater Effluent at a Great Lakes AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution mass spectrometry is advantageous for monitoring physiological impacts and contaminant biotransformation products in fish exposed to complex wastewater effluent. We evaluated this technique using skin mucus from male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promela...

  8. High-Resolution Physical Properties Logging of the AND-1B Sediment Core - Opportunity for Detecting High-Frequency Signals of Paleoenvironmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, F.; Magens, D.; Kuhn, G.; Helling, D.

    2008-12-01

    Within the ANDRILL-MIS Project, a more than 1200 m long sediment core, dating back to about 13 Ma, was drilled beneath McMurdo Ice Shelf near Ross Island (Antarctica) in austral summer 2006/07 with the purpose of contributing to a better understanding of the Late Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. One way to approach past ice dynamics and changes in the paleoenvironment quantitatively, is the analysis of high- resolution physical properties obtained from whole-core multi-sensor core logger measurements in which lithologic changes are expressed numerically. This is especially applicable for the repeating sequences of diatomites and diamictites in the upper half of the core with a prominent cyclicity between 140-300 mbsf. Rather abrupt high-amplitude variations in wet-bulk density (WBD) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) reflect a highly dynamic depositional system, oscillating between two main end-member types: a grounded ice sheet and open marine conditions. For the whole core, the WBD signal, ranging from 1.4 kg/cu.m in the diatomites to 2.3 kg/cu.m in diamictites from the lower part of the core, represents the influence of three variables: (i) the degree of compaction seen as reduction of porosities with depth of about 30 % from top to bottom, (ii) the clast content with clasts being almost absent in diatomite deposits and (iii) the individual grain density (GD). GD itself strongly reflects the variety of lithologies as well as the influence of cement (mainly pyrite and carbonate) on the matrix grain density. The calculation of residual porosities demonstrates the strong imprint of glacial loading for especially diamictites from the upper 150 m, pointing to a significant thickness of the overriding Pleistocene ice sheet. MS on the other hand mainly documents a marine vs. terrestrial source of sediments where the latter can be divided into younger local material from the McMurdo Volcanic Province and basement clasts from the Transantarctic Mountains

  9. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  10. A 1200-Year Record of Rapid Climate Changes Across the Tropical Americas Identified from Lake Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Bird, B. W.; Vuille, M.

    2009-12-01

    Well-dated, highly resolved lake sediment stratigraphies from similar catchments across the tropical Americas provide a means to investigate the timing, rate and direction of climate variability as well as providing a way to evaluate whether rapid changes occur synchronously in both hemispheres. This presentation focuses on the last 1500 years from three new high-resolution stable isotope records including Yuraicocha (12°32'S, 75°29'W), Pumacocha (10°41'S, 76° 3'36W), and Gancho (8°27'N, 80°51'W). These lakes are all sensitive to changes in P/E and the sediment records respond at subdecadal timescales. Additionally, the results from these sites are compared with lake level records from Titicaca (16°14'S, 68°37'W) and Blanca (8°19'N, 71°46'W) as well as other lake core and speleothem records from the region. The results show that in general conditions are dry across South America from ~800 AD until ~1300 AD with wetter conditions in Central America and the Caribbean. This pattern of dry conditions in tropical South America and wet conditions in the north reverses after ~1300 when conditions become wetter in South America, and drier in Central America and the Carrabin.

  11. Lead-210 analyses of sediment accumulation rates in five Southern Illinois surface mine lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Carlson, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    210 Pb is a naturally occurring radionuclide with a short half-life (22 yrs) which can be used to determine sedimentation rates in lakes. The technique was applied in 5 Southern Illinois surface mine lakes where it revealed past sedimentation rates to have been extremely variable. In some of the lakes there was evidence for extensive slumping immediately after mining ceased followed by a more regular sedimentary regime that continued until the present. In others there have been one or more changes in sediment accumulation rates since lacustrine sedimentation began. These results suggest that simply measuring the amount of sediment that has accumulated in a surface mine lake since mining ceased is inadequate to determine filling rates. Sedimentation rates in the 5 lakes varied from .60 +- .19 to 1.46 +- .19 cm/y. These rates are similar to natural lakes with moderately disturbed watersheds

  12. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Chen, Guangjie; Niu, Jie; Lei, Guoliang; Chang, Fengqin; Zhang, Hucai

    2014-01-01

    Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and CaCO3 content), as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP) were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  13. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS and CaCO3 content, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  14. Holocene evolution of the Tonle Sap Lake: valley network infill and rates of sedimentation in Cambodia's Great Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Darby, S. E.; Langdon, P. G.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Marti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia (c. 120km long and 35 km wide), is a vital ecosystem that provides 40-60% of the protein for the population of Cambodia. The lake is fed by flow from the Mekong River that causes the lake rise in level by c. 8m during monsoonal and cyclone-related floods, with drainage of the lake following the monsoon. Hydropower dam construction on the Mekong River has raised concerns as to the fragility of the Tonle Sap habitat due to any changing water levels and sedimentation rates within the lake. This paper details results of sub-bottom profiling surveys of Tonle Sap Lake in October 2014 that detailed the stratigraphy of the lake and assessed rates of infill. An Innomar Parametric Echo Sounder (PES) was used to obtain c. 250 km of sub-bottom profiles, with penetration up to 15m below the lake bed at a vertical resolution of c. 0.20m. These PES profiles were linked to cores from the north of the lake and previous literature. The PES profiles reveal a network of valleys, likely LGM, with relief up to c. 15-20m, that have been infilled by a suite of Holocene sediments. The valley surface is picked out as a strong reflector throughout the lake, and displays a series of valleys that are up to c. 15m deep and commonly 50-200m wide, although some of the largest valleys are 1.2km in width. Modelling of channel network incision during LGM conditions generates landscapes consistent with our field observations. The Tonle Sap valley network is infilled by sediments that show firstly fluvial and/or subaerial slope sedimentation, and then by extensive, parallel-bedded, lacustrine sedimentation. Lastly, the top c. 1m of sedimentation is marked by a distinct basal erosional surface that can be traced over much of the Tonle Sap Lake, and that is overlain by a series of parallel PES reflections. This upper sediment layer is interpreted to represent sedimentation in the Tonle Sap lake due to sediment suspension settling but after a period

  15. Sediment biomarkers elucidate the Holocene ontogeny of a shallow lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T E Arnold

    Full Text Available We carried out geochemical analyses on a sediment core from Lake Harris, Florida (USA to identify sources of organic matter to the sediment throughout the Holocene, and relate changes in those sources to shifts in past climate and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that the sources of organic matter changed in response to regional hydrologic shifts following de-glaciation, and to human population expansion in the state during the 20th century. Hydroclimate shifts in Florida were related to: 1 a steady rise in relative sea level and the fresh water table that began in the early Holocene, 2 wetland formation and expansion ca. 5,000 cal yrs BP, and 3 the onset of the modern El Niño (ENSO cycle ~3,000 cal yrs BP. Stratigraphic changes in sediment variables from Lake Harris reflect each of these hydroclimate periods. Early in the Holocene, Lake Harris was a marsh-like system in a relatively dry, open-prairie environment. Organic sediments deposited at that time were derived largely from terrestrial sources, as inferred from high TOC/TN ratios, a dominance of longer-chain of n-alkanes (n-C29-31, relatively negative organic carbon isotope values (δ13CTOC, and low biogenic silica concentrations. In the middle Holocene, a positive shift in δ13CTOC coincided with the onset of wetter conditions in Florida. Submerged macrophyte biomarkers (n-C21-23 dominated, and during that period bulk organic carbon isotope values were most similar to δ13C values of mid-chain-length n-alkanes. In the late Holocene, δ13CTOC values declined, CaCO3 levels decreased to trace amounts, organic carbon concentrations increased and diatom biogenic silica concentrations increased from 10 to 120 mg g-1. Around 2,900 cal yrs BP, the effects of ENSO intensified and many Florida lakes deepened to their current limnetic state. Concentrations of algal and cyanobacterial biomarkers in the Lake Harris core increased by orders of magnitude after about AD 1940, in response to

  16. Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingxi; Wang Xiaorong; Jin Xiangcan

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and P fractions in sediment cores and the relationship between them were studied in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Sediment cores were collected from four sites, characterized by different degrees of eutrophication in June 2004. Sediment P was fractionated into Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The former two species made the largest contribution to the sediment P pool. Results show that trophic status and hydrological conditions have great impact on the APA of the sediments. The order of the APA in sediments was conjectured to be: macrophyte dominated lake > transitional lake > algal dominated lake. APA profiles follow a similar downcore decreasing trend. There was a positive relationship between the APA and the TP, IP. The multiple linear regression equation of the APA and P fractions is: APA = -97 + 0.768TP - 0.985Fe/Al-P. - Characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of different trophic status lake were studied in Lake Taihu

  17. High-resolution C and O stable isotope geochemistry of the early Aptian OAE1a at Cau (Prebetic Zone, Spain): Preliminary results from sediment core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Aguado, Roque; Castro, José Manuel; Gallego, David; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Rodriguez, Rafael; Skelton, Peter; Weisser, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of time intervals of enhanced deposition of organic matter (OM) during the Cretaceous, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE), reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian OAE1a (120 Ma), represents an excellent example, recorded in all the main ocean basins, associated to massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments [1]. Much research has been done on the OAE1a from different sections in the world over the last decades, including the definition of the C-isotope stratigraphy of the event [2]. Notwithstanding, higher-resolution studies across the entire event will be crucial to shed light into the precise timing and rates of the different environmental and biotic changes that occurred. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents the platform deposits of the Southern Iberian palaeomargin. The Lower Aptian of the Cau section is represented by a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation, ca. 200 m thick), deposited in a highly subsiding sector of a tilted block, located in the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous studies of the Lower Aptian of the Cau section have focused on the stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry [3], [4], and in the reconstruction of pCO2 from organic geochemistry proxies [5]. All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to investigate the OAE 1a, based on its unusual high thickness and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils and the geochemical signatures. Here we present the first results of a high-resolution carbonate C-isotope study based on the the analysis of three new research cores drilled at Cau in autumn 2015 [6]. These new data represent an important advance in the knowledge of the C-isotope record of the OAE 1a, presenting a more continuous record at a higher resolution than previous studies. This leads to the refining of the

  18. Temperature Dependence of Apparent Respiratory Quotients and Oxygen Penetration Depth in Contrasting Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Sebastian; Gudasz, Cristian; Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.; Bastviken, David; Morales-Pineda, María.

    2017-11-01

    Lake sediments constitute an important compartment in the carbon cycle of lakes, by burying carbon over geological timescales and by production and emission of greenhouse gases. The degradation of organic carbon (OC) in lake sediments is linked to both temperature and oxygen (O2), but the interactive nature of this regulation has not been studied in lake sediments in a quantitative way. We present the first systematic investigation of the effects of temperature on the apparent respiratory quotient (RQ, i.e., the molar ratio between carbon dioxide (CO2) production and O2 consumption) in two contrasting lake sediments. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores of a humic lake and an eutrophic lake across a 1-21°C temperature gradient over 157 days revealed that both CO2 production and O2 consumption were positively, exponentially, and similarly dependent on temperature. The apparent RQ differed significantly between the lake sediments (0.63 ± 0.26 and 0.99 ± 0.28 in the humic and the eutrophic lake, respectively; mean ± SD) and was significantly and positively related to temperature. The O2 penetration depth into the sediment varied by a factor of 2 over the 1-21°C temperature range and was significantly, negatively, and similarly related to temperature in both lake sediments. Accordingly, increasing temperature may influence the overall extent of OC degradation in lake sediments by limiting O2 supply to aerobic microbial respiration to the topmost sediment layer, resulting in a concomitant shift to less effective anaerobic degradation pathways. This suggests that temperature may represent a key controlling factor of the OC burial efficiency in lake sediments.

  19. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  20. LBA-ECO LC-07 Lake Sediment Nutrient Data, Lago Calado, Brazil: 1982-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports lake sediment texture and porosity, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of surficial sediments, 210Pb-derived nutrient...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-07 Lake Sediment Nutrient Data, Lago Calado, Brazil: 1982-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports lake sediment texture and porosity, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of surficial sediments, 210Pb-derived...

  2. Sedimentation rates and depositional processes in Lake Superior from 210Pb geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Alexander, E.C. Jr.; Lively, R.S.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.32 cm/yr in 17 sediment box cores from Lake Superior, as determined by 210 Pb geochronology. Shoreline erosion and resuspension of nearshore sediments causes moderate to high (0.05-0.11 cm/yr) sedimentation rates in the western arm of Lake Superior. Sedimentation rates are very high (> 0.15 cm/yr) in marginal bays adjoining Lake Superior; and moderate to very high (0.07-0.19 cm/yr) in open lake regions adjacent to marginal bays. Resuspension of nearshore and shoal top sediments in southern and southeastern Lake Superior by storms is responsible for depositional anomalies in 210 Pb profiles corresponding to 1905, 1916-1918, and 1940 storms. Sedimentation rates are very low (0.01-0.03 cm/yr) in the central basins due to isolation from sediment sources. These data indicate that sedimentation rates and processes vary significantly in different regions of Lake Superior. The sedimentation rates provided by this study, in conjunction with previously-reported sedimentation rates, yield a better understanding of the Lake Superior depositional environment

  3. The Geologic History of Lake of the Woods, Minnesota, Reconstructed Using Seismic-Reflection Imaging and Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougardy, Devin D.

    The history of glacial Lake Agassiz is complex and has intrigued researchers for over a century. Over the course of its ˜5,000 year existence, the size, shape, and location of Lake Agassiz changed dramatically depending on the location of the southern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), the location and elevation of outflow channels, and differential isostatic rebound. Some of the best-preserved sequences of Lake Agassiz sediments are found in remnant lake basins where erosional processes are less pronounced than in adjacent higher-elevation regions. Lake of the Woods (LOTW), Minnesota, is among the largest of the Lake Agassiz remnant lakes and is an ideal location for Lake Agassiz sediment accumulation. High-resolution seismic-reflection (CHIRP) data collected from the southern basin of LOTW reveal up to 28 m of stratified lacustrine sediment deposited on top of glacial diamicton and bedrock. Five seismic units (SU A-E) were identified and described based on their reflection character, reflection configuration, and external geometries. Three prominent erosional unconformities (UNCF 1-3) underlie the upper three seismic units and indicate that deposition at LOTW was interrupted by a series of relatively large fluctuations in lake level. The lowermost unconformity (UNCF-1) truncates uniformly draped reflections within SU-B at the margins of the basin, where as much as four meters of sediment were eroded. The drop in lake level is interpreted to be contemporaneous with the onset of the low-stand Moorhead phase of Lake Agassiz identified from subaerial deposits in the Red River Valley, Rainy River basin, and Lake Winnipeg. A rise in lake level, indicated by onlapping reflections within SU-C onto UNCF-1, shifted the wave base outwards and as much as 11 m of sediment were deposited (SU-C) in the middle of the basin before a second drop, and subsequent rise, in lake level resulted in the formation of UNCF-2. Reflections in the lower part of SU-D onlap onto UNCF-2

  4. Natural Environmental Hazards Reflected in High-Altitude Patagonian Lake Sediments (lake Caviahue, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Scharf, Burkhard; von Tümpling, Wolf; Pirrung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Two 6-m long sediment cores drilled in the two basins of Lake Caviahue give new evidence of the impact of natural hazards such as ash fallouts linked to nearby volcanic eruptions in the ecologically sensitive environment of the high-altitude region of the Argentinan Patagonian Andes. The two cores show distinct signals of changes in autochthonous productivity and terrigenous input into the lake from ash fallout as well as from river load and shore erosion. Multiproxy records of the sediments indicate whether these changes can be related to volcanic activity. High values of magnetic susceptibility in the cores reflect periods of basaltic ash fallouts during eruptions of the nearby Copahue Volcano. The southern basin is located in the prevalent direction of ash fallouts and has been affected by these volcanic inputs more intensely than the northern basin of the lake. In contrast, sedimentation and authochthonous productivity in the northern basin are strongly affected by fluvial inputs such as suspended river load and acidic stream waters.

  5. 210Pb-137Cs dating of glacial lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, I.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Barry, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediments deposited in New Zealand lakes in the recent past provide excellent archives of local climate change via their trapped biodiversity, varve structure ad sedimentological composition. To unlock the archival information, accurate and fine-scale dating of the deposits is essential. A combination of 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating provides the most reliable and robust approach. Under favourable conditions, 210 Pb dating can provide a detailed chronology to c.120-140 y, and can be accurately calibrated by 137 Cs for the last 40 y or thereabouts. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs

  6. Unravelling Copenhagen's stride into the Anthropocene using lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2014-05-01

    Industrialization including the effects of expanding energy consumption and metallurgy production as well as population growth and demographic pressure increased heavy-metal pollution loads progressively since the Industrial Revolution. Especially the burning of fossil fuels mobilizes heavy metals like lead and zinc on a large scale. By wet and dry deposition, these loads end up in the aquatic environment where sediments serve as sinks for these contaminations. In this study, we examine the pollution history of Copenhagen, Denmark. A sediment core was retrieved for the lake in the Botanical Gardens in central Copenhagen using a rod-operated piston corer. The water body used to be part of the old town's defence-wall system and was turned into a lake by terrain levelling in the mid 17th century. After initial X-ray fluorescence core scanning, element concentrations were determined using emission spectroscopy. The onset of gyttja accumulation in the lake is assumed to start immediately after the construction of the fortification in approximately AD 1645. An age model representing the last approximately 135 years for the uppermost 60cm was established by lead-210 and cesium-137 dating. The older part was dated via recognition of markedly increased levels of levoglucosan which are interpreted to be linked with recorded fires in Copenhagen. Similarly, two distinct layers interstratify the sediment column and mark pronounced increases of minerogenic material inflow which can be linked to known historical events. Significant pollution load increases are evident from the 1700s along with urban growth and extended combustion of carbon carriers fuels such as wood and coals. However, a more pronounced increase in lead and zinc deposition only begins by the mid-19th century. Maxima for the latter two pollutants are reached in the late 1970s followed by a reduction of emissions in accordance with stricter environmental regulations. Here, especially the phasing-out of tetraethyl

  7. Budgeting suspended sediment fluxes in tropical monsoonal watersheds with limited data: the Lake Tana basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimale Fasikaw A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion decreases soil fertility of the uplands and causes siltation of lakes and reservoirs; the lakes and reservoirs in tropical monsoonal African highlands are especially affected by sedimentation. Efforts in reducing loads by designing management practices are hampered by lack of quantitative data on the relationship of erosion in the watersheds and sediment accumulation on flood plains, lakes and reservoirs. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype quantitative method for estimating sediment budget for tropical monsoon lakes with limited observational data. Four watersheds in the Lake Tana basin were selected for this study. The Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED model that has shown to perform well in the Ethiopian highlands is used to overcome the data limitations and recreate the missing sediment fluxes. PED model parameters are calibrated using daily discharge data and the occasionally collected sediment concentration when establishing the sediment rating curves for the major rivers. The calibrated model parameters are then used to predict the sediment budget for the 1994-2009 period. Sediment retained in the lake is determined from two bathymetric surveys taken 20 years apart whereas the sediment leaving the lake is calculated based on measured discharge and observed sediment concentrations. Results show that annually on average 34 t/ha/year of sediment is removed from the gauged part of the Lake Tana watersheds. Depending on the up-scaling method from the gauged to the ungauged part, 21 to 32 t/ha/year (equivalent to 24-38 Mt/year is transported from the upland watersheds of which 46% to 65% is retained in the flood plains and 93% to 96% is trapped on the flood plains and in the lake. Thus, only 4-7% of all sediment produced in the watersheds leaves the Lake Tana Basin.

  8. Sediment radioisotope dating across a stratigraphic discontinuity in a mining-impacted lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, C P; Urban, N R

    2007-01-01

    Application of radioisotope sediment dating models to lakes subjected to large anthropogenic sediment inputs can be problematic. As a result of copper mining activities, Torch Lake received large volumes of sediment, the characteristics of which were dramatically different from those of the native sediment. Commonly used dating models (CIC-CSR, CRS) were applied to Torch Lake, but assumptions of these methods are violated, rendering sediment geochronologies inaccurate. A modification was made to the CRS model, utilizing a distinct horizon separating mining from post-mining sediment to differentiate between two focusing regimes. (210)Pb inventories in post-mining sediment were adjusted to correspond to those in mining-era sediment, and a sediment geochronology was established and verified using independent markers in (137)Cs accumulation profiles and core X-rays.

  9. The role of Lake Dongting in regulating the sediment budget of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-bao Dai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Dongting, the second largest freshwater lake in China and located in the middle reaches of the River Yangtze catchment, was formed at the beginning of the Holocene period by sea level rise and has varied in size with changes in local weather patterns. The sedimentation rate in Lake Dongting during the Holocene is about 50×106 m3 yr-1, or 80×106 t yr-1 (a sand bulk density of 1.6×103 kg m-3, given the sediment deposition rate as 10 mm yr-1 and the average lake size as 5000 km2. By comparing the sediment import and export, it is estimated that the sediment deposition rate of Lake Dongting was 110.6×106 t yr-1 from 1956 to 2003. Siltation and raised embankments reduced the size of the lake and its capacity to accommodate floods. The sediment delivery ratio (SDR of the middle and lower Yangtze is about 0.92 (total sediment output divided by total sediment input given that the total sediment supply into the middle and lower Yangtze is 455.1×106 t yr-1 and the total sediment discharge into the sea is 419×106 t yr-1. Therefore, if it were not for Lake Dongting, the sediment flux at Datong would be 73.6×106 t yr-1 (80×106 t yr-1×0.92 more, an increase of 27% during the Holocene and an increase of 26% to 101.75×106 t yr-1 from 1956 to 2003. Historically, Lake Dongting had a considerable influence in regulating the sediment budget of the Yangtze. However, afforestation and the construction of large dams, such as the Three Gorges Dam, reduced significantly the sediment deposition in Lake Dongting. In 2003, the completion of the Three Gorges Dam and the subsequent impoundment of water reduced the sediment input from the Yangtze and net deposition in Lake Dongting dropped to 25% and 18% of the mean values of the historic records (1956-2003. During the same period, the amount of sediment deposited in Lake Dongting was only 10% of the sediment discharge at Datong. The influence of the sediment deposited in Lake Dongting on the sediment flux to

  10. Sediment diffusion method improves wastewater nitrogen removal in the receiving lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Rissanen, Antti J; Tiirola, Marja

    2018-07-01

    Sediment microbes have a great potential to transform reactive N to harmless N 2 , thus decreasing wastewater nitrogen load into aquatic ecosystems. Here, we examined if spatial allocation of the wastewater discharge by a specially constructed sediment diffuser pipe system enhanced the microbial nitrate reduction processes. Full-scale experiments were set on two Finnish lake sites, Keuruu and Petäjävesi, and effects on the nitrate removal processes were studied using the stable isotope pairing technique. All nitrate reduction rates followed nitrate concentrations, being highest at the wastewater-influenced sampling points. Complete denitrification with N 2 as an end-product was the main nitrate reduction process, indicating that the high nitrate and organic matter concentrations of wastewater did not promote nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production (truncated denitrification) or ammonification (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium; DNRA). Using 3D simulation, we demonstrated that the sediment diffusion method enhanced the contact time and amount of wastewater near the sediment surface especially in spring and in autumn, altering organic matter concentration and oxygen levels, and increasing the denitrification capacity of the sediment. We estimated that natural denitrification potentially removed 3-10% of discharged wastewater nitrate in the 33 ha study area of Keuruu, and the sediment diffusion method increased this areal denitrification capacity on average 45%. Overall, our results indicate that sediment diffusion method can supplement wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) nitrate removal without enhancing alternative harmful processes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Early steroid sulfurization in surface sediments of a permanently stratified lake (Ace Lake, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Marika D.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Robertson, Lisette; Volkman, John K.; Sinninghe Damstéé, Jaap S.

    2000-04-01

    Surface sediments (0-25 cm) from Ace Lake (eastern Antarctica), a saline euxinic lake, were analyzed to study the early incorporation of reduced inorganic sulfur species into organic matter. The apolar fractions were shown to consist predominantly of dimeric (poly)sulfide linked C 27-C 29 steroids. These steroid moieties were identified by GC-MS analysis of the apolar fractions after cleavage of polysulfide linkages using MeLi and MeI and after desulfurisation. The polar fractions contained the oligomeric analogues. The S-bound steroids are most likely formed by sulfur incorporation into steroidal ketones formed from Δ 5 sterols by biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria. The concentrations of these sulfurised steroids increased with depth in the sediment. The sulfurisation reaction is completed in 1000-3000 years. Despite a wide range of functionalised lipids present in these sediments that are potentially available for sulfurisation, there is a very strong preference for the incorporation of sulfur into steroidal compounds. A predominance of sulfurised C 27 steroids contrasted with the distribution of free sterols, which showed a strong predominance of C 29 sterols. This indicates that the incorporation of sulfur is biased towards C 27 sterols. The results demonstrate that intermolecular sulfurisation of organic matter can occur in surface sediments at low temperatures and in the absence of light.

  12. Vitality of aquatic plants and microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana SIMČIČ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of eight macrophyte species and the microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia were studied via the terminal electron transport system (ETS activity of mitochondria. The levels of ETS activity of vascular plants were as follows: Ranunculus circinatus, Myriohpyllum spicatum, Potamogeton alpinus, P. perfoliatus, P. lucens. Fontinalis antipyretica exhibited the highest ETS activity of the non-vascular plants, followed by charales Chara delicatula and C. aspera. High values enable R. circinatus, an amphibious species with rapid growth, to survive under conditions in which the water level changes throughout the season. M. spicatum, a species with broad ecological tolerance, also exhibited high ETS activity. The ETS activity of the microbial community in sediment was affected by temperature and/or the amount and origin of the organic matter. A positive correlation between the ETS activity of the sediment and that of M. spicatum and R. circinatus was measured, while negative correlations or no correlation were observed for mosses and macroalgae. The high ETS activity in sediment indicates rapid mineralization of organic matter and, in turn, sufficient nutrients for growth of macrophytes.

  13. Measuring groundwater transport through lake sediments by advection and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, R.J.; Risto, B.A.; Lee, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    A method for estimating low rates of groundwater inflow and outflow through the bottom sediments of surface waters was developed and tested. A one-dimensional advection-diffusion model was fitted to measured pore water profiles of two nonreactive solutes, tritiated water and chloride, and the advection rate was calculated by a nonlinear least squares technique. Using 3 H profiles measured 0-0.5 m below the sediment-water interface, rates of groundwater advection into a lake through interbedded sands and gyttja were estimated to be about 1.0 m/year. In midlake locations underlain by soft organic gyttja, rates of advection were much lower (<0.1 m/year). Knowledge of the rate and direction of groundwater flow substantially altered the interpretation of pore water profiles within the sediments and the fluxes of solutes. This technique can be used to estimate flow rates less than 2 m/annum with minimal disturbance, without enclosing the sediments in a container, in a diversity of systems. (author)

  14. Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wennrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia holds a continuous 3.58 Ma sediment record, which is regarded as the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Based on multi-proxy geochemical, mineralogical, and granulometric analyses of surface sediment, inlet stream and bedrock samples, supplemented by statistical methods, major processes influencing the modern sedimentation in the lake were investigated. Grain-size parameters and chemical elements linked to the input of feldspars from acidic bedrock indicate a wind-induced two-cell current system as major driver of sediment transport and accumulation processes in Lake El'gygytgyn. The distribution of mafic rock related elements in the sediment on the lake floor can be traced back to the input of weathering products of basaltic rocks in the catchment. Obvious similarities in the spatial variability of manganese and heavy metals indicate sorption or co-precipitation of these elements with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides. But the similar distribution of organic matter and clay contents might also point to a fixation to organic components and clay minerals. An enrichment of mercury in the inlet streams might be indicative of neotectonic activity around the lake. The results of this study add to the fundamental knowledge of the modern lake processes of Lake El'gygytgyn and its lake-catchment interactions, and thus, yield crucial insights for the interpretation of paleo-data from this unique archive.

  15. Lake-sediment evidence for the date of deglaciation of the Hidden Lake area, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Michael J.; Sims, John D.

    1982-06-01

    An abrupt environmental change is reflected in a core from Hidden Lake, Alaska, by differences in sediment type, chlorite crystallinity, and content of organic carbon and water of the sediments. This abrupt change in the sedimentary record occurred about 14,500 14C yr ago and probably marks the time of recession of the glacier from the Hidden Lake drainage basin. Deglaciation of the area was then underway, and rock flour was being deposited in the lake. After recession of the glacier from the Hidden Lake drainage basin, rock flour was no longer introduced, and organic-matter content of the sediment increased. By the dating of these changes in sediment type, we show that retreat of glaciers in this area took place significantly earlier than previously estimated; this agrees with the timing of retreat of alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America.

  16. Ground penetrating radar study of a thickness of biogenic sediments in the vicinity of the Czechowskie Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The paper present results of investigations, which have made on a biogenic plain in the north-east part of the vicinity of the Czechowskie Lake. The basin of Lake Czechowskie occupies a deep depression located in the immediate hinterland of the maximum range of the Pomeranian Phase ice sheet in the northern part of Poland (Błaszkiewicz 2005). Drillings carried out within the peat plain in the western part of the lake basin indicate that there are relatively diversified lake sediments of up to 12 m in thickness. The ground penetrating radar profiling method (GPR) was used to determine a thickness of biogenic sediments. To tests was used GSS'I SIR SYSTEM-2000™ radar device with two antennae - the high resolution 400 MHz central frequency - for shallow prospecting of the subsurface layers and the low resolution 35 MHz - for determining the shape of the mineral bedrock. Overall, 33 GPR profiles was made all in all more than 3000 meters along and crosswise the longer axis of the biogenic plain. The range of radar penetration was set to 200 ns for 400 MHz antenna and 600 ns for the 35 MHz one, what is the equivalent respectively 4 m and 12,5 m in depth of biogenic sediments thickness. Horizontal scaling was made by GSSI survey wheel device. The thickness of biogenic sediments recognized by GPR reaches 10 meters only using 35 MHz antenna. In the case of the 400 MHz antenna, relatively high conductivity water-saturated peat and gyttia did not allow for the achievement of greater thickness than 3-4 meters testing. In a large part of the profiles was able to see the shape of the mineral bedrock in the form of a former lake basin. Also observed elevations and thresholds in the bedrock. Depth of the mineral deposits forming former lake bottom was confirmed by drillings. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association. References: Błaszkiewicz M, 2005. Późnoglacjalna i

  17. Potential nitrate removal in a coastal freshwater sediment (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands) and response to salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, A.M.; Canavan, R.W.; Slomp, C.P.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen transformations and their response to salinization were studied in bottom sediment of a coastal freshwater lake (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). The lake was formed as the result of a river impoundment along the south-western coast of the Netherlands, and is currently targeted for

  18. Suspended-sediment budget, flow distribution, and lake circulation for the Fox Chain of Lakes in Lake and McHenry Counties, Illinois, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, David L.; Holmes, Robert R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fox Chain of Lakes is a glacial lake system in McHenry and Lake Counties in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. Sedimentation and nutrient overloading have occurred in the lake system since the first dam was built (1907) in McHenry to raise water levels in the lake system. Using data collected from December 1, 1997, to June 1, 1999, suspended-sediment budgets were constructed for the most upstream lake in the system, Grass Lake, and for the lakes downstream from Grass Lake. A total of 64,900 tons of suspended sediment entered Grass Lake during the study, whereas a total of 70,600 tons of suspended sediment exited the lake, indicating a net scour of 5,700 tons of sediment. A total of 44,100 tons of suspended sediment was measured exiting the Fox Chain of Lakes at Johnsburg, whereas 85,600 tons entered the system downstream from Grass Lake. These suspended-sediment loads indicate a net deposition of 41,500 tons downstream from Grass Lake, which represents a trapping efficiency of 48.5 percent. A large amount of recreational boating takes place on the Fox Chain of Lakes during summer months, and suspended-sediment load was observed to rise from 110 tons per day to 339 tons per day during the 1999 Memorial Day weekend (May 26 ?31, 1999). Presumably, this rise was the result of the boating traffic because no other hydrologic event is known to have occurred that might have caused the rise. This study covers a relatively short period and may not represent the long-term processes of the Fox Chain of Lakes system, although the sediment transport was probably higher than an average year. The bed sediments found on the bottom of the lakes are composed of mainly fine particles in the silt-clay range. The Grass Lake sediments were characterized as black peat with an organic content of between 9 and 18 percent, and the median particle size ranged from 0.000811 to 0.0013976 inches. Other bed material samples were collected at streamflow-gaging stations on the

  19. Ferromagnetic response of a sediment record from Lake Soppensee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental magnetism uses the spatial and temporal occurrence of magnetic carriers as diagnostic tools to detect environmental changes. Concentration, composition, grain size, and configuration of magnetite can be indicative of the origin of this magnetic carrier. In order to reconstruct the development of Lake Soppensee (Central Switzerland) since the late Pleistocene, a detailed ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy analysis was applied. FMR is a powerful tool to probe the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic materials. Sediments from Lake Soppensee were analyzed in order to deduce different processes causing the formation of magnetite and its preservation. Based on the occurrence of magnetite, the sediment record can be subdivided into three stages. The first stage, attributed to the deglaciation contains superparamagnetic (SP) magnetite that is detected by the low-temperature FMR analysis. The simultaneous occurrence of SP magnetite in sediments with predominant hematite is interpreted as magnetite formation in reducing interstitial voids within a prevailing oxic environment. The second stage, assigned to the Bølling/Allerød - Younger Dryas period contains stable single domain (SSD) magnetite in varying concentrations. During the Bølling/Allerød denser vegetation cover led to an increase of organic matter in the depositional environment, which accelerated the microbial activity and the consumption of oxygen and the enhanced formation of SSD magnetite. An opposite trend is found for the cold Younger Dryas period. The third stage during the fairly stable Holocene exhibits the formation of SSD magnetite solely. Even though no drastic climatic changes are documented throughout the Holocene, the magnetite content varies considerably. In sediments with high magnetite content, dispersed magnetite particles and magnetite in chain-like configuration were detected by anisotropy traits inferred from the FMR spectra. This configuration provides clear evidence

  20. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Umbozero in Murmansk Region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernström, Jussi; Lehto, J.; Dauvalter, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from different locations of Lake Umbozero were studied with respect to concentration and mobility of trace and heavy metals Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. Lake Umbozero is the second largest lake in the Murmansk Region and subjected to contamination by air......-borne emissions and river transportation from the nearby metallurgical and mining industries. Unlike its neighboring, more industry-prone Lake Imandra, Lake Umbozero is relatively unexplored with respect to its state of pollution. In our study, metal distribution in sediments was found to vary with respect...... in lakes of Kola Peninsula located further off from industrial pollutant sources. An exception was Pb the concentration of which was at the same level as in Lake Imandra, probably due to long-distance transport. Sediment layers were subjected to four-step sequential extraction procedure to reveal the metal...

  2. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  3. Rare elements in sediments of brine lakes of Sasykkul'skaya depression (East Pamir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, N.I.; Pachadzhanov, D.N.; Ozerov, A.M.; AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent

    1993-01-01

    Contents of wide range of chemical elements have been determined for the first time in chemical-terigenous sediments of brine lakes of Sasykkul'skaya depression. It has been shown that the global evolution of sedimentation process in salt-forming basin of Sasykkul'skaya depression resulted in pronounced separation of chemical elements to accumulating and dispersing in lake sediments ones from one hand and to the elements with halophobe and halophile properties-from another. It has been stated that lake sediments are enriched in B, Mo, W, U, Th

  4. Sediment cores as archives of historical changes in floodplain lake hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Connor, Simon; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T

    2016-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities are contributing to the changing hydrology of rivers, often resulting in their degradation. Understanding the drivers and nature of these changes is critical for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies for these systems. However, this can be hindered by gaps in historical measured flow data. This study therefore aims to use sediment cores to identify historical hydrological changes within a river catchment. Sediment cores from two floodplain lakes (billabongs) in the urbanised Yarra River catchment (Melbourne, South-East Australia) were collected and high resolution images, trends in magnetic susceptibility and trends in elemental composition through the sedimentary records were obtained. These were used to infer historical changes in river hydrology to determine both average trends in hydrology (i.e., coarse temporal resolution) as well as discrete flood layers in the sediment cores (i.e., fine temporal resolution). Through the 20th century, both billabongs became increasingly disconnected from the river, as demonstrated by the decreasing trends in magnetic susceptibility, particle size and inorganic matter in the cores. Additionally the number of discrete flood layers decreased up the cores. These reconstructed trends correlate with measured flow records of the river through the 20th century, which validates the methodology that has been used in this study. Not only does this study provide evidence on how natural catchments can be affected by land-use intensification and urbanisation, but it also introduces a general analytical framework that could be applied to other river systems to assist in the design of hydrological management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Sediment Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Bacteria in Freshwater Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyin; Dai, Yu; Li, Ningning; Li, Bingxin; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process can play an important role in freshwater nitrogen cycle. However, the distribution of anammox bacteria in freshwater lake and the associated environmental factors remain essentially unclear. The present study investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of sediment anammox bacterial populations in eutrotrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake on the Yunnan Plateau (southwestern China). The remarkable spatial change of anammox bacterial abundance was found in Dianchi Lake, while the relatively slight spatial shift occurred in Erhai Lake. Dianchi Lake had greater anammox bacterial abundance than Erhai Lake. In both Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake, anammox bacteria were much more abundant in summer than in spring. Anammox bacterial community richness, diversity, and structure in these two freshwater lakes were subjected to temporal and spatial variations. Sediment anammox bacterial communities in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake were dominated by Candidatus Brocadia and a novel phylotype followed by Candidatus Kuenenia; however, these two lakes had distinct anammox bacterial community structure. In addition, trophic status determined sediment anammox bacterial community structure.

  6. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  7. Characterization of water and lake sediments in Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Diego, Cherry Ann; Francisco, Pattrice Armynne; Navoa, Joshua Antonio; Johnson, Bryan; Dave, Harshil; Cryer, Karl; Panemanglor, Rajeev; Rama, Mariecar; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied elemental distributions of trace elements, dissolved oxygen and microbiological allotment (total plate count, Coliform, and E. coli) in sediment and surface water from 3 sites in Laguna de Bay. The measured parameters were associated with the quality of the water and to anthropogenic and geogenic processes taking place in the lake. In all cases sediment samples were collected and analyzed for elemental composition using an X-ray fluorescence technique. Water samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate, chloride, and sulfate ions using selective electrodes. Bicarbonate ions in the lake water were determined by titration. The microbial load (total plate count, total coliform and E,. Coli) were determined using Simplate. Field parameters such as pH and conductivity were likewise measured. Preliminary assumptions suggest that proximity to anthropogenic sources has substantially contributed to the combined loads of major ions pollution in the lake. Laguna de Bay is classified as Class C (DENR Administrative Order No. 34). For all the sites, the conductivity of the water were considerably elevated, which ranged from 929 to 933 uS/cm; Site 1 water exceeded the permissible range for pH for Class C water which is 6.5 to 8.5 for the support and rearing of fish. None of the lake waters exceeded the limits for the ions, chloride (set at 350 mg/L) and nitrate (set at 10 mg/L), for Class C water criteria. All the sites meet the dissolved oxygen, DO, criterion for Class C waters which is set at 5 mg/L. In terms of microbiological load, Site 1 had the least most probable number per ml of water, MPN/ml: total plate count (6720), Coliform (less that detection limit) and E. coli (less than LLD); Site 3 was the most contaminated: total plate count (greater than 70,000), Coliform(48768) and E. Coli (23808). X-ray fluorescence analyses of sediments allowed the determination of elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Si, Cl, K. Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb

  8. Using high-resolution suspended-sediment measurements to infer changes in the topographic distribution and grain size of bed sediment in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D. J.; Rubin, D. M.; Melis, T. S.; Wright, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Eddy sandbars and other sandy deposits in and along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) were an integral part of the pre-dam riverscape, and are still important for habitat, protection of archeological sites, and recreation. Recent work has shown that eddy bars are dynamic landforms and represent the bulk of the ecosystem's sand reserves. These deposits began eroding following the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam that reduced the supply of sand at the upstream boundary of GCNP by about 94% and are still eroding today. Sand transport in the post-dam river is limited by episodic resupply from tributaries, and is equally regulated by the discharge of water and short-term changes in the grain size of sand available for transport (Rubin and Topping, WRR, 2001). During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. This prohibits the computation of sand-transport rates in the Colorado River using stable relations between water discharge and sand transport (i.e., sediment rating curves) and requires a more continuous method for measuring sand transport. To monitor suspended sediment at higher (i.e., 15-minute) resolutions, we began testing a laser-acoustic system at four locations along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in August 2002. Because they are much easier to acquire, the high-resolution suspended-sediment datasets collected using the laser-acoustic systems greatly outnumber (by >5 orders of magnitude) direct grain-size measurements of the upstream bed sediment. Furthermore, suspension processes effectively provide an average "sample" of the bed sediment on the perimeter of the upstream channel and the underwater portions of the banks and

  9. Water-Sediment Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansi Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Diao, Youjiang

    2018-06-01

    Based on field data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment in Nansi Lake. The concentrations and the partitioning characteristic of PAHs in the water and sediment were studied. The lgKd of high molecular weight PAHs were higher than the low molecular weight PAHs. The most of PAHs Kd values were negligible correlated with TOC, soluble salt, clay and pH of the sediment in Nansi Lake.

  10. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about mercury (Hg) contamination in Lake Whatcom, Washington, were raised in the late 1990s after a watershed protection survey reported elevated concentrations of Hg in smallmouth bass. The U.S. Geological Survey, the Whatcom County Health Department, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) cooperated to develop a study to review existing data and collect new data that would lead to a better understanding of Hg deposition to Lake Whatcom and other lakes in Whatcom County, Washington. A simple atmospheric deposition model was developed that allowed comparisons of the deposition of Hg to the surfaces of each lake. Estimates of Hg deposition derived from the model indicated that the most significant deposition of Hg would have occurred to the lakes north of the City of Bellingham. These lakes were in the primary wind pattern of two municipal waste incinerators. Of all the lakes examined, basin 1 of Lake Whatcom would have been most affected by the Hg emissions from the chlor-alkali plant and the municipal sewage-sludge incinerator in the City of Bellingham. The length-adjusted concentrations of Hg in largemouth and smallmouth bass were not related to estimated deposition rates of Hg to the lakes from local atmospheric sources. Total Hg concentrations in the surface sediments of Lake Whatcom are affected by the sedimentation of fine-grained particles, whereas organic carbon regulates the concentration of methyl-Hg in the surface sediments of the lake. Hg concentrations in dated sediment core samples indicate that increases in Hg sedimentation were largest during the first half of the 20th century. Increases in Hg sedimentation were smaller after the chlor-alkali plant and the incinerators began operating between 1964 and 1984. Analysis of sediments recently deposited in basin 1 of Lake Whatcom, Lake Terrell, and Lake Samish indicates a decrease in Hg sedimentation. Concentrations of Hg in Seattle precipitation and in tributary waters were

  11. Recent increases in sediment and nutrient accumulation in Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J.M.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines historical changes in sediment and nutrient accumulation rates in Bear Lake along the northeastern Utah/Idaho border, USA. Two sediment cores were dated by measuring excess 210Pb activities and applying the constant rate of supply (CRS) dating model. Historical rates of bulk sediment accumulation were calculated based on the ages within the sediment cores. Bulk sediment accumulation rates increased throughout the last 100 years. According to the CRS model, bulk sediment accumulation rates were TOC) were calculated by multiplying bulk sediment accumulation rates times the concentrations of these nutrients in the sediment. Accumulation rates of TP, TN, TIC, and TOC increased as a consequence of increased bulk sediment accumulation rates after the re-connection of Bear River with Bear Lake.

  12. Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. И. Васильев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM with two degrees of freedom.

  13. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  14. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, Patricia L.; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events. - Highlights: • We determine the amount of microplastics in Lake Ontario shore and bottom sediments. • Pellet preservation in shoreline sediment is unlikely. • Microplastics have been accumulating in bottom sediments over <38 years. • Buried plastics in lake bottom sediment have a high potential for preservation. - Microplastics were identified in bottom sediments of Lake Ontario. Their burial could result in microplastics preservation in the future rock record

  15. Wind influence on the course of sedimentation processes of the laminated lacustrine sediments of Lake Czechowskie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Daria; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The studies of the laminated lacustrine sediments play a very important role in the analysis of climate change. They provide valuable information related to the response of the ecosystem to changes in the environment. The condition for the development of the annual lamination is calm sedimentation, which can be compromised by the movement of water caused by waving. The depth to which this movement affects depends on the shape of the lake basin as well as the velocity and direction of the wind. During the study of sedimentary processes of laminated deposits in Lake Czechowskie (Tuchola Forest, North Poland, 53°52'N, 18°14' E, 108 m asl), the following question arose: How strong was the influence of the wind on the processes of lacustrine sedimentation? The key in getting the answers was the use of GIS techniques. Lake Czechowskie has an area of 76.6 hectares; it has two deeps separated by a threshold: a deeper one of 33 m (maximum depth of the basin) in the central-eastern part, and a shallower of 13 m in the western part. The speed of movement of water that is able to move sediment from the bottom of the lake, called the orbital wave velocity, is the basis for the designation of areas where re-suspension takes place. To calculate the wave parameters, the process of mixing, as well as the designation of re-suspension zones, the tool-script Wave Model (Rohweder et al. 2008) in the program ArsGIS 10.1 was used. The input data were wind direction and velocity from the meteorological station of Wirty about 15 km away, bathymetric data from acoustic profiling, and the Maximum Orbital Wave Velocity. The elements taken into account include maximum wind velocity of the multi-year 1996-2013, with particular emphasis on hurricanes Ksawery (December 2013) and Yoda (November 2011), during which wind velocity exceeded 120 km/h. In addition, maximum wind velocity ever recorded in the Polish Lowlands was considered. On the basis of the modelling, the authors delimited the areas

  16. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2006-12-01

    This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial sediments and

  17. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial

  18. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, chemically analyzed, and compared. The samples were sieved to isolate the TOC), and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources. To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment, constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used. Computed ratios included TOC to TN, TOC to TP, and TN to TP. Constituent concentrations (TN, TP, TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay. Thus, the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators. Within the Perry Lake Basin, the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins, whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin. On the sole basis of 137Cs activity, surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake, and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake. Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channel-bank sources were dominant for Perry Lake and that channel-bank sources increased in importance with distance downstream in the basin. ?? 2009 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  19. Identification of hot spot area of sediment contamination in a lake system using texture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2013-04-01

    Texture plays an important role in the identification of polluted stretch in a lake system. The organic matter as well as toxic elements get accumulated in the finer sediments. The aim of the work is to show the spatio-temporal distribution of texture of the lake sediment (Akkulam-Veli lake, Kerala) and to identify the hot spot areas of contamination. Hot spot areas vary with seasons. During PRM, (premonsoon), the upstream portion of the Akkulam lake is the hot spot. During MON (monsoon), the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake and the upstream portion of the Veli lake are the hot spots. During POM (postmonsoon), hot spot area is the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake. This methodology can be used for the quick identification of hot spots in water bodies.

  20. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  1. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  2. Sedimentation in Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, upper Mississippi River, since impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Jackson, G.A.; Muessig, L.F.; Southworth, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sediment accumulation was evaluated in Lake Onalaska, a 2800-ha backwater impoundment on the Upper Mississippi River. Computer programs were used to process fathometric charts and generate an extensive data set on water depth for the lake. Comparison of 1983 survey data with pre-impoundment (before 1937) data showed that Lake Onalaska had lost less than 10 percent of its original mean depth in the 46 years since impoundment. Previous estimates of sedimentation rates based on Cesium-137 sediment core analysis appear to have been too high. (DBO)

  3. Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruthy, S; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-03-01

    We present the first study of microplastics in the sediments of Vembanad Lake, a Ramsar site in India. Microplastics are emerging pollutants of increasing environmental concern with a particle size of microplastics pollution on the environment and biota is not well known. Vast data exist in the literature on marine microplastics while reports on freshwater ecosystems are scarce. In this context, to examine the occurrence of microplastic particles (MPs) in the Vembanad Lake, samples were collected from ten sites and processed for microplastic extraction through density separation. Identification of the polymer components of MPs was done using micro Raman spectroscopy. MPs were recovered from all sediment samples, indicating their extensive distribution in the lake. The abundance of MPs recorded from the sediment samples is in the range of 96-496 particles m -2 with a mean abundance of 252.80 ± 25.76 particles m -2 . Low density polyethylene has been identified as the dominant type of polymer component of the MPs. As clams and fishes are the major source of protein to the local population, the presence of MPs in the lake becomes critically important, posing a severe threat of contaminating the food web of this lake. This study, being the first report from India on MPs in lake sediments, provide impetus for further research on the distribution and impact of this emerging pollutant on the biota of many aquatic systems spread across India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of sulfate reduction in long term accumulation of organic and inorganic sulfur in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A.; Furutani, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfate reduction and the accumulation of reduced sulfur in epilimnetic sediments were studied in lakes in southern Norway, the Adirondack Mountains, and at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) of northwestern Ontario. In all of the lakes, sulfate reduction produced substantial quantities of pyrite and organic sulfur compounds. In 9-month in situ experiments at ELA using 35 S, there was a large loss (55%) with time of the S initially reduced and deposited in the sediments and a preferential loss of inorganic S compounds which led to a predominance of organic 35 S accumulation in the sediments. An intensive study of long term accumulation of sulfur in the epilimnetic sediments of four Adirondack lakes also showed that the most important long term end product of sulfate reduction was organic S and that sulfate reduction was the major source of S to the sediments. Because of high concentrations of iron in all of the sediments samples and because of the long term storage of sulfur in sediments, mostly as organic S, iron did not limit iron sulfide accumulation in these sediments. Iron limitation is unlikely to occur except in unusual circumstances. This study indicates that formation of organic S in epilimnetic sediments is primarily responsible for H + consumption via sulfate reduction in acidified lakes

  5. Matuyama/Brunhes Polarity Transition in Owens Lake, CA, Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Kravchinsky, Vadim

    2014-05-01

    The complexity of the Matuyama/Brunhes (M/B) polarity transition is becoming better understood from investigations of volcanic rocks (Coe et al., 2004), loess (Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011; Kravchinsky, 2013), and marine (Clement and Opdyke, 1982; Hartl and Tauxe, 1996; Macri et al., 2010) and lacustrine (Valet et al., 1988; Sagnotti et al., 2013) sediments. The transition appears to include a brief interval of normal polarity prior to the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron (Coe et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011), and the transition has Virtual Geomagnetic Poles rapidly moving from the Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere (Coe et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2011; Sagnotti et al., 2013). The M/B polarity transition is recorded in exposed Pleistocene lake sediments near Bishop, CA, where the brief interval of normal polarity noted above is present and the change from full reverse to full normal polarity occurs rapidly. The brief interval of normal polarity is recorded at two sites separated laterally by about 150 m and is in single hand samples measured at vertical spacing of 2.0-2.5 cm using six samples per measured level and alternating field demagnetization at 20 mT (Liddicoat, 1993, Table 1 and Fig. 8). The siltstone is unweathered glacial flour from the Sierra Nevada that borders the western side of Owens Valley where the sediments were deposited in Owens Lake. In the siltstone, the majority of the samples have a percentage of about 60 percent where the grain diameter is less than 63 micrometres, and in those samples there is about a five percent fraction when the diameter is two micrometres or less. The Total Inorganic Carbon in most samples is about 0.25 percent (Bergeron, 2013), and magnetite is the dominant carrier of the magnetization (Liddicoat, 1993). The palaeomagnetic directions recording the terminus of the full M/B transition, which occurs before the field intensity is completely recovered, spans no

  6. Seismically-triggered organic-rich layers in recent sediments from Göllüköy Lake (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas

    2014-09-29

    Multi-proxy analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Göllüköy Lake, which is located on the eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveals a complete and high-resolution paleoseismic record for the last 650 years. Six sedimentary events are detected in a 3.1 m-long piston core. They form distinct organic-rich intercalations within the background sedimentation, which are characterized by strong anomalies on the loss-on-ignition (LOI550) and total organic carbon (TOC) profiles, as well as by lighter colours on the X-ray radiographic images. Itrax micro-XRF core scanner data are also used to contribute to the detection and characterization of the event deposits. After the detection of the sedimentary events, their temporal correlation with the earthquakes in the historical seismicity catalogue of the NAF is tested. The youngest event is dated to 1940s by using 210Pb and 137Cs profiles in sediment, which coincides with the 1939 earthquake (Ms = 7.7) on the NAF. The ages of the older five events are determined based on radiocarbon dating and regional time–stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk sediment samples does not provide reliable results due to hard-water effect. On the other hand, dating on charcoals, Ephippia of Daphnia and phragmite remains significantly improves the results and implies a mean sedimentation rate of 0.28 cm/yr. Based on this preliminary sedimentation rate, we show that organic matter content variations through our record correlate with the varve-based δ18O record of Nar Lake, which is located 350 km southwest of Göllüköy Lake. Accordingly, high-precipitation/low-evaporation climatic episodes detected in Nar Lake are represented by higher organic matter content in Göllüköy sediments. Fine-tuning the Göllüköy LOI550 record to the Nar δ18O record reveals that the ages of the sedimentary events in Göllüköy match with well-known historical earthquakes that occurred around the lake. Finally, the origin of the organic

  7. Lake Mixing Regime Influences Arsenic Transfer from Sediments into the Water Column and Uptake in Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, J.; Barrett, P. M.; Hull, E.; Burkart, K.; McLean, J.; Hargrave, O.; Neumann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The former ASARCO copper smelter in Ruston, WA, now a Superfund site, contaminated a large area of the south-central Puget Sound region with arsenic over its almost 100-year history. Arsenic, a priority Superfund contaminant and carcinogen, is a legacy pollutant impacting aquatic ecosystems in urban lakes downwind of the ASARCO emissions stack. We investigated the impact of lake mixing regime on arsenic transfer from sediments into lake water and aquatic biota. We regularly collected water column and plankton samples from four study lakes for two years, and deployed sediment porewater peepers and sediment traps to estimate arsenic flux rates to and from the sediments. In lakes with strong seasonal stratification, high aqueous arsenic concentrations were limited to anoxic hypolimnetic waters while low arsenic concentrations were observed in oxic surface waters. However, in polymictic, shallow lakes, we observed elevated arsenic concentrations throughout the entire oxic water column. Sediment flux estimates support higher rates of arsenic release from sediments and vertical transport. Because high arsenic in oxic waters results in spatial overlap between arsenate, a phosphate analog, and lake biota, we observed enhanced trophic transfer of arsenic in polymictic, shallow study lakes, with higher arsenic accumulation (up to an order of magnitude) in both phytoplankton and zooplankton compared to stratified lakes. Chemical and physical mechanisms for higher steady-state arsenic concentrations will be explored. Our work demonstrates that physical mixing processes coupled with sediment/water redox status exert significant control over bioaccumulation, making shallow, periodically-mixed urban lakes uniquely vulnerable to environmental and human health risks from legacy arsenic contamination.

  8. Sediment dynamics in a large shallow lake characterized by seasonal flood pulse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siev, Sokly; Yang, Heejun; Sok, Ty; Uk, Sovannara; Song, Layheang; Kodikara, Dilini; Oeurng, Chantha; Hul, Seingheng; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2018-08-01

    Most of studies on sediment dynamics in stable shallow lakes focused on the resuspension process as it is the dominant process. However, understanding of sediment dynamics in a shallow lake influenced by flood pulse is unclear. We tested a hypothesis that floodplain vegetation plays as a significant role in lessening the intensity of resuspension process in a shallow lake characterized by the flood pulse system. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate sediment dynamics in this type of shallow lake. The target was Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), which is a large shallow lake influenced by a flood pulse system of Mekong River located in Southeast Asia. An extensive and seasonal sampling survey was conducted to measure total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, sedimentation and resuspension rates in TSL and its 4 floodplain areas. The study revealed that sedimentation process was dominant (TSS ranged: 3-126mgL -1 ) in the high water period (September-December) while resuspension process was dominant (TSS ranged: 4-652mgL -1 ) only in the low water period (March-June). In addition, floodplain vegetation reduced the resuspension of sediment (up to 26.3%) in water. The implication of the study showed that resuspension is a seasonally dominant process in shallow lake influenced by the flood pulse system at least for the case of TSL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The preglacial sediment record of Lake Ladoga, Russia - first results from a seismic survey and sediment coring in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Martin; Krastel, Sebastian; Fedorov, Grigory; Subetto, Dmitry A.; Savelieva, Larisa A.; Andreev, Andrej; Wagner, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    The new German-Russian project PLOT (Paleolimnological Transect) aims at investigating the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect crossing northern Eurasia. Special emphasis is put on the preglacial history. For this purpose shallow and deep seismic surveys shall be carried out on five lakes, which potentially host preglacial sediment records, followed by sediment coring based on the results of the seismic campaigns. The well-studied Lake El'gygytgyn represents the eastern-most location of the transect and acts as reference site. Within the scope of a pilot phase for the PLOT project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we were able to investigate Lake Ladoga, which is located close to St. Petersburg at the western end of the transect. Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe, covering an area of almost 18.000 km2. The modern sedimentation as well as the late glacial and Holocene history of the lake were already studied in detail over the past decades. The older, preglacial lake history, however, is only rudimentary known from a core transect drilled in the southern lake in the 1930th. The cores of up to about 60 m length were only briefly described and are not existing any more. The results from these cores, known from unpublished reports only, suggest the existence of marine sediments of presumably Eemian age, representing a time when Lake Lagoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea and further to the Arctic Ocean. In late August/early September 2013 we carried out a seismic survey on Lake Ladoga using a Mini-GI-Gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. In total, 1500 km of seismic profiles were measured, covering most parts of the lake. The seismic lines typically show acoustically well stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions can reach

  10. Lake ecosystem response to rapid lateglacial climate changes in lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Brauer, Achim; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-04-01

    During the Late Glacial Period environment changes were triggered by climatic oscillations which in turn controlled processes like, for example, permafrost thawing, vegetation development and ground water circulation. These environmental changes are ideally recorded in lake sediments and thus can be reconstructed applying a multi-poxy approach. Here, we present the results from the Trzechowskie paleolake, located in the northern Polish lowlands (eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland). The site is situated on the outwash plain of the Wda River, which was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Vistulian glaciation ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The depression of the Trzechowskie lake basin formed after melting of a buried ice block during the Allerød (13903±170 cal yrs BP). We reconstructed environmental changes in the Trzechowskie paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition (LOI), CaCO3 content). In addition, we carried out µ-XRF element core scanning. The chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphyAMS14C dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra isochrone. Our results showed that biogenic accumulation in the lake started during the Bølling. Development of coniferous forest during the Allerød with dominance of Pinus sylvestris lead to leaching of carbonates in the catchment due to low pH increasing the flux of Ca ions into the lake. In consequence calcite precipitating in the lake increased as evidences by increasing CaCO3 contents. Both biotic and physical proxies clearly reflect the rapid decrease in productivity at the onset of the Younger Dryas. We compare the data from the Trzechowskie paleolake with the Meerfelder Maar and Rehwiese lake records based on tephrochronological synchronization using the Laacher See Tephra. This study is a contribution to the

  11. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Puhakainen, M.; Saxen, R.

    1993-10-01

    In 1988 and 1990 bottom sediment and surface water samples were taken from eight large lakes representing all five categories of deposition regions contaminated by the chernobyl fallout in Finland. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface waters varied in 1988 from 20 to 310 Bq/m 3 and in 1990 from 78 to 170 Bq/m 3 . The other radionuclides of Chernobyl origin detected in water samples were 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 134 Cs. In the sediments the total amount of 137 Cs per square metre varied in 1988 from 1100 to 160 000 Bq/m 2 and in 1990 from 14 000 to 250 000 Bq/m 2 . The maximum values were in Lake Pyhaejaervi. The maximum concentration of 137 Cs in the surface layer of sediment (0-2cm) was 55 700 Bq/kg dry wt in Lake Naesijaervi. In addition to the cesium isotopes 137 Cs and 134 Cs , Chernobyl derived 106 Ru, 125 Sb amd 144 Ce were detected i the surface layer of sediment in most lakes. 54 Mn, 60 Co and 110m Ag were also detected in some lakes situated in the regions most contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. In 1988 the maximum concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were in the uppermost layer of sediment (0-2cm) at almost all stations. In 1990, the cesium peaks already occurred at many stations in the second slice (2-5cm), which may indicate downward diffusion of cesium in sediments or mixing of sediment layers during sampling. The most important factors affecting cesium values in sediments were the local amount of deposition and the type of sediment. This study did not reveal any correletion between the maximum depth of the lake and the area of the lake with the cesium amounts in the sediments. (orig.). (23 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.)

  12. What fraction of the total metal flux into lakes is retained in the sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K.T.

    1986-12-01

    The concentrations of, and deposition rates for, the pollutant metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd) and the rare earth elements are reported for the sediments and settling particulates in a large, remote lake (Lake Opeongo) in the Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Using a mass conservation model based on the rare earth elements, it is estimated that only 40 to 60% of pollutant metals getting into the lake is retained by the sediments. The low retention rate may explain the widely reported intrabasin and intra-lake differences in metal contents of sediments and casts some doubt on the use of pollutant metal profiles in retrospective assessment of the human contribution to the metal flux into many lake basins. 22 references.

  13. An Overview of Sediment Organic Matter Records of Human Eutrophication in the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Philip A. [University of Michigan, Department of Geological Sciences (United States)], E-mail: pameyers@umich.ed

    2006-12-15

    The isotopic and molecular compositions of organic matter buried in lake sediments provide information that helps to reconstruct past environmental conditions and to assess impacts of humans on local ecosystems. This overview of sedimentary records from the North American Great Lakes region describes examples of applications of organic geochemistry to paleolimnological reconstructions. These lakes experienced a succession of human-induced environmental changes that started after completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. Agricultural deforestation in the mid-nineteenth century released soil nutrients that increased algal productivity and caused an associated increase in algal biomarkers in sediment records. Eutrophication that accompanied magnified delivery of municipal nutrients to the lakes in the 1960s and 1970s created excursions to less negative {delta}{sup 13}C values in sediment organic matter. Increased organic carbon mass accumulation rates mirror the isotopic evidence of eutrophication in the Great Lakes.

  14. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  15. Applicability of API ZYM to capture seasonal and spatial variabilities in lake and river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Drashti; Gismondi, Renee; Alsaffar, Ali; Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M

    2018-05-02

    Waters draining into a lake carry with them much of the suspended sediment that is transported by rivers and streams from the local drainage basin. The organic matter processing in the sediments is executed by heterotrophic microbial communities, whose activities may vary spatially and temporally. Thus, to capture and evaluate some of these variabilities in the sediments, we sampled six sites: three from the St. Clair River and three from Lake St. Clair in spring, summer, fall, and winter of 2016. At all sites and dates, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in 19 extracellular enzyme activities using API ZYM. Our results indicated that a broad range of enzymes were found to be active in the sediments. Phosphatases, lipases, and esterases were synthesized most intensively by the sediment microbial communities. No consistent difference was found between the lake and sediment samples. Differences were more obvious between sites and seasons. Sites with the highest metabolic (enzyme) diversity reflected the capacity of the sediment microbial communities to breakdown a broader range of substrates and may be linked to differences in river and lake water quality. The seasonal variability of the enzymes activities was governed by the variations of environmental factors caused by anthropogenic and terrestrial inputs, and provides information for a better understanding of the dynamics of sediment organic matter of the river and lake ecosystems. The experimental results suggest that API ZYM is a simple and rapid enzyme assay procedure to evaluate natural processes in ecosystems and their changes.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, F.

    1999-01-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  17. ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF DIOXINS IN LAKE ONTARIO: A TALE OF TWO SEDIMENT CORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment box cores have frequently been used to determine organochlorine chemical loading histories of lakes and reservoirs. 137Cs and 210Pb radionuclide dating techniques are employed synchronously with chemical analyses of the contaminants for thin sections extruded from adjace...

  18. Total and methyl mercury, moisture, and porosity in Lake Michigan surficial sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Total and methyl mercury, moisture content (%), and porosity were measured in Lake Michigan sediment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research...

  19. Patterns of microbial activity in the shallow bottom sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDA), was investigated in two sediment cores collected from Manzala Lake during November 2011. FDA hydrolysis positively correlated with total bacterial counts, bacterial biomass and chlorophyll a in both cores. The 10–20 cm subsurface layer ...

  20. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  2. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  3. Elemental composition of a deep sediment core from Lake Stocksjoen in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemgren, Maarten [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences; Brunberg, Anna-Kristina [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Evolution/Limnology

    2006-10-15

    A deep sediment core was taken from Lake Stocksjoen, situated within the Forsmark site investigation area. The 55 cm long sediment core, representing the entire history of the lake (approx 430 years) was sliced in 5 cm portions and analysed for various chemical elements, using ICP-MS technique. In total, 54 different elements - classified as main elements, heavy metals and trace elements - were analysed. In general terms, three different patterns of stratigraphy were derived from all the analysed elements. Calcium, manganese, lead and mercury occurred in highest concentrations in the upper sediments (<30 cm depth). Phosphorus, zinc, cadmium, antimony, tin and strontium occurred in more even proportions throughout the sediment core. All the other elements were substantially reduced in the upper parts (<30 cm) compared to the deeper parts of the sediment core. Metals that are considered as airborne pollutants were found in low or moderate concentrations. This is in concert with other investigations of pollutants that have been performed in the Forsmark area. The sediment of Lake Stocksjoen is highly organic, and has been so during the entire history of the lake. Much of the organic Material seems to be refractory and less susceptible for mineralisation and respiration during the prevailing environmental conditions. This corresponds well with the characteristic gelatinous cyanophycee gyttja found in the lower parts of the sediment core. Although speculative, the pronounced changes in elemental composition of the sediment at 30 cm depth may correspond to the final isolation of the lake from the Baltic Sea, which occurred approximately 230 years ago. The deeper parts (below 30 cm depth) thus may represent the time period with regular intrusions of brackish water into the lake basin. One important factor governing the environmental conditions and the resulting elemental composition of the sediment is the unusually thick 'microbial mat', which is characteristic

  4. Vertical distributions of PAHs in the sediments of four lakes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Takehiko; Watanabe, Seigo; Kamiya, Koichi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Life and Environment; Ozaki, Noriatsu [Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to elucidate historical trends, spatial variations, and the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in several Japanese lakes. Materials and methods: The vertical distributions of PAHs in the core samples of sediments taken at several points in lakes Kasumigaura, Suwa, Kizaki, and Shinji were determined using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector and combined with chronological information and the physical/elemental properties of the sediment. Results and discussion: Seventeen related compounds (congeners) typically had concentration peaks at sediment depths corresponding to the 1960s to 1970s. In Lake Shinji and one bay of Lake Kasumigaura, there was a tendency for PAH concentrations to increase downstream; in contrast, another bay of Lake Kasumigaura showed the reverse trend. During big flood events, the fluxes of PAHs increased due to large inputs of particulate matter, although PAH concentrations were reduced. For the four study lakes and other similar lakes, PAH concentrations of surface sediments were approximately proportional to population densities in the respective watersheds, while the total input of PAHs to the lakes were correlated with their population and watershed area. The source apportionment analysis using isomer ratios for the congener profiles indicated that the principal sources of the PAHs in the lake sediments were gasoline and/or diesel engine exhausts and biomass burning. Conclusions: The observed concentration peaks showed a deterioration of the chemical quality of atmospheric conditions around 1960-1970 and a recent tendency for their amelioration. Between-lake differences suggest that the influence of human activity in the watersheds influences sediment PAH concentrations. The PAH sources were identified to be of pyrogenic origin. (orig.)

  5. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  6. Seismically-triggered organic-rich layers in recent sediments from Göllüköy Lake (North Anatolian Fault, Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas; Hubert-Ferrari, Auré lia; De Batist, Marc; Lepoint, Gilles; Schmidt, Sabine; Fagel, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Multi-proxy analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Göllüköy Lake, which is located on the eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF), reveals a complete and high-resolution paleoseismic record for the last 650 years. Six sedimentary events are detected in a 3.1 m-long piston core. They form distinct organic-rich intercalations within the background sedimentation, which are characterized by strong anomalies on the loss-on-ignition (LOI550) and total organic carbon (TOC) profiles, as well as by lighter colours on the X-ray radiographic images. Itrax micro-XRF core scanner data are also used to contribute to the detection and characterization of the event deposits. After the detection of the sedimentary events, their temporal correlation with the earthquakes in the historical seismicity catalogue of the NAF is tested. The youngest event is dated to 1940s by using 210Pb and 137Cs profiles in sediment, which coincides with the 1939 earthquake (Ms = 7.7) on the NAF. The ages of the older five events are determined based on radiocarbon dating and regional time–stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon dating on the bulk sediment samples does not provide reliable results due to hard-water effect. On the other hand, dating on charcoals, Ephippia of Daphnia and phragmite remains significantly improves the results and implies a mean sedimentation rate of 0.28 cm/yr. Based on this preliminary sedimentation rate, we show that organic matter content variations through our record correlate with the varve-based δ18O record of Nar Lake, which is located 350 km southwest of Göllüköy Lake. Accordingly, high-precipitation/low-evaporation climatic episodes detected in Nar Lake are represented by higher organic matter content in Göllüköy sediments. Fine-tuning the Göllüköy LOI550 record to the Nar δ18O record reveals that the ages of the sedimentary events in Göllüköy match with well-known historical earthquakes that occurred around the lake. Finally, the origin of the organic

  7. Fine sediment dynamics in a shallow lake and implication for design of hydraulic works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, T.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Drost, H.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Markermeer is a large (680 km2), shallow body of water in the middle of the Netherlands, with a mean water depth of 3.6 m. One of the major problems in the lake is its decreasing ecological value which is, among other reasons, caused by a gradual increase of suspended sediment concentration and

  8. Preliminary Report on Unique Laminated Holocene Sediments from the Qarun Lake in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Leszek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Qarun (Faiyum Oasis, northern Egypt is a relic of the much larger Holocene lake. Past lake levels and extensions were reconstructed, based on setting of archaeological sites scattered along northern paleoshores of the ancient lake. However, geoarcheological works did not yield enough data to establish continuous environmental history of the lake. A deep drilling FA-1 on the southeastern shore of the lake, performed in 2014, supplied with a core, 26 m long that is the one of the longest lake sediment cores in northeastern Africa. The basal section of the core consisted of thin-laminated diatom marly deposits, underlain at the Late Pleistocene/Holocene boundary by coarse-grained sands. The sediment lamine were quite well developed, especially in the lower part of the core. Preliminary results indicated annually deposited sediment sequence with seasonality signals provided by microlamine of diatoms, calcite, organic matter and clastic material. Early Holocene varved sediments from the Faiyum Oasis supplied with exceptional paleoenvironmental data for northeastern Africa, which enriched a record from previous logs drilled at the southwestern margin of the Qarun Lake.

  9. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  10. [Impacts of Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) on lake sediment properties and phosphorus movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Gu, Xiao-Zhi; Shao, Shi-Guang; Hu, Hai-Yan; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of Corbicula fluminea on sediment properties and phosphorus dynamics across sediment-water interface in lake, the microcosm experiment was carried out with sediment and lake water from the estuary of Dapu River, a eutrophic area in Taihu Lake. Rhizon samplers were used to acquire pore water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) flux across sediment-water interface and sediment properties were determined. The activity of C. fluminea destroyed the initial sediment structure, mixed sediment in different depths, increased oxygen penetration depth, sediment water content, and total microbial activity in sediment. The downward movement of overlying water was enhanced by the activity of C. fluminea, which decreased Fe2+ in pore water by oxidation. The production of ferric iron oxyhydroxide adsorbed SRP from pore water and decreased SRP concentration in pore water, and this increased iron bound phosphorus in corresponding sediment. The emergence of C. fluminea accelerated SRP release from sediment to overlying water, and enhanced SRP flux increased with the rise of introduced C. fluminea density. Metabolization of C. fluminea might play an important role in accelerating SRP release.

  11. A hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate from playa lake sediments, Salines Lake, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queralt, I.; Julia, R.; Plana, F.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of playa Lake Salines, SE, Spain, contain a carbonate mineral characterized by X-ray diffraction peaks very similar to, but systematically shifted from those of pure magnesite. Analyses (SEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy, DTA, TGA, and ICP) indicate the mineral is a hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate with the chemical formula (Mg0.92,Ca0.08)CO3??3H2O. Thermal characteristics of the mineral are similar to those of other known hydrated magnesium carbonates. X-ray and electron diffraction data suggests a monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with unit-cell parameters of a = 6.063(6), b = 10.668(5), and c = 6.014(4) A?? and ?? = 107.28??.

  12. Environmental Risk Assessment Based on High-Resolution Spatial Maps of Potentially Toxic Elements Sampled on Stream Sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. S. Cabral Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical mapping is the base knowledge to identify the regions of the planet with critical contents of potentially toxic elements from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Sediments, soils and waters are the vehicles which link the inorganic environment to life through the supply of essential macro and micro nutrients. The chemical composition of surface geological materials may cause metabolic changes which may favor the occurrence of endemic diseases in humans. In order to better understand the relationships between environmental geochemistry and public health, we present environmental risk maps of some harmful elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the stream sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde, identifying the potentially harmful areas in this island. The Estimated Background Values (EBV of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V were found to be above the Canadian guidelines for any type of use of stream sediments and also above the target values of the Dutch and United States guidelines. The Probably Effect Concentrations (PEC, above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms, were found for Cr and Ni. Some associations between the geological formations of the island and the composition of stream sediments were identified and confirmed by descriptive statistics and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The EBV spatial distribution of the metals and the results of PCA allowed us to establish relationships between the EBV maps and the geological formations. The first two PCA modes indicate that heavy metals in Santiago stream sediments are mainly originated from weathering of underlying bedrocks. The first metal association (Co, V, Cr, and Mn; first PCA mode consists of elements enriched in basic rocks and compatible elements. The second association of variables (Zn and Cd as opposed to Ni; second PCA mode appears to be strongly controlled by the composition of alkaline volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. So, the

  13. Sedimentation rate and chronology of As and Zn in sediment of a recent former tin mining lake estimated using Pb-210 dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharidah Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat; Zaini Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation in lake occurred through run-off from the land surface and settles on the bottom lake. Past mining activities might enhance sedimentation process in the former tin mining lakes either through natural or human activities. Former tin mining lakes were suspected to have high sedimentation rate due undisturbed environment for almost 50 years. To estimate sedimentation rate and metals contamination in this lake, Pb-210 dating technique was used. Two sediments cores were sampled using gravity corer from a former tin mining lake then analyzed using alpha-spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). From this study, the results showed the sedimentation rate for sediment cores S1 and S2 are 0.26 cm y -1 and 0.23 cmy -1 respectively. According to sediment chronological sequences, high concentrations of As and Zn in the upper layer indicated that human activities contributed to these metals contamination in the lake sediment. Sedimentation rate and metals contamination possibly due to recent anthropogenic activities around the lake such as human settlement, farming and agricultures activities since the ceased of mining activities a few decades ago. (author)

  14. Investigation of environmental change on the Tega Lake based on lake sediment analysis. Pt. 2. Dating of sediment by the lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change detected by the diatom assemblage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Takaomi

    1998-01-01

    Sediment collected in the Tega Lake was dated by lead-210/cesium-137 method and environmental change in the Tega Lake was investigated by analysis of diatom remain assemblages in the sediment. Dating of the lead-210/cesium-137 method proved that the surface 30 cm-thickness of sediment in the Tega Lake was deposited during the recent 50 years. Diatom remain assemblage change in the Hon-Tega Lake sediment started in the early half of 1960's and the changes is characterized decrease of Fragilaria construens, that does not prefer to inhabit eutrophic water, and increase of Cyclotella meneghiniana that prefers to inhabit eutrophic water. This diatom assemblage change indicates that the Tega Lake was eutrophicated, and probably suggests water pollution in the Tega Lake. It is detected that influence of residential development around the Tega Lake and reclaiming by drainage on the Tega Lake. (author)

  15. A 20-15 ka high-resolution paleomagnetic secular variation record from Black Sea sediments - no evidence for the 'Hilina Pali excursion'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabo; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.

    2018-06-01

    A comprehensive magnetostratigraphic investigation on sixteen sediment cores from the southeastern Black Sea yielded a very detailed high-quality paleosecular variation (PSV) record spanning from 20 to 15 ka. The age models are based on radiocarbon dating, stratigraphic correlation, and tephrochronology. Further age constraints were obtained by correlating four meltwater events, described from the western Black Sea, ranging in age from about 17 to 15 ka, with maxima in K/Ti ratios, obtained from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning, and minima in S-ratios, reflecting increased hematite content, in the studied cores. Since the sedimentation rates in the investigated time window are up to 50 cm ka-1, the obtained PSVs records enabled a stacking using 50-yr bins. A directional anomaly at 18.5 ka, associated with pronounced swings in inclination and declination, as well as a low in relative paleointensity (rPI), is probably contemporaneous with the Hilina Pali excursion, originally reported from Hawaiian lava flows. However, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from Black Sea sediments are not located at latitudes lower than 60°N, which denotes normal, though pronounced secular variations. During the postulated Hilina Pali excursion, the VGPs calculated from Black Sea data migrated clockwise only along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean from NE Canada (20.0 ka), via Alaska (18.6 ka) and NE Siberia (18.0 ka) to Svalbard (17.0 ka), then looping clockwise through the Eastern Arctic Ocean.

  16. Holocene evolution of a montane lake catchment inferred from multiproxy sediment analysis : climatic and anthropic impacts in french prealps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Manon; Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; David, Fernand; Arnaud, Fabien; Develle, Anne-Lise; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Crouzet, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Lake La Thuile in the Massif des Bauges (874 m a.s.l. French Alps) provides a 18 meters sedimentary sequence. Due to its mid-altitude position, this lake is one of the first to be formed through the glacial retreat and documents the evolution of its catchment since the Late Glacial Maximum. The first 6 meters of the core cover the last 12 000 years, and allowed to study human/climate/environment interactions in a carbonated environment. This study is the first one to investigate a mid-altitude lake in the French Alps for paleoenvironment reconstruction from lake sediment archive. Its altitudinal position presents the advantage to be very accessible to human activities and allows more developed agriculture than in higher altitude. This study aims to determined how and when is expressed the erosive response of such an environment to human settlement. High resolution multiproxy analysis of the first 6 meters including sedimentological, palynological and geochemical data associated to a well-constrained chronology over the Holocene period allows us to understand the respective impacts of both climate and human on the evolution of Lake La Thuile environment. Five major phases of evolution have been highlighted over this period. From 12 000 to 10 000 yr cal. BP, the vegetation is developing with the onset of hardwood species and the disappearance of Pinus. From 10 000 to 4500 yr cal. BP the warmer climatic conditions of the middle of the Holocene allows the forest to densify and the very low sedimentation rate indicates that the forest stabilizes slopes and prevents from the erosion on the watershed. The climate cooling of the Neoglacial period triggers a first erosive phase with a decreasing of the forest around 3300 cal. BP. Human settlements are suggested at La Thuile from 2500 yr cal. BP by palynological evidence of anthropic taxa. The triggered clearing is accompanied by a second erosive phase related to anthropic activities during the Roman period. Erosion

  17. Impacts of flamingos on saline lake margin and shallow lacustrine sediments in the Kenya Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer J.; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2012-11-01

    Studies of modern, Holocene, and Pleistocene sediments around saline to hypersaline, alkaline Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi show that evidence of flamingo activity in marginal areas of these lakes is nearly ubiquitous. Flamingos produce discrete structures such as webbed footprints (~ 9 cm long, ~ 11 cm wide) and nest mounds (~ 30 cm wide, ~ 20 cm high), and they also extensively rework sediments in delta front, delta plain, and shoreline areas. Large (~ 0.5-2 cm in diameter), pinched, 'bubble pores' and ped-like mud clumps are formed by the trampling and churning of wet clay-rich sediments in these settings. Flamingo nest mounds, although superficially similar to some thrombolite mounds, are typically internally structureless, unless formed on pre-existing sediments that preserve internal structures. The flamingo mounds consist of a dense, packed oval-shaped core, a surrounding 'body' of packed sediment, and an external layer with a ped-like texture of clumped mud. The nests may contain open holes from roots or feather shafts incorporated into the nest, and (or) burrows produced once the nests are abandoned. In areas with high densities of flamingos, lake margin sediments may be preferentially compacted, particularly at breeding sites, and become resistant to subaerial erosion and the effects of transgressive ravinement on time scales ranging from seasons to tens of thousands of years. The relatively well-compacted nest mounds and associated sediments also contribute to the stability of delta distributary channels during regressive-transgressive cycles, and can lead to the minor channelization of unconfined flows where currents are diverted around nest mounds. Pleistocene exhumed surfaces of relatively well-indurated lake margin sediments at Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi that are interpreted as combined regressive and transgressive surfaces (flooding surface/sequence boundary) preserve evidence of flamingo activities, and are overlain by younger, porous lacustrine

  18. Regional environment and hydrology changes documented by lake sediments from Lake Dalianhai, northeastern Tibetan Plateau since the last glacial maximum and their relationship with Asian summer monsoon variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Chen, F.; Zhou, A.; Abbott, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) significantly affects environment and hydrology conditions within its area of influence, as well as economic and social development. Thus it is important to investigate the variability of the ASM on various time-scales and to explore its underlying forcing mechanisms, in order to improve our ability to predict the long-term trends of regional and global climate. Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a margin area of modern ASM, is sensitive to summer monsoon changes. Existing paleoclimate records from this region contain conflicting evidence for the timing of summer monsoon advance into this region: an early arrival pre-Younger Dryas or a late arrival at the beginning of the Holocene. In addition, it is also debated that whether the Holocene ASM maximum in this region occurred during the early Holocene or the middle Holocene. Here we present a high-resolution record of a 52-m drilling core from Lake Dalianhai in this region. Multiply geochemistry indexes were obtained from the sediment core. 22 AMS 14C data from plant remains and bulk organic matters illustrate that the upper 52 m core covered the whole period since the last glacial maximum (LGM). The results generally indicate that the Lake Dalianhai was occupied by very shallow water body with eolian sand surrounding the lake from 20 to 15 ka BP (1ka=1000 cal yr). With the beginning of the B/A warm period, the sedimentary sequence changed to grey lacustrine clay abruptly. The sedimentary environment was relatively stable under a high lake level state during the B/A period which was marked with fine mean grain size, and high exogenous detrital element content (such as Al, K, Ti and Rb), but with low organic matter content. This perhaps was caused by the increasing of ASM precipitation. Increased contents of element Ca, Sr, and Br, as well as TOC and TN, highlight the increase of ASM during the Holocene. However, reddish lacustrine clay with lower magnetic susceptibility and

  19. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  20. Biogenic elements in bottom sediments of lake Drukshiai - the cooler of Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgevichiute, J.

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation and distribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, iron and calcium in sediments from different test - places of lake Drukshiai were investigated. The fractional composition of phosphorus and concentration of soluble phosphorus in liquid fraction of sediments and in water were determined. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration beyond 11,900 cal BP from Lake Suigetsu laminated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, H; van der Plicht, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an updated atmospheric radiocarbon calibration from annually laminated (varved) sediments from Lake Suigetsu (LS). central Japan. As presented earlier, the LS varved sediments can be used to extend the radiocarbon time scale beyond the tree ring calibration range that reaches

  2. The history of Cesium-137 liquid emissions by Mühleberg Nuclear Power Plant (Switzerland) is recorded in Lake Biel sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardclos, Stéphanie; Faessler, Jérôme; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Zehringer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Lake sediments record changes happening in their upstream river catchment and regional environment which includes traces of artificial radionuclides emissions deriving from human activities. 137Cs emissions started worldwide in the early 1950's and peaked in 1963-64 due to nuclear bomb tests in the high atmosphere. A second 137Cs activity peak, due to the 1986 Chernobyl catastrophe is recorded in sediment archives from central Europe. These two events (1963/64 and 1986) serve routinely as time markers for recent lake records. Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are often constructed along river course for cooling purposes. Since 1972, Mühleberg NPP (central Switzerland) lies 18 km upstream Lake Biel and releases radioactive liquid emissions into the Aare river which adds to the diffuse - above mentioned - radioactive pollution, as revealed by Albrecht et al. (1995; 1998) and recently confirmed by Thevenon et al. (2013) from Lake Biel sediments. The water of Lake Biel is used as drinking water for ca. 60'000 inhabitants and its outflowing water is further used by downstream cities lying on the Aare-Rhine course such as Basel (200'000 inhab.) In this study, the 137Cs activity curve of a 90-cm-long sediment core (BIE10-8), retrieved in April 2010 from the central Lake Biel basin at ca. 50 m depth, and measured by gamma ray spectrometry using high resolution germanium detectors, confirms previous work and reveals a new peak for the year 1998-2000, as observed by Thevenon et al. (2013). This peak is most certainly due to Mühleberg NPP as shown by the good correlation with declared 137Cs liquid emissions indicating a significant increase in 1998-99. Decay corrected activity data, converted into 137Cs fluxes, point to water pollution by Mühleberg NPP in 1975-1985 as being similar to those linked to the catastrophic events in 1963-64 and 1986 (about 75%). As former study showed that Lake Biel sediments scavenge only a portion of the total radionuclide in water, i.e. 30-55% for

  3. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  4. Clastic sediment flux to tropical Andean lakes: records of glaciation and soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Mark, Bryan G.; Smith, Jacqueline A.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2008-08-01

    We developed records of clastic sediment flux to 13 alpine lakes in Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, and compared these with independently dated records of regional glaciation. Our objectives are to determine whether a strong relationship exists between the extent of ice cover in the region and the rate of clastic sediment delivery to alpine lakes, and thus whether clastic sediment records serve as reliable proxies for glaciation during the late Pleistocene. We isolated the clastic component in lake sediment cores by removing the majority of the biogenic and authigenic components from the bulk sediment record, and we dated cores by a combination of radiocarbon and tephrochronology. In order to partially account for intra-basin differences in sediment focusing, bedrock erosivity, and sediment availability, we normalized each record to the weighted mean value of clastic sediment flux for each respective core. This enabled the stacking of all 13 lake records to produce a composite record that is generally representative of the tropical Andes. There is a striking similarity between the composite record of clastic sediment flux and the distribution of ˜100 cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure ages for erratics on moraine crests in the central Peruvian and northern Bolivian Andes. The extent of ice cover thus appears to be the primary variable controlling the delivery of clastic sediment to alpine lakes in the region, which bolsters the increasing use of clastic sediment flux as a proxy for the extent of ice cover in the region. The CRN moraine record and the stacked lake core composite record together indicate that the expansion of ice cover and concomitant increase in clastic sediment flux began at least 40 ka, and the local last glacial maximum (LLGM) culminated between 30 and 20 ka. A decline in clastic sediment flux that began ˜20 ka appears to mark the onset of deglaciation from the LLGM, at least one millennium prior to significant warming in high latitude regions

  5. Factors influencing release of phosphorus from sediments in a high productive polymictic lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solim, S U; Wanganeo, A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) release rates from bottom sediments are high (20.6 mg/m(2)/day) in Dal Lake (India), a polymictic hyper-eutrophic lake. These gross release rates occur over a period of 72 days during summer only. Likewise, a net internal load of 11.3 tons was obtained from mass balance estimates. Significant proportion i.e. approximately 80% of 287.3 tons/yr of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load is either eliminated by denitrification or gets entrapped for a short period in high macrophyte biomass of 3.2 kg/m(2) f.w., which eventually get decomposed and nitrogen (N) is released back. These processes result in low lake water NO(3)-N concentrations which potentially influence sediment phosphorus (P) release. Especially, nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) 500 microg/L in the lake waters were associated with high P concentrations. Phosphorus was also observed to increase significantly in relation to temperature and pH, and it seems likely that release of phosphorus and ammonical nitrogen (NH(4)-N) depend on decomposition of rich reserves of organic matter (893 tons d.w. in superficial 10-cm bottom sediment layer). Lake P concentrations were significantly predicted by a multivariate regression model developed for the lake. This study describes significance of various lake water variables in relation to P-release from bottom sediments.

  6. Sediment pollution in margins of the Lake Guaíba, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Leonardo Capeleto; Tiecher, Tales; de Oliveira, Jessica Souza; Andreazza, Robson; Inda, Alberto Vasconcellos; de Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio

    2017-12-02

    Sediments are formed by deposition of organic and inorganic particles on depth of water bodies, being an important role in aquatic ecosystems, including destination and potential source of essential nutrients and heavy metals, which may be toxic for living organisms. The Lake Guaíba supplies water for approximately two million people and it is located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sediment pollution in the margins of Lake Guaíba in the vicinity of Porto Alegre city. Surface sediment was sampled in 12 sites to assess the concentration of several elements (C, N, P, Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Ba, Zn, V, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Mo, and Se) and the mineralogical composition. Sediment in margins of Lake Guaíba presented predominantly (> 95%) sandy fraction in all samples, but with significant differences between evaluated sites. Sediments in the margins of Lake Guaíba showed indications of punctual water pollution with Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, TOC, TKN, and P, mainly derived from urban streams that flow into the lake. In order to solve these environmental liabilities, public actions should not focus only on Guaíba, but also in the streams that flow into the lake.

  7. Heavy metals in sediments of a large, turbid tropical lake affected by anthropogenic discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Hoz, L.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Lopez-Hernandez, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    2000-01-01

    Bottom-water data and trace metal concentration of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co, Zn, and organic matter in surficial sediment samples from 13 sampling stations of Lake Chapala in Mexico were studied. The lake is turbid with a great amount of flocculated sediments as a result of wind mixing, sediment re-suspension, and Lerma River discharges. Al distribution pattern in sediments was used as an indicator of the Lerma River discharges into Lake Chapala. The highest values of Cu (33.27 ppm), Cr (81.94 ppm), Pb (99.8 ppm), and Zn (149.7 ppm) were detected in sediments near the lake outlet. The bioavailable metal fraction is low for all metals except Pb, which shows 65-93% of the total metal concentration in bioavailable form. The minimum energy zone in the lake was related to organic matter concentration and was located in the SE part of the lake. An analysis of the studied parameters shows two zones: eastern zone (fluvio-deltaic) and central-western zone (lacustrine). (orig.)

  8. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  9. Role of organic phosphorus in sediment in a shallow eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Ryuichiro; Hiroki, Mikiya; Kohzu, Ayato; Imai, Akio; Inoue, Tetsunori; Furusato, Eiichi; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Satou, Takayuki; Tomioka, Noriko; Shimotori, Koichi; Miura, Shingo

    2017-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mineralization of molybdenum unreactive phosphorus (MUP) in pore water is the major pathway for the changes in the concentration of molybdenum-reactive P (MRP) in pore water and inorganic P in sediment particles. The concentration of inorganic P in the sediment particles increased from December to April in Lake Kasumigaura, whereas concentrations of organic P in the sediment particles and MUP in pore water decreased. These results suggest that MUP mineralization plays a key role as the source of MRP, whereas desorption of inorganic P from the sediment particles into the pore water is a minor process. One-dimensional numerical simulation of sediment particles and the pore water supported the hypothesis. Diffusive flux of MUP was small in pore water, even in near-surface layers, so mineralization was the dominant process for changing the MUP concentration in the pore water. For MRP, diffusion was the dominant process in the surface layer, whereas adsorption onto the sediment was the dominant process in deeper layers. Researchers usually ignore organic P in the sediment, but organic P in sediment particles and the pore water is a key source of inorganic P in the sediment particles and pore water; our results suggest that in Lake Kasumigaura, organic P in the sediment is an important source, even at depths more than 1 cm below the sediment surface. In contrast, the large molecular size of MUP in pore water hampers diffusion of MUP from the sediment into the overlying water.

  10. Occurance of geophilic of keratinophilic fungi in bottom sediments of lakes of various trophicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigations proved that colonization of bottom sediments with geophilie kerationophilic fungi in lakes of different trophicity was conditioned by the organic matter content. There was a relationship between occurrence of microorganisms and the basin management method. The greatest concentration of keratinophilic fungi where species typical of sewages polluted with them dominated was found in sediments of a basin used for recreation. In sediments of a lake located in the agricultural region there was a domination of species charakteristic of pure water in respect to sanitary regulations.

  11. Trace elements in sediment samples of the Aswan High Dam Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherief, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    Main and trace elements in Nile sediments of the Aswan High Dam Lake were investigated by means of Instrumental Activation Analysis. It was shown that the composition of the Nile sediments changes in accordance with the large gradients in flow rate and with elution and absorption processes. Particles containing Ca, Ba, Hf, Ti, V, and Na are sedimented preferentially near the headwater of Lake Nubia, whereas some elements are rather uniformly distributed, e.g. Fe, Co, Sm, and Eu, and some, such as Al, Sc, Cs, Th, La, and Ce, show a distinct increase downstream. Some elements do not fit into any of these three groups. (author)

  12. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively.

  13. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PFASs in surface sediments from five lake regions, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjie; Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Hu, Shibin; Zhang, Jingtian; He, Zhuoshi

    2016-03-07

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in environment globally. However, studies on PFAS occurrence in sediments of lakes or reservoirs remain relatively scarce. In this study, two hundred and sixty-two surface sediment samples were collected from forty-eight lakes and two reservoirs all over China. Average PFAS concentrations in surface sediments from each lake or reservoir varied from 0.086 ng/g dw to 5.79 ng/g dw with an average of 1.15 ng/g dw. Among five lake regions, average PFAS concentrations for the lakes from Eastern Plain Region were the highest. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant PFASs in surface sediments. The significant positive correlations between PFAS concentrations and total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in sediments revealed the influences of sedimentary characteristics on PFAS occurrence. A two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis heat map was depicted to analyze the possible origins of sediments and individual PFAS. The food-packaging, textile, electroplating, firefighting and semiconductor industry emission sources and the precious metals and coating industry emission sources were identified as the main sources by two receptor models, with contributions of 77.7 and 22.3% to the total concentrations of C4-C14- perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and PFOS, respectively.

  14. The sediment accumulation rates measured in Lake Poyang using 210Pb dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Zeng Erkang; Wan Yusong; Liu Xiaosong

    1987-01-01

    The sediment accumulation rates were estimated from the vertical distribution of excess 210 Pb measured in sediment cores collected from Lake Poyang, Jiangxi Provence of China. These rates were various with the differences in hydrology. The sedimentation rates are the lowest in the middle region of the lake, in which the rates could not be determined from the two samples and the other one is 0.14 cm/a. The sedimentation rates are lower in the northeast basin section, averaging to 0.19 cm/a. The sediment rates in the diffusion area of the lake from which 5 rivers enter sand deposion is more than the rates in other areas of the lake (0.08 cm/a to 0.28 cm/a) and the hydrology factors are various. Because of the sand from the Yangzhi River the sedimentation rates are the highest in the water-way section of the lake, averaging from 0.23 to 0.62 cm/a

  15. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruemmel, Eva M.; Scheer, Michael; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Macdonald, Robie W.; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Smol, John P.; Finney, Bruce; Blais, Jules M.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ 15 N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ 15 N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  16. High-resolution sub-bottom seismic and sediment core records from the Chukchi Abyssal Plain reveal Quaternary glaciation impacts on the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Y. J.; Seokhoon, Y.; Nam, S. I.; Polyak, L.; Niessen, F.

    2017-12-01

    For regional context of the Quaternary history of Arctic marine glaciations, such as glacial events in northern North America and on the Siberian and Chukchi margins, we used CHIRP sub-bottom profiles (SBP) along with sediment cores, including a 14-m long piston core ARA06-04JPC taken from the Chukchi abyssal plain during the RV Araon expedition in 2015. Based on core correlation with earlier developed Arctic Ocean stratigraphies using distribution of various sedimentary proxies, core 04JPC is estimated to extend to at least Marine Isotope Stage 13 (>0.5 Ma). The stratigraphy developed for SBP lines from the Chukchi abyssal plain to surrounding slopes can be divided into four major seismostratigraphic units (SSU 1-4). SBP records from the abyssal plain show well preserved stratification, whereas on the surrounding slopes this pattern is disrupted by lens-shaped, acoustically transparent sedimentary bodies interpreted as glaciogenic debris flow deposits. Based on the integration of sediment physical property and SBP data, we conclude that these debris flows were generated during several ice-sheet grounding events on the Chukchi and East Siberian margins, including adjacent ridges and plateaus, during the middle to late Quaternary.

  17. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, Anika; Corcoran, Patricia L; Madden, Odile; Helm, Paul A; Longstaffe, Fred J

    2016-09-15

    Microplastics contamination of Lake Ontario sediments is investigated with the aim of identifying distribution patterns and hotspots in nearshore, tributary and beach depositional environments. Microplastics are concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. In Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour microplastic concentrations were consistently >500 particles per kg dry sediment. Maximum concentrations of ~28,000 particles per kg dry sediment were determined in Etobicoke Creek. The microplastic particles were primarily fibres and fragments microplastics in terms of how and where to implement preventative measures to reduce the contaminant influx. Although the impacts of microplastics contamination on ecosystem health and functioning is uncertain, understanding, monitoring and preventing further microplastics contamination in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rock magnetic properties of sediments from Lake Sanabria and its catchment (NW Spain): paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, J. C.; Borruel, V.; Gómez-Paccard, M.; Rico, M.; Valero-Garces, B.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Soto, R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Sanabria is located in the NW Spanish mountains at 1000 m a.s.l., and constitutes the largest lake of glacial origin in the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present an environmental magnetic study of a Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core from Lake Sanabria and from different lithologies that crop out in its catchment, which includes Paleozoic plutonic, metamorphic and vulcanosedimentary rocks, and Quaternary deposits of glacial origin. This study was designed to complement sedimentologic and geochemical studies aimed at unraveling the climatic evolution of the NW Iberian Peninsula during the last deglaciation. Our results indicate that magnetite and pyrrhotite dominate the magnetic assemblage of both the sediments from the lower half of the studied sequence (25.6 - 13 cal kyr BP) deposited in a proglacial environment, and the Paleozoic rocks that make up most of the catchment of the lake. The occurrence of these minerals both in the catchment rocks and in the lake sediments indicates that sedimentation was then driven by the erosion of a glacial flour, which suffered minimal chemical transformation in response to a rapid and short routing to the lake. Sediments from the upper half of the studied sequence, accumulated after 12.4 cal kyr BP in a fluviolacustrine environment, contain magnetite and greigite. This points to a prominent role of post-depositional reductive dissolution, driven by a sharp increase in the accumulation of organic matter into the lake and the creation of anoxic conditions in the sediments, in shaping the magnetic assemblage of Holocene sediments. Pyrrhotite is stable under reducing conditions as opposed to magnetite, which is unstable. We therefore interpret that previous pedogenic processes occurred in the then deglaciated catchment of the lake were responsible for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and authigenic formation of magnetite, which survived subsequent reductive diagenesis given its initial larger concentrations. This interpretation is

  19. Magnetic Signature of Glacial Flour in Sediments From Bear Lake, Utah/Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. G.; Dean, W. E.; Colman, S. M.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in magnetic properties within an interval of Bear Lake sediments correlative with oxygen isotope stage 2 (OIS 2) and OIS 3 provide a record of glacial flour production for the Uinta Mountains. Like sediments of the same age from Upper Klamath Lake (OR), these Bear Lake sediments have high magnetic susceptibilities (MS) relative to non-glacial-age sediments and contain well-defined millennial-scale variations in magnetic properties. In contrast to glacial flour derived from volcanic rocks surrounding Upper Klamath Lake, glacial flour derived from the Uinta Mountains and deposited in Bear Lake by the Bear River has low magnetite content but high hematite content. The relatively low MS values of younger and older non-glacial-age sediments are due entirely to dilution by non-magnetic endogenic carbonate and to the effects of sulfidic alteration of detrital Fe-oxides. Analysis of samples from streams entering Bear Lake and from along the course of the Bear River demonstrates that, in comparison to other areas of the catchment, sediment derived from the Uinta Mountains is rich in hematite (high HIRM) and aluminum, and poor in magnetite (low MS) and titanium. Within the glacial-age lake sediments, there are strong positive correlations among HIRM, Al/Ti, and fine sediment grain size. MS varies inversely with theses three variables. These relations indicate that the observed millennial-scale variations in magnetic and chemical properties arise from varying proportions of two detrital components: (1) very fine-grained glacial flour derived from Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Uinta Mountains and characterized by high HIRM and low MS, and (2) somewhat coarser material, characterized by higher MS and lower HIRM, derived from widespread sedimentary rocks along the course of the Bear River and around Bear Lake. Measurement of glacial flour incorporated in lake sediments can provide a continuous history of alpine glaciation, because the rate of accumulation

  20. A preliminary study on sedimentation rate in Tasek Bera Lake estimated using Pb-210 dating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Johari Abdul Latif; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Kamaruzaman Mamat; Gharibreza, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Tasek Bera is the largest natural lake system (60 ha) in Malaysia located in southwest Pahang. The lake is a complex dendritic system consisting of extensive peat-swamp forests. The catchment was originally lowland dipterocarp forest, but this has nearly over the past four decades been largely replaced with oil palm and rubber plantations developed by the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA). Besides the environmentally importance of Tasek Bera, it is seriously subjected to erosion, sedimentation and morphological changes. Knowledge and information of accurate sedimentation rate and its causes are of utmost importance for appropriate management of lakes and future planning. In the present study, environmental 210 Pb (natural) dating technique was applied to determine sedimentation rate and pattern as well as the chronology of sediment deposit in Tasek Bera Lake. Three undisturbed core samples from different locations at the main entry and exit points of river mouth and in open water within the lake were collected during a field sampling campaign in October 2009 and analyzed for 210 Pb using gamma spectrometry method. Undisturbed sediments are classified as organic soils to peat with clayey texture that composed of 93 % clay, 5 % silt, and 2 % very fine sand. Comparatively higher sedimentation rates in the entry (0.06-1.58 cm/ yr) and exit (0.05-1.55 cm/ yr) points of the main river mouth as compared to the lakes open water (0.02- 0.74 cm/ yr) were noticed. Reasons for the different pattern of sedimentation rates in this lake and conclusion are discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. A ~20,000 year history of glacial variability in the tropical Andes recorded in lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Moy, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Pro-glacial lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru contain continuous records of climate variability spanning the Last Glacial Maximum to present day. Here we present results from two alpine lake basins in the Queshgue Valley (9.8°S, 77.3°W) that contain high-resolution records of clastic sediment deposition for the last ~20,000 years. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores were scanned at 0.5 to 1.0 cm resolution using a profiling x-ray fluorescence scanner for major and minor element distributions. In addition, we measured down-core variations in magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcium carbonate. Samples of bedrock and sediments from glacial moraines in the Queshgue watershed were analyzed using an ICP-MS in order to fingerprint and trace the source of glacial sediments deposited in the lakes. The bedrock is dominated by a combination of granodiorite with high Sr concentrations and meta-sedimentary rocks with high Zr values. Because the glacial sediments proximal to the modern glacier terminus are composed mostly of the granodiorite end-member, we interpret changes in Sr and clastic sediment concentrations in the lake sediment profiles as proxies for past glacial variability. Preliminary results indicate that glaciers retreated soon after ~14,500 cal yr BP and remained less extensive during the remaining late Glacial Stage and early Holocene. Gradually increasing clastic sediments through the middle and late Holocene indicate that glaciers became progressively larger, or more erosive towards present day. However, this overall Holocene trend of increasing glacier extent was interrupted by multiple periods of centennial- to millennial-scale ice margin retreat. For example, relative peaks in clastic sediments occurred from ~14,500 to 6000, 5600 to 5000, 4600 to 4200, 3600 to 3200, 2800 to 2700, 2400 to 2200, 1750 to 1550, 1100 to 900 cal yr BP, and during the Little Ice Age (~700 to 50 cal yr BP), while periods of low clastic

  2. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walraven, N., E-mail: n.walraven@geoconnect.nl [GeoConnect, Meester Dekkerstraat 4, 1901 PV Castricum (Netherlands); Os, B.J.H. van, E-mail: b.vanos@rce.nl [Rijksdienst voor Archeologie, Cultuurlandschap en Monumenten, P.O. Box 1600, 3800 BP Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klaver, G.Th., E-mail: g.klaver@brgm.nl [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Middelburg, J.J., E-mail: j.b.m.middelburg@uu.nl [University Utrecht, Faculty of Geosciences, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Davies, G.R., E-mail: g.r.davies@vu.nl [VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Petrology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of {sup 137}Cs dated lake sediments from 2 Dutch urban lakes. Between 1942 and 2002 A.D. anthropogenic atmospheric Pb deposition rates in the two lakes varied from 12 ± 2 to 69 ± 16 μg cm{sup −2} year{sup −1}. The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the reconstructed atmospheric Pb deposition rates. After the ban on leaded gasoline, late 1970s/early 1980s, atmospheric Pb deposition rates decreased rapidly in the two urban lakes and the relative contributions of other anthropogenic Pb sources — incinerator ash (industrial Pb) and coal/galena — increased sharply. Atmospheric Pb deposition rates inferred from the lake record a clear relationship with nearby measured annual mean air Pb concentrations. Based on this relationship it was estimated that air Pb concentrations between 1942 and 2002 A.D. varied between 5 and 293 ng/m{sup 3}. - Highlights: • Sixty years of atmospheric Pb was reconstructed using urban lake sediments. • Stable Pb isotopes were applied to determine Pb sources in urban lakes. • The rise and fall of leaded gasoline is clearly reflected in the lake sediments. • Other dominant anthropogenic Pb sources are incinerator ash and coal/galena. • The lake Pb record shows a clear relationship with measured air Pb concentrations.

  3. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  4. Glacitectonic rafting and associated deformation of mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments, near Central Graben, central North Sea; results of a 2D High-Resolution Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Hirsch, David

    2013-04-01

    Glacitectonic rafts are defined as dislocated slabs of bedrock or unconsolidated sediments, transported from their original position by glacial action. These relatively thin, slab-like bodies feature transport distances ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. They occur as either single rafts, or multiple stacked bodies associated with a variety of ice-pushed landforms. Internally, rafts frequently appear undeformed although at a larger scale, they may be folded or cut by shear zones and brittle faults. However, the processes leading to the detachment, transport and subsequent emplacement of the rafts remain uncertain. This work describes the results of a geophysical 2D seismic survey of thrust-bound glacitectonic rafts and associated deformation structures, occurring within mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments of the Central Graben, central North Sea. The total shortened length of the rafted section is 2.4km, comprising a series of nine discrete rafts which individually range from 235m to 1018m in length. The principle basal detachment occurs at the erosive contact between Aberdeen Ground Formation and overlying Ling Bank Formation. The ice-proximal (northern) limit of rafting is defined by the presence of a large-scale palaeo-channel oriented perpendicular to the direction of rafting, composed of sediments of the Ling Bank Formation and the Forth Formation. The observed deformation structures infer a mean tectonic direction of 178°, indicating that they are associated with an active glacial advance from the north. The resulting deformation creates a minimum lateral shortening throughout the observed sequence of 35%, typifying a strongly compressional regieme associated with rafting. Throughout the surveyed area, structurally younger rafts are found to be emplaced towards the south, compared to the structurally older rafts which are emplaced towards the south-east. This distinction is suggested to be caused by early rafts creating an obstacle to

  5. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS applications.

  6. Reconstructing geomorphic patterns and forcing factors from Alpine Lake Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Giguet-Covex, Charline; Wilhelm, Bruno; Révillon, Sidonie; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Revel, Marie; Enters, Dirk; Bajard, Manon; Fouinat, Laurent; Doyen, Elise; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Pignol, Cécile; Chapron, Emmanuel; Vannière, Boris; Sabatier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we review the scientific efforts that were led over the last decades to reconstruct geomorphic patterns from continuous alpine lake sediment records. Whereas our results point a growing importance of humans as erosion forcing factors, we will focus here on climate-related processes. Our main dataset is made of a regional approach which was led without any a priori regarding erosion forcing factors. We hence integrated a set of sediment sequences from various environment along an altitudinal gradient from 200 up to 2400m asl in Northern French Alps. Altogether our data point climate change as one of the main factor of erosion variability. In particular, the last two cold spells that occurred during the early middle age (Dark Age) and between the 14th and the 20th century AD (Little Ice Age) appear to be outstanding compared to any other periods of enhanced erosion along the Holocene. The climatic forcing of those erosion phases is supported by an increase in the contribution of glacier-eroded material at a regional scale. At local scales, our data also point the growing importance, since at least the mid Bronze Age (ca. 3500 cal. BP) of human activities as a major erosion factor. This influence peaked during the late Iron Age and Antiquity periods (200 BC - 400 AD) when we record a regional generalised period of enhanced erosion in response to the development of pasturing activities. Thanks to provenance and weathering markers, we evidenced a strong relationship between the changes in ecosystems, soil development and erosion patterns. We hence showed the vegetal colonisation of bared soil led to a period of intense weathering while new soils were under formation between 11,000 and 8,000 cal. BP. Soils then knew an optimum until the onset of the Neoglacial at ca. 4,500 cal. BP prior to decline under both climate and human pressures. Altogether our data point the complexity of processes that affected the Earth critical zone along the Holocene. However

  7. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  8. Ancient DNA from lake sediments: Bridging the gap between paleoecology and genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumibao Candice Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quaternary plant ecology in much of the world has historically relied on morphological identification of macro- and microfossils from sediments of small freshwater lakes. Here, we report new protocols that reliably yield DNA sequence data from Holocene plant macrofossils and bulk lake sediment used to infer ecological change. This will allow changes in census populations, estimated from fossils and associated sediment, to be directly associated with population genetic changes. Results We successfully sequenced DNA from 64 samples (out of 126 comprised of bulk sediment and seeds, leaf fragments, budscales, and samaras extracted from Holocene lake sediments in the western Great Lakes region of North America. Overall, DNA yields were low. However, we were able to reliably amplify samples with as few as 10 copies of a short cpDNA fragment with little detectable PCR inhibition. Our success rate was highest for sediments Conclusions An ability to extract ancient DNA from Holocene sediments potentially allows exciting new insights into the genetic consequences of long-term environmental change. The low DNA copy numbers we found in fossil material and the discovery of multiple sequence variants from single macrofossil extractions highlight the need for careful experimental and laboratory protocols. Further application of these protocols should lead to better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of environmental change.

  9. Temporal and spatial variations in kinetics of alkaline phosphatase in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Donghu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyong, Zhou; Jianqiu, Li; Min, Zhang

    2002-04-01

    Monthly sediment and interstitial water samples were collected in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Donghu) from three areas to determine if alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) plays an important role, in phosphorus cycling in sediment. The seasonal variability in the kinetics of APA and other relevant parameters were investigated from 1995-1996. The phosphatase hydrolyzable phosphorus (PHP) fluctuated seasonally in interstitial water, peaking in the spring. A synchronous pattern was observed in chlorophyll a contents in surface water in general. The orthophosphate (o-P) concentrations in the interstitial water increased during the spring. An expected negative relationship between PHP and Vmax of APA is not evident in interstitial water. The most striking feature of the two variables is their co-occurring, which can be explained in terms of an induction mechanism. It is argued that phosphatase activity mainly contributes to the driving force of o-P regeneration from PHP in interstitial water, supporting the development of phytoplankton biomass in spring. The Vmax values in sediment increased during the summer, in conjunction with lower Km values in interstitial water that suggest a higher affinity for the substrate. The accumulation of organic matter in the sediment could be traced back to the breakdown of the algal spring bloom, which may stimulate APA with higher kinetic efficiency, by a combination of the higher Vmax in sediments plus lower Km values in interstitial water, in summer. In summary, a focus on phosphatase and its substrate in annual scale may provide a useful framework for the development of novel P cycling, possible explanations for the absence of a clear relationship between PHP and APA were PHP released from the sediment which induced APA, and the presence of kinetically higher APA both in sediment and interstitial water which permitted summer mineralization of organic matter derived from the spring bloom to occur. The study highlighted the

  10. High resolution chronology of late Cretaceous-early Tertiary events determined from 21,000 yr orbital-climatic cycles in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Dhondt, Steven

    1988-01-01

    A number of South Atlantic sites cored by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) recovered late Cretaceous and early Tertiary sediments with alternating light-dark, high-low carbonate content. The sedimentary oscillations were turned into time series by digitizing color photographs of core segments at a resolution of about 5 points/cm. Spectral analysis of these records indicates prominent periodicity at 25 to 35 cm in the Cretaceous intervals, and about 15 cm in the early Tertiary sediments. The absolute period of the cycles that is determined from paleomagnetic calibration at two sites is 20,000 to 25,000 yr, and almost certainly corresponds to the period of the earth's precessional cycle. These sequences therefore contain an internal chronometer to measure events across the K/T extinction boundary at this scale of resolution. The orbital metronome was used to address several related questions: the position of the K/T boundary within magnetic chron 29R, the fluxes of biogenic and detrital material to the deep sea immediately before and after the K/T event, the duration of the Sr anomaly, and the level of background climatic variability in the latest Cretaceous time. The carbonate/color cycles that were analyzed contain primary records of ocean carbonate productivity and chemistry, as evidenced by bioturbational mixing of adjacent beds and the weak lithification of the rhythmic sequences. It was concluded that sedimentary sequences that contain orbital cyclicity are capable of providing resolution of dramatic events in earth history with much greater precision than obtainable through radiometric methods. The data show no evidence for a gradual climatic deterioration prior to the K/T extinction event, and argue for a geologically rapid revolution at this horizon.

  11. Diversity analysis of bacterial community compositions in sediments of urban lakes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dayong; Huang, Rui; Zeng, Jin; Yan, Wenming; Wang, Jianqun; Ma, Ting; Wang, Meng; Wu, Qinglong L

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria are crucial components in lake sediments and play important role in various environmental processes. Urban lakes in the densely populated cities are often small, shallow, highly artificial and hypereutrophic compared to rural and natural lakes and have been overlooked for a long time. In the present study, bacterial community compositions in surface sediments of three urban lakes (Lake Mochou, Lake Qianhu and Lake Zixia) in Nanjing City, China, were investigated using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and clone libraries. Remarkable differences in the T-RFLP patterns were observed in different lakes or different sampling stations of the same lake. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that total nitrogen (TN) had significant effects on bacterial community structure in the lake sediments. Chloroflexi were the most dominant bacterial group in the clone library from Lake Mochou (21.7 % of the total clones) which was partly associated with its higher TN and organic matters concentrations. However, Bacteroidetes appeared to be dominated colonizers in the sediments of Lake Zixia (20.4 % of the total clones). Our study gives a comprehensive insight into the structure of bacterial community of urban lake sediments, indicating that the environmental factors played a key role in influencing the bacterial community composition in the freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability in the southeast Mojave Desert using sediments from Ford Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidelmeijer, J.; Kirby, M.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Mayer, S. A.; Palermo, J. A.; Stout, C.; Shellhorn, A.; Weisberg, G.; Rangel, H.; Hess, B.

    2017-12-01

    Most published lacustrine studies located in the Mojave Desert focus on lakes that receive the majority of their water from the Mojave River (e.g., Silver Lake, Cronese Lakes, Soda Lake, etc). Consequently, these Mojave River-fed lake sites record coastal hydroclimatic signals rather than a solely Mojave-only signal. The reason for this signal-disconnect is that the Mojave River is sourced in the San Bernardino Mountains, where annual precipitation is dictated by coastal hydroclimates. Therefore, much remains unknown about how the Mojave Desert changed during the Holocene at sub-millennial time scales. To address this problem and fill in an important geographical gap, we focus on Ford Lake in the southeastern Mojave Desert. Ford Lake is an internally drained, closed basin, and it is completely disconnected from the Mojave River. As a result, it represents one of the first lakes studied in the Mojave Desert with a climate signal that is 100% Mojave. Sediments from Ford Lake provide valuable context for understanding hydroclimatic variability exclusive to the Mojave Desert. To date, two hand-dug 1.5 m trenches (depocenter and littoral zone) and 3 overlapping sediments cores from the lake's depocenter have been sampled. The total core length is 3.55 m and bottomed in coarse alluvium, suggesting we captured the complete lacustrine sediment package. Initial results by Mayer (2016) focused on the most recent 1200 calendar years before present, or the upper 2.16 m. Mayer (2016) found evidence for increased run-off (wetter climate) during the Little Ice Age and reduced run-off (drier climate) during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Here, we complete the study, improving age control using sediment charcoal. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility, percent total organic matter, percent total carbonate content, C:N ratios and C and N isotopic analyses are (will be) measured at 1 cm contiguous intervals. The Ford Lake record has been (will be) compared to pre-existing regional

  13. Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry lake basin, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to achieve meaningful decreases in sediment loads to reservoirs requires a determination of the relative importance of sediment sources within the contributing basins. In an investigation of sources of fine-grained sediment (clay and silt) within the Perry Lake Basin in northeast Kansas, representative samples of channel-bank sources, surface-soil sources (cropland and grassland), and reservoir bottom sediment were collected, chemically analyzed, and compared. The samples were sieved to isolate the phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). On the basis of substantial and consistent compositional differences among the source types, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), and 137Cs were selected for use in the estimation of sediment sources. To further account for differences in particle-size composition between the sources and the reservoir bottom sediment, constituent ratio and clay-normalization techniques were used. Computed ratios included TOC to TN, TOC to TP, and TN to TP. Constituent concentrations (TN, TP, TOC) and activities (137Cs) were normalized by dividing by the percentage of clay. Thus, the sediment-source estimations involved the use of seven sediment-source indicators. Within the Perry Lake Basin, the consensus of the seven indicators was that both channel-bank and surface-soil sources were important in the Atchison County Lake and Banner Creek Reservoir subbasins, whereas channel-bank sources were dominant in the Mission Lake subbasin. On the sole basis of 137Cs activity, surface-soil sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Atchison County Lake, and channel-bank sources contributed the most fine-grained sediment to Banner Creek Reservoir and Mission Lake. Both the seven-indicator consensus and 137Cs indicated that channel-bank sources were dominant for Perry Lake and that channel-bank sources increased in importance with distance

  14. The effect of lake sediment on the hatching success of Daphnia ephippial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Radzikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of lake-Daphnia ephippia which are shed by females in the water column sink to the bottom, where they form an assemblage of dormant stages known as an egg bank. Although the quantity of zooplankton eggs in such assemblages may exceed tens of thousands per square meter, the annual hatch from this bank is usually extremely low (from zero to a few dozens animals per square meter per year. This low-hatching phenomenon may be caused by isolation from hatching stimuli by water or sediment layers, a mechanical barrier formed by sediment that does not allow hatchlings to reach the water, or by a bet-hedging strategy of the resting eggs. The aim of our study was to determine the extent to which coverage by lake sediment may affect the hatching of Daphnia dormant eggs. The ephippia of lake-Daphnia (longispina species complex, covered by sterilized lake sediment of different thicknesses (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 cm; 4 replicates per treatment, were incubated for 8 weeks in lab controlled conditions. The results indicate that even the thinnest tested layer (0.25 cm may completely inhibit hatching of ephippial eggs. A few Daphnia neonates were observed in two (of five sediment treatments, while dozens of animals hatched in the control one. In the second experiment we determined that the sediment sterilization process did not affect the hatching proportion of ephippial eggs (when compared to the treatment with unsterilized sediments. We hypothesize that the observed inhibition of Daphnia hatching in the main experiment, which may cause a serious problem for Cladoceran populations in lakes where no sediment mixing occurs, may be caused by low light intensity, anoxic conditions or a physical barrier created by the sediment.

  15. Predicting lake responses to phosphorus loading with measurement-based characterization of P recycling in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, S.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the time scales on which lake ecosystems respond to changes in anthropogenic phosphorus loadings is critical for devising efficient management strategies and setting regulatory limits on loading. Internal loading of phosphorus from sediments, however, can significantly contribute to the lake P budget and may delay recovery from eutrophication. The efficiency of mineralization and recycling of settled P in bottom sediments, which is ultimately responsible for this loading, is often poorly known and is surprisingly poorly characterized in the societally important systems such as the Great Lakes. We show that a simple mass-balance model that uses only a minimum number of parameters, all of which are measurable, can successfully predict the time scales over which the total phosphorus (TP) content of lakes responds to changes in external loadings, in a range of situations. The model also predicts the eventual TP levels attained under stable loading conditions. We characterize the efficiency of P recycling in Lake Superior based on a detailed characterization of sediments at 13 locations that includes chemical extractions for P and Fe fractions and characterization of sediment-water exchange fluxes of P. Despite the low efficiency of P remobilization in these deeply oxygenated sediments (only 12% of deposited P is recycled), effluxes of dissolved phosphorus (2.5-7.0 μmol m-2 d-1) still contribute 37% to total P inputs into the water column. In this oligotrophic large lake, phosphate effluxes are regulated by organic sedimentation rather than sediment redox conditions. By adjusting the recycling efficiency to conditions in other Laurentian Great Lakes, we show that the model reproduces the historical data for total phosphorus levels. Analysis further suggests that, in the Lower Lakes, the rate of P sequestration from water column into sediments has undergone a significant change in recent decades, possibly in response to their invasion by quagga mussels

  16. Characterizing the Fate and Mobility of Phosphorus in Utah Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, G. T.; Randall, M.; Nelson, S.; Rey, K.; Hansen, N.; Bickmore, B.; Miller, T.

    2017-12-01

    An increasing number of lakes worldwide are impacted by eutrophication and harmful algal blooms due to anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Utah Lake is a unique eutrophic freshwater lake that is naturally shallow, turbid, and alkaline with high dissolved oxygen levels that has experienced severe algal blooms in recent years. Recently, the Utah Division of Water Quality has proposed a new limitation of phosphorus (P) loading to Utah Lake from wastewater treatment plants in an effort to mitigate eutrophication. However, reducing external P loads may not lead to immediate improvements in water quality due to the legacy pool of nutrients in lake sediments. The purpose of this study was to characterize the fate and mobility of P in Utah Lake sediments to better understand P cycling in this unique system. We analyzed P speciation, mineralogy, and binding capacity in lake sediment samples collected from 15 locations across Utah Lake. P concentrations in sediment ranged from 615 to 1894 ppm, with highest concentrations in Provo Bay near the major metropolitan area. Sequential leach tests indicate that 25-50% of P is associated with Ca (CaCO₃/ Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2 ≈ P) and 40-60% is associated with Fe (Fe(OOH) ≈ P). Ca-associated P was confirmed by SEM images, which showed the highest P concentrations correlating with Ca (carbonate minerals/apatite). The Ca-associated P fraction is likely immobile, but the Fe-bound P is potentially bioavailable under changing redox conditions. Batch sorption results indicate that lake sediments have a high capacity to absorb and remove P from the water column, with an average uptake of 70-96% removal over the range of 1-10 mg/L P. Mineral precipitation and sorption to bottom sediments is an efficient removal mechanism of P in Utah Lake, but a significant portion of P may be temporarily available for resuspension and cycling in surface waters. Mitigating lake eutrophication is a complex problem that goes beyond decreasing external nutrient

  17. Carbon 14, carbon 13 and oxygen 18 in carbonate sediments from lake Titicaca. Preliminary estimates of sedimentation rate and paleoclimatological attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.-C.; Boulange, Bruno; Rodrigo, L.-A.

    1981-01-01

    Stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements in carbonates from Titicaca lake indicate equilibrium with lake water and atmospheric CO 2 . Average sedimentation rate is close to 0,5 mm.yr -1 for the last millenium which was marked by large fluctuations of the hydrologic balance and lake level [fr

  18. Carbon 14, carbon 13 and oxygen 18 in carbonate sediments from Lake Titicaca. Preliminary estimates of sedimentation rate and paleoclimatological attempt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, J.C. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)); Boulange, B. (Orstom, 75 - Paris (France)); Rodrigo, L.A. (Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia). Lab. de Fisica Cosmica de Chacaltaya)

    1981-07-06

    Stable isotope and radiocarbon measurements in carbonates from Lake Titicaca indicate equilibrium with lake water and atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Average sedimentation rate is close to 0,5 mm.yr/sup -1/ for the last millenium which was marked by large fluctuations of the hydrologic balance and lake level.

  19. Stream Sediment Geochemical Survey of Selected Element In Catchment Area Of Saguling Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Eka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saguling Lake is one of the largest lakes in West Java Province that accommodates domestic and non-domestic wastes via the Citarum River as its main water source. This study aims to determine the geochemical background concentration (Cbg in water catchment area of Saguling Lake. The knowledge of the Cbg of heavy metals is essential for defining pollution, identifying the source of contamination, and for establishing reliable environmental quality criteria for sediments. The value of Cbg will be used for assessment of the sediment quality in Saguling Lake. Assessment of sediment quality is very important to determine the actual condition of water in the lake and as the basis for management of waters environment in the future. The search was taken at 22 sampling points in the unpolluted water catchment area. Samples were collected and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb. Each sample was digested in agua regia and analyzed by ICP-EOS. Results showed Cbg which are: Cd 0.34 ± 0.10 mg/kg, Cr 110.57 ± 28.61 mg/kg, Cu 49.93 ± 9.28 mg/kg, and Pb 18.62 ± 9.83 mg/kg. Based on the assessment result, it is concluded that the sediment quality in Saguling Lake is categorized as polluted by Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb metals.

  20. Tsunami-generated sediment wave channels at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Kitts, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A gigantic ∼12 km3 landslide detached from the west wall of Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada, USA), and slid 15 km east across the lake. The splash, or tsunami, from this landslide eroded Tioga-age moraines dated as 21 ka. Lake-bottom short piston cores recovered sediment as old as 12 ka that did not reach landslide deposits, thereby constraining the landslide age as 21–12 ka.Movement of the landslide splashed copious water onto the countryside and lowered the lake level ∼10 m. The sheets of water that washed back into the lake dumped their sediment load at the lowered shoreline, producing deltas that merged into delta terraces. During rapid growth, these unstable delta terraces collapsed, disaggregated, and fed turbidity currents that generated 15 subaqueous sediment wave channel systems that ring the lake and descend to the lake floor at 500 m depth. Sheets of water commonly more than 2 km wide at the shoreline fed these systems. Channels of the systems contain sediment waves (giant ripple marks) with maximum wavelengths of 400 m. The lower depositional aprons of the system are surfaced by sediment waves with maximum wavelengths of 300 m.A remarkably similar, though smaller, contemporary sediment wave channel system operates at the mouth of the Squamish River in British Columbia. The system is generated by turbidity currents that are fed by repeated growth and collapse of the active river delta. The Tahoe splash-induced backwash was briefly equivalent to more than 15 Squamish Rivers in full flood and would have decimated life in low-lying areas of the Tahoe region.

  1. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.

  2. Salinity drives archaeal distribution patterns in high altitude lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Xiong, Jinbo; Conrad, Ralf; Vick-Majors, Trista; Chu, Haiyan; Hou, Juzhi

    2016-03-01

    Archaeal communities and the factors regulating their diversity in high altitude lakes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first high-throughput sequencing study of Archaea from Tibetan Plateau lake sediments. We analyzed twenty lake sediments from the world's highest and largest plateau and found diverse archaeal assemblages that clustered into groups dominated by methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Halobacteria/mixed euryarchaeal phylotypes. Statistical analysis inferred that salinity was the major driver of community composition, and that archaeal diversity increased with salinity. Sediments with the highest salinities were mostly dominated by Halobacteria. Crenarchaeota dominated at intermediate salinities, and methanogens were present in all lake sediments, albeit most abundant at low salinities. The distribution patterns of the three functional types of methanogens (hydrogenotrophic, acetotrophic and methylotrophic) were also related to changes in salinity. Our results show that salinity is a key factor controlling archaeal community diversity and composition in lake sediments on a spatial scale that spans nearly 2000 km on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Modeled tephra ages from lake sediments, base of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, C J; Kaufman, D S; Wallace, K L; Werner, A; Ku, T L; Brown, T A

    2007-02-25

    A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last 8750 cal yr, comprising 15% of the total thickness of recovered sediment. Using 12 AMS {sup 14}C ages, along with the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb activities of recent sediment, we evaluated different models to determine the age-depth relation of sediment, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The age model is based on a cubic smooth spline function that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer. The estimated age uncertainty of the 67 tephras averages {+-} 105 yr (1{sigma}). Tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past 500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7 per 500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall separated by shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of apparent quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of once every 130 yr.

  4. 210Pb and 137Cs dating of sediments from Zigetang Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.C.; Li, S.J.; Zhang, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Zigetang Lake located in the central Tibetan Plateau was selected for the purpose of understanding of recent sedimentation rates. Based on 137 Cs dating marker, the sediment rate was 0.077 cm x yr -1 . The sedimentation rate was calculated to be 0.071 cm x yr -1 and 0.029 g x cm -2 x yr -1 on the basis of 210 Pb CIC model. 210 Pb CRS model was also used for understanding of recent sedimentation change. The sediment accumulation rates for the CRS model ranged from 0.022 to 0.038 g x cm -2 x yr -1 with an irregular high value of 0.12 g x cm -2 x yr -1 around 1932 at Zigetang Lake core in the past eighty years. (author)

  5. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  6. Optimized cleanup method for the determination of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in sediments by high resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhang Haijun; Chen Jiping; Zhang Qing; Tian Yuzeng; Qi Peipei; Yu Zhengkun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sediment sample could be purified by the optimized cleanup method, and satisfying cleanup efficiency was obtained. Highlights: → The elution characters of sPCAs and interfering substances were evaluated on three adsorbents. → An optimized cleanup method was developed for sPCAs with satisfying cleanup efficiency. → The cleanup method combined with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS was applied for sPCAs analysis. → The sPCAs levels range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 in tested sediment samples. - Abstract: The performances of three adsorbents, i.e. silica gel, neutral and basic alumina, in the separation of short chain polychlorinated n-alkanes (sPCAs) from potential interfering substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were evaluated. To increase the cleanup efficiency, a two-step cleanup method using silica gel column and subsequent basic alumina column was developed. All the PCB and organochlorine pesticides could be removed by this cleanup method. The very satisfying cleanup efficiency of sPCAs has been achieved and the recovery in the cleanup method reached 92.7%. The method detection limit (MDL) for sPCAs in sediments was determined to be 14 ng g -1 . Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 5.3% was obtained for the mass fraction of sPCAs by analyzing four replicates of a spiked sediment sample. High resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was used for sPCAs quantification by monitoring [M-HCl]· - ions. When applied to the sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River, the optimized cleanup method in conjunction with HRGC/ECNI-LRMS allowed for highly selective identifications for sPCAs. The sPCAs levels in sediment samples are reported to range from 53.6 ng g -1 to 289.3 ng g -1 . C 10 - and C 11 -PCAs are the dominant residue in most of investigated sediment samples.

  7. Preliminary study of the chronology of the sedimentation process in lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrocinio Junior, Antonio C.; Andrello, Avacir C.

    2009-01-01

    The soil erosion accelerated which produces the presence of sediment in rivers is one of the main environmental problems and represents a challenge for the sustainable use of soil and water resources. The problems associated with the increased sediments production are mainly related to the rivers siltation, reduced storage capacity of dams and reservoirs and reduction in the quality of aquatic environment. Thus, further information on sedimentation rates in lakes and reservoirs are required, as a parameter for estimating the chronology of production rates of sediment. Therefore, methods to establish the chronology of recent sediments are central base for such research. The cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide with a half life of 30.2 years, inserted in the environment through the 'fallout' radioactive between the 1950's and 1970's, with two predominant peaks of deposition in 1959 and 1964. The basis for using the cesium-137 in this context (chronology of sediments) is that the cesium-137 is rapidly and strongly adsorbed to fine particles of soil and its distribution in the sediment profile directly reflects the chronology of sediment deposition. The purpose of this work is to use the cesium-137 profile in lake sediments to assess the history of deposition and to obtain information about the erosive process. For this, lake sediments of a mini-hydroelectric power plant built in the 1940's in the city of Londrina-PR were analyzed, showing that cesium-137 can be used as a source of data for chronological assessment of erosive processes occurring in the vicinity of the lake. (author)

  8. [Composition and Environmental Effects of LFOM and HFOM in "Incense-Ash" Sediments of West Lake, Hangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Guang-wei; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Gong, Zhi-jun; Xu, Hai; Yang, Gui-jun

    2015-06-01

    To understand the organic matter pollution characteristic and its relationship with nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients in sediments of high organic matter type of urban shallow lakes, the organic matter content, light fraction organic matter (LFOM), heavy fraction organic matter (HFOM), and nitrogen and phosphorus contents were investigated in eight different regions of West Lake, Hangzhou. The results showed that, the organic matter content of the west lake sediment was 28-251 g x kg(-1), belonging to typical high organic matter sediment. The difference of organic matter content in different lake sediments was very big. The sediments located at the input site of water diversion engineering had significantly lower organic content than the rest regions. The LFOM content of West Lake sediment ranged 0.57-9.17 g x kg(-1), which averagely occupied 2.83% of the total organic matter, and the HFOM content ranged 5.35-347.41 g x kg(-1), which occupied more than 90% of the total organic matter. Compared to other shallow lakes located in China, sediments of West Lake had significantly high percentage of HFOM/LFOM ratio. But the HFOM content was obviously on the high side, reflecting the west lake as an urban lake with a long history, as well as high organic matter pollution load and sediment humification degree. Both the content and the ratio of LFOM/HFOM in sediment were related to nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment. This suggested that the composition of organic matter in West Lake sediments had potential control ability for the internal loading of N and P of the lake.

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns of mercury accumulation in lake sediments of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul; Cooke, Colin A.; Barraza, Daniella; Blais, Jules M.; Coale, Kenneth; Cumming, Brian F.; Curtis, Chris; Das, Biplob; Donahue, William F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Fitzgerald, William F.; Furl, Chad V.; Gray, John R.; Hall, Roland I.; Jackson, Togwell A.; Laird, Kathleen R.; Lockhart, W. Lyle; Macdonald, Robie W.; Mast, M. Alisa; Mathieu, Callie; Muir, Derek C.G.; Outridge, Peter; Reinemann, Scott; Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Ruiz-Fernandex, Ana Carolina; St. Louis, V.L.; Sanders, Rhea; Sanei, Hamed; Skierszkan, Elliott; Van Metre, Peter C.; Veverica, Timothy; Wiklund, Johan A.; Wolfe, Brent B.

    2016-01-01

    For the Western North America Mercury Synthesis, we compiled mercury records from 165 dated sediment cores from 138 natural lakes across western North America. Lake sediments are accepted as faithful recorders of historical mercury accumulation rates, and regional and sub-regional temporal and spatial trends were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Mercury accumulation rates in sediments have increased, on average, four times (4×) from 1850 to 2000 and continue to increase by approximately 0.2 μg/m2 per year. Lakes with the greatest increases were influenced by the Flin Flon smelter, followed by lakes directly affected by mining and wastewater discharges. Of lakes not directly affected by point sources, there is a clear separation in mercury accumulation rates between lakes with no/little watershed development and lakes with extensive watershed development for agricultural and/or residential purposes. Lakes in the latter group exhibited a sharp increase in mercury accumulation rates with human settlement, stabilizing after 1950 at five times (5×) 1850 rates. Mercury accumulation rates in lakes with no/little watershed development were controlled primarily by relative watershed size prior to 1850, and since have exhibited modest increases (in absolute terms and compared to that described above) associated with (regional and global) industrialization. A sub-regional analysis highlighted that in the ecoregion Northwestern Forest Mountains, mercury deposited to watersheds is delivered to lakes. Research is warranted to understand whether mountainous watersheds act as permanent sinks for mercury or if export of “legacy” mercury (deposited in years past) will delay recovery when/if emissions reductions are achieved.

  10. Lead pollution in a large, prairie-pothole lake (Rush Lake, WI, USA): Effects on abundance and community structure of indigenous sediment bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandlic, Christopher J.; Geib, Ian; Pilon, Renee; Sandrin, Todd R.

    2006-01-01

    Rush Lake (WI, USA), the largest prairie-pothole lake east of the Mississippi River, has been contaminated with lead pollution as a result of over 140 years of waterfowl hunting. We examined: (1) the extent of lead pollution in Rush Lake sediments and (2) whether lead pollution in Rush Lake is affecting the abundance and community structure of indigenous sediment bacteria. Sediment lead concentrations did not exceed 59 mg Pb kg -1 dry sediment. No relationship was observed between sediment lead concentration and the abundance of aerobic (P = 0.498) or anaerobic (P = 0.416) heterotrophic bacteria. Similarly, lead did not appear to affect bacterial community structure when considering both culturable and nonculturable community members. In contrast, the culturable fraction of sediment bacteria in samples containing 59 mg Pb kg -1 exhibited a unique community structure. While factors other than lead content likely play roles in determining bacterial community structure in the sediments of Rush Lake, these data suggest that the culturable fraction of sediment bacterial communities is affected by elevated lead levels. - Low levels of lead pollution in Rush Lake are not impinging upon the abundance of indigenous sediment bacteria, but may be affecting the community structure of the culturable fraction of these bacteria

  11. Toward detection of supernova event near the earth based on high-resolution analysis of cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, S.; Suganuma, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic rays react with substances in the Earth's atmosphere and form cosmogenic nuclides. The flux would abruptly increase with nearby supernova or terrestrial magnetic events such as reversal or excursion of terrestrial magnetism. The Earth must have been exposed to cosmic ray radiation for as long as 10 Ma, if any, by nearby supernova activities (Kataoka et al., 2014). Increased and prolonged activity of cosmic rays would affect Earth's climate through forming greenhouse gases and biosphere through damaging DNA. Therefore, interests have been growing as to whether and how past supernova events have ever left any fingerprints on them. However, detection of nearby supernova is still under debate (e.g., Knie et al., 2004) To detect long-term record of past supernova activities, we utilize cosmogenic nuclide 10Be because of its short residence time (1-2yr) in the atmosphere, simple transport process, and adequate half-life (1.36 kyr) which is nearly equivalent to the duration of present-day deep water circulation. Sediment samples collected from the equatorial western Pacific (706-825 kyr in age) were finely powdered and decomposed by mixed acids (HNO3, HF, and HClO4). Authigenic phase was also separated from bulk powders by leaching with a weak acid. Because quantitative separation of Be from samples is essential toward high-quality 10Be analysis, both Be-bearing fractions were applied to optimized anion exchange chromatography for Be separation, and Be abundance was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The 10Be abundance (10Be/9Be ratios) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The authigenic phase showed temporal curve that is similar to that of bulk samples (Suganuma et al., 2012), reflecting the influence of relative paleo-intensity and utility of authigenic method. Increased data set in terms of sampling interval (density) and total age range would allow us to judge whether it could detect past supernova activities and how it appears when

  12. Sediment-water gas exchange in two Swedish lakes measured by Eddy Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokic, J.; Sahlee, E.; Brand, A.; Sobek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Lake sediments are hotspots for carbon (C) cycling, acting both as sinks and sources through C burial and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. The fate of this CO2 in the water column is controlled by bottom water turbulence, a factor not accounted for in current estimates of sediment CO2 fluxes. This study is aimed to quantify the turbulent CO2 flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) by measuring the oxygen (O2) flux with the non-invasive Eddy Correlation (EC) method that combines measurements of 3D velocity (ADV) and O2 fluctuations with a microsensor. Using the metabolic relation (respiratory quotient, RQ) of O2 and CO2 derived from a sediment incubation experiment we present the first estimates of turbulent lake sediment CO2 flux from two boreal lakes in Sweden (Erssjön and Erken, 0.07 km2 and 23.7 km2 respectively). Only ~10 % of the total dataset was extracted for flux calculations due to poor signal-to-noise ratio in the velocity and O2 signals. The sediment in Lake Erssjön was both consuming and producing O2, related to bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. Mean O2 flux was -0.19 and 0.17 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1, comparing to 0.04 μmol O2 m-2 sec-1 derived from the sediment incubation experiment. Fluxes for Lake Erken are still to be determined. Experimentally derived RQ of the both lake sediments were close to unity implying that in-situ CO2 fluxes are of similar magnitude as O2 fluxes, varying between -0.15 and 0.18 μmol C m-2 sec-1. The first measurement of turbulent sediment O2 flux and estimate of turbulent CO2 flux from a small boreal lake show higher and more variable fluxes than previously found in experimental studies. The low amount of data extracted for flux calculations (~10%) point towards the difficulties in EC measurement in low-turbulence environments. On-going work focuses on the turbulence structure in lakes and its influence on the gas fluxes at the SWI.

  13. Fallout isotope chronology of the near-surface sediment record of Lake Bolătău.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Árpád; Karlik, Máté; Mîndrescu, Marcel; Szalai, Zoltán; Grădinaru, Ionela; Kern, Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    Fallout isotope ( 210 Pb ex, 137 Cs and 241 Am) based dating has been carried out on the near-surface sediment core collected from Lake Bolătău-Feredeu (Bukovina, Romania). The motivation was to improve the chronology of this recent section in connection with significant fluctuations observed in sediment accumulation rates, particle size distribution and primordial radioisotope (i.e. 40 K and 232 Th) composition. Previously only an extrapolation of a broad-range OxCal age-depth model, which was based on 8 AMS radiocarbon dates from the deeper part of a parallel sediment sequence and tentatively validated for the upper part using the double peaks of the 137 Cs activity concentration distribution, was available for the studied section (1-24 cm). Parallel to the previous 137 Cs measurement, 210 Pb and 226 Ra (for a more detailed, 210 Pb ex -based chronology), 241 Am (for an additional time-marker), as well as 40 K and 232 Th concentrations have also been determined by gamma-spectrometry. In case of the 210 Pb ex -based chronology, due to a large deviation from a pure exponential distribution, the Constant Flux (CF) model has been used for the calculation of sediment ages and accumulation rates. Although the broad-range OxCal and the CF model were broadly similar down to 22 cm, the 210 Pb ex -based ages are clearly superior in terms of uncertainty in the uppermost 12 cm, while the broad-range model has smaller uncertainty below 20 cm (>150 years). The CF model gave an average mass accumulation rate of (0.08 ± 0.03) g cm -2 yr -1 for sections 0-11 cm, and (0.03 ± 0.01) g cm -2 yr -1 for sections 12-22 cm, respectively. Significant changes have been observed in the depth distribution of both the particle size distribution and the elemental/isotopic composition of the sediment record, most likely related to the variation observable in the intensity and volume of precipitation in the catchment. The obtained high-resolution records of Lake Bolătău, including

  14. Sediment sources and storages in the urbanizing South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    An investigation of the sediment source areas and sediment storages has been undertaken in the South Creek catchment, Lake Macquarie, NSW. Source areas have been examined by analyzing suspended sediment concentrations, field measurements and observations, and caesium-137 values. The caesium-137 technique and field measurements were used to study the sediment storages on the South Creek flood plain. Particle size analysis of sediments on the slopes and flood plain were undertaken to provide information on the efficiency of the sediment transport system. The results of these investigations indicate that the developing urban areas are the main sources of poorest water quality (in terms of suspended sediment) in the South Creek catchment. The open woodland, rural and established urban areas were minor sediment source areas, although the open woodland had the potential to become a major sediment source if disturbed by human activities. The developing urban areas had efficient sediment transport systems, while the open woodland and rural areas tended to deposit sediment locally. The upstream section of the flood plain was found to be storing more sediment than the downstream section. The study revealed that when urban development occurs on the steeper gradients of the South Creek catchment erosion processes are greatly accelerated and thus the developing urban area becomes the major source of poorest water quality in the catchment. The importance of the developing urban area as a sediment source needs to be considered in any future land developments in urbanizing drainage basins

  15. Contribution to the study of sedimentation rates in some french Polynesian lakes and lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, C.; Poletiko, C.; Badie, C.

    1991-03-01

    210 Pb measurements using 210 Po deposition technique were performed in several marine and lacustrine sediments of French Polynesia to determine sedimentation rates in lakes and lagoons. Some results in terrigeneous sediments were acceptable and permit rate measurements; on the contrary other sediments, especially coral sands provided a 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium (0.33 to 0.69). The occurring phenomena seem to be related to 222 Rn scavenging and geothermal endoupwelling which induces 226 Ra enhancement; this leads to the same 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium as in deep ocean waters as described, for instance by Thomson and Turekian (1976) in an upwelling zone on Peru coasts [fr

  16. [Characteristics of organic carbon forms in the sediment of Wuliangsuhai and Daihai Lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hai-Fang; He, Jiang; Lü, Chang-Wei; Liang, Ying; Liu, Hua-Lin; Wang, Feng-Jiao

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics and differences of organic carbon forms in the sediments of the Wuliangsuhai and the Daihai Lakes with different eutrophication types were discussed in the present study. The results showed that the range of total organic carbon content (TOC) in Wuliangsuhai Lake was 4.50-22.83 g x kg(-1) with the average of 11.80 g x kg(-1). The range of heavy-fraction organic carbon content was 3.38-21.67 g x kg(-1) with the average of 10.76 g x kg(-1). The range of light-fraction organic carbon content was 0.46-1.80 g x kg(-1) with the average of 1.04 g x kg(-1); The range of ROC content was 0.62-3.64 g x kg(-1) with the average of 2.11 g x kg(-1), while the range of total organic carbon content in Daihai lake was 6.84-23.46 g x kg(-1) with the average of 14.94 g x kg(-1). The range of heavy-fraction organic carbon content was 5.27-22.23 g x kg(-1) with the average of 13.89 g x kg(-1). The range of light-fraction organic carbon content was 0.76-1.57 g x kg(-1). The range of ROC content was 1.54-7.08 g x kg(-1) with the average of 3.62 g x kg(-1). The results indicated that the heavy-fraction organic carbon was the major component of the organic carbon and plays an important role in the accumulation of organic carbon in the sediments of two Lakes. The content of light-fraction organic carbon was similar in the sediments of two lakes, whereas, the contents of total organic carbon and heavy-fraction organic carbon in the sediment of Wuliangsuhai Lake were less than those in the sediment of Daihai Lake, and the value of LFOC/TOC in the Wuliangsuhai Lake was larger than that in the Daihai Lake. The humin was the dominant component of the sediment humus, followed by fulvic acid in the two lakes. The values of HM/HS in the sediments of Wuliangsuhai lake range from 43.06% to 77.25% with the average of 62.15% and values of HM/HS in the sediments of Dahai lake range from 49.23% to 73.85% with the average of 65.30%. The tightly combined humus was the dominant form in

  17. Mercury pollution in the lake sediments and catchment soils of anthropogenically-disturbed sites across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Rose, Neil L

    2016-12-01

    Sediment cores and soil samples were taken from nine lakes and their catchments across England with varying degrees of direct human disturbance. Mercury (Hg) analysis demonstrated a range of impacts, many from local sources, resulting from differing historical and contemporary site usage and management. Lakes located in industrially important areas showed clear evidence for early Hg pollution with concentrations in sediments reaching 400-1600 ng g -1 prior to the mid-19th century. Control of inputs resulting from local management practices and a greater than 90% reduction in UK Hg emissions since 1970 were reflected by reduced Hg pollution in some lakes. However, having been a sink for Hg deposition for centuries, polluted catchment soils are now the major Hg source for most lakes and consequently recovery from reduced Hg deposition is being delayed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of dissolved organic carbon on pelagial and near-sediment water traits in lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Banaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC on the environmental conditions of macrophytes has been studied in 35 lakes divided into soft- and hardwater: oligohumic (16.0 mg C dm-3. The optimum environmental conditions for macrophytes have been found in oligohumic lakes, characterised by low water colour and its good transparency. In soft- and hardwater lakes increasing concentration of DOC is accompanied with an increase in the colour (r=0.95, while the visibility decreases. With increasing DOC in the near-sediment layer the pH values decrease while the concentration of nitrogen increases and the concentration of phosphorus slightly increases. In hardwater lakes with increasing DOC concentration, the redox potential, conductivity, total hardness and calcium concentration in the near-sediment water decrease, whereas the content of CO2 remains at a very low level.

  19. Distribution of global fallout 237Np, Pu isotopes, and 241Am in lake and sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Y.; Chatani, K.; Komura, K.; Ueno, Kaoru; Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the sedimentary behaviour of neptunium, 237 Np together with Pu isotopes and 241 Am were measured for the sediment cores collected from Lake Mikata (freshwater), from Lake Kugushi (brakish water) and from Nyu Bay (sea water). In all sediment core samples 237 Np was detected, and its concentrations were far below those of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am measured for the same samples. Inventories of 237 Np in the lakes were estimated to be 0.53, 0.29 and 0.34 MBq/km 2 , respectively. The activity ratios of 237 Np/ 239,240 Pu, except for Lake Mikata, are two or three times lower than the value of 0.3-0.4% observed for surface soils of 0-20 cm depth, suggesting that Np is more soluble compared with Pu. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn

  1. Characterization of expandable clay minerals in Lake Baikal sediments by thermal dehydration and cation exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hrušková, Michaela; Novotná, Kateřina; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pruner, Petr; Oberhansli, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2005), s. 389-400 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3032401 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EVK2-2000-00057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : cation exchange capacity * Lake Baikal * Lake Sediments Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2005

  2. Archaeal community changes in Lateglacial lake sediments: Evidence from ancient DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Engy; Parducci, Laura; Unneberg, Per; Ågren, Rasmus; Schenk, Frederik; Rattray, Jayne E.; Han, Lu; Muschitiello, Francesco; Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Yamoah, Kweku Afrifa; Slotte, Tanja; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    The Lateglacial/early Holocene sediments from the ancient lake at Hässeldala Port, southern Sweden provide an important archive for the environmental and climatic shifts at the end of the last ice age and the transition into the present Interglacial. The existing multi-proxy data set highlights the complex interplay of physical and ecological changes in response to climatic shifts and lake status changes. Yet, it remains unclear how microorganisms, such as Archaea, which do not leave microscopic features in the sedimentary record, were affected by these climatic shifts. Here we present the metagenomic data set of Hässeldala Port with a special focus on the abundance and biodiversity of Archaea. This allows reconstructing for the first time the temporal succession of major Archaea groups between 13.9 and 10.8 ka BP by using ancient environmental DNA metagenomics and fossil archaeal cell membrane lipids. We then evaluate to which extent these findings reflect physical changes of the lake system, due to changes in lake-water summer temperature and seasonal lake-ice cover. We show that variations in archaeal composition and diversity were related to a variety of factors (e.g., changes in lake water temperature, duration of lake ice cover, rapid sediment infilling), which influenced bottom water conditions and the sediment-water interface. Methanogenic Archaea dominated during the Allerød and Younger Dryas pollen zones, when the ancient lake was likely stratified and anoxic for large parts of the year. The increase in archaeal diversity at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition is explained by sediment infilling and formation of a mire/peatbog.

  3. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.

    2008-04-26

    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  4. Status of heavy metal in sediment of Saguling Lake, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhani, E.; Roosmini, D.; Notodarmojo, S.

    2017-03-01

    The quality of water in the Saguling lake has been monitored since 1990 by the state agency for environmental control. However, no data on heavy metal in sediment had been reported. Metal pollutans have receives considerable attention due to their persistence, biogeochemical recycling, and environmental risk. The objective of this study was to assess the level contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) in the surface sediment of the Saguling Lake West Java. Surface sediment samples were collected from 10 location of the Saguling Lake on July and November 2015. The concentration of heavy metals in the surface sediment on July and November 2015 decreased in the order of Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd and Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd respectively. Mean metals concentrations (mg/kg) in July 2015 were in the range of: Cd: 10.69-16.65, Cr: 76.67-138.38, Cu:106.02-229.54, Pb: 23.93-80.17. Mean metals concentrations (mg/kg) in November 2015 were in the range of Cd: 18.64-23.25, Cr: 152.16-197.98, Cu: 63.32-152.53, Pb: 20.31-32.74. Geochemical approaches such as contamination factor, and pollution load index were exploited for the assessment of the contamination and enrichment level of heavy metals in the lake sediment. Contamination factor and pollution load index values indicated that surface sediments around Saguling Lake were polluted with heavy metals. The finding of this study would help in formulating guidelines to control the pollution and suggested for Saguling lake revitalization.

  5. 14C dating of freshwater carbonate sediments with special reference to calcareous tufas and laminated lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    The sequence of laminated sediment of the lake Gosciaz, Poland, covers more than 13,000 years and is actually the longest sequence known so far. Besides of reconstructing past environmental changes, this sequence offers an excellent possibility for studying natural C-14 variations and calibrating the C-14 time scale in a range beyond 6,000 years B.P. The floating varve chronology based on previously taken sediment cores which cover a period of 9,682 years, has been improved by this study. Relative water level changes of the lake during the past 11,500 years have been reconstructed by means of C-14 and C-13 measurements carried out on carbonate fractions of the lake sediments. Periodical variations in the width of annual layers were found. The periods identified are 11 years and 22 years (solar cycle), 35 years (Bruckner cycle), and 200 years. The ratio of summer layer width and the total width of the annual layer shows secular changes which correlate with paleotemperature records. The duration of the Younger Dryas period was determined by combining the floating varve chronology with isotope and pollen analyses of the sediment material. A value of 1,500 years was found. The study also included radiocarbon dating of calcareous tufa taken from different study areas. 26 refs, 26 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  7. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, L. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)]. E-mail: lchirin@pucp.edu.pe; Rose, N.L. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London WG1HOAP (United Kingdom); Urrutia, R. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Munoz, P. [Departamento de Biologia Marina, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Torrejon, F. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Torres, L. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Cruces, F. [Departamento de Botanica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araneda, A. [Centro de Ciencias Ambientales EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepcion, PO Box 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Zaror, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2006-05-15

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36{sup o} 51' S, 73{sup o} 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38{sup o} 41' S, 71{sup o} 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the {sup 21}Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile.

  8. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirinos, L.; Rose, N.L.; Urrutia, R.; Munoz, P.; Torrejon, F.; Torres, L.; Cruces, F.; Araneda, A.; Zaror, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobio Region, Chile (36 o 51' S, 73 o 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletue lake (38 o 41' S, 71 o 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 21 Pb technique. - The lake sediment record of SCPs shows the record of fossil-fuel derived pollution in Central Chile

  9. Aeolian particle transport inferred using a ~150-year sediment record from Sayram Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.

  10. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  11. The behavior of molybdenum and its isotopes across the chemocline and in the sediments of sulfidic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.

    2010-01-01

    scavenging of Mo when buried into sulfidic sediments. This paper contains the first complete suite of Mo isotope fractionation observations in a sulfidic water column and sediment system, the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, a small alpine lake with a pronounced oxygen-sulfide transition reaching up...

  12. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution and quantity of organic sulfur and iron sulfur species were determined in theHolocene sediments from Mud Lake, Florida. The sediments of this shallow, sinkhole lake are characterized by high sulfur and organic carbon contents as well as active sulfate reducti...

  13. Mercury in sediment, water, and fish in a managed tropical wetland-lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczyk, Evan A; Branfireun, Brian A

    2015-08-15

    Mercury pollution has not been well documented in the inland lakes or fishes of Mexico, despite the importance of freshwater fish as a source of protein in local diets. Total mercury and methylmercury in waters, sediments, and the commercial fish catch were investigated in Lake Zapotlán, Mexico. Concentrations of total and methylmercury were very high in runoff and wastewater inputs, but very low in sediments and surface waters of the open water area of the lake. Concentrations of total mercury in tilapia and carp were very low, consistent with the low concentrations in lake water and sediments. Particle settling, sorption, the biogeochemical environment, and/or bloom dilution are all plausible explanations for the significant reductions in both total mercury and methylmercury. Despite very high loading of mercury, this shallow tropical lake was not a mercury-impaired ecosystem, and these findings may translate across other shallow, alkaline tropical lakes. Importantly, the ecosystem services that seemed to be provided by peripheral wetlands in reducing mercury inputs highlight the potential for wetland conservation or restoration in Mexico. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  15. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb inventories in soils and sediments from Chapala Lake (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C.; Perez-Bernal, L.H. [Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Unidad Academica de Procesos Oceanicos y Costeros, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ontiveros-Cuadras, J.F. [Posgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Chapala Lake is the largest natural freshwater reservoir in Mexico and it is located in Central Mexico, at 1524 m above sea level. The lake is considered to be fairly anthropized and it has experienced periods of extremely low water level as a result of recent climate change and water extraction. The study of recent manifestations of global change in Chapala Lake requires accurate {sup 210}Pb chronological reconstructions, taking into account the expected variability of sediment accumulation rates by using the Constant Flux model. For a reliable application of this dating model, it is important that {sup 210}Pb flux values in the lacustrine sedimentary record are in correspondence with the local atmospheric fluxes. With the aim to estimate the fluxes of the fallout radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs in the region, sediment and soil cores were collected in the Chapala Lake. Sediment profiles were evaluated and estimated fluxes in sediments and soils were compared. Some geochemical properties (e.g. grain size distribution, organic matter concentration, XRF-derived elemental composition and magnetic susceptibility) were also evaluated to understand how diagenesis changes and sediment provenance can affect the {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs depth profiles and inventories. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. Temperature and cyanobacterial bloom biomass influence phosphorous cycling in eutrophic lake sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Chen

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms frequently occur in freshwater lakes, subsequently, substantial amounts of decaying cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB settles onto the lake sediments where anaerobic mineralization reactions prevail. Coupled Fe/S cycling processes can influence the mobilization of phosphorus (P in sediments, with high releases often resulting in eutrophication. To better understand eutrophication in Lake Taihu (PRC, we investigated the effects of CBB and temperature on phosphorus cycling in lake sediments. Results indicated that added CBB not only enhanced sedimentary iron reduction, but also resulted in a change from net sulfur oxidation to sulfate reduction, which jointly resulted in a spike of soluble Fe(II and the formation of FeS/FeS2. Phosphate release was also enhanced with CBB amendment along with increases in reduced sulfur. Further release of phosphate was associated with increases in incubation temperature. In addition, CBB amendment resulted in a shift in P from the Fe-adsorbed P and the relatively unreactive Residual-P pools to the more reactive Al-adsorbed P, Ca-bound P and organic-P pools. Phosphorus cycling rates increased on addition of CBB and were higher at elevated temperatures, resulting in increased phosphorus release from sediments. These findings suggest that settling of CBB into sediments will likely increase the extent of eutrophication in aquatic environments and these processes will be magnified at higher temperatures.

  17. Manganese and iron geochemistry in sediments underlying the redox-stratified Fayetteville Green Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Havig, Jeff R.; Singer, David M.; McCormick, Michael L.; Kump, Lee R.

    2018-06-01

    Manganese and iron are redox-sensitive elements that yield clues about biogeochemistry and redox conditions both in modern environments and in the geologic past. Here, we investigated Mn and Fe-bearing minerals preserved in basin sediments underlying Fayetteville Green Lake, a redox-stratified lake that serves as a geochemical analogue for Paleoproterozoic oceans. Synchrotron-source microprobe techniques (μXRF, μXANES, and μXRD) and bulk geochemical analyses were used to examine the microscale distribution and speciation of Mn, Fe, and S as a function of depth in the top 48 cm of anoxic lake sediments. Manganese was primarily associated with calcite grains as a manganese-rich carbonate that precipitated in the chemocline of the water column and settled through the euxinic basin to collect in lake sediments. Iron was preserved in framboidal iron sulfides that precipitated in euxinic bottom waters and underwent transformation to pyrite and marcasite in the sediments. Previous studies attribute the formation of manganese-rich carbonates to the diagenetic alteration of manganese oxides deposited in basins underlying oxygenated water. Our study challenges this paradigm by providing evidence that Mn-bearing carbonates form in the water column and accumulate in sediments below anoxic waters. Consequently, manganoan carbonates preserved in the rock record do not necessarily denote the presence of oxygenated bottom waters in ocean basins.

  18. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  19. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  20. Fast phosphorus loss by sediment resuspension in a re-established shallow lake on former agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Petersen, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Lake restoration on fertilized agricultural fields can lead to extensive nutrient release from flooded soils which can maintain a poor ecological quality in the new lake. The period with high sediment release is poorly understood due to few detailed lake restorations studies. We conducted such a ...

  1. Fast phosphorus loss by sediment resuspension in a re-established shallow lake on former agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Petersen, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Lake restoration on fertilized agricultural fields can lead to extensive nutrient release from flooded soils which can maintain a poor ecological quality in the new lake. The period with high sediment release is poorly understood due to few detailed lake restorations studies. We conducted...

  2. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p factors (EF operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions of sediment at the sites differed spatially, indicating that the Pb (and other trace elements by association) originated from different natural sources at the two locations.

  3. Lake sediment-based Late Holocene glacier reconstruction reveals medieval retreat and two-phase Little Ice Age on subantarctic South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, W. G. M.; Bakke, J.; Werner, J.; Paasche, O.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Vatle, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Ocean climate is rapidly changing. Yet beyond the instrumental period (± 100 years), our comprehension of climate variability in the region is restricted by a lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records. Alpine glaciers, ubiquitous on Southern Ocean islands, may provide such data as they rapidly respond to climate shifts, recording attendant changes in extent by variations in glacial erosion. Rock flour, the fine-grained fraction of this process, is suspended in meltwater streams and transfers this signal to the sediments of downstream lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Here, we use this relationship and present the first reconstruction of the Late Holocene (1250 cal. yr BP - present) glacier history of the Southern Ocean island of South Georgia, using sediments from the glacier-fed Middle Hamberg lake. Variations are resolved on multi-centennial scales due to robust chronological control. To fingerprint a glacial erosion signal, we employed a set of routinely used physical, geochemical and magnetic parameters. Using Titanium counts, validated against changes in sediment density and grain size distribution, we continuously reconstruct glacier variations over the past millennium. Refining local moraine evidence and supporting evidence from other Southern Hemisphere sites, this study shows a progressive diminishing of consecutive Late Holocene advances. These include a two-stage Little Ice Age, in agreement with other Southern Hemisphere glacier evidence. The presented record furthermore captures an unreported retreat phase behind present limits around 500 cal. yr BP.

  4. Characteristics of sediment resuspension in Lake Taihu, China: A wave flume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing; Sun, Limin; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Tingfeng; Shen, Xia; Wang, Yongping

    2018-06-01

    Lake Taihu is a typical shallow lake which frequently happens sediment resuspension induced by wind-induced waves. The experiments are carried on to simulate the wave disturbance processes in wave flume by setting a series of wave periods (1.2 s, 1.5 s, 1.8 s) and wave heights (2 cm, 10 cm). It aims to analyze the characteristics of sediment resuspension and the mechanisms of nutrients release and to evaluate the effects of sediment dredging on sediment resuspension and nutrients release in Lake Taihu. The results show that wave shear stress during 2 cm and 10 cm wave height processes ranges 0.018-0.023 N/m2 and 0.221-0.307 N/m2, respectively. Wave shear stress has no significant differences between wave periods. Wave height has much more effects on sediment resuspension. Wave height of 2 cm could induce total suspended solids (TSS) reaching up to 5.21 g/m2 and resuspension flux of sediment (M) up to 1.74 g/m2. TSS sharply increases to 30.33-52.41 g/m2 and M reached up to 48.94 g/m2 when wave height reaches to 10 cm. The disturbance depth under different sediment bulk weights ranges from 0.089 to 0.161 mm. Variation of suspended solids in 3 layers (1 cm, 5 cm, 20 cm above sediment interface) has no significant differences. Organic matter, TN and TP have positive relationship with SS. Organic matter is only accounted for 5.7%-7.3% of SS. The experiments under different sediment bulk densities (1.34 g/cm3, 1.47 g/cm3 and 1.59 g/cm3) find that TSS and M fall by 44.2% and 39.8% with sediment bulk density increasing, respectively. Total TN, DTN, TP and DTP decrease by 24.3%-33.6%. It indicates that sediment dredging could effectively reduce SS concentration and nutrient levels in water column. The researches provide a theoretical basis for sediment dredging to control the shore zone of Lake Taihu for lake management.

  5. Information from uranium and thorium isotopes recorded in lake bottom sediment - Lake Kawaguchi. Attempt to evaluate environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Shimizu, T.; Sasaki, K.; Koshimizu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lake sediments, as well as ice cores and marine sediments, have been used to reveal past environmental changes caused by both natural and artificial events with local and global scales. Particles in the lake originate from soil and other suspended matter which are carried in from the inflowing water or from direct discharge (lithogenous particles), and they are also formed in the lake as a result of the growth, metabolism and death of plants and animals (autogenous particles). The settling particles contain U and Th isotopes due to lithogenous particles (soil), and adsorbed U to the particles. Thorium has an exceedingly low solubility in water and is very strongly adsorbed onto particles. If we can distinguish these two different components in the mixture of U due to lithogenous particles themselves and adsorption fractions, the former might provide useful information on past environmental changes by natural events, while the latter information on past environmental changes by artificial events. In this paper, we aimed to test the above hypothesis using data on U and Th isotopes of sediment cores (0- ca. 40 cm depth, covering periods of past several hundred years) from 3 points in Lake Kawaguchi of Fuji-Goko in Japan. By using model equation and results obtained from analysis, we distinguished U due to lithogenous and autogenous particles. And these depth profiles were compared with changes in the rainfall during the period of 1933 - 2001. Although the changes in the 238 U/ 232 Th ratios with depth for lithogenous particles and rainfall do not fluctuate synchronously, some parts of depth coincided with each other. The results suggest strongly that variation in the U and Th isotopic ratios separated by model might be helpful in tracing the past environmental changes in regional scale. To check the usefulness of this method, physical and chemical data such as grain size, grain density, water content and biogenic SiO 2 in the sediment will be further compared with the

  6. Lake depth rather than fish planktivory determines cladoceran community structure in Faroese lakes - evidence from contemporary data and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck, S.L.; Strzelczak, A.; Bjerring, R.

    2006-01-01

    development was inferred by cladoceran-based paleolimnological investigations of a 14C-dated sediment core covering the last ca 5700 years. 3. The 29 study lakes were overall shallow, small-sized, oligotrophic and dominated by brown trout (Salmo trutta). Cladoceran species richness was overall higher...... depth. A recent increase in inferred Zmax may, however, be an artefact induced by, for instance, eutrophication....

  7. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  8. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  9. Geochemical Dataset of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) Sediments - Disentangling Human Impacts from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. A.; Girardclos, S.; Loizeau, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Lake sediment records are often the most complete continental archives. In the last 200 years, in addition to climatic variability, humans have strongly impacted lake watersheds around the world. During the 20th century the Rhone River and its watershed upstream Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France) have been subject to river channelization, dam construction, water flow regulation, water and sediment abstraction as well as various land use changes. Under the scope of the SEDFATE project (Swiss National Science Foundation nº147689) we address human and climatic impact on the sediment transfer from the Rhone River watershed to Lake Geneva. Nineteen short sediment cores were collected in the Rhone River delta area in May 2014. Cores have been scanned with MSCL and XRF, sub-sampled every 1cm and 8 cores were dated by radiometric methods (137Cs and 210Pb). Photographs taken right after core opening were used for lithological description and in addition to MSCL data were used to correlate cores. Core dating shows that mass accumulation rates decreased in the 1964-1986 interval and then increased again in the interval between 1986-2014. XRF elements and ratios, known to indicate detrital sources (Al, Al/Si, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, Si, Ti, Ti/Ca), show that clastic input diminished from 1964 to 1986 and re-increased to the present. Other elemental (Zr/Rb, Zr/K, Si/Ti) and geophysical data (magnetic susceptibility) combined with lithology identify density flow deposits vs hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in frequency of these event deposits indicate changes in the sedimentation patterns in the Rhone River sublacustrine delta during the last century. From these results we hypothesize that a significant sediment amount was abstracted from the system after the major dam constructions in the 1950's and that, since the 1990's, a contrary signal is due to increased sediment loads that follows glacial melting due to global warming.

  10. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  11. Sources of anthropogenic lead in sediments from an artificial lake in Brasilia-central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioia, S.M.C.L.; Pimentel, M.M.; Tessler, M.; Dantas, E.L.; Campos, J.E.G.; Guimaraes, E.M.; Maruoka, M.T.S.; Nascimento, E.L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pb concentration and Pb isotopic composition are known to represent powerful tools to investigate the history of Pb pollution in water and sediments. In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a detailed study of sediments deposited in the Paranoa Lake, a 44-year-old artificial reservoir in Brasilia, central Brazil. Pb concentration and isotopic composition of the sediments were obtained by ID-TIMS, on three different sample fractions: leachate, residue, and bulk sample. The leachate phase has proven to be most efficient to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural Pb inputs. In the Paranoa lake, important sources of contamination were recognized, producing higher Pb concentrations (max. 37.68 ppm) and significant variations in Pb isotopic composition, relative to the regional geogenic background. Contamination of the sediments due to anthropogenic activity produced less radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.15-1.17), compared with the regional natural composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.19-1.25). 21 Pb analyses along one bore hole which sampled the entire sediment section indicated a sedimentation rate of 8.2 ± 1.8 mm/year. The combined use of the 21 Pb ages and Pb isotopic compositions of these samples revealed three distinct periods in the lake history: (1) the period of the time formation of the lake in 1959 until ca. 1970 was characterized by the deposition of sediments displaying more radiogenic Pb isotopic signature, (2) the time interval from the start of the process of eutrophication at 1970, until 1995, was characterized by the deposition of sediments having less radiogenic average compositions, and (3) from 1995 until the present represents a period of recovery of water quality, after two sewage treatment stations started to operate

  12. Sediment nitrogen cycling rates and microbial abundance along a submerged vegetation gradient in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Chen, Chengrong; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2018-03-01

    Decline of submerged vegetation is one of the most serious ecological problems in eutrophic lakes worldwide. Although restoration of submerged vegetation is widely assumed to enhance ecological functions (e.g., nitrogen removal) and aquatic biodiversity, the evidence for this assumption is very limited. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of sediment potential nitrification, unamended denitrification and N 2 O production rates along a vegetation gradient in the Lake Honghu, where submerged vegetation was largely restored by prohibiting net-pen aquaculture. We also used five functional genes as markers to quantify the abundance of sediment nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms. Results showed that unvegetated sediments supported greater nitrification rates than rhizosphere sediments of perennial or seasonal vegetation. However, the absence of submerged vegetation had no significant effect on denitrification and N 2 O production rates. Additionally, the abundance of functional microorganisms in sediments was not significantly different among vegetation types. Season had a strong effect on both nitrogen cycling processes and microbial abundances. The highest nitrification rates were observed in September, while the highest denitrification rates occurred in December. The temporal variation of sediment nitrification, denitrification and N 2 O production rates could be due to changes in water quality and sediment properties rather than submerged vegetation and microbial abundances. Our findings highlight that vegetation restoration in eutrophic lakes improves water quality but does not enhance sediment nitrogen removal rates and microbial abundances. Therefore, for reducing the N level in eutrophic lakes, major efforts should be made to control nutrients export from terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Macrophytes on Sediment Resuspension and the Effect of Associated Nutrients in a Shallow and Large Lake (Lake Taihu, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengyuan; Zhu, Guangwei; Nurminen, Leena; Wu, Tingfeng; Deng, Jianming; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Ventelä, Anne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    A yearlong campaign to examine sediment resuspension was conducted in large, shallow and eutrophic Lake Taihu, China, to investigate the influence of vegetation on sediment resuspension and its nutrient effects. The study was conducted at 6 sites located in both phytoplankton-dominated zone and macrophyte-dominated zone of the lake, lasting for a total of 13 months, with collections made at two-week intervals. Sediment resuspension in Taihu, with a two-week high average rate of 1771 g·m-2·d-1 and a yearly average rate of 377 g·m-2·d-1, is much stronger than in many other lakes worldwide, as Taihu is quite shallow and contains a long fetch. The occurrence of macrophytes, however, provided quite strong abatement of sediment resuspension, which may reduce the sediment resuspension rate up to 29-fold. The contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus to the water column from sediment resuspension was estimated as 0.34 mg·L-1 and 0.051 mg·L-1 in the phytoplankton-dominated zone. Sediment resuspension also largely reduced transparency and then stimulated phytoplankton growth. Therefore, sediment resuspension may be one of the most important factors delaying the recovery of eutrophic Lake Taihu, and the influence of sediment resuspension on water quality must also be taken into account by the lake managers when they determine the restoration target. PMID:26030094

  14. Salinity Affects the Composition of the Aerobic Methanotroph Community in Alkaline Lake Sediments from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongcui; Liu, Yongqin; Dumont, Marc; Conrad, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Tibetan Plateau, which plays an important role in natural methane emission. Aerobic methanotrophs in lake sediments reduce the amount of methane released into the atmosphere. However, no study to date has analyzed the methanotroph community composition and their driving factors in sediments of these high-altitude lakes (>4000 m). To provide new insights on this aspect, the abundance and composition in the sediments of six high-altitude alkaline lakes (including both freshwater and saline lakes) on the Tibetan Plateau were studied. The quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and 454-pyrosequencing methods were used to target the pmoA genes. The pmoA gene copies ranged 10 4 -10 6 per gram fresh sediment. Type I methanotrophs predominated in Tibetan lake sediments, with Methylobacter and uncultivated type Ib methanotrophs being dominant in freshwater lakes and Methylomicrobium in saline lakes. Combining the pmoA-pyrosequencing data from Tibetan lakes with other published pmoA-sequencing data from lake sediments of other regions, a significant salinity and alkalinity effect (P = 0.001) was detected, especially salinity, which explained ∼25% of methanotroph community variability. The main effect was Methylomicrobium being dominant (up to 100%) in saline lakes only. In freshwater lakes, however, methanotroph composition was relatively diverse, including Methylobacter, Methylocystis, and uncultured type Ib clusters. This study provides the first methanotroph data for high-altitude lake sediments (>4000 m) and shows that salinity is a driving factor for the community composition of aerobic methanotrophs.

  15. Methanogenesis in the sediment of the acidic Lake Caviahue in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschorreck, Matthias; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin; Scharf, Burkhard; Richnow, Hans H.

    2008-12-01

    The biogeochemistry of methane in the sediments of Lake Caviahue was examined by geochemical analysis, microbial activity assays and isotopic analysis. The pH in the water column was 2.6 and increased up to a pH of 6 in the deeper sediment pore waters. The carbon isotope composition of CH 4 was between - 65 and - 70‰ which is indicative for the biological origin of the methane. The enrichment factor ɛ increased from - 46‰ in the upper sediment column to more than - 80 in the deeper sediment section suggesting a transition from acetoclastic methanogenesis to CO 2 reduction with depth. In the most acidic surface layer of the sediment (pH Copahue Volcano, supported high rates of sulfate reduction which probably raised the pH and created favorable conditions for methanogens in deeper sediment layers.

  16. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  17. Determination of Heavy and Toxic Trace Elements in Sediments of Qarun Lake Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A.; Abd EI-Samad, M.; Soliman, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of certain heavy and toxic trace elements in 15 sediment samples from different areas at Qarun Lake was performed by a neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The samples together with two sets of gold foils (one bare and the other covered with cadmium) and two Standard Reference Materials IAEA (Soil-7) were irradiated at the core of the reactor in two capsules for 8520 seconds, another two capsules each has two sets of gold foils (one bare and the other covered with cadmium) are used to determine the neutron fluxes around the sediment samples. The gamma-rays of nuclides from the irradiated samples were carried out by means of a well calibrated high resolution HPGe detection system. The concentrations of product nuclides containing in the irradiated samples were determined from the peak counting-rates of the prominent gamma-ray lines for the corresponding nuclides using Single External Comparator Method (k 0 -Standardization Method) which called k 0 -NAA technique. The neutron flux ratios (f) in the same radiation sites of the sediment samples bottles were calculated as well as the cadmium ratios (R e d). MS Excel work books were constructed and used in our calculation. The total contents of As , Ba , Ca ,Co, Cr ,Cs, Eu ,Hf ,Hg,Na ,Ru ,Sc ,Se ,Sm ,Sn ,Sr ,Th ,Rb ,Zn ,and Zr in these samples were measured. The objectives .of this study were evaluated to identify the variations of concentration of some elements that have an impact on environmental pollutions. The results indicated that the concentrations of toxic trace elements of Ba, Cr, Se, Sn, Hg, Sin and Zn may represent pollutions problem

  18. On the radiocesium carbonate barrier in organics-rich sediments of Lake Juodis, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, N.; Koviazina, E.; Kubareviciene, V.; Shliahtich, E.

    2007-01-01

    Radiocesium vertical profiles in organics-rich sediments of running shallow eutrophic Lake Juodis (Lithuania) were studied in relation to seasonal variations of vertical profiles (in water column and sediments) of standard variables (pH, redox potential, temperature, oxygen concentrations, conductivity). It is shown that the sedimentation rate, radiocesium mobility and its vertical profiles in sediments are controlled by the vital cycle (processes of the growth, accumulation and decomposition) of green algae covering the main bottom areas of the lake. It is also shown that calcite deposits are formed in the shallow bottom areas that are oxygenated throughout the year because of the photosynthetic activity of the green algae covering the sediment. Formation of the calcite coatings on freshly accumulated organics is remarkable for causing elevated densities of sediment solids in the upper part of the respective vertical profiles. These calcite deposits behave as a barrier for radiocesium backward flux to the bottom water making the respective bottom areas a radionuclide sink. Together with the jelly-structured sediments lying below these deposits, the calcite preserves the shape of the primary radiocesium vertical profiles formed due to free-ion diffusion after the deposition event. It was determined that bottom areas anaerobic in winter are the main radiocesium source in the water column and cause characteristic radiocesium redistribution in surface sediments

  19. Effects of hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the chemistry of bottom sediments in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Horowitz, A.J.; Mahler, B.J.; Foreman, W.T.; Fuller, C.C.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Elrick, K.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Skrobialowski, S.C.; Smith, J.J.; Wilson, J.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana, on the sediment chemistry of Lake Pontchartrain were evaluated by chemical analysis of samples of street mud and suspended and bottom sediments. The highest concentrations of urban-related elements and compounds (e.g., Pb, Zn, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlordane) in bottom sediments exceeded median concentrations in U.S. urban lakes and sediment-quality guidelines. The extent of the elevated concentrations was limited, however, to within a few hundred meters of the mouth of the 17th Street Canal, similar to results of historical assessments. Chemical and radionuclide analysis of pre- and post-Hurricane Rita samples indicates that remobilization of near-shore sediment by lake currents and storms is an ongoing process. The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the sediment chemistry of Lake Pontchartrain are limited spatially and are most likely transitory. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  20. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  1. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  2. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  3. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruemmel, Eva M. [Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada Office, 75 Albert St., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 (Canada)], E-mail: eva_kruemmel@hotmail.com; Scheer, Michael [Scheer Software Solutions, 6 Coghlan Lane, P.O. Box 86, Barry' s Bay, Ontario, K0J 1B0 (Canada); Gregory-Eaves, Irene [Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 10 Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Finney, Bruce [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Blais, Jules M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and {delta}{sup 15}N, as well as {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, {sigma}PCBs and {delta}{sup 15}N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years.

  4. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals and As pollution in the sediments of a shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiancai; Wang, Yuansheng; Liu, Xin; Hu, Weiping; Zhu, Jinge; Zhu, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations and spatial distributions of eight heavy metals in surface sediments and sediment core samples from a shallow lake in China were investigated to evaluate the extent of the contamination and potential ecological risks. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations were higher in the northern and southwestern lake zones than those in the other lake zones, with lower levels of As, Hg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Ni primarily observed in the central and eastern lake regions and Cd primarily confined to areas surrounding the lake. The concentrations of the eight heavy metals in the sediment profiles tended to decrease with increasing sediment depth. The contents of Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface sediment were approximately 1.23-18.41-fold higher than their background values (BVs), whereas the contents of Cr, As, and Hg were nearly identical to their BVs. The calculated pollution load index (PLI) suggested that the surface sediments of this lake were heavily polluted by these heavy metals and indicated that Cd was a predominant contamination factor. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index (PERI) in the surface sediments ranged from 99.2 to 2882.1, with an average of 606.1. Cd contributed 78.7 % to the PERI, and Hg contributed 8.4 %. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that the surface sediment pollution with heavy metals mainly originated from industrial wastewater discharged by rivers located in the western and northwestern portion of the lake.

  5. Isotopic chemical weathering behaviour of Pb derived from a high-Alpine Holocene lake-sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Süfke, Finn; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio; Glur, Lukas; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Several studies assessing the chemical weathering systematics of Pb isotopes provided evidence for the incongruent release of Pb from source rocks during early stages of chemical weathering, resulting in runoff compositions more radiogenic (higher) than the bulk source-rock composition [e.g. 1]. Deep NW Atlantic seawater Pb isotope records covering the last glacial-interglacial transition further support these findings. Clear excursions towards highly radiogenic Pb isotopic input in the deep NW Atlantic seen during the early Holocene, hence after the large-scale retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in North America, are interpreted to be controlled by preferential release of radiogenic Pb from U- and Th-rich mineral phases during early stages of chemical weathering that are less resistant to chemical dissolution than other rock-forming mineral phases [2-4]. To date, however, no terrestrial Pb isotope record exists that could corroborate the evidence from deep marine sites for efficient late deglacial weathering and washout of radiogenic Pb. We present a high-resolution adsorbed Pb isotope record from a sediment core retrieved from Alpine Lake Grimsel (1908 m.a.s.l.) in Switzerland, consisting of 117 Pb compositions over the past 10 kyr. This high-Alpine study area is ideally located for incipient and prolonged chemical weathering studies. The method used to extract the adsorbed lake Pb isotope signal is identical to previous marine approaches targeting the authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides fraction within the lake sediments [5, 6]. The Pb isotope compositions are further accompanied by various elemental ratios derived from the same samples that equally trace climatic boundary conditions in the Grimsel Lake area. The Pb isotopic composition recorded in Lake Grimsel is remarkably constant throughout the majority of the Holocene until ˜2.5 ka BP, despite variable sediment composition and -age, and isotopically relatively close to the signature of the granitic source rock

  6. Role of storms and forest practices in sedimentation of an Oregon Coast Range lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Guerrero, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of better management practices in forested watersheds to face climate change and the associated increase in the frequency of extreme events requires a better understanding of watershed responses to extreme events in the past and also under management regimes. One of the most sensitive watershed processes affected is sediment yield. Lake sediments record events which occur in a watershed and provide an opportunity to examine the interaction of storms and forest management practices in the layers of the stratigraphy. We hypothesize that timber harvesting and road building since the 1900s has resulted in increases in sedimentation; however, the passage of the Oregon Forest Practices Act (OFPA) in 1972 has led to a decrease in sedimentation. Sediment cores were taken at Loon Lake in the Oregon Coast Range. The 32-m deep lake captures sediment from a catchment highly impacted by recent land use and episodic Pacific storms. We can use sedimentological tools to measure changes in sediment production as motivated by extreme floods before settlement, during a major timber harvesting period, and after installation of forestry Best Management Practices. Quantification of changes in particle size and elemental composition (C, N, C/N) throughout the cores can elucidate changes in watershed response to extreme events, as can changes in layer thickness. Age control in the cores is being established by Cesium-137 and radiocarbon dating. Given the instrumental meteorological data and decadal climate reconstructions, we will disentangle climate driven signals from changes in land use practices. The sediment shows distinct laminations and varying thickness of layers throughout the cores. Background deposition is composed of thin layers (events to determine if the OFPA is having an effect on reducing sedimentation rates as a result of extreme magnitude storm events.

  7. Phosphorus fractions and its potential release in the sediments of Koycegiz Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Şahin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to find out the seasonal and spatial patterns of the phosphorus in the littoral sediment and its potential release into the Koycegiz Lake, south west Turkey, between November 2011 and March 2012 at two months intervals. The scanning electron microscopy was used for elemental compositions of the sediment. The amounts and forms of phosphorus (P in surface sediments of Koycegiz Lake were examined using a not sequential chemical extraction procedure. Four fractions of sedimentary P, including organic bound phosphorus fraction (Org≈P, calcium bound phosphorus fraction (Ca≈P, iron+aluminium bound phosphorus fraction (Fe+Al≈P and carbonate bound phosphorus fraction (CO3≈P were separately quantified. The results indicated that the contents of different phosphorus fractions in the sediments varied greatly. The proportion of phosphorus fractions was estimated as Org≈P (90.20 %, this fraction was followed by Ca≈P (9.06 %, Fe+Al≈P (0.47 % and CO3≈P (0.27 % in this study. The level of phosphorus release from the sediment to the lake is calculated as low. The sediment phosphorus release fluctuated between -6.647–75.883 μg/m2.d-1 and the total phosphorus (TP concentrations of the sediment samples were changed between 980.39 μg/gDW (Dry Weight - 1990.81 μg/gDW. The results show that it can be evaluation as eutrophic for Koycegiz Lake.

  8. Patterns and controls of mercury accumulation in sediments from three thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Samantha M.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Koch, Joshua C.; Swanson, Heidi K.

    2018-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycle of mercury will be influenced by climate change, particularly at higher latitudes. Investigations of historical mercury accumulation in lake sediments inform future predictions as to how climate change might affect mercury biogeochemistry; however, in regions with a paucity of data, such as the thermokarst-rich Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (ACP), the trajectory of mercury accumulation in lake sediments is particularly uncertain. Sediment cores from three thermokarst lakes on the ACP were analyzed to understand changes in, and drivers of, Hg accumulation over the past ~ 100 years. Mercury accumulation in two of the three lakes was variable and high over the past century (91.96 and 78.6 µg/m2/year), and largely controlled by sedimentation rate. Mercury accumulation in the third lake was lower (14.2 µg/m2/year), more temporally uniform, and was more strongly related to sediment Hg concentration than sedimentation rate. Sediment mercury concentrations were quantitatively related to measures of sediment composition and VRS-inferred chlorophyll a, and sedimentation rates were related to various catchment characteristics. These results were compared to data from 37 previously studied Arctic and Alaskan lakes. Results from the meta-analysis indicate that thermokarst lakes have significantly higher and more variable Hg accumulation rates than non-thermokarst lakes, suggesting that certain properties (e.g., thermal erosion, thaw slumping, low hydraulic conductivity) likely make lakes prone to high and variable Hg accumulation rates. Differences and high variability in Hg accumulation among high latitude lakes highlight the complexity of predicting future climate-related change impacts on mercury cycling in these environments.

  9. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Ana Carla F.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Cazotti, Raul I.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2000-01-01

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210 Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210 Pb and 226 Ra. (author)

  10. Patterns of extracellular enzyme activities in littoral sediments of Lake Gooimeer, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    The seasonal variation in enzymatic activities against protein and several polysaccharides together with esterase as a measure of general hydrolytic activity was studied in a transect of sediments through the littoral zone of Lake Gooimeer, The Netherlands. Absolute activities showed a linear

  11. Application of PAH concentration profiles in lake sediments as indicators for smelting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wiebke; Ruppert, Hans; Licha, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The ability of lake sediment cores to store long-term anthropogenic pollution establishes them as natural archives. In this study, we focus on the influence of copper shale mining and smelting in the Mansfeld area of Germany, using the depth profiles of two sediment cores from Lake Süßer See. The sediment cores provide a detailed chronological deposition history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the studied area. Theisen sludge, a fine-grained residue from copper shale smelting, reaches the lake via deflation by wind or through riverine input; it is assumed to be the main source of pollution. To achieve the comparability of absolute contaminant concentrations, we calculated the influx of contaminants based on the sedimentation rate. Compared to the natural background concentrations, PAHs are significantly more enriched than heavy metals. They are therefore more sensitive and selective for source apportionment. We suggest two diagnostic ratios of PAHs to distinguish between Theisen sludge and its leachate: the ratio fluoranthene to pyrene ~2 and the ratio of PAH with logKOW5.7 converging to an even lower value than 2.3 (the characteristic of Theisen sludge) to identify the particulate input in lake environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biogeochemical Cycling of Nutrients and Trace Metals in the Sediment of Haringvliet Lake: Response to Salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavan, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines sediment redox processes associated with organic matter degradation and their impact on the cycling of nutrients (N, P) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn). Our study site, Haringvliet Lake, is located in the Rhine-Meuse River Delta in the southwest of The Netherlands. This

  13. Nitrogen removal by denitrification in the sediments of a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijn, van F.

    1997-01-01

    Most surface waters in the Netherlands are highly eutrophicated due to high loadings with the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To improve the water quality of lakes often the phosphorus loading is reduced. Due to phosphorus release from the sediments the success of the recovery of

  14. Silver and lead in high-altitude lake sediments: Proxies for climate changes and human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garçon, Marion; Chauvel, Catherine; Chapron, Emmanuel; Faïn, Xavier; Lin, Mingfang; Campillo, Sylvain; Bureau, Sarah; Desmet, Marc; Bailly-Maître, Marie-Christine; Charlet, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    High-altitude lake sediments are often used as archives for environmental changes and their chemical and isotopic compositions provide significant constraints on natural and anthropogenic long-term changes that have occurred in their catchment area. Here, trace-element concentrations and Pb isotopes are presented for two sedimentary cores from Lake Blanc Huez in the French Alps, to trace the impact of climate changes and human activities over the Holocene. Lead and Ag contents are very high and clearly dominated by input from a Pb–Ag vein located a few meters from the lakeshore, a vein that also buffers the Pb isotopes. Mining of this vein in medieval times is recorded in the corresponding lake sediments with high Ag content coupled with high Pb/U ratio. These chemical characteristics can be used to constrain the major Holocene climate changes. Significant advances of glaciers next to the lake produced sediments with Ag and Pb concentration peaks and high Pb/U ratios due to accelerated erosion of the Pb–Ag vein, similar to the effects of the medieval mining. In contrast, reduced glacier activity led to the formation of organic-rich sediments with high U and As contents and low Pb/U ratios. More generally, the observed combination of chemical changes could be used elsewhere to decipher environmental changes over long periods of time.

  15. Stable lead geochronology of fine-grained sediments in Southern Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.A.; Edgington, D.N.

    1974-01-01

    In a previous article, it was shown that the vertical distribution of stable lead in the fine-grained sediments of Lake Michigan reflects the history of cultural lead inputs. It was found that the lead distributions in dated cores are quantitatively described by a universal time-dependent loading or source function which is a linear combination of estimated annual inputs of atmospheric lead derived from the combustion of leaded gasoline and the burning of coal in and around Chicago since about 1800. The existence of such a source function for lead implies that stable lead itself may be used to date sediment cores. Mercury depth profiles in western Lake Erie sediments have shown several horizons which correspond to the development of local industrial use of mercury over the past forty years or so. The construction of the lead source function for Lake Michigan sediments was based on only four lead-210 dated cores. To establish the validity of the source function concept, it is applied to the distribution of lead determined in many cores previously obtained from southern Lake Michigan

  16. Distribution and sources of n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yunlong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The last study on n-alkanes in surface sediments of Taihu Lake was in 2000, only 13 surface sediment samples were analysed, in order to have a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of n-alkanes in the surface sediments of Taihu Lake, 41 surface sediment samples were analyzed by GC-MS. C10 to C37 were detected, the total concentrations of n-alkanes ranged from 2109 ng g−1 to 9096 ng g−1 (dry weight. There was strong odd carbon predominance in long chain n-alkanes and even carbon predominance in short chain n-alkanes. When this finding was combined with the analysis results of wax n-alkanes (WaxCn, carbon preference index (CPI, unresolved complex mixture (UCM, hopanes and steranes, it was considered that the long chain n-alkanes were mainly from terrigenous higher plants, and that the short chain n-alkanes mainly originated from bacteria and algae in the lake, compared with previous studies, there were no obvious anthropogenic petrogenic inputs. Terrestrial and aquatic hydrocarbons ratio (TAR and C21−/C25+ indicated that terrigenous input was higher than aquatic sources and the nearshore n-alkanes were mainly from land-derived sources. Moreover, the distribution of short chain n-alkanes presented a relatively uniform pattern, while the long chain n-alkanes presented a trend that concentrations dropped from nearshore places to the middle of lake.

  17. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge

  18. Reconstruction of historical atmospheric Pb using Dutch urban lake sediments: A Pb isotope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; van Os, B.J.H.; Klaver, G.Th.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments provide a record of atmospheric Pb deposition and changes in Pb isotope composition. To our knowledge, such an approach has not previously been performed in The Netherlands or linked to national air monitoring data. Results are presented for Pb content and isotope composition of 137Cs

  19. Chemical indicators of anthropogenic impacts in sediments of the pristine karst lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, I; Fiket, Z; Terzić, S; Barešić, J; Mikac, N; Ahel, M

    2011-08-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the pristine karst lakes was investigated using combination of specific parameters, including multielemental analysis of major inorganic constituents (Al, K, Fe) and trace metals (Li, Ag, Cd, Sn, Pb, Bi, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Sb), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and anionic surfactants of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) type. The study was performed in the Plitvice Lakes National Park, situated in a sparsely populated area of the northwestern Dinarides, central Croatia. Dated cores of recent sediments from the two biggest lakes, Lake Prosce and Lake Kozjak, were analysed for the selected contaminants using highly specific methods, involving inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The concentration of inorganic constituents reflected primarily the geological background of the area as well as geomorphological and geochemical characteristics of the Plitvice Lakes. Due to the higher terrigenous input, the concentration of all elements was significantly higher in the Lake Prosce. The concentration of toxic metals was relatively low in both lakes, except for Cd (>1 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (up to 40 mg kg(-1)). The vertical profiles of these metals suggested that elevated concentrations of Cd were of natural origin, derived from the erosion of the Jurassic dolomite bedrock, while Pb was predominately of recent anthropogenic origin. A similar distribution pattern, suggesting the same prevailing mechanism of input, was observed for pyrolytic PAHs. The characteristic diagnostic PAH ratios revealed that higher PAHs prevailingly originated from the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. LAS, which represent highly specific indicators of untreated wastewaters, were found in rather high concentrations in the recent sediment layers (up to 4.7 mg kg(-1)), suggesting that contaminated household and hotel wastewaters reach the

  20. Sediment core fossils in ancient Lake Ohrid: testing for faunal change since the Last Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albrecht

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Lake Ohrid is probably of early Pleistocene or Pliocene origin and amongst the few lakes in the world harbouring an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Although there is a long history of evolutionary research in Lake Ohrid, particularly on molluscs, a mollusc fossil record has been missing up to date. For the first time, gastropod and bivalve fossils are reported from the basal, calcareous part of a 2.6 m long sediment succession (core Co1200 from the north-eastern part of Lake Ohrid. Electron spin resonance (ESR dating of mollusc shells from the same stratigraphic level yielded an age of 130 ± 28 ka. Lithofacies III sediments, i.e. a stratigraphic subdivision comprising the basal succession of core Co1200 between 181.5–263 cm, appeared solid, greyish-white, and consisted almost entirely of silt-sized endogenic calcite (CaCO3>70% and intact and broken mollusc shells. Here we compare the faunal composition of the thanatocoenosis with recent mollusc associations in Lake Ohrid. A total of 13 mollusc species (9 gastropod and 4 bivalve species could be identified within Lithofacies III sediments. The value of sediment core fossils for reconstructing palaeoenvironmental settings was evaluated and the agreement between sediment and palaeontological proxies was tested.

    The study also aims at investigating major faunal changes since the Last Interglacial and searching for signs of extinction events.

    The combined findings of the ecological study and the sediment characteristics suggest deposition in a shallow water environment during the Last Interglacial. The fossil fauna exclusively included species also found in the present fauna, i.e. no extinction events are evident for this site since the Last Interglacial. The thanatocoenosis showed the highest similarity with recent Intermediate Layer (5–25 m water depth mollusc assemblages. The demonstrated existence of a mollusc fossil record in Lake Ohrid

  1. Holocene glacier fluctuations inferred from lacustrine sediment, Emerald Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, Taylor S.; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    2016-01-01

    Physical and biological characteristics of lacustrine sediment from Emerald Lake were used to reconstruct the Holocene glacier history of Grewingk Glacier, southern Alaska. Emerald Lake is an ice-marginal threshold lake, receiving glaciofluvial sediment when Grewingk Glacier overtops the topographic divide that separates it from the lake. Sub-bottom acoustical profiles were used to locate core sites to maximize both the length and resolution of the sedimentary sequence recovered in the 4-m-long cores. The age model for the composite sequence is based on 13 14C ages and a 210Pb profile. A sharp transition from the basal inorganic mud to organic-rich mud at 11.4 ± 0.2 ka marks the initial retreat of Grewingk Glacier below the divide of Emerald Lake. The overlaying organic-rich mud is interrupted by stony mud that records a re-advance between 10.7 ± 0.2 and 9.8 ± 0.2 ka. The glacier did not spill meltwater into the lake again until the Little Ice Age, consistent with previously documented Little Ice Ages advances on the Kenai Peninsula. The retreat of Grewingk Glacier at 11.4 ka took place as temperature increased following the Younger Dryas, and the subsequent re-advance corresponds with a climate reversal beginning around 11 ka across southern Alaska.

  2. Evidence for mild sediment Pb contamination affecting leaf-litter decomposition in a lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    Much work has focused on the effects of metal-contaminated sediment on benthic community structure, but effects on ecosystem functions have received far less attention. Decomposition has been widely used as an integrating metric of ecosystem function in lotic systems, but not for lentic ones. We assessed the relationship between low-level sediment lead (Pb) contamination and leaf-litter decomposition in a lentic system. We measured 30-day weight loss in 30 litter-bags that were deployed along a Pb-contamination gradient in a cypress-forested lake. At each deployment site we also quantified macrobenthos abundance, dissolved oxygen, water depth, sediment organic content, sediment silt/clay content, and both total sediment and porewater concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Principal components (PC) analysis revealed a negative relationship between Pb concentration and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and this covariation dominated the first PC axis (PC1). Subsequent correlation analyses revealed a negative relationship between PC1 and percent leaf-litter loss. Our results indicate that leaf-litter decomposition was related to sediment Pb and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance. They also showed that ecosystem function may be affected even where sediment Pb concentrations are mostly below threshold-effects sediment quality guidelines--a finding with potential implications for sediment risk assessment. Additionally, the litter-bag technique used in this study showed promise as a tool in risk assessments of metal-contaminated sediments in lentic systems.

  3. Slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for direct beryllium determination in soil and sediment samples after elimination of SiO interference by least-squares background correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šafránková, Michaela; Šídová, Tereza

    2017-12-01

    In this work a simple, efficient, and environmentally-friendly method is proposed for determination of Be in soil and sediment samples employing slurry sampling and high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-ETAAS). The spectral effects originating from SiO species were identified and successfully corrected by means of a mathematical correction algorithm. Fractional factorial design has been employed to assess the parameters affecting the analytical results and especially to help in the development of the slurry preparation and optimization of measuring conditions. The effects of seven analytical variables including particle size, concentration of glycerol and HNO 3 for stabilization and analyte extraction, respectively, the effect of ultrasonic agitation for slurry homogenization, concentration of chemical modifier, pyrolysis and atomization temperature were investigated by a 2 7-3 replicate (n = 3) design. Using the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of Be with a detection limit being 0.016mgkg -1 and characteristic mass 1.3pg. Optimum results were obtained after preparing the slurries by weighing 100mg of a sample with particle size < 54µm and adding 25mL of 20% w/w glycerol. The use of 1μg Rh and 50μg citric acid was found satisfactory for the analyte stabilization. Accurate data were obtained with the use of matrix-free calibration. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2702 Inorganics in Marine Sediment and IGI BIL-1 Baikal Bottom Silt) and by comparison of the results obtained for ten real samples by slurry sampling with those determined after microwave-assisted extraction by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-ICP-MS). The reported method has a precision better than 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy metal speciation and their accumulation in sediments of Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(4), pp. 280-298, April ..... present study gave higher values due to the effect of increasing ...... on The Heavy Metal. Pollution of Guanabara Bay Sediments and Evaluation of The.

  5. Uranium isotopes in waters and bottom sediments of rivers and lakes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Kaminska, I.; Chrzanowski, E.

    2004-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U and 235 U were determined in waters and bottom sediments in two main rivers in Poland (the Vistula and Odra rivers) with their tributaries, in four coastal rivers and six lakes. Concentration of 238 U and 233 U were compared with the concentrations of 226 Ra determined in another study. As compared with concentrations in coastal rivers and in lakes, enhanced concentrations of the radionuclides were observed in water and bottom sediments in the upper and middle courses of Vistula river, whereas in the Odra river the enhanced concentrations were present only in the bottom sediments. The enhanced concentrations in the Vistula river result from the discharge of coal mine waters from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, and they indicate that the discharge was continued. The enhanced concentration in Odra river observed only in bottom sediments indicate that the discharge occurred in the past. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio for the bottom sediments was close to unity, indicating that these isotopes were close to equilibrium, whereas for water the average ratio was form 1.2 for lakes to 1.5 for the Vistula river, demonstrating the lack of equilibrium. (author)

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  7. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  8. Metal pollution assessment in the surface sediment of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Goher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight heavy metals were measured seasonally in the sediment of Lake Nasser during 2013. 27 sites were chosen through 9 sectors across the main channel of the lake from Abu-Simbel to Aswan High Dam to assess the levels of the selected metals. The abundance of these metals was in the order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd, with mean concentrations of 12.41 mg/g, 279.56, 35.38, 30.79, 27.56, 21.78, 11.21 and 0.183 μg/g, respectively. Heavy metals are positively correlated with fine particles (mud fractions and organic matter accumulation. The results showed perspicuous spatial high significant differences (P < 0.01 for all the measured metals. Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd exhibited temporally high significant differences (P < 0.01 before and after the flood period. Four Pollution Indices were used for the environmental assessment of Lake Nasser sediment. The indices included three single indices, Enrichment Factor (EF, Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Contamination Factor (CF. While the fourth, Pollution Load Index (PLI was an integrated index. The pollution indexes confirmed that the Lake Nasser sediment was not contaminated with these elements. Sediments of Lake Nasser may be represented as a reference for the pre-industrial background of River Nile Sediments downstream Aswan High Dam.

  9. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  10. Recent changes in mercury deposition and primary productivity inferred from sediments of lakes from the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazeau, Michelle L.; Poulain, Alexandre J.; Paterson, Andrew M.; Keller, Wendel; Sanei, Hamed; Blais, Jules M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations and organic carbon in lake sediments were examined from the Hudson Bay Lowlands to investigate whether Hg deposition to sediments is related to indicators of autochthonous production. Total organic carbon, “S2” carbon (mainly algal-derived OC), C:N and ∂ 13 C indicators suggest an increase in autochthonous productivity in recent decades. Up-core profiles of S2 concentrations and fluxes were significantly correlated with Hg suggesting that varying algal matter scavenging of Hg from the water column may play an important role in the temporal profiles of Hg throughout the sediment cores. Absence of significant relationship between total Hg and methyl Hg (MeHg) in surficial sediments suggested that inorganic Hg supply does not limit MeHg production. MeHg and OC were highly correlated across lakes in surface and deep sediment layers, indicating that sediment organic matter content explains part of the spatial variation in MeHg concentrations between lakes. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in sediment cores correlate with autochthonous organic production. ► Inorganic Hg supply in sediment does not limit MeHg production. ► Sediment methylmercury concentration is highly correlated with organic C content. - Increased mercury concentrations in lake sediment cores coincide with evidence of increased autochthonous production in lakes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada.

  11. Effects of experimental acidification on mobilisation of metals from sediments of limed and non-limed lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waellstedt, Teresia; Borg, Hans

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pH on the mobilisation of metals from lake sediments, intact sediment cores with overlying water were sampled from one lime treated lake and one acidified lake. The overlying water of two cores from each lake was successively acidified to pH 4.2 over a period of 3 months. In the acid treated samples from the limed lake, the initial concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in the overlying water were generally lower and the final concentrations were higher than in the acid treated samples from the acidified lake. The labile inorganic fraction of Al (Al i ) was increasingly dominating as pH decreased. Redox potential and pH in the sediment indicated that the upper two centimetres were involved in the exchange reactions. The experiment showed that mobilisation of metals from sediments can occur and the results indicated that mobilisation could contribute to increased concentrations of metals in lake water during reacidification of formerly lime treated lakes. - Reacidification leads to mobilisation of metals from lake sediments

  12. Diatom distribution in the surficial sediments of Lake Fuxian, Yunnan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... (18.2%); there were some phosphorus post-mines which led to higher total phosphorus concentration than that in southern part. The most outstanding characteristic of diatom ... (212 km2 in surface area) is located in the central Yunnan. Province; it is a oligotrophic freshwater lake. It is the second deepest ...

  13. Shifts in identity and activity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments in response to temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere is mitigated via microbial CH4 oxidation in sediments and water. As arctic temperaturesincrease, understanding the effects of temperature on the activity and identity of methanotrophs in arctic lake sediments is importantto predicting future CH4 emissions. We used DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), andpyrosequencing analyses to identify and characterize methanotrophic communities active at a range of temperatures (4°C, 10°C,and 21°C) in sediments (to a depth of 25 cm) sampled from Lake Qalluuraq on the North Slope of Alaska. CH4 oxidation activitywas measured in microcosm incubations containing sediments at all temperatures, with the highest CH4 oxidation potential of37.5 mol g1 day1 in the uppermost (depth, 0 to 1 cm) sediment at 21°C after 2 to 5 days of incubation. Q-PCR of pmoA and ofthe 16S rRNA genes of type I and type II methanotrophs, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in 13C-labeled DNA obtained bySIP demonstrated that the type I methanotrophs Methylobacter, Methylomonas, and Methylosoma dominated carbon acquisitionfrom CH4 in the sediments. The identity and relative abundance of active methanotrophs differed with the incubation temperature.Methylotrophs were also abundant in the microbial community that derived carbon from CH4, especially in the deeper sediments(depth, 15 to 20 cm) at low temperatures (4°C and 10°C), and showed a good linear relationship (R0.82) with the relativeabundances of methanotrophs in pyrosequencing reads. This study describes for the first time how methanotrophiccommunities in arctic lake sediments respond to temperature variations.

  14. Sediment plume response to surface melting and supraglacial lake drainages on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Vena W.; Smith, Laurence C; Rennermalm, Asa K.

    2009-01-01

    ) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided...... the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume...... area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet....

  15. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  16. Distribution of 137Cs and 226Ra in the sediments of Aswan High Dam lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Unfried, E.; Grass, F.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment samples of the High Dam lake were investigated for their 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K content, using low-level γ-spectroscopy. The results show that at the beginning of the lake (500 km from the High Dam), where sediments consist mostly of sand, the level of 137 Cs is very low (0.1 Bq*kg -1 ). The maximum value (22.3 Bq*kg -1 ) was found 40 km from the wall of the High Dam, where the composition of the sediments is nearly 50% clays. The distribution of the natural nuclides 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K shows a different trend. (author) 9 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Seasonal variations of natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in lake sediments and water in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2018-05-01

    The radiological and chemical pollution of a cluster of four lakes in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece was investigated using a variety of analytical techniques. Alpha spectrometry was applied to measure the activity concentrations of the uranium radioisotopes (U-234, U-235, and U-238) in waters. The mass activities of U-238, Th-232, and K-40 in sediments were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the determination of the minor and trace elements was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in both water and sediments samples, respectively. Pollution levels were also evaluated by calculating enrichment factors (EFs), contamination factors (CFs) and pollution load index (PLI). The data were discussed taking into account several parameters such as the distance from the pollution source, temperature, and location and showed that the environmental impact in this region could not be considered as negligible. The deviation of the isotopic ratio of U-234/U-238 from the equilibrium value indicated waters with intensive dissolution of uranium. The activity values in both waters and sediments found to be low in cool periods and increased in warm periods. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements U, Zn, and Fe were raised in water samples indicating possible pollution as well as the CFs and PLI denoted accumulation in the sediments and moderate to severe contamination for Zn and Cr in some cases.

  18. Identification of contamination in a lake sediment core using Hg and Pb isotopic compositions, Lake Ballinger, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Borrok, David M.; Thapalia, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hg and Pb concentration and isotopic compositions traced anthropogenic sources. ► Concentrations and metal loadings of Hg and Pb increased during the smelting period. ► Hg isotopic compositions changed during smelting compared to the pre-smelting period. ► Data indicate mass independent fractionation of Hg isotopes. - Abstract: Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were measured in a sediment core collected from Lake Ballinger, near Seattle, Washington, USA. Lake Ballinger has been affected by input of metal contaminants emitted from the Tacoma smelter, which operated from 1887 to 1986 and was located about 53 km south of the lake. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb in Lake Ballinger increased by as much as three orders of magnitude during the period of smelting as compared to the pre-smelting period. Concentrations and loadings of Hg and Pb then decreased by about 55% and 75%, respectively, after smelting ended. Isotopic compositions of Hg changed considerably during the period of smelting (δ 202 Hg = −2.29‰ to −0.38‰, mean −1.23‰, n = 9) compared to the pre-smelting period (δ 202 Hg = −2.91‰ to −2.50‰, mean −2.75‰, n = 4). Variations were also observed in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb isotopic compositions during these periods. Data for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg indicate mass independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in Lake Ballinger sediment during the smelting and post-smelting period and suggest MIF in the ore smelted, during the smelting process, or chemical modification at some point in the past. Negative values for Δ 199 Hg and Δ 201 Hg for the pre-smelting period are similar to those previously reported for soil, peat, and lichen, likely suggesting some component of atmospheric Hg. Variations in the concentrations and isotopic compositions of Hg and Pb were useful in tracing contaminant sources and the understanding of the depositional history of sedimentation in Lake Ballinger

  19. Spring temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, north-eastern Poland, AD 1907-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Fischer, Daniela; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Varved lake sediments are excellent natural archives providing quantitative insights into climatic and environmental changes at very high resolution and chronological accuracy. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems it is often difficult to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, and to attribute observed changes to specific causes. This is particularly challenging during the past 100 years when multiple strong trends are superposed. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and other biogeochemical data from the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, north-eastern Poland, 54°N-22°E, 120 m a.s.l.) spanning AD 1907 to 2008. Lake Żabińskie exhibits biogeochemical varves with highly organic late summer and winter layers separated by white layers of endogenous calcite precipitated in early summer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether climate-driven changes and anthropogenic changes can be separated in a multi-proxy sediment data set, and to explore which sediment proxies are potentially suitable for long quantitative climate reconstructions. We also test if convoluted analytical techniques (e.g. HPLC) can be substituted by rapid scanning techniques (visible reflectance spectroscopy VIS-RS; 380-730 nm). We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven changes for the period AD 1907-2008. The eutrophication signal (PC1 = 46.4%; TOC, TN, TS, Phe-b, high TC/CD ratios total carotenoids/chlorophyll-a derivatives) is mainly expressed as increasing aquatic primary production, increasing hypolimnetic anoxia and a change in the algal community from green algae to blue-green algae. The proxies diagnostic for eutrophication show a smooth positive trend between 1907 and ca 1980 followed by a very rapid increase

  20. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210 Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210 Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210 Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210 Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  1. Occurrence and retention of radionuclides in the sediments of White Oak Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T F; Gardiner, D A

    1965-06-01

    As a result of the discharges of large volumes of low-level radioactive liquid wastes to surface streams at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, large quantities of radionuclides have accumulated in the bottom sediments of White Oak Lake. Ruthenium-106 (1038 C) and cesium-137 (704 C) account for more than 90% of the total activity now present at the site, while /sup 60/Co(152 C), the rare earths (17 C, exclusive of /sup 90/Y), and /sup 90/Sr(15 C) make up the remainder. More than half of the activity is associated with the upper 6-in. sediment layer, while progressively smaller quantities of activity are found with depth. The ruthenium, which is restricted to a small area in the now dry upper lake bed, is partially water soluble; however, its rate of movement through the soil is slow enough so that radioactive decay reduces the concentration of that reaching surface streams to insignificant levels. Most of the /sup 137/Cs occupies highly selective exchange sites on the illitic fraction of the clay in the sediment and can be desorbed only by disruption of the lattice structure. Only a small fraction of the /sup 60/Co in the soil was found to be exchangeable. It is, therefore, unlikely that any large fraction of the /sup 137/Cs or /sup 60/Co would move from the area except through erosion of the sediment. About one-half of the /sup 90/Sr and the rare earths in the sediment appears to be exchangeable, while the other half is in the form of slightly soluble salts. Through leaching by ground water, a slow depletion of strontium from the dry part of the lake bed occurs. The accumulation of radionuclides in the sediments of White Oak Lake illustrates the effectiveness of relatively quiescent bodies of water in concentrating activity in stream beds and in retarding the downstream movement of these materials.

  2. Decade-centenary resolution records of climate changes in East Siberia from elements in the bottom sediments of lake Baikal for the last 150 kyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E.L.; Phedorin, M.A.; Chebykin, E.P.; Zolotarev, K.B; Zhuchenko, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution scanning Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in the sediments from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The obtained multi-element time series reveal the presence of abrupt climate shifts in East Siberia which were synchronous with the abrupt warming events in the North Atlantic and Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschges events (D/O) during the last ice age 24-75 kyr BP. We show here the set of climatic indicators reveals all globally known climate changes from dry and cool or glacial climates to humid and warm ones, which were recorded in Northern Atlantic and East Siberia both on the orbital and millennial time scales during the last 150 kyr

  3. Decade-centenary resolution records of climate changes in East Siberia from elements in the bottom sediments of lake Baikal for the last 150 kyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, E.L. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gold@econova.nsk.su; Phedorin, M.A. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chebykin, E.P. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Zolotarev, K.B [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SB RAS, Lavrentyev prospect -11, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhuchenko, N.A. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    High-resolution scanning Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in the sediments from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The obtained multi-element time series reveal the presence of abrupt climate shifts in East Siberia which were synchronous with the abrupt warming events in the North Atlantic and Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschges events (D/O) during the last ice age 24-75 kyr BP. We show here the set of climatic indicators reveals all globally known climate changes from dry and cool or glacial climates to humid and warm ones, which were recorded in Northern Atlantic and East Siberia both on the orbital and millennial time scales during the last 150 kyr.

  4. Application of a new sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and of the Aquatic Lemna test to assess the sediment quality of Lake Skadar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stesevic, D.; Sundic, D.; Mijovic, S. [Montenegro Univ., Podgorica (ME). Faculty of Sciences; Feiler, U.; Heininger, P. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hygiene; Seiler, T.B.; Hollert, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Zoology; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung - Biologie V

    2007-10-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Situated in the transboundary belt between Montenegro and Albania, the Lake Skadar is the largest freshwater reservoir in Southeastern Europe. Because of the wide range of endemic, rare or endangered plant and animal species it supports, Lake Skadar and its extensive adjacent wetlands are internationally recognised as a site of significance and importance (Ramsar site). Within the last 10 to 20 years, Lake Skadar was exposed to intensive pollution. For the assessment of the ecotoxic load of the sediments sampled in Lake Skadar, a triad approach was recently applied. Overall, a complex spectrum of ecotoxic loads was elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use plant-based bioassays for assessing the sediment quality of Lake Skadar in order to facilitate and complement the triad test battery. The newly developed sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor were applied to native sediments and pore water, respectively, allowing the investigation of different toxicity-effects caused by particle-bound pollutants as well as pollutants in the interstitial water. This investigation is the first application of the novel sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum to lake sediments. Materials and Methods: Sediment samples were taken from nine selected sites at Lake Skadar and investigated by the sediment contact assay with Myriophyllum aquaticum. The pore water was extracted from these sediment samples to be analysed in the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor. The results of the sediment contact tests were compared with each other and with those of the aquatic growth inhibition test. Results and Discussion: Both applied macrophyte biotests revealed distinct changes in the growth behaviour of the two macrophytes subsequent to the exposure to the investigated natural sediments of Lake Skadar. The Myriophyllum sediment contact test revealed significant toxicity in

  5. Liver histological changes and lipid peroxidation in the amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum induced by sediment elutriates from the Lake Xochimilco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ordoñez, Esperanza; López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; Uría, Esther; Morales, Ignacio Andrés; Pérez, María Estela; Shibayama, Mineko

    2016-08-01

    Lacustrine sediments accumulate pollutants that input from the lake watershed and can be released to the water column by sediment resuspension; thus, pollutants can change their bioavailability and exert adverse effects to aquatic biota. Shallow-urban lakes are particularly susceptible to receive pollutants from urban discharges and sediment resuspension. Lake Xochimilco, in Mexico City, an urban-shallow lake, faces multiple problems: urban sprawl, overexploitation of aquifers, drying of springs, discharge of wastewater from treatment plants, and sediment resuspension. The aquatic biota living in this ecosystem is continuously exposed to the release of pollutants from the sediments. We assessed the risk that pollutants released from sediments from Lake Xochimilco, Touristic (TZ) and Agriculture zone (AZ), can exert on a native amphibian species of the lake (Ambystoma mexicanum) through exposure bioassays to sediment elutriates. We evaluate alterations in the amphibian by three approaches: biochemical (level of lipid peroxidation, LPO), cellular (ultrastructure) and the liver histology of A. mexicanum and we compare them with a batch control. Additionally, we assessed heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) in elutriates. Elutriates from TZ showed the highest concentrations of the metals assessed. Organisms exposed to sediment elutriates from either study sites showed higher LPO values than control organisms (pXochimilco. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Profiling of Sediment Microbial Community in Dongting Lake before and after Impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sediment microbial community in downstream-linked lakes can be affected by the operation of large-scale water conservancy projects. The present study determined Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons to analyze and compare the bacterial communities from sediments in Dongting Lake (China before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, the largest hydroelectric project in the world. Bacterial communities in sediment samples in Dongting Lake before impoundment of the TGD (the high water period had a higher diversity than after impoundment of the TGD (the low water period. The most abundant phylum in the sediment samples was Proteobacteria (36.4%–51.5%, and this result was due to the significant abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria in the sediment samples before impoundment of the TGD and the abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in the sediment samples after impoundment of the TGD. In addition, bacterial sequences of the sediment samples are also affiliated with Acidobacteria (11.0% on average, Chloroflexi (10.9% on average, Bacteroidetes (6.7% on average, and Nitrospirae (5.1% on average. Variations in the composition of the bacterial community within some sediment samples from the river estuary into Dongting Lake were related to the pH values. The bacterial community in the samples from the three lake districts of Dongting Lake before and after impoundment of the TGD was linked to the nutrient concentration.

  7. Chlorophenol and alkylphenol concentrations in sediment and mussel tissues collected from selected locations in Kentucky Lake, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, B.; Brown, B.; Owen, D. [Murray State Univ., Murray, KY (United States); Sajwan, K. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Kentucky (KY) Lake is one the major human-constructed lakes in the US. It serves as an ultimate repository of substances entering this watershed from portions of seven southeastern states, which include a sizeable fraction of the U.S. chemical processing, agricultural chemical products and electronics manufacturing industries. Although a few studies have examined the levels of chlorinated organics in the KY Lake and the lowermost Tennessee River, there have been no reports on the distribution on the levels of chlorophenols and alkylphenols in sediment and/or biological tissues from this region. In this study, sediment, and freshwater mussels were collected from selected locations in KY Lake and Lake Barkley and analyzed for CPs and APs. Furthermore, wood samples from abandoned docks, navigational towers and wood found in the lake bottom were also analyzed to examine the sources of CPs to the lakes.

  8. Middle Pleistocene infill of Hinkley Valley by Mojave River sediment and associated lake sediment: Depositional architecture and deformation by strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Haddon, Elizabeth; Langenheim, Victoria; Cyr, Andrew J.; Wan, Elmira; Walkup, Laura; Starratt, Scott W.

    2018-01-01

    Hinkley Valley in the Mojave Desert, near Barstow about 140 km northeast of Los Angeles and midway between Victorville Valley and the Lake Manix basin, contains a thick sedimentary sequence delivered by the Mojave River. Our study of sediment cores drilled in the valley indicates that Hinkley Valley was probably a closed playa basin with stream inflow from four directions prior to Mojave River inflow. The Mojave River deposited thick and laterally extensive clastic wedges originating from the southern valley that rapidly filled much of Hinkley Valley. Sedimentary facies representing braided stream, wetland, delta, and lacustrine depositional environments all are found in the basin fill; in some places, the sequence is greater than 74 m (245 ft) thick. The sediment is dated in part by the presence of the ~631 ka Lava Creek B ash bed low in the section, and thus represents sediment deposition after Victorville basin was overtopped by sediment and before the Manix basin began to be filled. Evidently, upstream Victorville basin filled with sediment by about 650 ka, causing the ancestral Mojave River to spill to the Harper and Hinkley basins, and later to Manix basin.Initial river sediment overran wetland deposits in many places in southern Hinkley Valley, indicating a rapidly encroaching river system. These sediments were succeeded by a widespread lake (“blue” clay) that includes the Lava Creek B ash bed. Above the lake sediment lies a thick section of interlayered stream sediment, delta and nearshore lake sediment, mudflat and/or playa sediment, and minor lake sediment. This stratigraphic architecture is found throughout the valley, and positions of lake sediment layers indicate a successive northward progression in the closed basin. A thin overlapping sequence at the north end of the valley contains evidence for a younger late Pleistocene lake episode. This late lake episode, and bracketing braided stream deposits of the Mojave River, indicate that the river

  9. Estimation of sediment inflows to Lake Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tuscaloosa, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment in the tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa in west-central Alabama, from October 1, 2008, to January 31, 2012. The collection and analysis of these data will facilitate the comparison with historical data, serve as a baseline for future sediment-collection efforts, and help to identify areas of concern. Lake Tuscaloosa, at the reservoir dam, receives runoff from a drainage area of 423 square miles (mi2). Basinwide in 2006, forested land was the primary land cover (68 percent). Comparison of historical imagery with the National Land Cover Database (2001 and 2006) indicated that the greatest temporal land-use change was timber harvest. The land cover in 2006 was indicative of this change, with shrub/scrub land (12 percent) being the secondary land use in the basin. Agricultural land use (10 percent) was represented predominantly by hay and pasture or grasslands. Urban land use was minimal, accounting for 4 percent of the entire basin. The remaining 6 percent of the basin has a land use of open water or wetlands. Storm and monthly suspended-sediment samples were collected from seven tributaries to Lake Tuscaloosa: North River, Turkey Creek, Binion Creek, Pole Bridge Creek, Tierce Creek, Carroll Creek, and Brush Creek. Suspended-sediment concentrations and streamflow measurements were statistically analyzed to estimate annual suspended-sediment loads and yields from each of these contributing watersheds. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2009 were 360, 540, and 840 tons per square mile (tons/mi2) at the North River, Turkey Creek, and Carroll Creek streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2010 were 120 and 86 tons/mi2 at the Binion Creek and Pole Bridge Creek streamflow-gaging stations, respectively. Estimated annual suspended-sediment yields in 2011 were 190 and 300 tons/mi2

  10. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David

    2012-01-01

    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep ...... volume-specific carbon degradation rates were 0.3–1.5 µmol cm−3 d−1; bioturbation coefficient near the sediment surface was 3–8 cm2 yr−1. These results indicate that carbon cycling in large freshwater systems conforms to many of the same trends as in marine systems.......To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...

  11. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments and peats by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The small sample size requirement of accelerator mass spectrometry has allowed the measurement of the 14C/12C ratio for components of various lake sediment and peat samples, with a view to gaining greater understanding of sedimentary processes and to overcome some of the problems associated with conventional radiocarbon dating of sediments, where the 14C/12C ratio of the whole sample, less carbonate, is measured. Some of the fractions of sedimentary organic matter are amenable to analysis. Different molecules are specific to higher plants, algae and bacteria, so estimates of the major sources of input to the sediment can be made. The lipid fraction, though a small component (1%) of the total organic matter, yields most source information. Analyses of n-fatty acids and n-alkanes by capillary gas chromatography are used to interpret the radiocarbon result for the total crude lipid samples in the light of the environmental information so gained. Comparison of the various radiocarbon results for different components of the sediment has provided evidence for the importance of the amount of organic carbon in the samples, microbial attack during storage, the presence of mineral carbon, mixing, hard-water effects and the influence of terrestrial material on lake sediments. A regime has been proposed for the routine preparation of samples at an accelerator mass spectrometry facility in order to provide maximum useful information on a sediment sample. (author)

  12. 13C and 14C measurements on lake sediments of the Grosser Ploener See

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlenkeuser, H.; Willkomm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Radiocarbon age and 13 C content of organic and inorganic carbon fractions were measured for two sediment cores from the Grosser Ploener See (N-Germany), comprising the whole post-glacial. As compared to the age of the pollen stages, the 14 C age of the organic fraction is seen to show a hard-water effect of about 1000 years throughout the sediment column, indicating a constant recent activity of the lake bicarbonate of about 92% of the standard recent activity during the history of the lake. From the age of sediment samples corrected for hard water effect and for 14 C variations of the atmosphere the sedimentation rate is found to increase from 0.4 to 0.8 mm/year in the pre-Christian era to as high as 10 mm/year during the last 7 centuries. In the lower layers of the sediment, the 14 C content of the marl fraction corresponds to that of the organic component, indicating the autochthonous origin of these carbonates. During the last 2 1 /2 millenia, however, its 14 C content is too small by 10 to 30%, probably reflecting an allochthonous admixture. Increasing rate of sedimentation along with the growing accumulation of allochthonous minerals probably reflect the agricultural activity of man. It is associated with an increasing supply of nutrients to the lake particularly since a man-made rise of the water level at A.D. 1256, resulting in an enhanced rate of primary production which could be recognized from the stable carbon isotope ratios of both the sedimentary organic carbon and carbonate fraction. According to these results, the contribution of planktogenic organic matter to the sediments as compared to the supply of plant litter from the litoral zones is steadily increasing during the history of the lake and becomes the dominating part since the lake level risc in the Middle Ages. According to the 13 C/ 12 C-ratios, the carbonates of the sediment appear to have been precipitated preferentially in the litoral zones. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Revisiting Caveiro Lake sediment record: the Holocene NAO and AMO impact on Pico Island (Azores archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Giralt, S.; Raposeiro, P. M.; Gonçalves, V. M.; Pueyo, J. J.; Trigo, R. M.; Bao, R.; Sáez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Hemisphere climate is partly conditioned by a number of atmospheric and oceanic patterns which occur in the North Atlantic sector. The favourable location of the Azores Archipelago (37°-40° N, 25°-31° W) results in a privileged place to generate high-resolution Holocene climatic proxy data that can contribute to deep our understanding on the evolution of these atmospheric and oceanic patterns. In the frame of three research projects, namely PALEONAO (CGL2010-15767), RAPIDNAO (CGL2013-40608-R) and PALEOMODES (CGL2016-75281-C2), high-resolution proxy-based reconstructions from Azores Archipelago have recently shown a combined impact of atmospheric and oceanic patterns at multiannual and decadal time-scales (Rubio-Inglés et al. 2016; Hernández et al. 2017). However, the long-term evolution coupling/uncoupling of these patterns is not well-determined yet. Here, we present a new high-resolution climate reconstruction based on the Caveiro Lake sedimentary sequence in order to fill this gap. Previously, Björck et al. (2006) studied a section of this sequence (the uppermost 4.6 m covering last 6 Ka cal BP) concluding that changes in the thermohaline circulation and the SST were the main drivers in the long-term precipitation variability, whereas the NAO impact was the main atmospheric driver of short-term precipitation changes. However, they only distinguished the NAO impact for the last 600 years owing to the low resolution of the study for the lower portion of the core. The new studied sequence (8.40 m long, 8.2 Ka cal BP) has been analysed at decadal-to centennial time-scale resolution for X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter. The statistical multivariate analysis of the data highlights the main drivers triggering the sedimentary infill of the lake would be the NAO and AMO by controlling the lacustrine productivity via nutrients input. This new high-resolution

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surface Layer of Bottom Sediments in a Flow-Through Lake: A Case Study of Lake Symsar in Northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kuriata-Potasznik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available River-lake systems most often behave as hydrographic units, which undergo complex interactions, especially in the contact zone. One such interaction pertains to the role of a river in the dispersal of trace elements carried into and out of a lake. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of rivers on the accumulation of heavy metals in bottom sediments of natural lakes comprised in postglacial river-lake systems. The results showed that a river flowing through a lake is a key factor responsible for the input of the majority of available fraction of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cd and Ni into the water body and for their accumulation along the flow of river water in the lake. The origin of other accumulated elements were the linear and point sources in catchments. In turn, the Pb content was associated with the location of roads in the direct catchment, while the sediment structure (especially size of fraction and density could have affected the accumulation of Cr and Zn, which indicated correlations between these metals and fine fraction. Our results suggest that lakes act as filters and contribute to the self-purification of water that flows through them. As a result, the content of most metals in lake sediments showed a decrease by approx. 75% between the upstream (inflow and downstream (outflow sections. The increased content of two metals only, such as chromium and cadmium (higher by 2.0 and 2.5 times, respectively, after passing through the lake, was due to the correlation of the metals with fine sand. Both the content and distribution pattern of heavy metals in lake sediments are indicative of the natural response of aquatic ecosystems to environmental stressors, such as pollutant import with river water or climate change. The complex elements creating the water ecosystem of each lake can counteract stress by temporarily removing pollutants such as toxic metals form circulation and depositing them mostly around the delta.

  15. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  17. Fluvial sediment study of Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes drainage basins, Kentucky - Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, William F.; Flint, Russell F.; George, Frederick H.; Santos, John F.

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen drainage basins above Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes in the Levisa Fork and Johns Creek drainage basins of eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia were studied to determine sedimentation rates and origin of sediment entering the two lakes. The basins ranged in size from 1.68 to 297 square miles. Sediment yields ranged from 2,890 to 21,000 tons per square mile where surface-mining techniques predominated, and from 732 to 3 ,470 tons per square mile where underground mining methods predominated. Yields, in terms of tons per acre-foot of runoff, ranged from 2.2 to 15 for surface-mined areas, and from 0.5 to 2.7 for underground-mined areas. Water and sediment discharges from direct runoff during storms were compared for selected surface-mined and underground-mined areas. Data points of two extensively surface-mined areas, one from the current project and one from a previous project in Beaver Creek basin, McCreary County, Kentucky, grouped similarly in magnitude and by season. Disturbed areas from mining activities determined from aerial photographs reached 17 percent in one study area where extensive surface mining was being practiced. For most areas where underground mining was practiced, percentage disturbed area was almost negligible. Trap efficiency of Fishtrap Lake was 89 percent, and was 62 percent for Dewey Lake. Average annual deposition rates were 464 and 146 acre-feet for Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes, respectively. The chemical quality of water in the Levisa Fork basin has been altered by man 's activities. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Spatial and historical distribution of organic phosphorus driven by environment conditions in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Changwei; He, Jiang; Wang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The chemistry of sedimentary organic phosphorus (OP) and its fraction distribution in sediments are greatly influenced by environmental conditions such as terrestrial inputs and runoffs. The linkage of OP with environmental conditions was analyzed on the basis of OP spatial and historical distributions in lake sediments. The redundancy analysis and OP spatial distribution results suggested that both NaOH-OP (OP extracted by NaOH) and Re-OP (residual OP) in surface sediments from the selected 13 lakes reflected the gradient effects of environmental conditions and the autochthonous and/or allochthonous inputs driven by latitude zonality in China. The lake level and salinity of Lake Hulun and the runoff and precipitation of its drainage basin were reconstructed on the basis of the geochemistry index. This work showed that a gradient in weather conditions presented by the latitude zonality in China impacts the OP accumulation through multiple drivers and in many ways. The drivers are mainly precipitation and temperature, governing organic matter (OM) production, degradation rate and transportation in the watershed. Over a long temporal dimension (4000years), the vertical distributions of Re-OP and NaOH-OP based on a dated sediment profile from HLH were largely regulated by the autochthonous and/or allochthonous inputs, which depended on the environmental and climate conditions and anthropogenic activities in the drainage basin. This work provides useful environmental geochemistry information to understand the inherent linkage of OP fractionation with environmental conditions and lake evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A geochemical record of the link between chemical weathering and the East Asian summer monsoon during the late Holocene preserved in lacustrine sediments from Poyang Lake, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wei, Gangjian; Li, Wuxian; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents relatively high-resolution geochemical records spanning the past 4000 cal yr BP obtained from the lacustrine sediments of Poyang Lake in central China. The variations in the intensity of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are traced using the K/Na, Ti/Na, Al/K, kaolinite/illite and clay/feldspar ratios, together with the chemical index of alteration (CIA), as indicators of chemical weathering. During the last 4000 years, the proxy records of chemical weathering from Poyang Lake exhibit an overall enhanced trend, consistent with regional hydrological changes in previous independent records. Further comparisons and analyses demonstrate that regional moisture variations in central China is inversely correlated with the EASM intensity, with weak EASM generating high precipitation in central China. Our data reveal three intervals of dramatically dry climatic conditions (i.e., ca. 4000-3200 cal yr BP, ca. 2800-2400 cal yr BP, and ca. 500-200 cal yr BP). A period of weak chemical weathering, related to cold and dry climatic conditions, occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), whereas more intense chemical weathering, reflecting warm and humid climatic conditions, was recorded during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). Besides, an intensification of chemical weathering in Poyang Lake during the late Holocene agrees well with strong ENSO activity, suggesting that moisture variations in central China may be predominantly driven by ENSO variability.

  20. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Liping; Zheng, Gene J.; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W.; Yan, Xulin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wong, Ming H.

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes

  1. Diatom distribution in the surficial sediments of Lake Fuxian, Yunnan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... The diatom abundances per gram dry weight sediment vary between 18.4 × 106 and 66.9 × 106 valves (Figure 2). Abundances per gram dry weight of the eight most abundant diatom taxa are shown in Figure 3. The DCA diagram shows centroids of ecoregions in the ordination space of the first axes.

  2. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bixi; Liu, Yongqin; Zhang, Fan; Hou, Juzhi; Zhang, Hongbo; Li, Chaoliu

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination has affected many regions in the world, particularly the developing countries of Asia. We investigated 8 heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) in the surface sediments of 18 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau. It was found that the distributions of the heavy metals showed no clear spatial pattern on the plateau. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of these metals in the sediment samples diminished as follows: Cr > As > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Co > Cd. The results of geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and potential ecological risk factor (E i r ) assessments showed that the sediments were moderately polluted by Cd and As, which posed much higher risks than the other metals. The values of the potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that lake Bieruoze Co has been severely polluted by heavy metals. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that the 8 heavy metals in the lake surface sediments of the Tibetan Plateau could be classified into four groups. Group 1 included Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni which were mainly derived from both natural and traffic sources. Group 2 included Cd which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources like alloying, electroplating, and dyeing industries and was transported to the Tibetan Plateau by atmospheric circulation. Group 3 included Cr and it might mainly generate from parent rocks of watersheds. The last Group (As) was mainly from manufacturing, living, and the striking deterioration of atmospheric environment of the West, Central Asia, and South Asia.

  3. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Th, U and trace elements determination in Egyiptian Lake sediments by INAA and laser fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Grass, F.; Ghods, A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine element concentrations in Aswan High Dam Lake sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 40 to 500 km upstream of the dam to follow the sedimentation process and the distribution of Th, U and the trace elements in the lake. INAA was applied for the determination of Sm, Ce, Lu, Th, Cr, Yb, Au, Hf, Ba, Nd, Cs, Tb, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, and Sb, while Laser Fluorimetry was applied for U determination. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the techniques were tested with IAEA standard materials (SL, Soil-7). The U values ranged from 4 ppm to 18 ppm, Th values were between 2 and 10 ppm, and showed a very good correlation with the rare earth elements and Fe. The distribution of most of the elements in the lake follows the same trend as the distribution of the clays in the sediments. Ba showed a negative correlation with most of the elements under investigation. (author) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; Aly, R.O.; Khalil, M.T.; Attwa, A.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  6. The preglacial sediment record of Lake Ladoga, NW Russia - first results from a multi-proxy study on a 23 m sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Melles, M.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Andreev, A.; Fedorov, G.; Just, J.; Wennrich, V.; Savelieva, L.; Subetto, D.; Shumilovskikh, L.

    2016-12-01

    The joint German-Russian project 'PLOT - Paleolimnological Transect' aims to recover lake sediment sequences along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect across the Eurasian Arctic in order to study the Late Quaternary climatic and environmental history. The eastern end of the PLOT transect is formed by the well-studied record from Lake El'gygytgyn (NE Siberia). Lake Ladoga (N 60°50' E 31°30') is Europe's largest lake, both by size and volume and forms the westernmost end of the transect. Whereas modern sedimentation as well as the Holocene and Late Glacial history of Lake Ladoga have intensely been studied, the preglacial history of the lake is poorly studied to date by sediment cores drilled in the 1930's. A seismic survey of Lake Ladoga in summer 2013 revealed unconformities in the western lake basin, which may separate preglacial sediments in isolated depressions from Late Glacial and Holocene sediment successions above. A 23 m long sediment core (Co1309) was retrieved from one of these depressions. Core Co1309 was investigated by XRF-scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, as well as pollen, grain-size, and bio-geochemical analyses. An age-depth model combining radiocarbon, OSL, and paleomagnetic dates is in progress. Both, the pollen results and the OSL ages from the base of the record indicate a deposition during MIS 5e (Eemian). The well sorted reddish sands from this interval contain dinoflagellates suggesting at least brackish conditions, likely due to the existence of a gateway connecting a precursor of the Baltic Sea with the White Sea via Lake Ladoga. The Late Glacial sequence consists of greyish varved clays of decreasing thickness upwards with sporadically intercalated sand layers. The Holocene sequence is composed of brownish diatomaceous silty clay with minor proportions of sand.

  7. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources.