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Sample records for high-resolution j-band spectra

  1. The NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey II: High-Resolution J-Band Spectra of M, L and T Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, I S; McGovern, M R; Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D; Rice, E L; Kim, S S; Lean, Ian S. Mc; Govern, Mark R. Mc; Burgasser, Adam J.; Rice, Emily L.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a sequence of high resolution (R~20,000 or 15 km/s) infrared spectra of stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M2.5 to T6. Observations of 16 objects were obtained using eight echelle orders to cover part of the J-band from 1.165-1.323 micron with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. By comparing opacity plots and line lists, over 200 weak features in the J-band are identified with either FeH or H2O transitions. Absorption by FeH attains maximum strength in the mid-L dwarfs, while H2O absorption becomes systematically stronger towards later spectral types. Narrow resolved features broaden markedly after the M to L transition. Our high resolution spectra also reveal that the disappearance of neutral Al lines at the boundary between M and L dwarfs is remarkably abrupt, presumably because of the formation of grains. Neutral Fe lines can be traced to mid-L dwarfs before Fe is removed by condensation. The neutral potassium (K I) doublets that dominate the J-band have pressure broadened wings that c...

  2. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  3. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  4. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...

  5. A new matching algorithm for high resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    We present a new matching algorithm designed to compare high-resolution spectra. Whereas existing methods are bound to compare fixed intervals of ion masses, the accurate mass spectrum (AMS) distance method presented here is independent of any alignment. Based on the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM......) distance, a difference between observed peaks across pairs of spectra can be calculated, and used to find a unique correspondence between the peaks. The method takes into account that there may be differences in resolution of the spectra. The algorithm is used for indexing in a database containing 80...... accurate mass spectra from an analysis of extracts of 80 isolates representing the nine closely related species in the Penicillium series Viridicata. Using this algorithm we can obtain a retrieval performance of approximate to97-98% that is comparable with the best of the existing methods (e.g., the dot...

  6. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-11-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  7. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M. J., E-mail: may13@llnl.gov; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E. [L-170 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Weaver, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  8. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    There has been an almost explosive growth in performance and applications of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, which today is one of the most efficient tools for screening of metabolites in complex bio-samples. Most efficiently ESI-MS can be used by directly...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... and mass axis on to a fixed one-dimensional array, we obtain a vector that can be used directly as input in multivariate statistics or library search methods. We demonstrate that both cluster- and discriminant analysis as well as PCA (and related methods) can be applied directly on mass spectra from direct...

  9. High Resolution Optical and NIR Spectra of HBC 722

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Green, Joel D; Cochran, William D; Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R$\\ge$30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in optical/near-IR with the BOES, HET-HRS, and IGRINS spectrographs, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first two years. The Half-Width at Half-Depth (HWHD) of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitt...

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  11. High Resolution Optical Spectra of HBC 722 after Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sung, Hwankyung; Green, Joel D; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of our high resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign ($\\lambda$ = 3800 -- 8800 A, R = 30000 -- 45000) of the new FU Orionis-type object HBC 722. We observed HBC 722 with the BOES 1.8-m telescope between 2010 November 26 and 2010 December 29 and FU Orionis itself on 2011 January 26. We detect a number of previously unreported high-resolution K I and Ca II lines beyond 7500 A. We resolve the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II line profiles into three velocity components, which we attribute to both disk and outflow. The increased accretion during outburst can heat the disk to produce the relatively narrow absorption feature and launch outflows appearing as high velocity blue and redshifted broad features.

  12. LSD-based analysis of high-resolution stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbal, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Van, Reeth T.

    2014-11-01

    We present a generalization of the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), a powerful tool for extracting high S/N average line profiles from stellar spectra. The generalization of the method is effected by extending it towards the multiprofile LSD and by introducing the possibility to correct the line strengths from the initial mask. We illustrate the new approach by two examples: (a) the detection of astroseismic signatures from low S/N spectra of single stars, and (b) disentangling spectra of multiple stellar objects. The analysis is applied to spectra obtained with 2-m class telescopes in the course of spectroscopic ground-based support for space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler. Usually, rather high S/N is required, so smaller telescopes can only compete successfully with more advanced ones when one can apply a technique that enables a remarkable increase in the S/N of the spectra which they observe. Since the LSD profiles have a potential for reconstruction what is common in all the spectral profiles, it should have a particular practical application to faint stars observed with 2-m class telescopes and whose spectra show remarkable LPVs.

  13. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Special Observation High Resolution V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A L1B High Resolution granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.025 cm-1 resolution for a Special Observation &...

  14. High-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula NGC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-J.; Hyung, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the high-dispersion spectra of the elliptical ring shaped planetary nebula NGC 6803, secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph attached to the 3-m Shane telescope of Lick Observatory. Numerous lines from neutral to quadruply ionized ions are presented in the wavelength region from 3650 to 9900 Å. We also use the low dispersion UV spectral data obtained with the 60-cm interstellar ultraviolet explorer. In spite of its simplistic symmetrical bilateral shape, the diagnostics imply that the physical condition of the nebular shell is very complex with a huge density range of 1300-80 000 cm-3. A comparison of the 1995 and 2001 [Ar iv] data suggests that the density increase occurred near the inner shell boundary. In spite of a huge ionization potential range, the average electron temperature indicated by primary diagnostic lines is relatively low, i.e., Te ≤ 9500 K, except for [Cl iv], from which we derive a temperature that is around 11 500 K. We derived the chemical abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar, Cl, and K, based on the physical condition suggested by diagnostics and photo-ionization analysis. The chemical abundances of NGC 6803 are mostly enhanced when compared with the average Galactic planetary nebula. The effective temperature of its central star appears to be about 90 000 K and its luminosity about 2400 L⊙, assuming a distance of 3000 pc. The evolutionary track implies that NGC 6803 might have been evolved from a companion star of about 1.0 M⊙ in a binary system, or from a single progenitor of about 1.5 M⊙, born in a metal-rich zone near the Galactic plane. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Total lineshape analysis of high-resolution NMR spectra powered by simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshkov, D. A.; Sinitsyn, D. O.; Sheberstov, K. F.; Chertkov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The novel algorithm for a total lineshape analysis of high-resolution NMR spectra has been developed. A global optimization by simulated annealing has been applied that has allowed to overcome the main trouble of common approaches which had frequently returned solutions for local minima rather than for global ones. The algorithm has been verified for the four-spin test systems ABCD, and has been successfully used for analysis of experimental NMR spectra of proline. The approach has allowed to avoid a sophisticated manual setup of initial parameters and to conduct the analysis of complicated high-resolution NMR spectra nearly automatically.

  16. Spectroscopic Characterisation of CARMENES Target Candidates from FEROS, CAFE and HRS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Wende, Sebastian; Schöfer, Patrick; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Montes, David; Mundt, Reinhard; Ribas, Ignasi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) started a new planet survey on M-dwarfs in January this year. The new high-resolution spectrographs are operating in the visible and near-infrared at Calar Alto Observatory. They will perform high-accuracy radial-velocity measurements (goal 1 m s-1) of about 300 M-dwarfs with the aim to detect low-mass planets within habitable zones. We characterised the candidate sample for CARMENES and provide fundamental parameters for these stars in order to constrain planetary properties and understand star-planet systems. Using state-of-the-art model atmospheres (PHOENIX-ACES) and χ2-minimization with a downhill-simplex method we determine effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity [Fe/H] for high-resolution spectra of around 480 stars of spectral types M0.0-6.5V taken with FEROS, CAFE and HRS. We find good agreement between the models and our observed high-resolution spectra. We show the performance of the algorithm, as well as results, parameter and spectral type distributions for the CARMENES candidate sample, which is used to define the CARMENES target sample. We also present first preliminary results obtained from CARMENES spectra.

  17. Determination of Total Ozone over Mauna Loa Using Very High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shelle J.; Beaton, Sheryl A.; Anderberg, Mary H.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    A very high resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer has been used to record solar spectra at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. Spectra are normally taken one day a week at sunrise. These spectra have been analyzed for ozone and N2O total columns, and the ozone column compared with the value reported by tile Mauna Loa Dobson spectrophotometer. Aside from the FTIR reporting about 5% lower values than the Dobson (which may be due to a systematic difference in the treatment of tropospheric ozone), the FTIR and Dobson agree to within 2.7% (RMS) during this period.

  18. VO-compliant libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, D.

    2008-10-01

    In this contribution we describe a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant version of the libraries of high resolution spectra of cool stars described by Montes et al. (1997; 1998; and 1999). Since their publication the fully reduced spectra in FITS format have been available via ftp and in the World Wide Web. However, in the VO all the spectra will be accessible using a common web interface following the standards of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). These libraries include F, G, K and M field stars, from dwarfs to giants. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000 Å, with spectral resolution ranging from 0.09 to 3.0 Å.

  19. Spectroscopic characterisation of CARMENES target candidates from FEROS, CAFE and HRS high-resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Passegger, V M; Jeffers, S V; Wende, S; Schöfer, P; Amado, P J; Caballero, J A; Montes, D; Mundt, R; Ribas, I; Quirrenbach, A

    2016-01-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) started a new planet survey on M-dwarfs in January this year. The new high-resolution spectrographs are operating in the visible and near-infrared at Calar Alto Observatory. They will perform high-accuracy radial-velocity measurements (goal 1 m s-1) of about 300 M-dwarfs with the aim to detect low-mass planets within habitable zones. We characterised the candidate sample for CARMENES and provide fundamental parameters for these stars in order to constrain planetary properties and understand star-planet systems. Using state-of-the-art model atmospheres (PHOENIX-ACES) and chi2-minimization with a downhill-simplex method we determine effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity [Fe/H] for high-resolution spectra of around 480 stars of spectral types M0.0-6.5V taken with FEROS, CAFE and HRS. We find good agreement between the models and our observed high-resolution spectra. We sh...

  20. Stars at high resolution: a library of synthetic spectra from 850 to 7000 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Chávez, M.

    We present a new theoretical library of about 2500 high-resolution spectra of stars covering a wide wavelength range from 850 to 7000 Å. The set consists of an ultraviolet grid (1690 spectra), at an inverse resolution R=50 000, and an optical grid (832 spectra), at R=500 000, and spans a large volume in the fundamental parameters space (i.e. Teff, log {g}, [M/H]). The synthetic spectra, based on the ATLAS 9 model atmospheres, have been computed with the SYNTHE code developed by R.L. Kurucz. These properties make the library an updated tool, especially suitable to match high-quality observing data from the new-generation telescopes.

  1. The INES System; 2, Ripple Correction and Absolute Calibration for IUE High Resolution Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Cassatella, A; González-Riestra, R; Ponz, J D; Barbero, J F G; Talavera, A; Wamsteker, W

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we document the results of the study which led to the ripple correction and absolute calibration algorithms applied to the high resolution spectra processed with the NEWSIPS software for the Final Archive of the IUE Project. In this analysis, based on a very large number of spectra, we find that both K and the alpha parameters (not only the former as previously believed) vary with order number. This fact, together with the finding that the central peaks of the blaze function vary also as a function of the THDA temperature (for the SWP camera) and of the date of observations (for the LWP and LWR cameras), makes the ripple correction algorithm more complex than previously considered but, at the same time, considerably more reliable. As for the high resolution absolute calibration, the method followed is similar to the one implemented in IUESIPS. The internal accuracy of the high resolution calibration is about 4%. We note that the ripple correction and absolute calibration algorithms here describe...

  2. High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the pyrimidine-type nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulfer, K D; Hardy, D; Aguilar, A A; Poliakoff, E D

    2015-06-14

    High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the gas phase pyrimidine-type nucleobases, thymine, uracil, and cytosine, were collected using synchrotron radiation over the photon energy range 17 ≤ hν ≤ 150 eV. These data provide the highest resolution photoelectron spectra of thymine, uracil, and cytosine published to date. By comparing integrated regions of the energy dependent photoelectron spectra of thymine, the ionization potentials of the first four ionic states of thymine were estimated to be 8.8, 9.8, 10.3, and 10.8 eV. The thymine data also show evidence for low energy shape resonances in three of the outermost valence electronic states. Comparing the uracil spectrum with the thymine spectrum, the four outermost valence electronic states of uracil likely begin at binding energies 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.0 eV. High-resolution spectra indicate only one tautomeric form of cytosine contributes significantly to the spectrum with the four outermost valence electronic states beginning at binding energies 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, and 10.85 eV.

  3. High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the pyrimidine-type nucleobases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, D.; Poliakoff, E. D., E-mail: epoliak@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Aguilar, A. A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    High-resolution photoelectron spectra of the gas phase pyrimidine-type nucleobases, thymine, uracil, and cytosine, were collected using synchrotron radiation over the photon energy range 17 ≤ hν ≤ 150 eV. These data provide the highest resolution photoelectron spectra of thymine, uracil, and cytosine published to date. By comparing integrated regions of the energy dependent photoelectron spectra of thymine, the ionization potentials of the first four ionic states of thymine were estimated to be 8.8, 9.8, 10.3, and 10.8 eV. The thymine data also show evidence for low energy shape resonances in three of the outermost valence electronic states. Comparing the uracil spectrum with the thymine spectrum, the four outermost valence electronic states of uracil likely begin at binding energies 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.0 eV. High-resolution spectra indicate only one tautomeric form of cytosine contributes significantly to the spectrum with the four outermost valence electronic states beginning at binding energies 8.9, 9.9, 10.4, and 10.85 eV.

  4. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements.

  5. Accurate Gravities of F, G, and K stars from High Resolution Spectra Without External Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, John M; Basu, Sarbani; Valenti, Jeff A; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new procedure to derive accurate and precise surface gravities from high resolution spectra without the use of external constraints. Our analysis utilizes Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) with robust spectral line constraints and uses an iterative process to mitigate degeneracies in the fitting process. We adopt an updated radiative transfer code, a new treatment for neutral perturber broadening, a line list with multiple gravity constraints and separate fitting for global stellar properties and abundance determinations. To investigate the sources of temperature dependent trends in determining log g noted in previous studies, we obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 42 Kepler asteroseismic stars. In comparison to asteroseismically determined log g our spectroscopic analysis has a constant offset of 0.01 dex with a root mean square (RMS) scatter of 0.05 dex. We also analyzed 30 spectra which had published surface gravities determined using the $a/R_*$ technique from planetary transits and found a constan...

  6. A high-resolution neutron spectra unfolding method using the Genetic Algorithm technique

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, B

    2002-01-01

    The Bonner sphere spectrometers (BSS) are commonly used to determine the neutron spectra within various nuclear facilities. Sophisticated mathematical tools are used to unfold the neutron energy distribution from the output data of the BSS. This paper highlights a novel high-resolution neutron spectra-unfolding method using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. The GA imitates the biological evolution process prevailing in the nature to solve complex optimisation problems. The GA method was utilised to evaluate the neutron energy distribution, average energy, fluence and equivalent dose rates at important work places of a DIDO class research reactor and a high-energy superconducting heavy ion cyclotron. The spectrometer was calibrated with a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am/Be (alpha,n) neutron standard source. The results of the GA method agreed satisfactorily with the results obtained by using the well-known BUNKI neutron spectra unfolding code.

  7. The high resolution vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectra of the group VI dihydrides and deuterides Rydberg series

    CERN Document Server

    Mayhew, C A

    1984-01-01

    The high resolution absorption spectra of the important group VI dihydrides and deuterides in the vacuum ultraviolet below, and up to, their first ionisation potentials are presented. These spectra were recorded using synchrotron radiation as the background light source in conjunction with a 3m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph, equipped with holographic gratings. Due to the nature of the originating orbital for the majority of optical transitions in the VUV well developed Rydberg series are observed. One particular series can be followed up to fairly high n, so that accurate values of the first ionisation potential are determined. The identifications of the Rydberg series are made from arguments relating to their oscillator strengths, quantum defects, symmetries and from comparisons with the spectra of the corresponding united atoms i.e. the inert gases. Examples of the symmetry assignments for Rydberg series from rotational band contour analyses of the lower Rydberg members for the H sub 2 S, H sub 2 Se ...

  8. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boissé, P; Prochaska, J X; Péroux, C; York, D G

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of 5 distant sources have been assembled, for which 2 spectra - VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES - taken several years apart are available. Methods. We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra, and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behavior of a broad variety of absorption line systems, sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lya systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results. Absorption lines from MgII, FeII or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of gas appear to be remarkably stable (1 sigma upper limits as low as 10 % for some components on scal...

  9. CRIRES-POP: A library of high resolution spectra in the near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Lebzelter, T; Uttenthaler, S; Ramsay, S; Hartman, H; Nieva, M -F; Przybilla, N; Smette, A; Wahlgren, G M; Wolff, B; Hussain, G A J; Kaeufl, H U; Seemann, U

    2012-01-01

    New instrumental capabilities and the wealth of astrophysical information extractable from the near-infrared wavelength region have led to a growing interest in the field of high resolution spectroscopy at 1-5 mu. We aim to provide a library of observed high-resolution and high signal-to-noise-ratio near-infrared spectra of stars of various types throughout the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This is needed for the exploration of spectral features in this wavelength range and for comparison of reference targets with observations and models. High quality spectra were obtained using the CRIRES near-infrared spectrograph at ESO's VLT covering the range from 0.97 to 5.3 mu at high spectral resolution. Accurate wavelength calibration and correction for of telluric lines were performed by fitting synthetic transmission spectra for the Earth's atmosphere to each spectrum individually. We describe the observational strategy and the current status and content of the library which includes 13 objects. The first examples o...

  10. Analysis of the high resolution Mg XI x-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Centrum Badan Kosmicznych); Bromboszcz, G. (Wrolaw Univ. (Poland). Astronomical Inst.); Korneev, V.V.; Mandelshtam, S.L.; Oparin, S.N.; Urnov, A.M.; Zhitnik, I.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.); Vasha, S. (Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator (USSR). Inst. of Physics and Technics)

    1982-04-01

    In this paper, the second in a series dealing with high-resolution spectra (9.14-9.33 A) measured on board the INTERCOSMOS-16 satellite, the analysis of the physical conditions in the coronal part of the McMath 14352 active regions is performed. The temperature structure of the emitting plasma is investigated on the basis of the photon fluxes measured in six selected wavelength bands involving the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines of the Mg XI ion and a number of satellite lines. Relative line intensities are discussed in terms of the active region plasma density.

  11. Modelling High Resolution Absorption Spectra with ExoMolLine Lists: NH3and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, E. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.;

    The conditions, chemical reactions and gas mixing in industrial progresses involving gasification or combustion can be monitored by in situ measurement of gas temperature and gas composition. This can be done spectroscopically, though the result is highly dependent on the quality of reference data...... [1]. For this reason, a smart collaboration has been established between Optical Diagnostics Group at DTU and ExoMol, to combine high resolution spectra measured at elevated temperatures and empirically tuned ab initio methods to produce suitable molecular line lists for modelling molecules...

  12. Marvel Analysis of the Measured High-resolution Rovibronic Spectra of TiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Masseron, Thomas; Sheppard, Samuel; Sandeman, Elizabeth; Schofield, Zak; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Sousa-Silva, Clara

    2017-02-01

    Accurate, experimental rovibronic energy levels, with associated labels and uncertainties, are reported for 11 low-lying electronic states of the diatomic {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} molecule, determined using the Marvel (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm. All levels are based on lines corresponding to critically reviewed and validated high-resolution experimental spectra taken from 24 literature sources. The transition data are in the 2-22,160 cm-1 region. Out of the 49,679 measured transitions, 43,885 are triplet-triplet, 5710 are singlet-singlet, and 84 are triplet-singlet transitions. A careful analysis of the resulting experimental spectroscopic network (SN) allows 48,590 transitions to be validated. The transitions determine 93 vibrational band origins of {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}}, including 71 triplet and 22 singlet ones. There are 276 (73) triplet-triplet (singlet-singlet) band-heads derived from Marvel experimental energies, 123(38) of which have never been assigned in low- or high-resolution experiments. The highest J value, where J stands for the total angular momentum, for which an energy level is validated is 163. The number of experimentally derived triplet and singlet {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} rovibrational energy levels is 8682 and 1882, respectively. The lists of validated lines and levels for {}48{{Ti}}16{{O}} are deposited in the supporting information to this paper.

  13. A computational method to help identify and measure metal lines in high resolution QSO spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Heng Shi; David Tytler; Jin-Liang Hou; David Kirkman; Jeffery Lee; Benjamin Ou

    2011-01-01

    A computational code is developed to help identify metal absorption lines in high resolution QSO spectra,especially in the Lyα forest.The input to the code includes a list of line central wavelengths,column densities and Doppler widths.The code then searches for candidate metal absorption systems and assesses the probability that each system could be real.The framework of the strategy we employ is described in detail and we discuss how to estimate the errors in line profile fitting that are essential to identification.A series of artificial spectra is constructed to calibrate the performance of the code.Due to the effects of blending and noise on Voigt profile fitting,the completeness of the identification depends on the column density of absorbers.For intermediate and strong artificial metal absorbers,more than 90% could be confirmed by the code.The results of applying the code to the real spectra of QSOs HS0757+5218 and Q0100+1300 are also presented.

  14. NLTE Analysis of High Resolution H-band Spectra. I. Neutral Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junbo; Pan, Kaike; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the reliability of our silicon atomic model and the influence of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) on the formation of neutral silicon (Si I) lines in the near-infrared (near-IR) H-band. We derived the differential Si abundances for 13 sample stars with high-resolution H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), as well as from optical spectra, both under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and NLTE conditions. We found that the differences between the Si abundances derived from the H-band and from optical lines for the same stars are less than 0.1 dex when the NLTE effects included, and that NLTE reduces the line-to-line scatter in the H-band spectra for most sample stars. These results suggest that our Si atomic model is appropriate for studying the formation of H-band Si lines. Our calculations show that the NLTE corrections of the Si I H-band lines are negative, i.e. the final Si abundances will be overestimated in LTE. The correc...

  15. COSMIC-LAB: Unexpected Results from High-resolution Spectra of AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at clarifying one of the least studied phases of stellar evolution: the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Recent results obtained for Galactic globular clusters (GCs) suggest that the AGB stage may contain crucial information about the evolutionary history of exotic stars (Beccari et al. 2006) and multiple-populations (Campbell et al. 2013) in the parent cluster. The thesis presents the analysis of a large sample of high-resolution spectra of AGB stars in four Galactic GCs, acquired at the Very Large Telescope (ESO) and the 2.2 meter telescope (MPG). The obtained results provide evidence of a previously unknown physical mechanism affecting the neutral species of some chemical elements in the atmosphere of most AGB stars: because of it, the abundances derived from neutral lines are systematically underestimated, while those measured from ionized lines remain unaffected. Such a behaviour exactly corresponds to what expected in the case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) conditions i...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-resolution NIR spectra of local giants (Feuillet+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, D. K.; Bovy, J.; Holtzman, J.; Girardi, L.; MacDonald, N.; Majewski, S. R.; Nidever, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    We present a sample of 705 local giant stars observed using the New Mexico State University 1m telescope with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph, for which we estimate stellar ages and the local star formation history (SFH). The high-resolution (R~22500), near infrared (1.51-1.7μm) APOGEE spectra provide measurements of stellar atmospheric parameters (temperature, surface gravity, [M/H], and [α/M]). Due to the smaller uncertainties in surface gravity possible with high-resolution spectra and accurate Hipparcos distance measurements, we are able to calculate the stellar masses to within 30%. For giants, the relatively rapid evolution up the red giant branch allows the age to be constrained by the mass. We examine methods of estimating age using both the mass-age relation directly and a Bayesian isochrone matching of measured parameters, assuming a constant SFH. To improve the SFH prior, we use a hierarchical modeling approach to constrain the parameters of the model SFH using the age probability distribution functions of the data. The results of an α-dependent Gaussian SFH model show a clear age-[α/M] relation at all ages. Using this SFH model as the prior for an empirical Bayesian analysis, we determine ages for individual stars. The resulting age-metallicity relation is flat, with a slight decrease in [M/H] at the oldest ages and a ~0.5 dex spread in metallicity across most ages. For stars with ages <~1Gyr we find a smaller spread, consistent with radial migration having a smaller effect on these young stars than on the older stars. (1 data file).

  17. Ozone vertical distribution retrieval from ground-based high resolution infrared solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Connor, B. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    A practical procedure for the retrieval of ozone vertical profiles from ground-based high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra has been developed. The analysis is based on a multilayer line-by-line forward model and a semi-empirical version of the optimal estimation inversion method of Rodgers. The 1002.6-1003.2 cm(exp -1) spectral interval has been selected for the analysis on the basis of synthetic spectrum calculations. This interval contains numerous ozone lines covering a range of intensities and providing retrieval sensitivity from ground level to about 35 km. Characterization of the method and an error analysis have been performed. For a spectral resolution of 0.05-0.01 cm(exp -1) and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 100 the retrieval is stable with a vertical resolution of approximately 5 km attainable near the surface degrading to approximately 10 km in the stratosphere. Synthetic spectra studies show that the a priori profile and weak constraints selected for the retrievals introduce no significant biases for a wide range of ozone profiles.

  18. NLTE Analysis of High Resolution H-band Spectra. II. Neutral Magnesium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junbo; Pan, Kaike; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at testing the validity of our magnesium atomic model and investigating the effects of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) on the formation of the H-band neutral magnesium lines, we derive the differential Mg abundances from selected transitions for 13 stars either adopting or relaxing the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). Our analysis is based on high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and optical spectra from several instruments. The absolute differences between the Mg abundances derived from the two wavelength bands are always less than 0.1 dex in the NLTE analysis, while they are slightly larger for the LTE case. This suggests that our Mg atomic model is appropriate for investigating the NLTE formation of the H-band Mg lines. The NLTE corrections for the Mg I H-band lines are sensitive to the surface gravity, becoming larger for smaller log g values, and strong lines are more...

  19. The First High-Resolution Spectra of 1.3 L Subdwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, A; Basri, Gibor; Reiners, Ansgar

    2005-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution (R ~ 31,000) spectra of the cool sdL 2MASS0532, and what was originally identified as an early-type L subdwarf (sdL) LSR1610-0040. Our work, in combination with contemporaneous work by Cushing and Vacca, makes it clear that the latter object is more probably a mid-M dwarf with an unusual composition that gives it some sub-dwarf spectral features. We use the data to derive precise radial velocities for both objects and to estimate space motion; both are consistent with halo kinematics. We measure the projected rotational velocities, revealing very slow rotation for the old sd?M6 object \\lsr. \\twom exhibits rapid rotation of vsini = 65 +- 15km/s, consistent with the behavior of L dwarfs. This means that the braking time for L dwarfs is extremely long, or that perhaps they never slow down. A detailed comparison of the atomic Rb and Cs lines to spectra of field L dwarfs shows the spectral type \\twom is consistent with being mid- to late-L. The Rb I and K I lines of \\lsr\\ are l...

  20. N to K Uranium PIXE spectra obtained at the high resolution high energy PIXE setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Marques, J.P. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Dept. Física da Fac. Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    The CTN (previous ITN) high resolution high energy (HRHE) PIXE set-up facility was set in operation on July 2008 and upgrades were being implemented until late in 2011. The study of a pure UO{sub 2} sample and the mapping of geological sample are the first results where the whole range of possibilities has been exploited, namely the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectra covering a very wide energy range of more than 100 keV. In this paper, the N-shell to K-shell spectra of Uranium is presented and discussed, as well as the details on the characteristics and capacities of the setup, including the automated X–Y positioning systems installed in the X–Y–Z sample support unit, which allows for the possibility of making macroscopic mappings of geological samples (Chaves et al. (2013) [1]). As for the N-shell lines in the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) spectrum, due to the lack of data (Zschornack (2007) [2]), transition energies were determined using ab initio calculations assuming a closed shell U{sup 4+} electronic structure for Uranium prior to the ionisation by proton impact.

  1. MARVEL analysis of the measured high-resolution spectra of 14NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Császár, Attila G.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate, experimental rotational-vibrational energy levels and line positions, with associated labels and uncertainties, are reported for the ground electronic state of the symmetric-top 14NH3 molecule. All levels and lines are based on critically reviewed and validated high-resolution experimental spectra taken from 56 literature sources. The transition data are in the 0.7-17 000 cm-1 region, with a large gap between 7000 and 15 000 cm-1. The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) algorithm is used to determine the energy levels. Out of the 29 450 measured transitions 10 041 and 18 947 belong to ortho- and para-14NH3, respectively. A careful analysis of the related experimental spectroscopic network (SN) allows 28 530 of the measured transitions to be validated, 18 178 of these are unique, while 462 transitions belong to floating components. Despite the large number of spectroscopic measurements published over the last 80 years, the transitions determine only 30 vibrational band origins of 14NH3, 8 for ortho- and 22 for para-14NH3. The highest J value, where J stands for the rotational quantum number, for which an energy level is validated is 31. The number of experimental-quality ortho- and para-14NH3 rovibrational energy levels is 1724 and 3237, respectively. The MARVEL energy levels are checked against ones in the BYTe first-principles database, determined previously. The lists of validated lines and levels for 14NH3 are deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper. Combination of the MARVEL energy levels with first-principles absorption intensities yields a huge number of experimental-quality rovibrational lines, which should prove to be useful for the understanding of future complex high-resolution spectroscopy on 14NH3; these lines are also deposited in the Supporting Information to this paper.

  2. UVBLUE: A New High-Resolution Theoretical Library of Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Chavez, M.; Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-06-01

    We present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 Å) library of theoretical stellar spectral energy distributions computed at high resolution, λ/Δλ=50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as we named the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800 entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans a range in Teff from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravity ranges from logg=0.0 to 5.0 with Δlogg=0.5 dex, while seven chemical compositions are considered: [M/H]=-2.0,-1.5,-1.0,-0.5,+0.0,+0.3, and +0.5 dex. For its coverage across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this library is the most comprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in the short-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseen for both the study of single stars and in population synthesis models of galaxies and other stellar systems. We briefly discuss some relevant issues for a safe application of the theoretical output to ultraviolet observations, and a comparison of our LTE models with the non-LTE (NLTE) ones from the TLUSTY code is also carried out. NLTE spectra are found, on average, to be slightly ``redder'' compared to the LTE ones for the same value of Teff, while a larger difference could be detected for weak lines, which are nearly wiped out by the enhanced core emission component in case of NLTE atmospheres. These effects seem to be magnified at low metallicity (typically [M/H]<~-1). A match with a working sample of 111 stars from the IUE atlas, with available atmosphere parameters from the literature, shows that UVBLUE models provide an accurate description of the main mid- and low-resolution spectral features for stars along the whole sequence from the B to ~G5 type. The comparison sensibly degrades for later spectral types, with supergiant stars that are in general more poorly reproduced than dwarfs. As a possible explanation of this overall trend, we partly invoke the

  3. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacovella, U. [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Holland, D. M. P. [STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  4. Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Jeon, Chan-Gi; Shin, Junho; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Sang Eon; Song, Youjian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the most important properties of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and optical frequency combs. Accurate measurement of timing jitter power spectral density (PSD) is a critical prerequisite for optimizing overall noise performance and further advancing comb applications both in the time and frequency domains. Commonly used jitter measurement methods require a reference mode-locked laser with timing jitter similar to or lower than that of the laser-under-test, which is a demanding requirement for many laser laboratories, and/or have limited measurement resolution. Here we show a high-resolution and reference-source-free measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs using an optical fibre delay line and optical carrier interference. The demonstrated method works well for both mode-locked oscillators and supercontinua, with 2 × 10−9 fs2/Hz (equivalent to −174 dBc/Hz at 10-GHz carrier frequency) measurement noise floor. The demonstrated method can serve as a simple and powerful characterization tool for timing jitter PSDs of various comb sources including mode-locked oscillators, supercontinua and recently emerging Kerr-frequency combs; the jitter measurement results enabled by our method will provide new insights for understanding and optimizing timing noise in such comb sources. PMID:28102352

  5. High-resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. I - Oxygen in M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leep, E. M.; Wallerstein, G.; Oke, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution (0.3 A) CCD spectra obtained at the 200 in. coude spectrograph have been analyzed for the abundances of O, Sc, Fe, and La in four stars in the globular cluster M13. Fe/H abundance is found to be = -1.6, as found by many other observers of this cluster. For three stars O/Fe abundance is found to be = +0.3 + or - 0.1, which is similar to O/Fe ratios in other globular clusters and metal-poor field stars. For star II-67, no oxygen line is visible at 6300 A and O/Fe abundance is found to be not greater than -0.4 (for a high carbon content) and not greater than -0.7 (for a low carbon content). The latter is more likely to be correct. Two possible explanations of the oxygen deficiency in II-67 are discussed: primordial deficiency, and CNO cycling at or above a temperature of 25,000,000 K.

  6. Vibrationally resolved high-resolution NEXAFS and XPS spectra of phenanthrene and coronene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronzoni, Giovanna; Baseggio, Oscar; Stener, Mauro, E-mail: stener@univ.trieste.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unita’ di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Hua, Weijie; Tian, Guangjun [Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Luo, Yi [Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Apicella, Barbara; Alfé, Michela [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, IRC-CNR, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Simone, Monica de; Kivimäki, Antti [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, 00016 Montelibretti (Italy)

    2014-07-28

    We performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the C1s Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the gas phase of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and coronene), typically formed in combustion reactions. In the NEXAFS of both molecules, a double-peak structure appears in the C1s → LUMO region, which differ by less than 1 eV in transition energies. The vibronic coupling is found to play an important role in such systems. It leads to weakening of the lower-energy peak and strengthening of the higher-energy one because the 0 − n (n > 0) vibrational progressions of the lower-energy peak appear in nearly the same region of the higher-energy peak. Vibrationally resolved theoretical spectra computed within the Frank-Condon (FC) approximation and linear coupling model agree well with the high-resolution experimental results. We find that FC-active normal modes all correspond to in-plane vibrations.

  7. Determination of phosphorus using high-resolution diphosphorus molecular absorption spectra produced in the graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Okruss, Michael; Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular absorption of diphosphorus was produced in a graphite furnace and evaluated in view of its suitability for phosphorus determination. Measurements were performed with two different high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometers. The first system is a newly in-house developed simultaneous broad-range spectrograph, which was mainly used for recording overview absorption spectra of P2 between 193 nm and 245 nm. The region covers the main part of the C 1Σu+ ← X 1Σg+ electronic transition and shows a complex structure with many vibrational bands, each consisting of a multitude of sharp rotational lines. With the help of molecular data available for P2, an assignment of the vibrational bands was possible and the rotational structure could be compared with simulated spectra. The second system is a commercial sequential continuum source spectrometer, which was used for the basic analytical measurements. The P2 rotational line at 204.205 nm was selected and systematically evaluated with regard to phosphorus determination. The conditions for P2 generation were optimized and it was found that the combination of a ZrC modified graphite tube and borate as a chemical modifier were essential for a good production of P2. Serious interferences were found in the case of nitrate and sulfuric acid, although the nitrate interference can be eliminated by a higher pyrolysis temperature. The reliability of the method was proved by analysis of certified samples. Using standard tubes, a characteristic mass of 10 ng and a limit of detection of 7 ng were found. The values could further be improved by a factor of ten using a miniaturized tube with an internal diameter of 2 mm. Compared to the conventional method based on the phosphorus absorption line at 213.618 nm, the advantages of using P2 are the gentle temperature conditions and the potential of performing a simultaneous multi-line evaluation to further improve the limit of detection.

  8. High-resolution far ultraviolet emission spectra of electron-excited molecular deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, H.; Roueff, E. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, DAEC and CNRS UMR 8631, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Xianming Liu; Shemansky, D.E. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); James, G.K. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    1999-08-14

    The high-resolution (full width at half maximum {delta} {lambda} = 0.11 A) emission spectrum of the deuterium molecule produced by electron-impact excitation at 100 eV has been measured in the wavelength range 1200-1660 A. In conjunction with the experimental measurement, transition probabilities of B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, B'{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup -} band systems are calculated. Synthetic spectra based on the calculated transition probabilities are in very good agreement with the optically thin experimental spectra. While centrifugal effects on the overall Lyman band emission intensity in D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are similar, the effect of rotation-vibrational perturbations between the B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} and C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}{sup +} states on spectral intensities is found to be less significant in D{sub 2}. Excitations via isotropic ({delta} J = 0) and anisotropic ({delta}J = {+-} 2, and 0) interactions for the dipole forbidden E, F{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} transition are inferred from the measured spectra. Excitation cross sections of the B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} bands, along with the estimated E, F{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} cascade cross section, for D{sub 2} are obtained. (author)

  9. Physical Properties of Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low-Mass Stars Inferred from High-Resolution Model Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; McLean, Ian S; Prato, L; Kirkpatrick, J Davy

    2009-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmosphere models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only ~M6 objects with ages ranging from 1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R~2,000) and high (R~20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened KI lines, and investigate deficiencies in the model...

  10. Analysis of High-Resolution Spectra From a Hybrid Interferometric/Dispersive Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, P; Jovanovic, I

    2015-01-01

    To more fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a mathematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex spectral patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, leading to increased spectral resolution by more than an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm) is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonproliferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.682. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isoto...

  11. UVBLUE: a new high-resolution theoretical library of ultraviolet stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Merino, L H; Bertone, E; Buzzoni, A

    2005-01-01

    We present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 AA) library of theoretical stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) computed at high resolution, R= 50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as we named the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800 entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans a range in effective temperature from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravity ranges from log g= 0.0 to 5.0 with a step of 0.5 dex, while seven chemical compositions are considered: [Fe/H]= -2.0, -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, +0.0, +0.3 and +0.5 dex. For its coverage across the H-R diagram, this library is the most comprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in the short-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseen both for the study of single stars and in population synthesis models of galaxies and other stellar systems.

  12. High-resolution NMR spectra of n-alkanes penetrating into carbon fibers and of protons in carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuya; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Nikki, Kunio; Kuwahara, Daisuke

    2008-08-01

    We present a simple NMR method for microscopically exploring the local environment in carbon fibers. The method utilizes n-alkanes as probe molecules, where the n-alkanes penetrate carbon fibers of interest. The high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra for a mixture of a carbon fiber and n-alkanes acquired by this method show a shift of the resonance line, which is due to the local structure of the fiber. The utility of this method is discussed on the basis of the (1)H NMR spectra obtained. In addition, the (1)H distribution and the local motion in the structure of the carbon fiber are revealed in view of the (1)H NMR spectra.

  13. Accurate proteome-wide protein quantification from high-resolution 15N mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia; Amini, Sasan; Bloom, Joshua S; Ruse, Cristian; Caudy, Amy A; Kruglyak, Leonid; Singh, Mona; Perlman, David H; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2011-12-19

    In quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, the metabolic incorporation of a single source of 15N-labeled nitrogen has many advantages over using stable isotope-labeled amino acids. However, the lack of a robust computational framework for analyzing the resulting spectra has impeded wide use of this approach. We have addressed this challenge by introducing a new computational methodology for analyzing 15N spectra in which quantification is integrated with identification. Application of this method to an Escherichia coli growth transition reveals significant improvement in quantification accuracy over previous methods.

  14. “Lossless” compression of high resolution mass spectra of small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenburg, Bo; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.; Deelder, André M.

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) provides the highest resolving power of any commercially available mass spectrometer. This advantage is most significant for species of low mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), such as metabolites. Unfortunately, FTICR spectra contain a very large number of data points, most of which are noise. This is most pronounced at the low m/z end of spectra, where data point density is the highest but peak density low. We therefore developed a filter that offers lossless compression of FTICR mass spectra from singly charged metabolites. The filter relies on the high resolving power and mass measurement precision of FTICR and removes only those m/z channels that cannot contain signal from singly charged organic species. The resulting pseudospectra still contain the same signal as the original spectra but less uninformative background. The filter does not affect the outcome of standard downstream chemometric analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, but use of the filter significantly reduces memory requirements and CPU time for such analyses. We demonstrate the utility of the filter for urinary metabolite profiling using direct infusion electrospray ionization and a 15 tesla FTICR mass spectrometer. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0202-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676216

  15. Analysis of the high resolution Mg XI X-ray spectra. Pt. 3. Non-thermal interpretation of some spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, J. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Centrum Badan Kosmicznych); Bromboszcs, G. (Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Obserwatorium Astronomiczne); Korneev, V.V.; Mandelshtam, S.L.; Oparin, S.N.; Urnov, A.M.; Zhitnik, I.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1982-11-01

    In part III of the paper containing the analysis of the INTERCOSMOS 16 ADP spectra, it is shown that by assuming the existence of a small admixture (1%) of non-thermal electrons in the active-region plasma it is possible to improve the agreement between measured and calculated fluxes for some spectra. The analysis follows the suggestion contained in the paper by Karev et al. (1980).

  16. Modelling high-resolution spatially-resolved Supernova Remnant spectra with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Loru, Sara; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Noemi; Righini, Simona; Marongiu, Marco; Mulas, Sara; Murtas, Giulia; Simeone, Davide; Pilia, Maura; Bachetti, Matteo; Trois, Alessio; Ricci, Roberto; Melis, Andrea; Concu, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) exhibit spectra featured by synchrotron radio emission arising from the relativistic electrons, and high-energy emission from both leptonic (Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton) and hadronic processes (${\\pi}^0$ mesons decay) which are a direct signature of cosmic rays acceleration. Thanks to radio single-dish imaging observations obtained in three frequency bands (1.6, 7, 22 GHz) with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it), we can model different SNR regions separately. Indeed, in order to disentangle interesting and peculiar hadron contributions in the high-energy spectra (gamma-ray band) and better constrain SNRs as cosmic rays emitters, it is crucial to fully constrain lepton contributions first through radio-observed parameters. In particular, the Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton bumps observed in gamma-rays are bounded to synchrotron spectral slope and cut-off in the radio domain. Since these parameters vary for different SNR regions and electron populations, spatially...

  17. Modeling Stellar Parameters for High Resolution Late-M and Early-L Dwarf SDSS/APOGEE Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birky, Jessica L.; Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Theissen, Christopher; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Teske, Johanna K.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bird, Jonathan C.; UCSD FAST Team

    2017-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has measured high resolution (R~22,500), near-infrared (1.51-1.70 µm) spectra for nearly 100,000 stars within the Milky Way Galaxy. While the APOGEE experiment was designed to research Galactic structure by targeting bright stellar populations in the disk, we have focused attention on the lesser-studied subset of faint and low-temperature late-M and early-L dwarfs, with the objective of characterizing their chemical abundances. Using spectral synthesis routines from the Starfish package, we report preliminary determinations of Teff, logg, and [Fe/H] for a small sample of spectra using PHOENIX models ranging in the 2,300 to 3,000K temperature grids.This work is supported by the SDSS Faculty and Student (FAST) initiative, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  18. Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models: I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are the most numerous stars in the Universe; they span a wide range in mass and are in the focus of ongoing and planned exoplanet surveys. To investigate and understand their physical nature, detailed spectral information and accurate stellar models are needed. We use a new synthetic atmosphere model generation and compare model spectra to observations. To test the model accuracy, we compared the models to four benchmark stars with atmospheric parameters for which independent information from interferometric radius measurements is available. We used $\\chi^2$ -based methods to determine parameters from high-resolution spectroscopic observations. Our synthetic spectra are based on the new PHOENIX grid that uses the ACES description for the equation of state. This is a model generation expected to be especially suitable for the low-temperature atmospheres. We identified suitable spectral tracers of atmospheric parameters and determined the uncertainties in $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log{g}$, and [Fe/H] resul...

  19. 13C high resolution solid state NMR spectra of Chinese coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德玉; 胡建治; 叶朝辉

    1997-01-01

    Several typical exinites in China including alginite, cultinite, suberinite and bituminite are analysed by means of 13C high solution solid state CP MAS TOSS NMR spectra to determine their chemical structures and hydrocarbon potential. Thermal simulation solid products (TSSP) of hydrogen-rich coals arc studied to discuss the generation and expulsion mechanism of coal-generating hydrocarbon. The preliminary results are quite encouraging, containing useful information about genesis of coal-generating oil and gases.

  20. High-resolution Absorption Spectra of Acetylene in 142.8-152.3 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-hua Hu; Chen Zhen; Jing-hua Dai; Xiao-guo Zhou; Shi-lin Liu

    2008-01-01

    The absorption spectra of acetylene molecules was measured under jet-cooled conditions in the wavelength range of 142.8-152.3 nm, with a tunable and highly resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated by two-photon resonant four wave difference frequency mixing processes. Due to the sufficient vibrational and rotational cooling effect of the molecular beam and the higher resolution VUV laser, the observed absorption spectra exhibit more distinct spectral features than the previous works measured at room temperature. The major three vibrational bands are assigned as a C-C symmetry stretching vibrational progress (v2=0-2) of the C~Ⅱu state of acetylene. The observed shoulder peak at 148.2 nm is assigned to the first overtone band of the trans-bending mode v4 of the C~Ⅱu state of acetylene. Additionally, the two components, 42 (μ1 Ⅱu) and 42(K1Ⅱu), are suggested to exhibit in the present absorption spectra, due to their Penner-Teller effect and transition selection rule. All band origins and bandwidths are obtained subsequently, and it is found that bandwidths are broadened and lifetimes decrease gradually with the excitation of vibration.

  1. High-resolution Absorption Spectra of Acetylene in 142.8-152.3 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-hua; Zhen, Chen; Dai, Jing-hua; Zhou, Xiao-guo; Liu, Shi-lin

    2008-10-01

    The absorption spectra of acetylene molecules was measured under jet-cooled conditions in the wavelength range of 142.8-152.3 nm, with a tunable and highly resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated by two-photon resonant four wave difference frequency mixing processes. Due to the sufficient vibrational and rotational cooling effect of the molecular beam and the higher resolution VUV laser, the observed absorption spectra exhibit more distinct spectral features than the previous works measured at room temperature. The major three vibrational bands are assigned as a C-C symmetry stretching vibrational progress (u2 = 0-2) of the tilde C1 IIu state of acetylene. The observed shoulder peak at 148.2 nm is assigned to the first overtone band of the trans-bending mode u4 of the tilde C1 IIustate of acetylene. Additionally, the two components, 4o2(μ1IIu) and 4o2(κ1 IIuare suggested to exhibit in the present absorption spectra, due to their Renner-Teller effect and transition selection rule. All band origins and bandwidths are obtained subsequently, and it is found that bandwidths are broadened and lifetimes decrease gradually with the excitation of vibration.

  2. Program Package for the Analysis of High Resolution High Signal-To-Noise Stellar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, N.; Ryabchikova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu.; Sitnova, T.; Alekseeva, S.; Mashonkina, L.; Nordlander, T.

    2017-06-01

    The program package SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy), designed to perform an analysis of stellar spectra using spectral fitting techniques, was updated due to adding new functions (isotopic and hyperfine splittins) in VALD and including grids of NLTE calculations for energy levels of few chemical elements. SME allows to derive automatically stellar atmospheric parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, chemical abundances, radial and rotational velocities, turbulent velocities, taking into account all the effects defining spectral line formation. SME package uses the best grids of stellar atmospheres that allows us to perform spectral analysis with the similar accuracy in wide range of stellar parameters and metallicities - from dwarfs to giants of BAFGK spectral classes.

  3. Investigation Jet Rotation in Young Stars via High Resolution UV Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Francesca

    2009-07-01

    In recent years we have successfully harnessed the high resolution of STIS in the optical to reveal asymmetries in Doppler shifts transverse to the flow direction in 8 T Tauri jets {Bacciotti ea 2002; Woitas ea 2005; Coffey ea 2004; 2007}. We interpret the findings, just 100 AU above the disk, as signatures of jet rotation. The significance of these results is considerable. They form the only existing observational indications supporting the theory that jets extract angular momentum from star-disk systems. Furthermore, they hold the potential to discriminate between the main model contenders: X-wind and Disk-wind {Ferreira ea 2006}. Although our results are encouraging, it is evident that we are only marginally resolving the effects of rotation because of the limiting resolution {spatially and spectrally} of STIS in the optical. Therefore, in Cycle 12 we proposed to extend this study into the near-ultraviolet {NUV}, giving double the spatial and spectral resolution {proposal ID 9807}. Unfortunately, only 3 targets in our survey were observed before the failure of STIS {Coffey ea 2007}. Nevertheless, the results were very exciting. Agreement was found between the optical and NUV results in terms of the magnitude and sense of the Doppler shift gradient across the jet. Furthermore, the NUV lines indicated that the observed high velocity gas was launched from about 0.2-0.5 AU, compared to the lower velocity gas traced in optical lines which originates from as far as 2 AU. This puts a strong contraint on MHD launch models, and indeed holds the potential to differentiate between them. Given that the strength of a rotation argument lies in the survey nature of the findings, we need to resume this program in order to see if the same rotation signatures are commonly seen in the NUV, as they are in the optical. Furthermore, the higher spatial and spectral resolution of STIS in the NUV will allow us to more accurately quantify the variation in toroidal velocity as a function

  4. Synthetic High-Resolution Line Spectra of Star-Forming Galaxies Below 1200A

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, C; Aloisi, A; Leitherer, C; Hoopes, C; Heckman, T M; Robert, Carmelle; Pellerin, Anne; Aloisi, Alessandra; Leitherer, Claus; Hoopes, Charles; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2002-01-01

    We have generated a set of far-ultraviolet stellar libraries using spectra of OB and Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galaxy and the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. The spectra were collected with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and cover a wavelength range from 1003.1 to 1182.7A at a resolution of 0.127A. The libraries extend from the earliest O- to late-O and early-B stars for the Magellanic Cloud and Galactic libraries, respectively. Attention is paid to the complex blending of stellar and interstellar lines, which can be significant, especially in models using Galactic stars. The most severe contamination is due to molecular hydrogen. Using a simple model for the H$_2$ line strength, we were able to remove the molecular hydrogen lines in a subset of Magellanic Cloud stars. Variations of the photospheric and wind features of CIII 1176, OVI 1032, 1038, PV 1118, 1128, and SIV 1063, 1073, 1074 are discussed as a function of temperature and luminosity class. The spectral libraries were implemented into the...

  5. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Emissions of Vegetation Canopies From High Resolution Field Reflectance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva

    2006-01-01

    A two-year experiment was performed on corn (Zea mays L.) crops under nitrogen (N) fertilization regimes to examine the use of hyperspectral canopy reflectance information for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) and vegetation production. Fluorescence of foliage in the laboratory has proven more rigorous than reflectance for correlation to plant physiology. Especially useful are emissions produced from two stable red and far-red chlorophyll ChlF peaks centered at 685V10 nm and 735V5 nm. Methods have been developed elsewhere to extract steady state solar induced fluorescence (SF) from apparent reflectance of vegetation canopies/landscapes using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Our study utilized these methods in conjunction with field-acquired high spectral resolution canopy reflectance spectra obtained in 2004 and 2005 over corn crops, as part of an ongoing multi-year experiment at the USDA/Agriculture Research Service in Beltsville, MD. A spectroradiometer (ASD-FR Fieldspec Pro, Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO) was used to measure canopy radiances 1 m above plant canopies with a 22deg field of view and a 0deg nadir view zenith angle. Canopy and plant measurements were made at the R3 grain fill reproductive stage on 3-4 replicate N application plots provided seasonal inputs of 280, 140, 70, and 28 kg N/ha. Leaf level measurements were also made which included ChlF, photosynthesis, and leaf constituents (photosynthetic pigment, carbon (C), and N contents). Crop yields were determined at harvest. SIF intensities for ChlF were derived directly from canopy reflectance spectra in specific narrowband regions associated with atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 and 760 nm. The red/far-red S F ratio derived from these field reflectance spectra successfully discriminated foliar pigment levels (e.g., total chlorophyll, Chl) associated with N application rates in both corn crops. This canopy-level spectral ratio was also

  6. Time-Varying Potassium in High-Resolution Spectra of the Type Ia Supernova 2014J

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, M L; Fulton, B J; Weiss, L M; Shen, K J; Kelly, P L; Zheng, W; Filippenko, A V; Marcy, G W; Howell, D A; Burt, J; Rivera, E J

    2014-01-01

    We present a time series of the highest resolution spectra yet published for the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J in M82. They were obtained at 11 epochs over 33 days around peak brightness with the Levy Spectrograph (resolution R~110,000) on the 2.4m Automated Planet Finder telescope at Lick Observatory. We identify multiple Na I D and K I absorption features, as well as absorption by Ca I H & K and several of the more common diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We see no evolution in any component of Na I D, Ca I, or in the DIBs, but do establish the dissipation/weakening of the two most blueshifted components of K I. We present several potential physical explanations, finding the most plausible to be photoionization of circumstellar material, and discuss the implications of our results with respect to the progenitor scenario of SN 2014J.

  7. Isotopic abundances of stratospheric ozone from balloon-borne high-resolution infrared solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Kosters, J. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    IR solar absorption spectra at 0.002-0.0003/cm resolution in the 10-micron region obtained during two balloon flights near 32 deg N latitude are examined to determine the isotopic ratios of (O-16)(O-16)(O-18) and (O-16)(O-18)(O-16) relative to normal ozone in the stratosphere. For November 18, 1987, the results show column-averaged isotopic enhancement ratios of 1.20 + or - 0.14 and 1.40 + or - 0.18 for (O-16)(O-18)(O-16)/(O-16)(O-16)(O-16) and (O-16)(O-16)(O-18)/(O-16)(O-16)(O-16), respectively. The corresponding values for June 6, 1988, show ratios of 1.16 + or - 0.08 and 1.25 + or - 0.12. The results are compared with heavy-to-normal O3 ratios obtained using other techniques.

  8. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-Infrared High Resolution Spectra of Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Gagné, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Bottom, Michael; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Beichman, Charles; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John; Ciardi, David; Wallace, James; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Tanner, Angelle; Crawford, Timothy; Latham, David; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL's narrow wavelen...

  9. New insights in high-resolution spectroscopy a wide theoretical library of R=500000 stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, E; Rodríguez-Merino, L H; Chavez, M

    2002-01-01

    We present an extended theoretical library of over 800 synthetic stellar spectra, covering energy distribution in the optical range (lambda = 3500-7000 angstrom), at inverse resolution R=500000. The library, based on the ATLAS9 model atmospheres, has been computed with the SYNTHE code developed by R.L. Kurucz. The grid spans a large volume in the fundamental parameter space (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity), and can be profitably applied to different research fields dealing both with the study of single stars and stellar aggregates, through population synthesis models. A complementary project, in progress, will extend the wavelength range to the ultraviolet, down to 850 angstrom, at an inverse resolution of R=50000.

  10. New Insights in High-Resolution Spectroscopy: a Wide Theoretical Library of R=500000 Stellar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Chávez, M.

    We present an extended theoretical library of over 800 synthetic stellar spectra, covering energy distribution in the optical range (lambda = 3500-7000 angstrom), at inverse resolution R=500000. The library, based on the ATLAS9 model atmospheres, has been computed with the SYNTHE code developed by R.L. Kurucz. The grid spans a large volume in the fundamental parameter space (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity), and can be profitably applied to different research fields dealing both with the study of single stars and stellar aggregates, through population synthesis models. A complementary project, in progress, will extend the wavelength range to the ultraviolet, down to 850 angstrom, at an inverse resolution of R=50000.

  11. Evaluation of data compression techniques for the inference of stellar atmospheric parameters from high-resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Marcos, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Bello-García, A.

    2017-03-01

    The determination of stellar atmospheric parameters from spectra suffers the so-called curse-of-dimensionality problem, which is related to the higher number of input variables (flux values) compared to the number of spectra available to fit a regression model (this collection of examples is known as the training set). This work evaluates the utility of several techniques for alleviating this problem in regression tasks where the objective is to estimate the effective temperature (Teff), the surface gravity (log g), the metallicity ([M/H]) and/or the alpha-to-iron ratio ([α/Fe]). The goal of the techniques analysed here is to achieve data compression by representing the spectra with a number of variables much lower than the initially available set of fluxes. The experiments were performed with high-resolution spectra of stars in the 4000-8000 K range for different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. We conclude that independent component analysis (ICA) performs better than the rest of techniques evaluated for all SNR regimes. We also assess the necessity to adapt the SNR of the spectra used to fit a regression model (training set) to the SNR of the spectra for which the atmospheric parameters are needed (evaluation set). Within the conditions of our experiments, we conclude that at most only two such regression models are needed (in the case of regression models for effective temperatures, those corresponding to SNR = 50 and 10) to cover the entire SNR range. Finally, we also compare the prediction accuracy of effective temperature regression models for increasing values of the training grid density and the same compression techniques.

  12. Fundamental stellar parameters and metallicities from Bayesian spectroscopy: application to low- and high-resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Bergemann, Maria

    2014-09-01

    We present a unified framework to derive fundamental stellar parameters by combining all available observational and theoretical information for a star. The algorithm relies on the method of Bayesian inference, which for the first time directly integrates the spectroscopic analysis pipeline based on the global spectrum synthesis and allows for comprehensive and objective error calculations given the priors. Arbitrary input data sets can be included into our analysis and other stellar quantities, in addition to stellar age, effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, can be computed on demand. We lay out the mathematical framework of the method and apply it to several observational data sets, including high- and low-resolution spectra (UVES, NARVAL, HARPS, SDSS/SEGUE). We find that simpler approximations for the spectroscopic probability distribution function, which are inherent to past Bayesian approaches, lead to deviations of several standard deviations and unreliable errors on the same data. By its flexibility and the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent measurements for a star, it will be ideal to analyse and cross-calibrate the large ongoing and forthcoming surveys, like Gaia-European Southern Observatory (ESO), SDSS, Gaia and LSST.

  13. High resolution infrared spectra of NGC 6440 and NGC 6441: two massive Bulge Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Origlia, L; Rich, R M

    2008-01-01

    Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck II, we have obtained infrared echelle spectra covering the 1.5-1.8 micron range for giant stars in the massive bulge globular clusters NGC6440 and NGC6441. We report the first high dispersion abundance for NGC6440, [Fe/H]=-0.56+/-0.02 and we find [Fe/H]=-0.50+/-0.02 for the blue HB cluster NGC6441. We measure an average $\\alpha$-enhancement of ~+0.3 dex in both clusters, consistent with previous measurements of other metal rich bulge clusters, and favoring the scenario of a rapid bulge formation and chemical enrichment. We also measure very low 12C/13C isotopic ratios (~5+/- 1), suggesting that extra-mixing mechanisms are at work during evolution along the Red Giant Branch also in the high metallicity regime. We also measure Al abundances, finding average [Al/Fe]=0.45+/-0.02 and [Al/Fe]=0.52+/-0.02 in NGC6440 and NGC6441, respectively, and some Mg-Al anti-correlation in NGC6441. We also measure radial velocities vr=-76+/-3 km/s and vr=+14+/-3 km/s and velocity dispersion...

  14. Absorption line indices from high resolution spectra. I. New Response Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Tantalo, R; Munari, U; Piovan, L; Sordo, R

    2004-01-01

    Basing on the huge library of 1A resolution spectra calculated by Munari et al. (2004) over a large range of atmospheric parameters (log Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) and both for solar and alpha-enhanced abundance ratios, we present theoretical absorption line indices on the Lick system. Firstly we derive the so-called Response Functions (RFs) of Tripicco & Bell (1995, TB95) for a wide range of atmospheric parameters, and [a/Fe]=+0.4. The RFs are commonly used to correct indices with solar [a/Fe] ratios to indices with [a/Fe]>0. Not only the RFs vary with the type of star but also with the metallicity. Secondly, with the aid of this and the Fitting Functions (FFs) of Worthey et al. (1994), we derive the indices for SSPs and compare them with those obtained by previous authors. The new RFs not only supersede the old ones by TB95, but also confirm that method adopted by Tantalo & Chiosi (2004a) to include the effect of alpha-enhancement was correct, and clearly show that also Hb increases with the degree of enh...

  15. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d' Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  16. Chemical Abundances in Field Red Giants from High-Resolution H-Band Spectra using the APOGEE Spectral Linelist

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Verne V; Shetrone, Matthew D; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Perez, Ana Garcia; Majewski, Steven R; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the SDSS III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes 12C, 13C, 14N, and 16O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to ~0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is, thus, well-suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as inter...

  17. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  18. Quantification of several atmospheric gases from high resolution infrared solar spectra obtained at the South Pole in 1980 and 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron; Murcray, Frank J.; Murcray, Frank H.; Murcray, David G.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution solar absorption spectra recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station were analyzed to obtain total column amounts of O3, N2O, HNO3, CO2, CH4, and CF2Cl2, and to investigate the differences in the values obtained in December 1980 with those obtained in December 1986. In addition, vertical column amounts for HCl, NO, NO2, and C2H6 were derived for December 1986. One interesting feature of these results is that the total column amounts of HCl measured for several days at the South Pole (/6.4 + or - 0.8/ x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm) were high compared with the HCl column amounts reported for lower latitudes.

  19. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Clairotte, M.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-02-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and compared to SOA from α-pinene. The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production. Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25-0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using principal component analysis (PCA). The model showed a significant separation of the four SOA types and clustering of the duplicate experiments on the first two principal components (PCs), which explained 79% of the total variance. Projection of ambient SV-OOA spectra resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that this approach could be useful to identify large contributions of the tested SOA sources to SV-OOA. The first results from this

  20. Modelling the Emission And/or Absorption Features in the High Resolution Spectra of the Southern Binary System: HH Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseoglu, Dogan; Bakış, Hicran

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution spectra (R=48000) of the southern close binary system, HH Car, has been analyzed with modern analysis techniques. Precise absolute parameters were derived from the simultaneous solution of the radial velocity, produced in this study and the light curves, published. According to the results of these analyses, the primary component is an O9 type main sequence star while the secondary component is a giant/subgiant star with a spectral type of B0. Hα emissions can be seen explicitly in the spectra of HH Car. These features were modelled using the absolute parameters of the components. Since components of HH Car are massive early-type stars, mass loss through stellar winds can be expected. This study revealed that the components of HH Car have stellar winds and the secondary component loses mass to the primary. Stellar winds and the gas stream between the components were modelled as a hot shell around the system. It is determined that the interaction between the winds and the gas stream leads to formation of a high temperature impact region.

  1. Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Frasca, A; Magrini, L; Masseron, T; Pancino, E; Ruchti, G; Roman, I San; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Tabernero, H; Tautvaisiene, G; Valentini, M; Weber, M; Worley, C C; Adibekyan, V Zh; Prieto, C Allende; Barisevicius, G; Biazzo, K; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Bonifacio, P; Bragaglia, A; Caffau, E; Cantat-Gaudin, T; Chorniy, Y; de Laverny, P; Delgado-Mena, E; Donati, P; Duffau, S; Franciosini, E; Friel, E; Geisler, D; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Gruyters, P; Guiglion, G; Hansen, C J; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Jacobson, H R; Jofre, P; Jonsson, H; Lanzafame, A C; Lardo, C; Ludwig, H G; Maiorca, E; Mikolaitis, S; Montes, D; Morel, T; Mucciarelli, A; Munoz, C; Nordlander, T; Pasquini, L; Puzeras, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Ryde, N; Sacco, G; Santos, N C; Serenelli, A M; Sordo, R; Soubiran, C; Spina, L; Steffen, M; Vallenari, A; Van Eck, S; Villanova, S; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Asplund, M; Binney, J; Drew, J; Feltzing, S; Ferguson, A; Jeffries, R; Micela, G; Negueruela, I; Prusti, T; Rix, H-W; Alfaro, E; Babusiaux, C; Bensby, T; Blomme, R; Flaccomio, E; Francois, P; Irwin, M; Koposov, S; Walton, N; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Edvardsson, B; Hourihane, A; Jackson, R; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Marconi, G; Martayan, C; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Prisinzano, L; Zaggia, S

    2014-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopic data for about 10^5 stars using FLAMES at the VLT. UVES high-resolution spectra are being collected for about 5000 FGK-type stars. These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO 2nd internal release and will be part of its 1st public release of advanced data products. The final parameter scale is tied to the one defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. A set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each methodology is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three diff...

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R.; Korn, A. J.; Bergemann, M.; Frasca, A.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Pancino, E.; Ruchti, G.; San Roman, I.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Valentini, M.; Weber, M.; Worley, C. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Allende Prieto, C.; Barisevičius, G.; Biazzo, K.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Bonifacio, P.; Bragaglia, A.; Caffau, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Chorniy, Y.; de Laverny, P.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Donati, P.; Duffau, S.; Franciosini, E.; Friel, E.; Geisler, D.; González Hernández, J. I.; Gruyters, P.; Guiglion, G.; Hansen, C. J.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Jacobson, H. R.; Jofre, P.; Jönsson, H.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lardo, C.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Maiorca, E.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Montes, D.; Morel, T.; Mucciarelli, A.; Muñoz, C.; Nordlander, T.; Pasquini, L.; Puzeras, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Ryde, N.; Sacco, G.; Santos, N. C.; Serenelli, A. M.; Sordo, R.; Soubiran, C.; Spina, L.; Steffen, M.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.; Villanova, S.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Drew, J.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A.; Jeffries, R.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Alfaro, E.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Flaccomio, E.; François, P.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S.; Walton, N.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Edvardsson, B.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Marconi, G.; Martayan, C.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 105 stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars. Aims: These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products. Methods: The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods. Results: The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected Teff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for Teff, 0.13 dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for Teff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method

  3. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

  4. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-RAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Giovanni; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard. J.; Debattista, Victor P.; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-RAY, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive spectral energy distribution library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-RAY to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, both bolometrically and as a function of infrared wavelength.

  5. Spatially resolved spectroscopy across stellar surfaces. II. High-resolution spectra across HD 209458 (G0 V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravins, Dainis; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Dahlén, Erik; Pazira, Hiva

    2017-09-01

    Context. High-resolution spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces aims at obtaining spectral-line profiles that are free from rotational broadening; the gradual changes of these profiles from disk center toward the stellar limb reveal properties of atmospheric fine structure, which are possible to model with 3D hydrodynamics. Aims: Previous such studies have only been carried out for the Sun but are now extended to other stars. In this work, profiles of photospheric spectral lines are retrieved across the disk of the planet-hosting star HD 209458 (G0 V). Methods: During exoplanet transit, stellar surface portions successively become hidden and differential spectroscopy provides spectra of small surface segments temporarily hidden behind the planet. The method was elaborated in Paper I, with observable signatures quantitatively predicted from hydrodynamic simulations. Results: From observations of HD 209458 with spectral resolution λ/ Δλ 80 000, photospheric Fe I line profiles are obtained at several center-to-limb positions, reaching adequately high S/N after averaging over numerous similar lines. Conclusions: Retrieved line profiles are compared to synthetic line profiles. Hydrodynamic 3D models predict, and current observations confirm, that photospheric absorption lines become broader and shallower toward the stellar limb, reflecting that horizontal velocities in stellar granulation are greater than vertical velocities. Additional types of 3D signatures will become observable with the highest resolution spectrometers at large telescopes.

  6. Processing of high resolution magic angle spinning spectra of breast cancer cells by the filter diagonalization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Roberta Manzano; Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Magon, Claudio José; Venâncio, Tiago; Altei, Wanessa Fernanda; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for detection of biochemical changes in biological samples is a successful technique. However, the achieved NMR resolution is not sufficiently high when the analysis is performed with intact cells. To improve spectral resolution, high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is used and the broad signals are separated by a T(2) filter based on the CPMG pulse sequence. Additionally, HR-MAS experiments with a T(2) filter are preceded by a water suppression procedure. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that the experimental procedures of water suppression and T(2) or diffusing filters are unnecessary steps when the filter diagonalization method (FDM) is used to process the time domain HR-MAS signals. Manipulation of the FDM results, represented as a tabular list of peak positions, widths, amplitudes and phases, allows the removal of water signals without the disturbing overlapping or nearby signals. Additionally, the FDM can also be used for phase correction and noise suppression, and to discriminate between sharp and broad lines. Results demonstrate the applicability of the FDM post-acquisition processing to obtain high quality HR-MAS spectra of heterogeneous biological materials.

  7. High resolution catalogue of emission lines in the spectra of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Buzzoni, A.

    2003-04-01

    The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in Canary Islands with the echelle spectrograph SARG during the night 19-20 of April 2002. One echelle spectrum composed by 55 orders covering the spectral range from 462 to 792 nm with R=57000 was acquired. The observations were performed in the frame of a program aimed to collect, catalogue and identify cometary emission lines in the optical part of the spectral range. In this range many important lines of daughters molecules and ions can be found; most of these lines were detected many times with low resolution spectroscopy, but the cataloguing with high resolution spectroscopy was done until now for few comets, and many lines still remain unidentified. We present here a first version of our catalogue, in which the line identification, based on wavelength coincidence only, is made using as starting line lists the ones compiled by Brown et al. [1] and Cochran and Cochran [2]. The O(1S) and O(1D) metastable lines are also clearly visible in our spectra and well separated from the other cometary and telluric lines, so we present also a preliminary estimate of the ratio of the green and red lines. [1] M.E. Brown et al. (1996) AJ, 112. [2] A. Cochran and D. Cochran (2002) Icarus, 157.

  8. Physical Properties of the Interstellar Medium Using High-resolution Chandra Spectra: O K-edge Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatuzz, E.; García, J.; Mendoza, C.; Kallman, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Gorczyca, T. W.

    2014-08-01

    Chandra high-resolution spectra toward eight low-mass Galactic binaries have been analyzed with a photoionization model that is capable of determining the physical state of the interstellar medium. Particular attention is given to the accuracy of the atomic data. Hydrogen column densities are derived with a broadband fit that takes into account pileup effects, and in general are in good agreement with previous results. The dominant features in the oxygen-edge region are O I and O II Kα absorption lines whose simultaneous fits lead to average values of the ionization parameter of log ξ = -2.90 and oxygen abundance of A O = 0.70. The latter is given relative to the standard by Grevesse & Sauval, but rescaling with the revision by Asplund et al. would lead to an average abundance value fairly close to solar. The low average oxygen column density (N O = 9.2 × 1017 cm-2) suggests a correlation with the low ionization parameters, the latter also being in evidence in the column density ratios N(O II)/N(O I) and N(O III)/N(O I) that are estimated to be less than 0.1. We do not find conclusive evidence for absorption by any other compound but atomic oxygen in our oxygen-edge region analysis.

  9. Analysis of the hyperfine structures and Λ doubling of high-resolution LMR spectra of 15N16O (X2Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From the theories of the nuclear hyperfine structure (HFS) and Λ doubling of diatomic molecules, several brief algebraic equations for interpretation of HFS and Λ doubling of transitions of diatomic molecule have been developed. A few important parameters of HFS and Λ doubling of 15N16O have been efficiently and accurately obtained from the analysis of the high resolution spectra of 15N16O (X2Ⅱ) observed in our experiments with these equations. This method can provide an effective approach to obtain important hyperfine parameters of novel radicals from their high resolution laser magnetic resonance spectra.

  10. Characterization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra of primary organic aerosol emissions from Chinese cooking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-Y. He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS collected worldwide by AMS demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA, hydrocarbon-like (HOA, biomass burning (BBOA, and other primary OA. In order to help interpretation of component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets, AMS measurement of different primary sources is required for comparison. Such work, however, has been very scarce in the literature, especially for high resolution MS (HR-MS measurement, which performs improved characterization by separating the ions of different elemental compositions at each m/z in comparison with unit mass resolution MS (UMR-MS measurement. In this study, primary emissions from four types of Chinese cooking (CC and six types of biomass burning (BB were simulated systemically and measured using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight AMS (HR-ToF-AMS. The MS of the CC emissions show high similarity with m/z 41 and m/z 55 being the highest signals; the MS of the BB emissions also show high similarity with m/z 29 and m/z 43 being the highest signals. The MS difference between the CC and BB emissions is much bigger than that between different CC (or BB types, especially for the HR-MS. The O/C ratio of OA ranges from 0.08 to 0.13 for the CC emissions while from 0.18 to 0.26 for the BB emissions. The ions of m/z 43, m/z 44, m/z 57, and m/z 60, usually used as tracer ions in AMS measurement, were examined for their HR-MS characteristics in the CC and BB emissions. Moreover, the MS of the CC and BB emissions are also used to compare with component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets observed in China, as well as with other AMS measurements of primary sources in the literature. The MS

  11. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da < 1 μm mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to the OA and can be formed from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Here we present results from the characterization of SOA produced from the emissions of three different anthropogenic sources. SOA from a log wood burner, a Euro 2 diesel car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and compared to SOA from α-pinene.

    The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production.

    Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25–0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions.

    The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using

  12. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da < 1 μm mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to the OA and can be formed from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Here we present results from the characterization of SOA produced from the emissions of three different anthropogenic sources. SOA from a log wood burner, a Euro 2 diesel car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and compared to SOA from α-pinene.

    The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production.

    Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra in the m/z range 12–250 showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the different SOA types after 5 h of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxidized OA (SV-OOA observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O : C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25–0.55 with no major increase during the first 5 h of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O : C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions based on their carbon number revealed that the SOA source with the highest O : C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. Fragment ions

  13. Quantitative Spectroscopic J-band Study of Red Supergiants in Perseus OB-1

    CERN Document Server

    Gazak, J Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of red supergiant (RSG) stars can be measured from quantitative spectroscopy down to resolutions of ~3000 in the J-band. We have obtained high resolution spectra on a sample of the RSG population of h and chi Persei, a double cluster in the solar neighborhood. We show that careful application of the MARCS model atmospheres returns measurements of Z consistent with solar metallicity. Using two grids of synthetic spectra--one in pure LTE and one with NLTE calculations for the most important diagnostic lines--we measure Z = +0.04 +/- 0.10 (LTE) and Z = -0.04 +/- 0.08 (NLTE) for the sample of eleven RSGs in the cluster. We degrade the spectral resolution of our observations and find that those values remain consistent down to resolutions of less than R of 3000. Using measurements of effective temperatures we compare our results with stellar evolution theory and find good agreement. We construct a synthetic cluster spectrum and find that analyzing this composite spectrum with s...

  14. High-resolution ice nucleation spectra of sea-ice bacteria: implications for cloud formation and life in frozen environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junge

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though studies of Arctic ice forming particles suggest that a bacterial or viral source derived from open leads could be important for ice formation in Arctic clouds (Bigg and Leck, 2001, the ice nucleation potential of most polar marine psychrophiles or viruses has not been examined under conditions more closely resembling those in the atmosphere. In this paper, we examined the ice nucleation activity (INA of several representative Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice bacterial isolates and a polar Colwellia phage virus. High-resolution ice nucleation spectra were obtained for droplets containing bacterial cells or virus particles using a free-fall freezing tube technique. The fraction of frozen droplets at a particular droplet temperature was determined by measuring the depolarized light scattering intensity from solution droplets in free-fall. Our experiments revealed that all sea-ice isolates and the virus nucleated ice at temperatures very close to the homogeneous nucleation temperature for the nucleation medium – which for artificial seawater was –42.2±0.3°C. Our results suggest that immersion freezing of these marine psychro-active bacteria and viruses would not be important for heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in polar clouds or to the formation of sea ice. These results also suggested that avoidance of ice formation in close proximity to cell surfaces might be one of the cold-adaptation and survival strategies for sea-ice bacteria. The fact that INA occurs at such low temperature could constitute one factor that explains the persistence of metabolic activities at temperatures far below the freezing point of seawater.

  15. High-resolution ice nucleation spectra of sea-ice bacteria: implications for cloud formation and life in frozen environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junge

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though studies of Arctic ice forming particles suggest that a bacterial or viral source derived from open leads could be important for cloud formation in the Arctic (Bigg and Leck, 2001, the ice nucleation potential of most polar marine psychrophiles or viruses has not been examined under conditions more closely resembling those in the atmosphere. In this paper, we examined the ice nucleation activity (INA of several representative Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice bacterial isolates and a polar Colwellia phage virus. High-resolution ice nucleation spectra were obtained for droplets containing bacterial cells or virus particles using a free-fall freezing tube technique. The fraction of frozen droplets at a particular droplet temperature was determined by measuring the depolarized light scattering intensity from solution droplets in free-fall. Our experiments revealed that all sea-ice isolates and the virus nucleated ice at temperatures very close to the homogeneous nucleation temperature for the nucleation medium – which for artificial seawater was −42.2±0.3°C. Our results indicated that these marine psychro-active bacteria and viruses are not important for heterogeneous ice nucleation processes in sea ice or polar clouds. These results also suggested that avoidance of ice formation in close proximity to cell surfaces might be one of the cold-adaptation and survival strategies for sea-ice bacteria. The fact that INA occurs at such low temperature could constitute one factor that explains the persistence of metabolic activities at temperatures far below the freezing point of seawater.

  16. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements were first combined into positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis to investigate the sources and evolution processes of atmospheric aerosols. The new approach is able to study the mixing of organic aerosols (OA and inorganic species, the acidity of OA factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrices resolved 8 factors for the submicron aerosols measured at Queens College in New York City in summer 2009. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and cooking OA (COA contain very minor inorganic species, indicating the different sources and mixing characteristics between primary OA and secondary species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA, respectively, are overall neutralized, of which the OA in SO4-OA shows the highest oxidation state (O/C = 0.69 among OA factors. The semi-volatile oxygenated OA comprises two components, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA and a more oxidized (MO-OOA. The MO-OOA represents a local photochemical product with the diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO and Ox (= O3+NO2. The much higher NO+/NO2+ fragment ion ratio in MO-OOA than that from ammonium nitrate alone provides evidence for the formation of organic nitrates. The amine-related nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, elucidating the formation of secondary OA from amines in acidic environments. The size distributions derived from 3-dimensional size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors for different OA factors, but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as a function of oxidation states

  17. A detailed analysis of the high-resolution X-ray spectra of NGC 3516: variability of the ionized absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, E. M.; Krongold, Y.; Jimenez-Bailon, E. [Departamento de Astronomia Extragalactica y Cosmologia, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nicastro, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma-INAF, Via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, RM (Italy); Mathur, S. [Astronomy Department, The Ohio State University, Enarson Hall, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Longinotti, A. L. [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, E-28691, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    The 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 presents a strong time variability in X-rays. We re-analyzed the nine observations performed in 2006 October by XMM-Newton and Chandra in the 0.3 to 10 keV energy band. An acceptable model was found for the XMM-Newton data fitting the EPIC-PN and RGS spectra simultaneously; later, this model was successfully applied to the contemporary Chandra high-resolution data. The model consists of a continuum emission component (power law + blackbody) absorbed by four ionized components (warm absorbers), and 10 narrow emission lines. Three absorbing components are warm, producing features only in the soft X-ray band. The fourth ionization component produces Fe XXV and Fe XXVI in the hard-energy band. We study the time response of the absorbing components to the well-detected changes in the X-ray luminosity of this source and find that the two components with the lower ionization state show clear opacity changes consistent with gas close to photoionization equilibrium. These changes are supported by the models and by differences in the spectral features among the nine observations. On the other hand, the two components with higher ionization state do not seem to respond to continuum variations. The response time of the ionized absorbers allows us to constrain their electron density and location. We find that one component (with intermediate ionization) must be located within the obscuring torus at a distance 2.7 × 10{sup 17} cm from the central engine. This outflowing component likely originated in the accretion disk. The three remaining components are at distances larger than 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm. Two of the absorbing components in the soft X-rays have similar outflow velocities and locations. These components may be in pressure equilibrium, forming a multi-phase medium, if the gas has metallicity larger than the solar one (≳ 5 Z {sub ☉}). We also search for variations in the covering factor of the ionized absorbers (although partial

  18. Quantitative spectroscopic J-band study of red supergiants in Perseus OB-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Bergemann, Maria [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2014-06-10

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of red supergiant (RSG) stars can be measured from quantitative spectroscopy down to resolutions of ≈3000 in the J-band. We have obtained high resolution spectra on a sample of the RSG population of h and χ Persei, a double cluster in the solar neighborhood. We show that careful application of the MARCS model atmospheres returns measurements of Z consistent with solar metallicity. Using two grids of synthetic spectra–one in pure LTE and one with non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for the most important diagnostic lines–we measure Z = +0.04 ± 0.10 (LTE) and Z = –0.04 ± 0.08 (NLTE) for the sample of eleven RSGs in the cluster. We degrade the spectral resolution of our observations and find that those values remain consistent down to resolutions of less than λ/δλ of 3000. Using measurements of effective temperatures we compare our results with stellar evolution theory and find good agreement. We construct a synthetic cluster spectrum and find that analyzing this composite spectrum with single-star RSG models returns an accurate metallicity. We conclude that the RSGs make ideal targets in the near infrared for measuring the metallicities of star forming galaxies out to 7-10 Mpc and up to 10 times farther by observing the integrated light of unresolved super star clusters.

  19. Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

    2012-01-01

    The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

  20. Chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. High-resolution K-band spectra of giants in three fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Cunha, K.; Schultheis, M.; Eriksson, K.; Kobayashi, C.; Smith, V. V.; Zoccali, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Possible main formation sites of fluorine in the Universe include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the ν-process in Type II supernova, and/or Wolf-Rayet stars. The importance of the Wolf-Rayet stars has theoretically been questioned and they are probably not needed in modeling the chemical evolution of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. It has, however, been suggested that Wolf-Rayet stars are indeed needed to explain the chemical evolution of fluorine in the bulge. The molecular spectral data, needed to determine the fluorine abundance, of the often used HF-molecule has not been presented in a complete and consistent way and has recently been debated in the literature. Aims: We intend to determine the trend of the fluorine-oxygen abundance ratio as a function of a metallicity indicator in the bulge to investigate the possible contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars. Additionally, we present here a consistent HF line list for the K- and L-bands including the often used 23 358.33 Å line. Methods: High-resolution near-infrared spectra of eight K giants were recorded using the spectrograph CRIRES mounted at the VLT. A standard setting was used that covered the HF molecular line at 23 358.33 Å. The fluorine abundances were determined using spectral fitting. We also re-analyzed five previously published bulge giants observed with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini using our new HF molecular data. Results: We find that the fluorine-oxygen abundance in the bulge probably cannot be explained with chemical evolution models that only include AGB stars and the ν-process in supernovae Type II, that is a significant amount of fluorine production in Wolf-Rayet stars is most likely needed to explain the fluorine abundance in the bulge. For the HF line data, we find that a possible reason for the inconsistencies in the literature, where two different excitation energies were used, is two different definitions of the zero-point energy for the HF molecule and therefore

  1. Deriving the extinction to young stellar objects using [FeII] near-infrared emission lines. Prescriptions from GIANO high-resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pecchioli, Tommaso; Massi, Fabrizio; Oliva, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    The near-infrared emission lines of Fe$^{+}$ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 $\\mu$m share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution ($R \\sim 50000$) near-infrared spectra oftwo young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The m...

  2. Deriving the Extinction to Young Stellar Objects using [Fe II] Near-infrared Emission Lines: Prescriptions from GIANO High-resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchioli, T.; Sanna, N.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.

    2016-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) emission lines of Fe+ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 μm share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution (R ∼ 50,000) NIR spectra of two young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The most recently obtained values are probably good enough to allow reddening determination within 1 visual mag of accuracy. Furthermore, we show that [Fe ii] line ratios from low-resolution pure emission-line spectra in general are likely to be in error due to the impossibility to properly account for telluric absorption lines. If low-resolution spectra are used for reddening determinations, we advice that the ratio 1.644/1.257, rather than 1.644/1.321, should be used, being less affected by the effects of telluric absorption lines.

  3. High resolution photoassociation spectra of an ultracold Cs2 long-range 0u+ (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Chi; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Ma, Jie; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, ultracold cesium molecules are formed through photoassociation technology, which is carried out in a magneto-optical trap. High resolution photoassociaion spectra with the rotational progressions up to J = 7 are obtained. Three rovibrational levels of the long-range 0u+ state of Cs2 below the (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) dissociation limit are specifically investigated. By fitting their binding energy intervals to the non-rigid rotational model, the rotational constant of the long-range 0u+ state is determined. A proportional dependence of the value of the rotational constant on the vibrational quantum number is demonstrated.

  4. Quantification of HCl from High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra Obtained at the South Pole in December 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based infrared solar spectra at 0.02/ cm resolution obtained at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in December 1986 have been analysed for the atmospheric content of HCl. Nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting applied to the spectra yields a total HCl column amount of (6.4 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 15) molec/sq cm, most being stratospheric. This amount is larger than that extrapolated from earlier results on the latitudinal distribution of atmospheric HCl.

  5. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  6. CRIRES-POP: a library of high resolution spectra from 1 to 5 microns II. Data reduction and the spectrum of the K giant 10 Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, C P; Smette, A; Wolff, B; Hartman, H; Käufl, H -U; Przybilla, N; Ramsay, S; Uttenthaler, S; Wahlgren, G M; Bagnulo, S; Hussain, G A J; Nieva, M -F; Seeman, U; Seifahrt, A

    2016-01-01

    Context. High resolution stellar spectral atlases are valuable resources to astronomy. They are rare in the $1 - 5\\,\\mu$m region for historical reasons, but once available, high resolution atlases in this part of the spectrum will aid the study of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Aims. The aim of the CRIRES-POP project is to produce a high resolution near-infrared spectral library of stars across the H-R diagram. The aim of this paper is to present the fully reduced spectrum of the K giant 10 Leo that will form the basis of the first atlas within the CRIRES-POP library, to provide a full description of the data reduction processes involved, and to provide an update on the CRIRES-POP project. Methods. All CRIRES-POP targets were observed with almost 200 different observational settings of CRIRES on the ESO Very Large Telescope, resulting in a basically complete coverage of its spectral range as accessible from the ground. We reduced the spectra of 10 Leo with the CRIRES pipeline, corrected the waveleng...

  7. Investigation of slow collisions for (quasi) symmetric heavy systems: what can be extracted from high resolution X-ray spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Trassinelli, Martino; Lamour, Emily; Mezdari, Férid; Merot, Jacques; Reuschl, Regina; Rozet, Jean-Pierre; Steydli, S; Vernhet, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    We present a new experiment on (quasi) symmetric collision systems at low-velocity, namely Ar$^{17+}$ ions ($v=0.53$ a.u.) on gaseous Ar and N$_2$ targets, using low- and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Thanks to an accurate efficiency calibration of the spectrometers, we extract absolute X-ray emission cross sections combining low-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and a complete determination of the ion beam - gas jet target overlap. Values with improved uncertainty are found in agreement with previous results \\cite{Tawara2001}. Resolving the whole He-like Ar$^{16+}$ Lyman series from $n=2$ to 10 with our crystal spectrometer enables to determine precisely the distribution ${\\mathcal{P}_n}$ of the electron capture probability and the preferential $n_{pref}$ level of the selective single-electron capture. Evaluation of cross sections for this process as well as for the contribution of multiple-capture is carried out. Their sensitivity to the $\\ell$-distribution of $n$ levels populated by single-electron captu...

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Halo Stars in the Near UV and Blue Region I. Spectra in the Wavelength Region 3550-5000(A)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. G. Klochkova; Gang Zhao; S. V. Ermakov; V. E. Panchuk

    2006-01-01

    An atlas of high resolution (R = 60 000) CCD-spectra in the wavelength range 3500-5000(A) is presented for four objects in metallicity range -3.0 < [Fe/H] < -0.6,temperature range 4750 < Teff < 5900K, and surface gravity range 1.6 < lgg < 5.0.We describe the calibration of the stellar atmospheric parameters using Alonso's formula based on the method of infrared flux and outline the determination of the abundances of a total number of 25 chemical elements. An analysis of the abundance determination errors for different chemical elements is carried out, and a method is provided for the observations and reduction of spectral material. Properties of the method of producing an atlas of spectra and line identifications are described.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Boo-127 and Boo-980 high-resolution spectra (Frebel+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, A.; Norris, J. E.; Gilmore, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2016-09-01

    We observed Boo-980 and Boo-127 stars with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay telescope in 2010 March and 2011 March. Details of the MIKE observations and photometry taken from Norris et al. (2008ApJ...689L.113N) are given in Table 1. MIKE spectra have nearly full optical wavelength coverage over the range ~3500-9000Å (R~22000 in the red and ~28000 in the blue wavelength regime). (2 data files).

  10. Kea: a new tool to obtain stellar parameters from low to moderate signal/noise and high-resolution Echelle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Endl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe Kea a new spectroscopic fitting method to derive stellar parameters from moderate to low signal/noise, high-resolution spectra. We developed this new tool to analyze the massive data set of the Kepler mission reconnaissance spectra that we have obtained at McDonald Observatory. We use Kea to determine effective temperatures (T_eff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), surface gravity (log g) and projected rotational velocity (v sin i). Kea compares the observations to a large library of synthetic spectra that covers a wide range of different T_eff, [Fe/H] and log g values. We calibrated Kea on observations of well-characterized standard stars (the Kepler field "platinum" sample) which range in T_eff from 5000 to 6500 K, in [Fe/H] from -0.5 to +0.4 dex and in log g from 3.2 to 4.6 dex. We then compared the Kea results from reconnaissance spectra of 45 KOIs (Kepler Object of Interest) to stellar parameters derived from higher signal/noise spectra obtained with Keck/HIRES. We find typical uncertainti...

  11. Line Identifications and Preliminary Synthesis of High-resolution Infrared Spectra of CP and Herbig Ae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Castelli, F.; Hubrig, S.; Wolff, B.; Elkin, V.

    2012-01-01

    We report on surveys of infrared spectra of chemically peculiar and Herbig Ae stars based on CRIRES (Kaufl, et al. SPIE, 5492, 1218 2004). We discuss the magnetic CP stars Gamma Equ and HD 154708, and multiple-phase observations of the Herbig Ae star HD 101412. The Be star HR 4537 and HgMn HR 6620 were also examined. The primary emphasis of the present work is on line identifications primarily in four regions, 1065-1091, 1084-1109,1550-1587, and 2276-2313nm (with order gaps). Observations were reduced with recipes available from the ESO CRIRES data reduction pipeline. Wavelength calibration is determined from daytime ThAr arc lamp exposures. Generally speaking, this is not rich in atomic lines. The strongest features are the Paschen line P6 (1093.81nm), and He I (108.30nm). The latter shows phase variations indicative of a more complex magnetic field than that of a pure dipole. No individual molecular lines were found in these early stars, though CO emission from circumstellar material is likely present in HR 4537 and HD 101412. We used atomic line lists from Kurucz's site (kurucz.harvard.edu) and VALD (http://vald.astro.univie.ac.at/ cf. Kupka et al. 1999, A&AS, 138, 119), supplemented by Outred (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 7, 1, 1978). The following spectra were identified in Gamma Equ: C I, Si I, Ca I, Mg I, II, Cr I, Fe I, Sr II, and Ce III (1584.75nm). The Ap star spectra show broad Zeeman patterns compatible with published models and field strengths. Synthetic calculations used SYNTHE and SYNTHMAG (Piskunov N. E., 1999, in Astrophys. Space Sci. Library Vol. 243, Solar polarization. Kluwer, p 515). The γ Equ model is from Heiter et al. (2002, A&A, 392, 619). and the line list from VALD.

  12. I Search of Narrow Proton-Antiproton Bound States: High Resolution Gamma and Charged Flow Pion Spectra from Protonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, Chariclia I.

    We studied the pp annihilations at rest looking for narrow bound states in the proton-antiproton system. We looked, with high energy resolution, for radiative and pionic transitions in the gamma and charged pion spectra. The detector for the (gamma)(--->)e+e- and the (pi)('(+OR-)) was a magnetic pair spectrometer. The directions of the incident particles (e(+OR-) and (pi)(+OR-)) were determined by a drift chamber module in front of the magnet and the final directions of the particles, if reflected in the magnet, by the same chamber; if transversing the magnet, by an identical module at the rear of the magnet. The momentum was calculated from the directions of the particle. The following gamma spectra were obtained. Gammas with both e+, e- reflected in the magnet at a field of about 6 Kgauss (RR-gammas). That covers the region between 80 and 180 MeV, corresponding to a missing mass 1794 to 1686 MeV/c. The energy resolution is about 2.5 MeV ((sigma)) at 129 MeV (confirmed by the observed Panofsky gammas from stopping (pi)('-)p data) and 5 MeV ((sigma)) at 80 MeV. We have no evidence for narrow peaks except for the Panofsky gamma produced with a branching ratio of 3.3 x 10('-3) from (pi)('-) stops in the target. Upper limits for (gamma) -transitions in the region between 80 to 180 MeV were set at about 10('-3). Gammas with one e+(e-) reflected and the other transversing the magnet (RP-gammas) for fields of about 6 and 12 Kgauss, covering the region (GREATERTHEQ) 200 MeV, which corresponds to missing mass (LESSTHEQ) 1664 MeV/c('2). The gamma energy resolution in MeV is 51(.)E('2) (GeV) and 25.5(.)E('2)(GeV) for the low and high field respectively. Finally the charged pion spectra for those transversing the magnet are given for both magnet settings and as a function of charge multiplicity, covering the momentum region from (GREATERTHEQ) 150 MeV/c. The momentum resolution is the same as that for the RP-gammas. The two body annihilations (pi)('+)(pi)('-) and (pi

  13. The Physical Properties of the RW Aur Bipolar Jet from HST/STIS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Eislöffel, Jochen; Bacciotti, Francesca; Woitas, Jens; Ray, Tom

    A well-collimated bipolar jet emanating from the classic T Tauri star RW Aur A (HH 229) has been traced out to 15″ in the redshifted [2] and over 100″ in the blueshifted lobe [3]. Long-slit spectra of the RW Aur jet were taken on 10. Dec. 2000 with the STIS spectrograph on board the HST. The spectrographslit of width 0″:1 and length 10″ was moved across the jet in seven positions from NW to SE, keeping it parallel to the jet axis. As a result, seven spectra covering the jet in both dimensions were obtained. The observations taken with the G750M grating cover the three prominent forbidden emission doublets - [O I] (λλ 6300,6363, [N II] λλ 6548,6583, and [S II] λλ 6716,6731. The current study presents a continuation of the analysis of the HST/STIS spectroscopy of the RW Aur jet started in Woitas et al. [5]. For extraction of the physical quantities we followed the well-established method described in Bacciotti and Eislöffel [1].

  14. High-Resolution Ultraviolet Spectra of the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4395: Evidence for Intrinsic Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Crenshaw, D M; Gabel, J R; Schmitt, H R; Filippenko, A V; Ho, L C; Shields, J C; Turner, T J

    2004-01-01

    We present ultraviolet spectra of the dwarf Seyfert 1 nucleus of NGC 4395, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at velocity resolutions of 7 to 15 km/sec. We confirm our earlier claim of C IV absorption in low-resolution UV spectra and detect a number of other absorption lines with lower ionization potentials. In addition to the Galactic lines, we identify two kinematic components of absorption that are likely to be intrinsic to NGC 4395. We consider possible origins of the absorption, including the interstellar medium (ISM) of NGC 4395, the narrow-line region (NLR), outflowing UV absorbers, and X-ray ``warm absorbers.'' Component 1, at a radial velocity of -770 km/sec with respect to the nucleus, is only identified in the C IV 1548.2 line. It most likely represents an outflowing UV absorber, similar to those seen in a majority of Seyfert 1 galaxies, although additional observations are needed to confirm the reali...

  15. CRIRES-POP: a library of high resolution spectra in the near-infrared. II. Data reduction and the spectrum of the K giant 10 Leonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, C. P.; Lebzelter, T.; Smette, A.; Wolff, B.; Hartman, H.; Käufl, H.-U.; Przybilla, N.; Ramsay, S.; Uttenthaler, S.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Bagnulo, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Nieva, M.-F.; Seemann, U.; Seifahrt, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. High resolution stellar spectral atlases are valuable resources to astronomy. They are rare in the 1-5 μm region for historical reasons, but once available, high resolution atlases in this part of the spectrum will aid the study of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Aims: The aim of the CRIRES-POP project is to produce a high resolution near-infrared spectral library of stars across the H-R diagram. The aim of this paper is to present the fully reduced spectrum of the K giant 10 Leo that will form the basis of the first atlas within the CRIRES-POP library, to provide a full description of the data reduction processes involved, and to provide an update on the CRIRES-POP project. Methods: All CRIRES-POP targets were observed with almost 200 different observational settings of CRIRES on the ESO Very Large Telescope, resulting in a basically complete coverage of its spectral range as accessible from the ground. We reduced the spectra of 10 Leo with the CRIRES pipeline, corrected the wavelength solution and removed telluric absorption with Molecfit, then resampled the spectra to a common wavelength scale, shifted them to rest wavelengths, flux normalised, and median combined them into one final data product. Results: We present the fully reduced, high resolution, near-infrared spectrum of 10 Leo. This is also the first complete spectrum from the CRIRES instrument. The spectrum is available online. Conclusions: The first CRIRES-POP spectrum has exceeded our quality expectations and will form the centre of a state-of-the-art stellar atlas. This first CRIRES-POP atlas will soon be available, and further atlases will follow. All CRIRES-POP data products will be freely and publicly available online. The spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A79

  16. A New Theoretical Library of High-resolution Stellar Spectra for UV-Optical Population Synthesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, E.; Rodriguez-Merino, L.; Chavez, M.; Buzzoni, A.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new theoretical library of stellar spectra covering the wavelength interval from 850 to 7000 Å. The library consists of two datasets, one including the far UV-blue spectral region from 850 to 4750 Å at inverse spectral resolution R = 50000, and the latter spanning the range 3500-7000 Å at R = 500000. Both sets are based on the SYNTHE series of codes developed by R.L. Kurucz. For its comprehensive range of physical parameters (i.e. T[eff], logg and [M/H]) and higher spectral resolution, this is the most advanced spectral library currently available in the literature, and could profitably be used for population synthesis models and abundance studies of single stars.

  17. High-resolution mid-infrared spectra of Co II, Ni I, and Fe II in SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyle, R. J.; Wiedemann, G. R.; Moseley, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-based infrared observations of SN 1987A on day 612 after the explosion have yielded resolved line profiles of Co II, Ni I, Fe II at 10.52, 11.31, and 17.94 micron, respectively. The spectra were taken at a resolving power of about 1000 with an array grating spectrometer on the 4 m telescope of Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Based on the observed line intensities we have estimated the minimum mass of each ion: M(Co II) = (6.0 +/- 1.8) x 10 exp -5 solar mass; M(Ni I) = (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp -3 solar mass; and M(Fe II) = (8.0 +/- 1.5) x 10 exp -3 solar mass. From these we infer total masses for cobalt, nickel, and iron in the ejecta. The nickel and iron line profiles are markedly asymmetric. We interpret these as arising from two components, one centered on the stellar rest velocity with an approximately 3250 km/s full width, and the second at about +1200 km/s with an approximately 1100 km/s full width. The asymmetry may represent a large-scale fracturing of the ejecta by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.

  18. High-resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. III - M4, M13, and M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, George; Leep, E. Myckky; Oke, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Spectra of 0.3 and 0.6 A resolution of stars in M4, M13 and M22 to derive abundances of various atomic species and the CN molecule. For M13, the usual Fe/H ratio and a surprisingly high aluminum abundance is found. The CN lines indicate a larger column density in the oxygen-rich star III-63 than in the oxygen-poor star II-67 by a factor of 10. It appears that II-67 is deficient in C, N, and O by about a factor 3 relative to iron for all three elements. For M4, Fe/H = -1.2 using solar f values derived via the Bell et al. (1976) model. This Fe abundance lies between earlier echelle values and photometric values. For two stars, CN data are obtained that can be understood if there was a slight excess of C/Fe and N/Fe prior to CN cycling and mixing. For M22, a large difference in CN is found between stars III-3 and IV-102. The origin of the CNO elements is discussed in terms of mass loss from an early generation of red giants and possibly Wolf-Rayet stars.

  19. The weakly bound He-HCCCN complex: High-resolution microwave spectra and intermolecular potential-energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Wendy C.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound He-HCCCN and He-DCCCN van der Waals complexes were observed using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the 7-26-GHz frequency region. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the N14 and D nuclei (both with nuclear-spin quantum number I =1) were resolved and assigned. Both strong a and weaker b-type transitions were observed and the assigned transitions were used to fit the parameters of a distortable asymmetric rotor model. The dimers are floppy, near T-shaped complexes. Three intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative inclusion of triple excitations. Bound-state rotational energy levels supported by these surfaces were determined. The quality of the potential-energy surfaces was assessed by comparing the experimental and calculated transition frequencies and also the corresponding spectroscopic parameters. Simple scaling of the surfaces improved both the transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants. Five other recently reported surfaces [O. Akin-Ojo, R. Bukowski, and K. Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8379 (2003)], calculated using a variety of methods, and their agreement with spectroscopic properties of He-HCCCN are discussed.

  20. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

    2012-01-01

    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  1. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra of Low-mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Plavchan, P.; Gagné, J.; Furlan, E.; Bottom, M.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; White, R.; Davison, C. L.; Beichman, C.; Brinkworth, C.; Johnson, J.; Ciardi, D.; Wallace, K.; Mennesson, B.; von Braun, K.; Vasisht, G.; Prato, L.; Kane, S. R.; Tanner, A.; Crawford, T. J.; Latham, D.; Rougeot, R.; Geneser, C. S.; Catanzarite, J.

    2016-10-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work, we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low-mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line-spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL’s narrow wavelength range and instrumental systematics, we are able to (1) obtain an RV precision of 35 m s-1 for the RV standard star GJ 15 A over a time baseline of 817 days, reaching the photon noise limit for our attained signal-to-noise ratio; (2) achieve ˜3 m s-1 RV precision for the M giant SV Peg over a baseline of several days and confirm its long-term RV trend due to stellar pulsations, as well as obtain nightly noise floors of ˜2-6 m s-1 and (3) show that our data are consistent with the known masses, periods, and orbital eccentricities of the two most massive planets orbiting GJ 876. Future applications of our pipeline to RV surveys using the next generation of NIR spectrographs, such as iSHELL, will enable the potential detection of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes in the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

  2. High resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. Part 2: Metals and CNO in M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leep, E. M.; Oke, J. B.; Wallerstein, G.

    1986-01-01

    Palomar coude CCD spectra of resolution 0.3 and 0.6 has been used to redetermine abundances in five stars of the relatively metal rich globular cluster M71. The (Fe/H) value is restricted to the limits of -0.6 to -1.0. The largest source of uncertainty is a systematic difference in f-values between those derived via the Holweger-Muller (1974) solar model and the Bell et al. (1976) solar model. If we use absolute f-values measured by the Oxford group (Blackwell et al. 1982) we find Fe/H to lie in the range of -0.6 to -0.75, i.e., as given by using the Bell et al. solar model. The relative abundances of the light elements, i.e., Na through Ca and probably including Ti show an average excess relative to iron of 0.4 dex. The effect of this difference on metal indices derived from broad- and narrow- band photometry is discussed. For three stars we find O/H = -0.6 using absolute f-values. For CN an analysis of individual rotational lines of the 2-0 band of the red system yields lines in the (C/H,N/H) plane that are consistent with either an original C/Fe = N/Fe = 0 or a modest increase in N relative to C due to CN burning and mixing. A search for C-13N was not successful and an uncertain lower limit of C-12/C-13 near 10 was obtained.

  3. High-resolution CCD spectra of stars in globular clusters. II - Metals and CNO in M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leep, E. Myckky; Wallerstein, George; Oke, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Palomar coude CCD spectra of resolution 0.3 and 0.6 has been used to redetermine abundances in five stars of the relatively metal rich globular cluster M71. The (Fe/H) value is restricted to the limits of -0.6 to -1.0. The largest source of uncertainty is a systematic difference in f-values between those derived via the Holweger-Muller (1974) solar model and the Bell et al. (1976) solar model. If we use absolute f-values measured by the Oxford group (Blackwell et al. 1982) we find Fe/H to lie in the range of -0.6 to -0.75, i.e., as given by using the Bell et al. solar model. The relative abundances of the light elements, i.e., Na through Ca and probably including Ti show an average excess relative to iron of 0.4-dex. The effect of this difference on metal indices derived from broad- and narrow- band photometry is discussed. For three stars we find O/H = -0.6 using absolute f-values. For CN an analysis of individual rotational lines of the 2-0 band of the red system yields lines in the (C/H, N/H) plane that are consistent with either an original C/Fe = N/Fe = 0 or a modest increase in N relative to C due to CN burning and mixing. A search for C-13N was not successful and an uncertain lower limit of C-12/C-13 near 10 was obtained.

  4. Applying 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) for systematic toxicological analysis with liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhard, Kathrin; Gottschall, Anna; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has become an indispensable analytical technique in clinical and forensic toxicology for detection and identification of potentially toxic or harmful compounds. Particularly, non-target LC-MS/MS assays enable extensive and universal screening requested in systematic toxicological analysis. An integral part of the identification process is the generation of information-rich product ion spectra which can be searched against libraries of reference mass spectra. Usually, 'data-dependent acquisition' (DDA) strategies are applied for automated data acquisition. In this study, the 'data-independent acquisition' (DIA) method 'Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment Ion Mass Spectra' (SWATH) was combined with LC-MS/MS on a quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument for acquiring informative high-resolution tandem mass spectra. SWATH performs data-independent fragmentation of all precursor ions entering the mass spectrometer in 21m/z isolation windows. The whole m/z range of interest is covered by continuous stepping of the isolation window. This allows numerous repeat analyses of each window during the elution of a single chromatographic peak and results in a complete fragment ion map of the sample. Compounds and samples typically encountered in forensic casework were used to assess performance characteristics of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. Our experiments clearly revealed that SWATH is a sensitive and specific identification technique. SWATH is capable of identifying more compounds at lower concentration levels than DDA does. The dynamic range of SWATH was estimated to be three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the >600,000 SWATH spectra matched led to only 408 incorrect calls (false positive rate = 0.06 %). Deconvolution of generated ion maps was found to be essential for unravelling the full identification power of LC-MS/MS with SWATH. With the available software, however, only semi

  5. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from high-resolution optical spectra. I. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the solar neighborhood and Kepler field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nordlander, T.; Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Hartman, H.; Jönsson, P.; Eriksson, K.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Galactic bulge is an intriguing and significant part of our Galaxy, but it is hard to observe because it is both distant and covered by dust in the disk. Therefore, there are not many high-resolution optical spectra of bulge stars with large wavelength coverage, whose determined abundances can be compared with nearby, similarly analyzed stellar samples. Aims: We aim to determine the diagnostically important alpha elements of a sample of bulge giants using high-resolution optical spectra with large wavelength coverage. The abundances found are compared to similarly derived abundances from similar spectra of similar stars in the local thin and thick disks. In this first paper we focus on the solar neighborhood reference sample. Methods: We used spectral synthesis to derive the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of both the local and bulge samples of giants. We took special care to benchmark our method of determining stellar parameters against independent measurements of effective temperatures from angular diameter measurements and surface gravities from asteroseismology. Results: In this first paper we present the method used to determine the stellar parameters and elemental abundances, evaluate them, and present the results for our local disk sample of 291 giants. Conclusions: When comparing our determined spectroscopic temperatures to those derived from angular diameter measurements, we reproduce these with a systematic difference of +10 K and a standard deviation of 53 K. The spectroscopic gravities reproduce those determined from asteroseismology with a systematic offset of +0.10 dex and a standard deviation of 0.12 dex. When it comes to the abundance trends, our sample of local disk giants closely follows trends found in other works analyzing solar neighborhood dwarfs, showing that the much brighter giant stars are as good abundance probes as the often used dwarfs. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope

  6. High Resolution STIS/HST and HIRES/Keck Spectra of Three Weak MgII Absorbers Toward PG 1634+706

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Zonak, S G; Churchill, C W; Bond, N A; Rigby, J R

    2003-01-01

    High resolution optical (HIRES/Keck) and UV (STIS/HST) spectra, covering a large range of chemical transitions, are analyzed for three single-cloud weak MgII absorption systems along the line of sight toward the quasar PG 1634+706. Weak MgII absorption lines in quasar spectra trace metal-enriched environments that are rarely closely associated with the most luminous galaxies (>0.05L^*). The two weak MgII systems at z=0.81 and z=0.90 are constrained to have >=solar metallicity, while the metallicity of the z=0.65 system is not as well-constrained, but is consistent with >1/10th solar. These weak MgII clouds are likely to be local pockets of high metallicity in a lower metallicity environment. All three systems have two phases of gas, a higher density region that produces narrower absorption lines for low ionization transitions, such as MgII, and a lower density region that produces broader absorption lines for high ionization transitions, such as CIV. The CIV profile for one system (at z=0.81) can be fit with ...

  7. High-Resolution Spectra of the 10B18O and 11B18O: Rotational Analysis of the B-X Bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Bojovic; A.Anti6-Jovanovi(c); M.Kuzmanovi(c)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Emission spectra of 10B18O and 11 B18O isotopomers in the 230-330 nm region have been investigated by means of conventional high-resolution spectroscopy.The molecules were produced in a low-pressure arc by discharging 8 Torr of mixture containing argon and oxygen 18 in the ratio of 4:1 and the spectra have been recorded using Ebert-type spectrograph.The boron needed to produce BO has been present in the system as amorphous powder with natural abundance of 10B and 11 B.Rotational analysis of the 0, 0 and 0, 1 bands has been performed and spectroscopic constants have been extracted.The results have allowed first determination of the equilibrium rotational constants Be and De for both isotope species 10B18O and 11B18O in their lower electronic state.Assuming a linear dependence of Be on (v + 1/2), the value of equilibrium distance re in the lower state has been derived.

  8. Investigation of high-resolution absorption spectra of diatomic sulfides of group 14 elements in graphite furnace and the comparison of their performance for sulfur determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Abad, Carlos; Okruss, Michael

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of finding suitable molecules applicable to sulfur determination and to compare their analytical sensitivity systematically, high-resolution overview molecular absorption spectra of sulfides of group 14 elements produced in a graphite furnace were investigated. To that end a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES) was used, which allows recording sub-ranges of spectra out of a total wavelength range from 190 nm to 735 nm. The combined overview spectra show a complex structure with many vibrational bands, each of them consisting of a multitude of sharp rotational lines. The absorption of rotational lines of SiS (282.910 nm), GeS (295.209 nm), SnS (271.578 nm), and PbS (335.085 nm) has been analyzed for optimizing the particular experimental conditions regarding to the sulfur determination. Using the commercial CS AAS instrument contrAA 600 under optimized conditions such as the temperature program, the modification of the platform with Zr and the use of chemical modifiers, the achieved characteristic masses for sulfur are 12 ng (CS), 15.7 ng (SiS), 9.4 ng (GeS), 20 ng (SnS), and 220 ng (PbS). The first four sulfides provide an analytical sensitivity at roughly the same level, but the GeS molecule seems to be the best one with respect to analytical sensitivity and flexibility in molecular formation control. The PbS molecule provides the lowest analytical sensitivity, and together with its low bond strength it is not recommended for sulfur determination.

  9. Carbon Abundances of Three Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars from High-Resolution Gemini-S/bHROS Spectra of the 8727A [C I] Line

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, S C; Sivarani, T; Asplund, M; Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Beers, T C

    2008-01-01

    We present the results from an analysis of the 8727ang forbidden [C I] line in high-resolution Gemini-S/bHROS spectra of three CEMP stars. We find the [C/Fe] ratios based on the [C I] abundances of the two most Fe-rich stars in our sample (HIP 0507-1653: [Fe/H] = -1.42 and HIP 0054-2542: [Fe/H] = -2.66) to be in good agreement with previously determined CH and C_2 line-based values. For the most Fe-deficient star in our sample (HIP 1005-1439: [Fe/H] = -3.08), however, the [C/Fe] ratio is found to be 0.34 dex lower than the published molecular-based value. We have carried out 3D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) calculations for [C I], and the resulting corrections are found to be modest for all three stars, suggesting that the discrepancy between the [C I] and molecular-based C abundances of HIP 1005-1439 is due to more severe 3D effects on the molecular lines. Carbon abundances are also derived from C I high-excitation lines and are found to be 0.45-0.64 dex higher than the [C I]-based abundances. Previo...

  10. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of the TRANS-HEXATRIENE-1,1-D2 and -CIS-1-D1 Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Fuson, Hannah A.; Tian, Hengfeng; Blake, Thomas A.

    2011-06-01

    Hexatriene-1,1-D2 with some admixture of the cis-1-D1 and trans-1-D1 species was synthesized by reaction of 2,4-pentadienal and (methyl-D3)-triphenylphosphonium iodide (Wittig reagent). The trans isomer was isolated by preparative gas chromatography, and the high-resolution (0.0015 Cm-1) infrared spectrum was recorded on a Bruker IFS 125HR instrument. The rotational structure in two C-type bands for the 1,1-D2 species was analyzed. For this species the bands at 902.043 and 721.864 Cm-1 yielded composite ground state rotational constants of A0 = 0.801882(1), B0 = 0.041850(2), and C0 = 0.039804(1) Cm-1. For the cis-1-D1 species the C-type band at 803.018 Cm-1 gave A0 = 0.809384(2), B0 = 0.043530(3), and C0 = 0.041321(2) Cm-1. By iodine-catalyzed isomerization, we have obtained some of the much less favored cis isomer and hope to obtain microwave spectra for its three deuterium-substituted species. The rotational constants reported here contribute to data needed for determining a semi-experimental structure for trans-hexatriene, which should show that the structural consequences of pi-electron delocalization increase with the chain length of polyenes.

  11. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans-hexatriene-1,1-d2 and -cis-1-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Fuson, Hannah A.; Tian, Hengfeng; Blake, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    Mixtures of trans-hexatriene-1,1-d2, -cis-1-d1, and -trans-1-d1 have been synthesized. Anharmonic frequencies and harmonic intensities were predicted with the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model for the out-of-plane (a″) modes of the three isotopologues. Assignments are proposed for most of the a″ vibrational modes above 500 cm-1. Ground state (GS) rotational constants have been determined for the 1,1-d2 and cis-1-d1 species from the analysis of rotational structure of C-type bands in the high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) infrared spectra in a mixture of the three isotopologues. The GS constants for the 1,1-d2 species are A0 = 0.8018850(6), B0 = 0.0418540(6), and C0 = 0.0397997(4) cm-1. The GS constants for the cis-1-d1 species are A0 = 0.809388(1), B0 = 0.043532(2), and C0 = 0.041320(1) cm-1. Small inertial defects confirm planarity for both species. These ground state rotational constants are intended for use in determining a semiexperimental equilibrium structure and evaluating the influence of chain length on π-electron delocalization in polyenes.

  12. Highly accurate chemical formula prediction tool utilizing high-resolution mass spectra, MS/MS fragmentation, heuristic rules, and isotope pattern matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskal, Tomáš; Uehara, Taisuke; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2012-05-15

    Mass spectrometry is commonly applied to qualitatively and quantitatively profile small molecules, such as peptides, metabolites, or lipids. Modern mass spectrometers provide accurate measurements of mass-to-charge ratios of ions, with errors as low as 1 ppm. Even such high mass accuracy, however, is not sufficient to determine the unique chemical formula of each ion, and additional algorithms are necessary. Here we present a universal software tool for predicting chemical formulas from high-resolution mass spectrometry data, developed within the MZmine 2 framework. The tool is based on the use of a combination of heuristic techniques, including MS/MS fragmentation analysis and isotope pattern matching. The performance of the tool was evaluated using a real metabolomic data set obtained with the Orbitrap MS detector. The true formula was correctly determined as the highest-ranking candidate for 79% of the tested compounds. The novel isotope pattern-scoring algorithm outperformed a previously published method in 64% of the tested Orbitrap spectra. The software described in this manuscript is freely available and its source code can be accessed within the MZmine 2 source code repository.

  13. Application of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy: Vibrational resolved C 1s and O 1s spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, A.; Nilsson, A.; Martensson, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    There are various effects which determine the line shape of a core-level electron spectrum. These are due to the finite life-time of the core hole, inelastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectron, electronic shake-up and shake-off processes and vibrational excitations. For free atoms and molecules the different contributions to the observed line shapes can often be well separated. For solids, surfaces and adsorbates the line shapes are in general much broader and it has in the past been assumed that no separation of the various contributions can be made. In the present report the authors will show that this is indeed not the case. Surprisingly, the vibrational fine structure of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) can be resolved in the C 1s and O 1s electron spectra. This was achieved by the combination of highly monochromatized soft X-rays from B18.0 with a high resolution Scienta 200 mm photoelectron spectrometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with tunable excitation energy yields as a core level spectroscopy atomic and site-specific information. The presented measurements allow for a determination of internuclear distances and potential energy curves in corehole ionized adsorbed molecules. The authors analysis of the c(2x2) phase CO/Ni(100) on {open_quotes}top{close_quotes} yielded a vibrational splitting of 217 +/- 2 meV for C 1s ionization. For O 1s ionization a splitting of 173 +/- 8 meV was found.

  14. High Resolution Infrared Spectra of Plasma Jet-Cooled - and Triacetylene in the C-H Stretch Region by CW Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Guss, J.; Walsh, A.; Doney, K.; Linnartz, H.

    2013-06-01

    Polyacetylenes form an important series of unsaturated hydrocarbons that are of astrophysical interest. Small polyacetylenes have been detected from infrared observations in dense atmosphere of Titan and in a protoplanetary nebula CRL 618. We present here high-resolution mid-infrared spectra of diacetylene (HC_{4}H) and triacetylene (HC_{6}H) that are recorded in a supersonically expanded pulsed planar plasma using an ultra-sensitive detection technique. This method uses an all fiber-laser-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO), in combination with continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) as a direct absorption detection tool. A hardware-based multi-trigger concept is developed to apply cw-CRDS to pulsed plasmas. Vibrationally hot but rotationally cold HC_{4}H and HC_{6}H are produced by discharging a C_{2}H_{2}/He/Ar gas mixture which is supersonically expanded into a vacuum chamber through a slit discharge nozzle. Experimental spectra are recorded at a resolution of ˜100 MHz in the 3305-3340 cm^{-1} region, which is characteristic of the C-H stretch vibrations of HC_{4}H and HC_{6}H. Jet-cooling in our experiment reduces the rotational temperature of both HC_{4}H and HC_{6}H to <20 K. In total, ˜2000 lines are measured. More than fourteen (vibrationally hot) bands for HC_{4}H and four bands for HC_{6}H are assigned based on Loomis-Wood diagrams, and nearly half of these bands are analyzed for the first time. For both molecules improved and new molecular constants of a series of vibrational levels are presented. The accurate molecular data reported here, particularly those for low-lying (bending) vibrational levels may be used to interpret the ro-vibrational transitions in the FIR and submillimeter/THz region. D. Zhao, J. Guss, A. Walsh, H. Linnartz Chem. Phys. Lett., {dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2013.02.025}, in press, 2013.

  15. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs - High-resolution IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Sara; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Context. Several new techniques to determine the metallicity of M dwarfs with better precision have been developed over the last decades. However, most of these studies were based on empirical methods. In order to enable detailed abundance analysis, standard methods established for warmer solar-like stars, i.e. model-dependent methods using fitting of synthetic spectra, still need to be used. Aims. In this work we continue the reliability confirmation and development of metallicity determinations of M dwarfs using high- resolution infrared spectra. The reliability was confirmed though analysis of M dwarfs in four binary systems with FGK dwarf companions and by comparison with previous optical studies of the FGK dwarfs. Methods. The metallicity determination was based on spectra taken in the J band (1.1-1.4 {\\mu}m) with the CRIRES spectrograph. In this part of the infrared, the density of stellar molecular lines is limited, reducing the amount of blends with atomic lines enabling an accurate continuum placemen...

  16. Global distributions of CO2 volume mixing ratio in the middle and upper atmosphere from daytime MIPAS high-resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aythami Jurado-Navarro, Á.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Funke, Bernd; García-Comas, Maya; Gardini, Angela; González-Galindo, Francisco; Stiller, Gabriele P.; von Clarmann, Thomas; Grabowski, Udo; Linden, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Global distributions of the CO2 vmr (volume mixing ratio) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (from 70 up to ˜ 140 km) have been derived from high-resolution limb emission daytime MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) spectra in the 4.3 µm region. This is the first time that the CO2 vmr has been retrieved in the 120-140 km range. The data set spans from January 2005 to March 2012. The retrieval of CO2 has been performed jointly with the elevation pointing of the line of sight (LOS) by using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) retrieval scheme. The non-LTE model incorporates the new vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational collisional rates recently derived from the MIPAS spectra by [Jurado-Navarro et al.(2015)]. It also takes advantage of simultaneous MIPAS measurements of other atmospheric parameters (retrieved in previous steps), such as the kinetic temperature (derived up to ˜ 100 km from the CO2 15 µm region of MIPAS spectra and from 100 up to 170 km from the NO 5.3 µm emission of the same MIPAS spectra) and the O3 measurements (up to ˜ 100 km). The latter is very important for calculations of the non-LTE populations because it strongly constrains the O(3P) and O(1D) concentrations below ˜ 100 km. The estimated precision of the retrieved CO2 vmr profiles varies with altitude ranging from ˜ 1 % below 90 km to 5 % around 120 km and larger than 10 % above 130 km. There are some latitudinal and seasonal variations of the precision, which are mainly driven by the solar illumination conditions. The retrieved CO2 profiles have a vertical resolution of about 5-7 km below 120 km and between 10 and 20 km at 120-140 km. We have shown that the inclusion of the LOS as joint fit parameter improves the retrieval of CO2, allowing for a clear discrimination between the information on CO2 concentration and the LOS and also leading to significantly smaller systematic errors. The retrieved CO2 has an improved

  17. Iron in the Fire: Searching for Fire's Magnetic Fingerprint using Controlled Heating Experiments, High-Resolution FORCs, IRM Coercivity Spectra, and Low-Temperature Remanence Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.; Reiners, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for recent climate-wildfire linkages underscores the need for better understanding of relationships between wildfire and major climate shifts in Earth history, which in turn offers the potential for prognoses for wildfire and human adaptations to it. In particular, what are the links between seasonality and wildfire frequency and severity, and what are the feedbacks between wildfire, landscape evolution, and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and iron cycles? A key first step in addressing these questions is recovering well-described wildfire records from a variety of paleolandscapes and paleoclimate regimes. Although charcoal and organic biomarkers are commonly used indicators of fire, taphonomic processes and time-consuming analytical preparations often preclude their routine use in some environments and in high-stratigraphic resolution paleowildfire surveying. The phenomenological relationship between fire and magnetic susceptibility can make it a useful surveying tool, but increased magnetic susceptibility in sediments is not unique to fire, and thus limits its diagnostic power. Here we utilize component-specific rock magnetic methods and analytical techniques to identify the rock magnetic fingerprint of wildfire. We use a custom-designed air furnace, a series of iron-free laboratory soils, natural saprolites and soils, and fuels from Arizona Ponderosa pine forests and grasslands to simulate wildfire in a controlled and monitored environment. Soil-ash residues and soil and fuel controls were then characterized using First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) patterns, DC backfield IRM coercivity spectra, low-temperature SIRM demagnetization behavior, and low-temperature cycling of room-temperature SIRM behavior. We will complement these magnetic analyses with high-resolution TEM of magnetic extracts. Here we summarize the systematic changes to sediment magnetism as pyrolitized organic matter is incorporated into artificial and natural soils. These

  18. Optimized approach to retrieve information on the tropospheric and stratospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) vertical distributions above Jungfraujoch from high-resolution FTIR solar spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Bernard; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Servais, Christian; Duchatelet, Pierre; Demoulin, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), which is produced in the troposphere from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, is the most abundant gaseous sulfur species in the unpolluted atmosphere. Due to its low chemical reactivity and water solubility, a significant fraction of OCS is able to reach the stratosphere where it is converted to SO2 and ultimately to H2SO4 aerosols (Junge layer). These aerosols have the potential to amplify stratospheric ozone destruction on a global scale and may influence Earth's radiation budget and climate through increasing solar scattering. The transport of OCS from troposphere to stratosphere is thought to be the primary mechanism by which the Junge layer is sustained during nonvolcanic periods. Because of this, long-term trends in atmospheric OCS concentration, not only in the troposphere but also in the stratosphere, are of great interest. A new approach has been developed and optimized to retrieve atmospheric abundance of OCS from high-resolution ground-based infrared solar spectra by using the SFIT-2 (v3.91) algorithm, including a new model for solar lines simulation (solar lines often produce significant interferences in the OCS microwindows). The strongest lines of the ν3 fundamental band of OCS at 2062 cm-1 have been systematically evaluated with objective criteria to select a new set of microwindows, assuming the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic parameters with an increase in the OCS line intensities of the ν3band main isotopologue 16O12C32S by 15.79% as compared to HITRAN 2000 (Rothman et al., 2008, and references therein). Two regularization schemes have further been compared (deducted from ATMOS and ACE-FTS measurements or based on a Tikhonov approach), in order to select the one which optimizes the information content while minimizing the error budget. The selected approach has allowed us to determine updated OCS long-term trend from 1988 to 2009 in both the troposphere and the stratosphere, using spectra recorded on a regular basis with

  19. First retrievals of HCFC-142b from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations: application to high-altitude Jungfraujoch spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; O'Doherty, Simon; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin; Bader, Whitney; Bovy, Benoît; Lejeune, Bernard; Demoulin, Philippe; Roland, Ginette; Servais, Christian; Zander, Rodolphe

    2013-04-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first substitutes to the long-lived ozone depleting halocarbons, in particular the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Given the complete ban of the CFCs by the Montreal Protocol, its Amendments and Adjustments, HCFCs are on the rise, with current rates of increase substantially larger than at the beginning of the 21st century. HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) is presently the second most abundant HCFCs, after HCFC-22 (CHClF2). It is used in a wide range of applications, including as a blowing foam agent, in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Its concentration will soon reach 25 ppt in the northern hemisphere, with mixing ratios increasing at about 1.1 ppt/yr [Montzka et al., 2011]. The HCFC-142b lifetime is estimated at 18 years. With a global warming potential of 2310 on a 100-yr horizon, this species is also a potent greenhouse gas [Forster et al., 2007]. First space-based retrievals of HCFC-142b have been reported by Dufour et al. [2005]. 17 occultations recorded in 2004 by the Canadian ACE-FTS instrument (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer, onboard SCISAT-1) were analyzed, using two microwindows (1132.5-1135.5 and 1191.5-1195.5 cm-1). In 2009, Rinsland et al. determined the HCFC-142b trend near the tropopause, from the analysis of ACE-FTS observations recorded over the 2004-2008 time period. The spectral region used in this study extended from 903 to 905.5 cm-1. In this contribution, we will present the first HCFC-142b measurements from ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra. We use observations recorded at the high altitude station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8°E, 3580 m asl), with a Bruker 120HR instrument, in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, visit http://www.ndacc.org). The retrieval of HCFC-142b is very challenging, with simulations indicating only weak absorptions, lower than 1% for low sun spectra and current

  20. The relation between gas density and velocity power spectra in galaxy clusters: high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations and the role of conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Nagai, D; Lau, E T; Zhuravleva, I

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the ICM power spectrum can help us to probe the physics of galaxy clusters. Using high-resolution 3D plasma simulations, we study the statistics of the velocity field and its relation with the thermodynamic perturbations. The normalization of the ICM spectrum (density, entropy, or pressure) is linearly tied to the level of large-scale motions, which excite both gravity and sound waves due to stratification. For low 3D Mach number M~0.25, gravity waves mainly drive entropy perturbations, traced by preferentially tangential turbulence. For M>0.5, sound waves start to significantly contribute, passing the leading role to compressive pressure fluctuations, associated with isotropic turbulence (or a slight radial bias). Density and temperature fluctuations are then characterized by the dominant process: isobaric (low M), adiabatic (high M), or isothermal (strong conduction). Most clusters reside in the intermediate regime, showing a mixture of gravity and sound waves, hence drifting towards isotropic vel...

  1. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Spectra from Slightly-Irradiated Uranium and Plutonium between 400-830 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Ronqvist, N.

    1966-08-15

    Previously published studies of the short-cooled fission product spectra of irradiated uranium have been severely restricted by the poor energy resolution of the sodium iodide detectors used. In this report are presented fission product spectra of irradiated uranium and plutonium obtained by means of a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The resolved gamma peaks have been assigned to various fission products by correlation of measured energy and half-life values with published data. By simultaneous study of the spectra of two irradiated mixtures of plutonium and uranium, the possibility of using the activities of Ru-103 and Ru-106 as a measure of the relative fission rate in U-235 and Pu-239 has been briefly examined.

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy in superfluid helium droplets. Investigation of vibrational fine structures in electronic spectra of phthalocyanine and porphyrin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Ricarda Eva Friederike Elisabeth

    2011-03-22

    Since a considerably large variety of substituted compounds is commercially available and the electronic excitation spectra fit well into the spectral range covered by the continuous wave dye laser used for this study several porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives substituted with different types and numbers of alkyl and aryl groups were chosen as molecular probes. Recording fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra revealed exclusively sharp transitions for all species. A change of the molecule's electrostatic moments, primarily and most effectively, a change of the molecular dipole moment regarding both magnitude and orientation, was identified as the main contribution for line broadening effects. Apart from the sharp lines presented in their fluorescence excitation spectra, the phthalocyanine derivatives investigated for this study, namely chloro-aluminium-phthalocyanine (AlClPc) and tetra-tertbutyl-phthalocyanine (TTBPc), exhibited more than one emission spectrum.

  3. A software application for comparing large numbers of high resolution MALDI-FTICR MS spectra demonstrated by searching candidate biomarkers for glioma blood vessel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Titulaer (Mark); D.A.M. Mustafa (Dana); I. Siccama (Ivar); M. Konijnenburg (Marco); P.C. Burgers (Peter); A.C. Andeweg (Arno); P.A. Smitt (Peter); J.M. Kros (Johan); T.M. Luider (Theo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A Java™ application is presented, which compares large numbers (n > 100) of raw FTICR mass spectra from patients and controls. Two peptide profile matrices can be produced simultaneously, one with occurrences of peptide masses in samples and another with the intensity of comm

  4. A new measure of Δα/α at redshift z = 1.84 from very high resolution spectra of Q 1101-264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Molaro, P.; Lopez, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Centurión, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; Reimers, D.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We probe the evolution of the fine-structure constant α with cosmic time. Methods: Accurate positions of the Fe II lines λ1608, λ2382, and λ2600 are measured in the z_abs = 1.84 absorption system from a high-resolution (FWHM ~ 3.8 km s-1) and high signal-to-noise (S/N ⪆ 100) spectrum of the quasar Q 1101-264 (z_em = 2.15, V = 16.0), integrated for 15.4 h. The Single Ion Differential α Measurement (SIDAM) procedure and the Δ χ2 method are used to set constraints on Δα/α. Results: We have found a relative radial velocity shift between the λ1608 and λλ2382,2600 lines of Δ v = -180 ± 85 m s-1 (both random and systematic errors are included), which, if real, would correspond to Δα/α = (5.4±2.5) × 10-6 (1σ C.L.). Considering the strong implications of a such variability, additional observations with comparable accuracy at redshift z ˜ 1.8 are required to confirm this result. Based on observations performed at the VLT Kueyen telescope (ESO, Paranal, Chile), the ESO programme No. 076.A-0463.

  5. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  6. Phase-modulated electronic wave-packet interferometry reveals high resolution vibronic spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phase-modulated wave-packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave-packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited $5\\Pi_{3/2}$ and the high-lying electronic states $2^2\\Pi$, $4^2\\Delta$, $6^2\\Sigma$ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.

  7. Resonance-Light-Scattering Study and Line-Shape Simulation of the J Band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, Henk; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1991-01-01

    Line-shape simulations and resonance-light-scattering experiments of the J band in aggregates of pseudoisocyanine are reported. It is concluded that the J band can be described as a disordered Frenkel-exciton band with states that are pseudolocalized on segments of the aggregate chain. The resonance

  8. A software application for comparing large numbers of high resolution MALDI-FTICR MS spectra demonstrated by searching candidate biomarkers for glioma blood vessel formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitt Peter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Java™ application is presented, which compares large numbers (n > 100 of raw FTICR mass spectra from patients and controls. Two peptide profile matrices can be produced simultaneously, one with occurrences of peptide masses in samples and another with the intensity of common peak masses in all the measured samples, using the peak- and background intensities of the raw data. In latter way, more significantly differentially expressed peptides are found between groups than just using the presence or absence in samples of common peak masses. The software application is tested by searching angiogenesis related proteins in glioma by comparing laser capture micro dissected- and enzymatic by trypsin digested tissue sections. Results By hierarchical clustering of the presence-absence matrix, it appears that proteins, such as hemoglobin alpha and delta subunit, fibrinogen beta and gamma chain precursor, tubulin specific chaperone A, epidermal fatty acid binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin precursor, peptidyl tRNA hydrolase 2 mitochondrial precursor, placenta specific growth hormone, and zinc finger CCHC domain containing protein 13 are significantly different expressed in glioma vessels. The up-regulated proteins in the glioma vessels with respect to the normal vessels determined by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test on the intensity matrix are vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, serum albumin precursor, annexin A5, alpha cardiac and beta actin, type I cytoskeletal 10 keratin, calcium binding protein p22, and desmin. Peptide masses of calcium binding protein p22, Cdc42 effector protein 3, fibronectin precursor, and myosin-9 are exclusively present in glioma vessels. Some peptide fragments of non-muscular myosin-9 at the C-terminus are strongly up-regulated in the glioma vessels with respect to the normal vessels. Conclusion The less rigorous than in general used commercial propriety software de

  9. High resolution infrared and Raman spectra of {sup 13}C{sup 12}CD{sub 2}: The CD stretching fundamentals and associated combination and hot bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L., E-mail: luciano.fusina@unibo.it; Canè, E.; Tamassia, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale “Toso Montanari,” Università di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Martínez, R. Z.; Bermejo, D. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-07

    Infrared and Raman spectra of mono {sup 13}C fully deuterated acetylene, {sup 13}C{sup 12}CD{sub 2}, have been recorded and analysed to obtain detailed information on the C—D stretching fundamentals and associated combination, overtone, and hot bands. Infrared spectra were recorded at an instrumental resolution ranging between 0.006 and 0.01 cm{sup −1} in the region 1800–7800 cm{sup −1}. Sixty new bands involving the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} C—D stretching modes also associated with the ν{sub 4} and ν{sub 5} bending vibrations have been observed and analysed. In total, 5881 transitions have been assigned in the investigated spectral region. In addition, the Q branch of the ν{sub 1} fundamental was recorded using inverse Raman spectroscopy, with an instrumental resolution of about 0.003 cm{sup −1}. The transitions relative to each stretching mode, i.e., the fundamental band, its first overtone, and associated hot and combination bands involving bending states with υ{sub 4} + υ{sub 5} up to 2 were fitted simultaneously. The usual Hamiltonian appropriate to a linear molecule, including vibration and rotation l-type and the Darling–Dennison interaction between υ{sub 4} = 2 and υ{sub 5} = 2 levels associated with the stretching states, was adopted for the analysis. The standard deviation for each global fit is ≤0.0004 cm{sup −1}, of the same order of magnitude of the measurement precision. Slightly improved parameters for the bending and the ν{sub 2} manifold have been also determined. Precise values of spectroscopic parameters deperturbed from the resonance interactions have been obtained. They provide quantitative information on the anharmonic character of the potential energy surface, which can be useful, in addition to those reported in the literature, for the determination of a general anharmonic force field for the molecule. Finally, the obtained values of the Darling–Dennison constants can be valuable for understanding energy flows

  10. Measurements of several atmospheric gases above the South Pole in December 1986 from high-resolution 3- to 4-micron solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron; Murcray, Frank J.; Murcray, Frank H.; Murcray, David G.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative analysis of absorption features of a number of atmospheric gases in 0.02/cm resolution 3- to 4-micron solar spectra recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The measurements were obtained shortly after the austral spring ozone minimum and define, for the first time, the ambient levels of the species immediately following the breakup of the polar vortex. The retrieved total vertical column amounts in molecules per sq cm are: 2.4 + or - 0.4 x 10 to the 21st for H2(O-16), 4.5 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 18th for H2(O-18), 3.9 + or - 0.4 x 10 to the 17th for HDO, 2.1 + or - 0.2 x 10 to the 19th for CH4, 5.1 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 21st for CO2, 3.9 + or - 0.4 x 10 to the 18th for N2O, and 3.7 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the 15th for C2H6. Identification of (C-12)H3D absorption features and a search for H2CO absorption in the spectral data are also described.

  11. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  12. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  13. High Resolution Acoustical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    1028 (September 1982). 26 G. Arfken , Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press, New York, 1971), 2nd printing, pp.662-666. 27 W. R. Hahn...difference in the approach used by the two methods , as noted in the previous paragraph, forming a direct mathematical com- parison may be impossible...examines high resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the fressure waves. Several;- new methods

  14. High Resolution Spectra of HE Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-07

    the fragment has a corkscrew trajectory due to its aerodynamic characteristics. The streamer which demonstrates this behavior most beautifully in the...changes for exposure times of 102, D- LOG E CURVES 10Ŗ, and 10-6 sec. The curves show typical density vs. log 40 r 1 1 1 exposure data from a 10-3 sec xenon...equation results in log [NX•3 /(gf)) = log [1.054 n L/U] - (504 O/T) E 0 02 S| = A - (5040/T) E08 0 D. 8 "’ C 85 Ip .. . . ...._ _ . j -. ’ • •..-•,, -o

  15. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  16. M-dwarf metallicities - A high-resolution spectroscopic study in the near infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Önehag, Anna; Gustafsson, Bengt; Piskunov, Nikolai; Plez, Bertrand; Reiners, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    The relativley large spread in the derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of M dwarfs shows that various approaches have not yet converged to consistency. The presence of strong molecular features, and incomplete line lists for the corresponding molecules have made metallicity determinations of M dwarfs difficult. Furthermore, the faint M dwarfs require long exposure times for a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for a detailed spectroscopic abundance analysis. We present a high-resolution (R~50,000) spectroscopic study of a sample of eight single M dwarfs and three wide-binary systems observed in the infrared J-band. The absence of large molecular contributions allow for a precise continuum placement. We derive metallicities based on the best fit synthetic spectra to the observed spectra. To verify the accuracy of the applied atmospheric models and test our synthetic spectrum approach, three binary systems with a K-dwarf primary and an M-dwarf companion were observed and analysed along with the single M dwarfs. We obt...

  17. CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in argon: high resolution ESR spectra and analysis by three-dimensional quantum rotor model. A case study of low temperature quantum effects on radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotani, Masaru; Yamada, Tomoya; Komaguchi, Kenji [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Benetis, N.P.; Lund, A.; Soernes, A.R.

    1998-10-01

    The present study deals with high resolution isotropic ESR spectra of the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} radicals isolated in solid argon matrix at low temperature from 4 K to 40 K. Argon gases mixed with methane (Ar/methane {approx_equal} 500 mole ratio) were condensed at the end of Suprasile ESR tube at 4.2 K. Methyl radicals were generated by X-ray irradiation at 4 K and subjected to an ESR study. The 6.0 K ESR spectrum of the CH{sub 4}/Ar system is shown in Fig. 1. For CH{sub 3} radical the {sup 1}H hyperfine (hf) quartet was observed with an equal intensity (A-lines). The E-lines were absent at 4 K, but became visible at m{sub F} = {+-}1/2 positions above 12 K increased with temperature. The CD{sub 3} gave a peculiar spectrum at 4 K with an abnormally strong central singlet superimposed on a much weaker seven line spectrum of a freely rotating CD{sub 3}. The temperature dependent spectra showed clear quantum effects due to three-dimensional spin-rotation couplings. The spectra were analyzed with the following assumptions: (a) a planar D{sub 3} geometry, (b) a free and three-dimensional quantum rotation and (c) a thermally isolated radical. Application of the Pauli principle in combination to the D{sub 3} point group resulted in interesting selections for ESR-transitions for both the CH{sub 3} and CD{sub 3} spectra. That is, the {sup 1}H hf quartet of CH{sub 3} radical (A-lines) was attributed to the rotational ground state, J=0, with totally symmetric A{sub 1} nuclear states. The central strong singlet of CD{sub 3} was attributed to one spin-rotation state with A{sub 2} antisymmetric nuclear states at the lowest rotational level of J=0. (author)

  18. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  19. Retrieval of HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra: Atmospheric increase since 1989 and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Emmanuel; Lejeune, Bernard; Bovy, Benoît; Servais, Christian; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Bernath, Peter F.; Boone, Christopher D.; Walker, Kaley A.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; O'Doherty, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an approach for retrieving HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra, using its ν7 band Q branch in the 900-906 cm-1 interval. Interferences by HNO3, CO2 and H2O have to be accounted for. Application of this approach to observations recorded within the framework of long-term monitoring activities carried out at the northern mid-latitude, high-altitude Jungfraujoch station in Switzerland (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580 m above sea level) has provided a total column times series spanning the 1989 to mid-2015 time period. A fit to the HCFC-142b daily mean total column time series shows a statistically-significant long-term trend of (1.23±0.08×1013 molec cm-2) per year from 2000 to 2010, at the 2-σ confidence level. This corresponds to a significant atmospheric accumulation of (0.94±0.06) ppt (1 ppt=1/1012) per year for the mean tropospheric mixing ratio, at the 2-σ confidence level. Over the subsequent time period (2010-2014), we note a significant slowing down in the HCFC-142b buildup. Our ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) results are compared with relevant data sets derived from surface in situ measurements at the Mace Head and Jungfraujoch sites of the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and from occultation measurements by the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on-board the SCISAT satellite.

  20. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  1. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  2. A near infrared frequency comb for Y+J band astronomical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Osterman, Steve; Diddams, Scott A; Quinlan, Franklyn; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad F; Terrien, Ryan; Botzer, Brandon; Sigurddson, Steinn; Redman, Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) surveys supported by high precision wavelength references (notably ThAr lamps and I2 cells) have successfully identified hundreds of exoplanets; however, as the search for exoplanets moves to cooler, lower mass stars, the optimum wave band for observation for these objects moves into the near infrared (NIR) and new wavelength standards are required. To address this need we are following up our successful deployment of an H band(1.45-1.7{\\mu}m) laser frequency comb based wavelength reference with a comb working in the Y and J bands (0.98-1.3{\\mu}m). This comb will be optimized for use with a 50,000 resolution NIR spectrograph such as the Penn State Habitable Zone Planet Finder. We present design and performance details of the current Y+J band comb.

  3. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. III. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND MAGNESIUM LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Davies, Ben [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Plez, Bertrand, E-mail: bergemann@mpia-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: bertrand.plez@univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2015-05-10

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) calculations for Mg i in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of NLTE for the formation of Mg i lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated this technique is a very promising tool for investigating the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where NLTE effects were studied for iron, titanium, and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg i absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the NLTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between −0.4 dex and −0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 and 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supergiants in the young massive galactic double cluster h and χ Persei.

  4. Discovery of a T Dwarf Binary with the Largest Known J-Band Flux Reversal

    CERN Document Server

    Looper, D L; Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D

    2008-01-01

    We present Keck laser guide star observations of two T2.5 dwarfs - 2MASS J11061197+2754225 & 2MASS J14044941-3159329 - using NIRC2 on Keck-II and find 2MASS J14044941-3159329 to be a 0.13" binary. This system has a secondary that is 0.45 mags brighter than the primary in J-band but 0.49 mags fainter in H-band and 1.13 mags fainter in Ks-band. We use this relative photometry along with near-infrared synthetic modeling performed on the integrated light spectrum to derive component types of T1 for the primary and T5 for the secondary. Optical spectroscopy of this system obtained with Magellan/LDSS-3 is also presented. This is the fourth L/T transition binary to show a flux reversal in the 1-1.2 micron regime and this one has the largest flux reversal. Unless the secondary is itself an unresolved binary, the J-band magnitude difference between the secondary and primary shows that the J-band ``bump'' is indeed a real feature and not an artifact caused by unresolved binarity.

  5. Progress toward high resolution EUV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, C.; Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H.; Young, P. R.; Chua, D.; Hassler, D. M.; Landi, E.; Davila, J. M.; Klimchuck, J.; Tun, S.; DeForest, C.; Mariska, J. T.; Solar C Spectroscopy Working Group; LEMUR; EUVST Development Team

    2013-07-01

    HIgh resolution EUV spectroscopy is a critical instrumental technique to understand fundamental physical processes in the high temperature solar atmosphere. Spectroscopic observations are used to measure differential emission measure, line of sight and turbulent flows, plasma densities and emission measures. Spatially resolved, spectra of these emission lines with adequate cadence will provide the necessary clues linking small scale structures with large scale, energetic solar phenomena. The necessary observations to determine underlying physical processes and to provide comprehensive temperature coverage of the solar atmosphere above the chromosphere will be obtained by the proposed EUVST instrument for Solar C. This instrument and its design will be discussed in this paper. Progress on the VEry high Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (VERIS) sounding rocket instrument presently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory will also be discussed.

  6. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  7. Stellar metallicities beyond the Local Group: the potential of J-band spectroscopy with extremely large telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Kudritzki, R -P; Puech, M; Yang, Y; Cuby, J -G; Figer, D F; Lehnert, M D; Morris, S L; Rousset, G

    2010-01-01

    We present simulated J-band spectroscopy of red giants and supergiants with a 42m European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), using tools developed toward the EAGLE Phase A instrument study. The simulated spectra are used to demonstrate the validity of the 1.15-1.22 micron region to recover accurate stellar metallicities from Solar and metal-poor (one tenth Solar) spectral templates. From tests at spectral resolving powers of four and ten thousand, we require continuum signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 50 (per two-pixel resolution element) to recover the input metallicity to within 0.1 dex. We highlight the potential of direct estimates of stellar metallicites (over the range -1<[Fe/H]<0) of red giants with the E-ELT, reaching out to distances of ~5 Mpc for stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The same simulations are also used to illustrate the potential for quantitative spectroscopy of red supergiants beyond the Local Volume to tens of Mpc. Calcium triplet observations in the I-band are also ...

  8. Stratospheric HNO3 quantification from line-by-line nonlinear least-squares analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra in the 870/cm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Gillis, J. R.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Line parameters for the nu(5) and 2nu(9) bands and associated hot bands of HNO3 have been calculated and compared with laboratory spectra, and the results are presented. Spectral intervals near 870/cm for which best agreement was obtained are used to quantitatively analyze HNO3 absorption features in 0.02/cm resolution stratospheric solar absorption spectra.

  9. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  10. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    carbon distribution as it relates to the presence of Bainite phase (with small tetragonality) interspersed among the cubic ferrite. An example of the...preferentially segregate. The view offered by these high resolution methods differs from what has been considered before: grains thought to be Bainite

  11. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    30 September 1986 Los Angeles Air Force Station 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Los Angeles, Calif. 90009-2960 36 74. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...TREE PLMUT ",-20 -CUTLIASS DumpER SED AN... TREE TRUNK, -0 - MERC BUMPER f - 40 H!-I -50 iI Fig. 7. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar View of

  12. First High Resolution IR Spectra of 2-^{13}C-PROPANE. the νb{9} B-Type Band Near 366.767 \\wn and the νb{26} C-Type Band Near 746.615 \\wn. Determination of Ground and Upper State Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunt, S. J.; Grzywacz, Robert; Lafferty, Walter; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2017-06-01

    This is the first report in a project to record high resolution IR data of the ^{13}C and D substituted isotopologues of propane. In this talk we will give details on the first high resolution (Δν = 0.0009 \\wn) IR investigation of 2-^{13}C-propane. Spectra of the CCC skeletal bending mode near 336.767 \\wn (B-type) and the wagging mode near 746.615 \\wn (C-type) were recorded using the FTS on the Far-IR beamline of the Canadian Light Source (CLS). The spectra were assigned both traditionally and with the aid of the PGOPHER program of Colin Western. The only available MW data on this molecule are the six K =0 J lines from Lide. We therefore had to use the present data to determine a new set of ground state constants that included centrifugal distortion terms for this molecule. We compare these experimentally determined values with the recent ab initio values of Villa, Senent & Carvajal. Upper state constants for both bands have been found that provide a good simulation of the spectra. The hope is that this data will be useful in identifying isotopic propane lines in Titan and other astrophysical objects. C. Western, J. Quant. Spectrosc. & Rad. Transf. 186, 221 ff. (2017). Lide, J.Chem. Phys. 33, p.1514ff. (1960). Villa, Senent & Carvajal, PCCP 15, 10258 (2013).

  13. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  14. Long-Term Trends in the Concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in the Lower Stratosphere from Analysis of High-Resolution Infrared Solar Occultation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Kosters, J. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Sze, N. D.; Massie, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term trends in the concentrations of SF6, CHClF2 (CFC-22), and COF2 in the lower stratosphere have been derived from analysis of ca. 1980 and more recent infrared solar occultation spectra recorded near 32 deg N latitude at approx. 0.02/ cm resolution. Consistent sets of line parameters and spectral calibration methods have been used in the retrievals to minimize systematic error effects. Quoted error limits are 1 sigma estimated precisions. The SF6 and CHClF2 results are based on spectra recorded by balloon-borne interferometers in March 1981 and June 1988 and a comparison of these results with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment/Spacelab 3 measurements obtained in May 1985 near 30 deg N latitude. In the 13-18 km altitude range the mean measured SF6 mixing ratio in parts per trillion by volume (pptv) increased from 1.17 +/- 0.21 in March 1981 to 2.02 +/- 0.20 pptv in June 1988, and the CHClF2 mixing ratio below 15 km altitude increased from 51 +/- 8 pptv in March 1981 to 102 +/- 10 pptv in June 1988. The CHClF2 retrievals used new empirical CHClF2 line parameters derived from 0.03/cm resolution laboratory spectra recorded at six temperatures between 203 and 293 K; the derived mixing ratios are approx. 30% higher than obtained with earlier sets of line parameters, thereby removing a large discrepancy noted previously between IR and in situ measurements of CHClF2. Assuming an exponential growth model for fitting the trends, SF6 and CHClF2 mean increase rates of 7.4% +/- 1.9% and 9.4% +/- 1.3% /year, are obtained, respectively, which correspond to cumulative increases by factors of approx. 1.7 and -2.0 in the concentrations of these gases over the 7.2-year measurement period. Analysis of spectra recorded in October 1979 and April 1989 yields COF2 volume mixing ratios that are respectively 0.44 +/- 0.17 and 1.21 +/- 0.24 times the ATMOS/Spacelab 3 values, from which an average COF2 increase rate of 10.3 +/- 1.8%/ year over this time

  15. A J-band detection of the sub-stellar mass donor in SDSS J1433+1011

    CERN Document Server

    Littlefair, S P; Savoury, J; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gaensicke, B T; Butterley, T; Wilson, R W; Southworth, J; Watson, C A

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved J-band spectroscopy of the short period cataclysmic variable SDSS J143317.78+101123.3. We detect absorption lines from the sub-stellar donor star in this system, which contributes 38 +/- 5% to the J-band light. From the relative strengths of the absorption lines in the J-band, we estimate the spectral type of the donor star to be L2 +/- 1. These data are the first spectroscopic detection of a confirmed sub-stellar donor in a cataclysmic variable, and the spectral type is consistent with that expected from semi-empirical evolutionary models. Using skew mapping, we have been able to derive an estimate for the radial velocity of the donor of Kd = 520 +/- 60 km/s. This value is consistent with, though much less precise than, predictions from mass determinations found via photometric fitting of the eclipse light curves.

  16. Cumulative "roof effect" in high-resolution in vivo 31P NMR spectra of human calf muscle and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of ATP at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2005-05-01

    NMR spectra of non-weakly coupled spin systems exhibit asymmetries in line intensities known as "roof effect" in 1D spectroscopy. Due to limited spectral resolution, this effect has not been paid much attention so far in in vivo spectroscopy. But when high-quality spectra are obtained, this effect should be taken into account to explain the quantum-mechanical fine structure of the system. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) represents a 31P spin system with multiple line splittings which are caused by J-couplings of medium strength at 1.5 T. We analyzed the ATP roof effect in vivo, especially for the beta-ATP multiplet. The intensities of its outer resonances deviate by ca. 12.5% from a symmetrical triplet. As this asymmetry reflects the transition from Paschen-Back to Zeeman effect with total spin that is largely broken up, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the system can be indicated in analogy to the hyperfine structure of hydrogen. Taking the roof effect into account, the chi2 of fitting in vivo ATP resonances is reduced by ca. 9% (p<0.005).

  17. Cumulative “roof effect” in high-resolution in vivo 31P NMR spectra of human calf muscle and the Clebsch Gordan coefficients of ATP at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2005-05-01

    NMR spectra of non-weakly coupled spin systems exhibit asymmetries in line intensities known as "roof effect" in 1D spectroscopy. Due to limited spectral resolution, this effect has not been paid much attention so far in in vivo spectroscopy. But when high-quality spectra are obtained, this effect should be taken into account to explain the quantum-mechanical fine structure of the system. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) represents a 31P spin system with multiple line splittings which are caused by J-couplings of medium strength at 1.5 T. We analyzed the ATP roof effect in vivo, especially for the β-ATP multiplet. The intensities of its outer resonances deviate by ca. 12.5% from a symmetrical triplet. As this asymmetry reflects the transition from Paschen-Back to Zeeman effect with total spin that is largely broken up, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the system can be indicated in analogy to the hyperfine structure of hydrogen. Taking the roof effect into account, the χ2 of fitting in vivo ATP resonances is reduced by ca. 9% ( p < 0.005).

  18. THEORETICAL SPECTRA OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ehlmann, Bethany L., E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable via prominent Si-O features in the thermal emission bands of 7-13 {mu}m and 15-25 {mu}m. The variation of brightness temperature due to the silicate features can be up to 20 K for an airless Earth analog, and the silicate features are wide enough to be distinguished from atmospheric features with relatively high resolution spectra. The surface characterization thus provides a method to unambiguously identify a rocky exoplanet. Furthermore, identification of specific rocky surface types is possible with the planet's reflectance spectrum in near-infrared broad bands. A key parameter to observe is the difference between K-band and J-band geometric albedos (A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J)): A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) > 0.2 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface has abundant mafic minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, in other words primary crust from a magma ocean or high-temperature lavas; A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) < -0.09 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface is covered or partially covered by water ice or hydrated silicates, implying extant or past water on its surface. Also, surface water ice can be specifically distinguished by an H-band geometric albedo lower than the J-band geometric albedo. The surface features can be distinguished from possible atmospheric features with molecule identification of atmospheric species by transmission spectroscopy. We therefore propose that mid-infrared spectroscopy of exoplanets may detect rocky surfaces, and near-infrared spectrophotometry may identify ultramafic surfaces, hydrated surfaces, and water ice.

  19. High-resolution land topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  20. High-resolution image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, K

    1986-01-01

    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis.

  1. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  2. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  3. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  4. High-resolution Measurement of Contact Ion-pair Structures in Aqueous RbCl Solutions from the Simultaneous Corefinement of their Rb and Cl K-edge XAFS and XRD Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Van-Thai; Fulton, John L.

    2016-06-21

    In concentrated solutions of aqueous RbCl, all of the Rb+ and Cl- ions exist as contact ion pairs. This full structural assessment is derived from the refinement of three independent experimental measurements: the Rb and Cl K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and the x-ray diffraction spectra (XRD). This simultaneous refinement of the XAFS and XRD data provides high accuracy since each method probes the structure of different local regions about the ions with high sensitivity. At high RbCl concentration (6 m (mol/kg )) the solution is dominated by Rb+ - Cl- contact ion pairs yielding an average of 1.5 pairs at an Rb-Cl distance of 3.24 Å. Upon formation of these ion pairs, approximately 1.1 waters molecules are displaced from the Rb+ and 1.4 water molecules from Cl-. The hydration shells about both the cation and anion are also determined. These results greatly improve the understanding of monovalent ions and provide a basis for testing the Rb+-Cl- interaction potentials used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  5. High resolution {sup 13}C NMR spectra on oriented lipid bilayers: From quantifying the various sources of line broadening to performing 2D experiments with 0.2-0.3 ppm resolution in the carbon dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubias, O.; Saurel, O.; Reat, V.; Milon, A. [Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (France)], E-mail: alain.milon@ipbs.fr

    2002-09-15

    {sup 13}C NMR spectra routinely performed on oriented lipid bilayers display linewidth of 1-2 ppm, although T{sub 2} measurements indicate that 0.1-0.2 ppm could be obtained. We have prepared a DMPC - {sup 13}C{sub 4}-cholesterol (7/3) sample, and oriented the lipid bilayers between glass plates so that the bilayer normal makes an angle of 90 deg. (or of the magic angle) with B{sub 0}. We have measured T{sub 2}s, CSAs, and linewidths for the choline {sup 13}C-{gamma}-methyl, the cholesterol-C{sub 4} carbons and the lipid head group phosphorus, at both angles and 313 K. The magnetic field distribution within the sample was calculated using the surface current formalism. The line shapes were simulated as a function of B{sub 0} field inhomogeneities and sample mosaic spread. Both effects contribute to the experimental linewidth. Using three signals of different CSA, we have quantified both contributions and measured the mosaic spread accurately. Direct shimming on a sample signal is essential to obtain sharp resonances and {sup 13}C labelled choline methyl resonance of DMPC is a good candidate for this task. After optimisation of the important parameters (shimming on the choline resonance, mosaic spread of {+-} 0.30 deg.), {sup 13}C linewidth of 0.2-0.3 ppm have been obtained. This newly achieved resolution on bilayers oriented at 90 deg., has allowed to perform two 2D experiments, with a good sensitivity: 2D PELF (correlation of carbon chemical shifts and C-H dipolar couplings) and 2D D-resolved experiment (correlation of carbon chemical shifts and C-C dipolar couplings). A C-C dipolar coupling of 35 {+-} 2 Hz between the choline methyl carbons was determined.

  6. High-resolution infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  7. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  8. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  9. High-resolution tunnel fluctuoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, A.; Varlamov, A. A.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2014-08-01

    Electron tunneling spectroscopy pioneered by Esaki and Giaever offered a powerful tool for studying electronic spectra and density of states (DOS) in superconductors. This led to important discoveries that revealed, in particular, the pseudogap in the tunneling spectrum of superconductors above their critical temperatures. However, the phenomenological approach of Giaever and Megerle does not resolve the fine structure of low-bias behavior carrying significant information about electron scattering, interactions, and decoherence effects. Here we construct a complete microscopic theory of electron tunneling into a superconductor in the fluctuation regime. We reveal a non-trivial low-energy anomaly in tunneling conductivity due to Andreev-like reflections of injected electrons from superconducting fluctuations. Our findings enable real-time observation of fluctuating Cooper pairs dynamics by time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy measurements and open new horizons for quantitative analysis of the fluctuation electronic spectra of superconductors.

  10. High-resolution slug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  11. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, Ionel Dragos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  12. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  13. The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars - High resolution spectral library

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Jofré, P; Heiter, U

    2014-01-01

    Context. An increasing number of high resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed in order to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized. Aims. We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars) that will allow to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys. Methods. High resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process in order to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library. Results. We built a high quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and e...

  14. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  15. Theoretical Spectra of Terrestrial Exoplanet Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable via prominent Si-O features in the thermal emission bands of 7 - 13 \\mu m and 15 - 25 \\mu m. The variation of brightness temperature due to the silicate features can be up to 20 K for an airless Earth analog, and the silicate features are wide enough to be distinguished from atmospheric features with relatively high-resolution spectra. The surface characterization thus provides a method to unambiguously identify a rocky exoplanet. Furthermore, identification of specific rocky surface types is possible with the planet's reflectance spectrum in near-infrared broad bands. A key parameter to observe is the difference between K band and J band geometric albedos (A_g (K)-A_g (J)): A_g (K)-A_g (J) > 0.2 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface has abundant mafic minerals, such as oliv...

  16. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  17. Modeling High Resolution Flare Spectra Using Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry; Doschek, G.

    2006-06-01

    Understanding the hydrodynamic response of the solar atmosphere to the release of energy during a flare has been a long standing problem in solar physics. Early time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations were able to reproduce the high temperatures and densities observed in solar flares, but were not able to model the observations in any detail. For example, these simulations could not account for the relatively slow decay of the observed emission or the absence of blueshifts in high spectral resolution line profiles at flare onset. We have found that by representing the flare as a succession of independently heated filaments it is possible to reproduce both the evolution of line intensity and the shape of the line profile using hydrodynamic simulations. Here we present detailed comparisons between our simulation results and several flares observed with the Yohkoh Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS). Comparisons with 3D MHD simulations will also be discussed.

  18. High resolution spectra of novae and the quadratic zeeman effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Williams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espectros de alta resoluci on de novas despu es de las erupciones revelan caracter sticas distintivas en los per les e intensidades de las l neas. Las l neas de Balmer m as altas son frecuentemente m as anchas que los miembros m as bajos de la serie, y los per les e intensidades relativos del doblete [O I] 6300, 6364 di eren de los valores normales. Nosotros sugerimos que estos aspectos pueden ser producidos por el efecto cuadr atico Zeeman desde campos magn eticos que exceden B=106 gauss. Tomadas juntas, las l neas de emisi on y absorci on indican m ultiples or genes para los materiales expulsados, tanto en las enanas blancas eruptivas como en las estrellas secundarias fr as.

  19. DESIR high resolution separator at GANIL, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution separator for the SPIRAL2/DESIR project at GANIL has been designed. The extracted isotopes from SPIRAL2 will be transported to and cooled in a RFQ cooler yielding beams with very low transverse emittance and energy spread. These beams will then be accelerated to 60 keV and sent to a high-resolution mass separator where a specific isotope will be selected. The good beam properties extracted from the RFQ cooler will allow one to obtain a mass resolution of č26000 with the high-resolution mass separator.

  20. First High Resolution IR Spectra of 1-^{13}C-PROPANE. the νb{9} B-Type Band Near 366.404 \\wn and the νb{26} C-Type Band Near 748.470 \\wn. Determination of Ground and Upper State Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunt, S. J.; Grzywacz, Robert; Lafferty, Walter; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2017-06-01

    We report in this talk on the first high resolution IR spectra (Δν = 0.0009 \\wn) of the 1-^{13}C-Propane isotopologue. Spectra were taken on the Bruker FTS instrument on the Far-IR beamline at the Canadian National Synchrotron (CLS) located at the University of Saskatchewan. The νb{9} B-type band centered near 366.404 \\wn appears unperturbed and lines were assigned up to K = 17 and J = 50. Since the 1960 MW study of Lide only used 6 J lines of K = 0 we had to use GSCD analyses to determine a fuller set of molecular constants for this molecule. Since normal propane has been detected using the νb{26} C-type band in Titan and other astrophysical objects our main focus was on the analagous bands for the both the 1-^{13}C and 2-^{13}C isotopologues. Assigned lines up to K = 17, J = 50 in νb{26} were analyzed with GSCD to independently obtain ground state rotational constants. These were consistent with those obtained from the νb{9} analysis. Upper state constants were also determined that reproduce the vast majority of this band. As in the normal and 2-^{13}C species a Coriolis resonance with the 2νb{9} state causes lines of most K levels above 15 to be shifted. We did not have enough sample available at the time of these experiments to be able to record the 2νb{9} - νb{9} hot band transitions in the low frequency study of νb{9}. Lide, J. Chem. Phys. 33, p. 1514 ff. (1960) Flaud, Kwabia Tchana, Lafferty & Nixon, Mol. Phys. 108, p. 699 ff. (2010)

  1. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  2. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  3. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  4. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 500–2100cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 500–2100 cm -1 at temperatures up to1027 1C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1013±20 mbar) are measured. NH3 concentrations of 1000 ppm,0.5% and 1% in volume fraction were used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in high...... temperature gas flow cells using a FourierTransform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09cm-1. Measurements at 22.7 °C are compared to high-resolution cross sections available from thePacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The higher temperature spectra are analysed by comparison...

  5. Rotational isomers of hydroxy deuterated o- and m-cresols studied by ultraviolet high resolution experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.; Meerts, W.L.; Ratzer, C.; Schmitt, M.

    2005-01-01

    The laser induced fluorescence spectra of several torsional transitions of the S-1 &LARR; S-0 electronic transition were recorded for the hydroxy deuterated o- and m- cresols. Both cis and trans rotamers were observed in a high resolution molecular beam experiment. The spectra were analyzed using a

  6. Observation of Kondo resonance in rare-earth hexaborides using high resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Kalobaran; Patil, Swapnil; Adhikary, Ganesh [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Balakrishnan, Geetha, E-mail: kbmaiti@tifr.res.in [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    We studied the electronic structure of rare earth hexaborides, CeB{sub 6}, PrB{sub 6} and NdB{sub 6} using state-of-the-art high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. CeB{sub 6} is a dense Kondo system. PrB{sub 6} and NdB{sub 6} are antiferromagnetic (Neel temperature {approx}7 K), known to be stable moment systems and do not exhibit Kondo effect. Photoemission spectra exhibit distinct signature of surface and bulk electronic structures of these compounds. The energy position of the surface feature is not influenced by the 4f density of states. High resolution spectra of CeB{sub 6} reveal multiple Kondo resonance features in the bulk spectra due to various photoemission final states. Interestingly, high resolution photoemission spectra of antiferromagnetic PrB{sub 6} also exhibit a sharp feature at the Fermi level that shows temperature dependence similar to the Kondo resonance features.

  7. FLAIR-II spectroscopy of two DENIS J-band galaxy samples

    CERN Document Server

    Mamon, G A; Proust, D; Mamon, Gary A.; Parker, Quentin A.; Proust, Dominique

    2001-01-01

    As a pilot survey for the forthcoming 6dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, spectroscopy of galaxies selected in J (1.2 mu) with the DENIS survey was performed at the UKST using the FLAIR II multi-object spectroscope. 69 galaxy redshifts (z's) were obtained in a high |b| field and an additional 12 z's in a low latitude (b=-17 deg), obscured field. This study illustrates the feasibility of obtaining z's with optical spectra on galaxies selected at much longer wavelengths. It validated a very preliminary algorithm for star/galaxy separation for high |b| DENIS objects, with 99% reliability for J < 13.9. However, the FLAIR II z determinations required substantially longer integration times to achieve 90% completeness than expected from previous optical surveys at comparable depth. This is mainly due to a degradation in overall fibre throughput due to known problems with ageing of the prism-cement-fibre interface with exposure to UV light. Our low |b| (high extinction) field required 2.5 times more exposure time for less...

  8. The future of high resolution electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Van Dyck

    2000-01-01

    The state of the art and the future in quantitative high resolution electron microscopy are discussed in the framework of parameter estimation. Reconstruction methods are then to be considered as direct methods to yield a starting structure for further refinement. With the increasing flexibility of the instruments, computer aided experimental strategy will become important.

  9. High resolution spectroscopy of planet bearing stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gálvez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first steps of an extended spectroscopic survey in order to characterize the stellar hosts of extra-solar planets. We have selected several known stars with plan- ets and using high resolution spectroscopy, we have studied their properties.

  10. High-resolution seismic profiling on water

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Herein is presented an overview of high-resolution seismic profiling on water. Included are basic concepts and terminology as well as discussions of types of sources and receivers, field practice, data recording and data processing. Emphasis is on digital single-channel profiling for engineering and environmental purposes.

  11. Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Walle, van der P.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2005-01-01

    The design and operation of a high-resolution spectral phase shaper with a footprint of only 7×10 cm2 is presented. The liquid-crystal modulator has 4096 elements. More than 600 independent degrees of freedom can be positioned with a relative accuracy of 1 pixel. The spectral shaping of pulses fro

  12. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  13. Compressive sensing for high resolution radar imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on the application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging. CS is a recently developed theory which allows reconstruction of sparse signals with a number of measurements much lower than what is required by the Shannon sampling th

  14. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy under the fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Simon K; Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2011-08-07

    This work reports the possibility to acquire high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra with a fist-sized NMR magnet directly installed under the fume hood. The small NMR sensor based on permanent magnets was used to monitor the trimerization of propionaldehyde catalyzed by indium trichloride in real time by continuously circulating the reaction mixture through the magnet bore in a closed loop with the help of a peristaltic pump. Thanks to the chemical selectivity of NMR spectroscopy the progress of the reaction can be monitored on-line by determining the concentrations of both reactant and product from the area under their respective lines in the NMR spectra as a function of time. This in situ measurement demonstrates that NMR probes can be used in chemistry laboratories, e.g. for reaction optimization, or installed at specific points of interest along industrial process lines. Therefore, it will open the door for the implementation of feedback control based on spectroscopic NMR data.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of a giant solar filament

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Verma, M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of a giant solar quiescent filament were taken with the Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT; Tenerife, Spain). A mosaic of various spectroheliograms (H\\alpha, H\\alpha\\ +/- 0.5\\AA\\ and Na D2) were chosen to examine the filament at different heights in the solar atmosphere. In addition, full-disk images (He I 10830\\AA\\ and Ca II K) of the Chromspheric Telescope and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were used to complement the spectra. Preliminary results are shown of this filament, which had extremely large linear dimensions (~ 740'') and was observed in November 2011 while it traversed the northern solar hemisphere.

  16. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  17. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Xiangqian; Mugler, Dale H; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the gastrointestinal tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this letter we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 {\\mu}m. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle income countries.

  18. Petrous apex mucocele: high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Alper, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Calli, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozer, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozdamar, N. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    1994-11-01

    Mucocele of the petrous apex is very rare, only three cases having been reported. Since this area is inaccessible to direct examination, imaging, preferably high resolution computed tomography (HR CT) is essential. We report a case showing an eroding, non enhancing mass with sharp, lobulated contours, within the petrous apex. The presence of a large air cell on the opposite side suggested a mucocele. (orig.)

  19. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  20. 4MOST: the high-resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, W.; Xu, W.; Buschkamp, P.; Feiz, C.; Saviauk, A.; Barden, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.

    2016-08-01

    4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. It consists of two identical low resolution spectrographs and one high resolution spectrograph. The instrument is presently in the preliminary design phase and expected to get operational end of 2022. The high resolution spectrograph will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets - over a hexagonal field of view of 4.1 sq.degrees on sky - with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering a wavelength range from 393 to 679nm in three channels. In this paper we present the optical and mechanical design of the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) as prepared for the review at ESO, Garching. The expected performance including the highly multiplexed fiber slit concept is simulated and its impact on the optical performance given. We show the thermal and finite element analyses and the resulting stability of the spectrograph under operational conditions.

  1. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  2. High-resolution traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Sergey V; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Waterman, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  4. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  5. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  6. Fast Backprojection Techniques for High Resolution Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Koshev, Nikolay; Miqueles, Eduardo X

    2016-01-01

    Fast image reconstruction techniques are becoming important with the increasing number of scientific cases in high resolution micro and nano tomography. The processing of the large scale three-dimensional data demands new mathematical tools for the tomographic reconstruction task because of the big computational complexity of most current algorithms as the sizes of tomographic data grow with the development of more powerful acquisition hardware and more refined scientific needs. In the present paper we propose a new fast back-projection operator for the processing of tomographic data and compare it against other fast reconstruction techniques.

  7. Single shot high resolution digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  8. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  9. Automated work-flow for processing high-resolution direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectral fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The use of mass spectrometry (MS) is pivotal in analyses of the metabolome and presents a major challenge for subsequent data processing. While the last few years have given new high performance instruments, there has not been a comparable development in data processing. In this paper we discuss...... an automated data processing pipeline to compare large numbers of fingerprint spectra from direct infusion experiments analyzed by high resolution MS. We describe some of the intriguing problems that have to be addressed. starting with the conversion and pre-processing of the raw data to the final data...... analysis. Illustrated on the direct infusion analysis (ESI-TOF-MS) of complex mixtures the method exploits the full quality of the high-resolution present in the mass spectra. Although the method is illustrated as a new library search method for high resolution MS, we demonstrate that the output...

  10. High-resolution oxygen-17 NMR of solid silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.T.; Wu, Y.; Chmelka, B.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Stebbins, J. (Stanford Univ, CA (USA)); Pines, A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-01-02

    Several{sup 17}O-enriched silicates were studied by use of dynamic angle spinning (DAS) and double rotation (DOR) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These methods average away second-order quadrupolar interactions by reorienting a sample about a time-dependent axis, thereby yielding high-resolution spectra of oxygen-17 nuclei. A narrow spectral line is observed for each distinct oxygen site at the sum of the isotropic chemical shift and the field-dependent isotropic second-order quadrupolar shift. Resolution is increased by up to 2 orders of magnitude compared to conventional magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra. Crystallographically inequivalent oxygen are now observable as distinct resonances in spectra of polycrystalline silicates such as diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}{sup 17}O{sub 6}), wollastonite (CaSi{sup 17}O{sub 3}), larnite (Ca{sub 2}Si{sup 17}O{sub 4}), and forsterite (Mg{sub 2}Si{sup 17}O{sub 4}).

  11. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  12. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of some very Active Southern Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Henry, Todd J.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution echelle spectra of 18 solar-type stars that an earlier survey showed to have very high levels of Ca II H and K emission. Most of these stars belong to close binary systems, but five remain as probable single stars or well-separated binaries that are younger than the Pleiades on the basis of their lithium abundances and H.alpha emission. Three of these probable single stars also lie more than 1 mag above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram, and appear to have ages of 10 to 15 Myr. Two of them, HD 202917 and HD 222259, also appear to have a kinematic association with the pre-main-sequence multiple system HD 98800.

  14. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  15. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  16. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  17. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  18. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  19. High-resolution solution-state NMR of unfractionated plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Fachuang Lu; Hoon Kim; Dino Ress; Daniel J. Yelle; Kenneth E. Hammel; Sally A. Ralph; Bernadette Nanayakkara; Armin Wagner; Takuya Akiyama; Paul F. Schatz; Shawn D. Mansfield; Noritsugu Terashima; Wout Boerjan; Bjorn Sundberg; Mattias Hedenstrom

    2009-01-01

    Detailed structural studies on the plant cell wall have traditionally been difficult. NMR is one of the preeminent structural tools, but obtaining high-resolution solution-state spectra has typically required fractionation and isolation of components of interest. With recent methods for dissolution of, admittedly, finely divided plant cell wall material, the wall can...

  20. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Nordlander, T.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.; Casamiquela, L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Bhat, S. S.; Casey, A. R.; Meléndez, J.; Ramírez, I.

    2017-03-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  1. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  2. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  4. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoflood archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Luetscher, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, speleothems have become widely utilized records of past environmental variability, typically through their stable isotopic and trace elemental chemistry. Numerous speleothem researchers have identified evidence of flooding recorded by detrital layers trapped within speleothems, but few studies have developed paleoflood reconstructions from such samples. Because they can be precisely dated, are generally immune to post-depositional distortion or erosion, and can be tied to a fixed elevational baseline, speleothems hold enormous potential as high-resolution archives of cave floods, and thus as proxies for extreme rainfall or other hydrologic drivers of cave flooding. Here we review speleothem-based paleoflood reconstruction methods, identify potential biases and pitfalls, and suggest standard practices for future studies.

  5. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  6. High-resolution TOF with RPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, P. E-mail: fonte@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Peskov, V

    2002-01-21

    In this work, we describe some recent results concerning the application of Resistive Plate Chambers operated in avalanche mode at atmospheric pressure for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. A combination of multiple, mechanically accurate, thin gas gaps and state-of-the-art electronics yielded an overall (detector plus electronics) timing accuracy better than 50 ps {sigma} with a detection efficiency up to 99% for MIPs. Single gap chambers were also tested in order to clarify experimentally several aspects of the mode of operation of these detectors. These results open perspectives of affordable and reliable high granularity large area TOF detectors, with an efficiency and time resolution comparable to the existing scintillator-based TOF technology but with a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel.

  7. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  8. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  9. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  10. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  11. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S.; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Georgiadis, John G.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Rogers, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1μm demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  12. Georadar - high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stern

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Georadar is a high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device that was developed in the first part of the 1980's. In Slovenia it was first tested in 1991 on several objects of economicgeological, geotechnical and hydrogeologic nature.Here its usefulness in karst studied is presented. The first part of the paper deals with description of measurement procedure and methodological bases, and the second part with experience and results of case histories. Shown are radargrams from ornamental stone quarry Hotavlje, calcite mine Stahovica, Golobja jama karstcave near Divača and from highway construction site Razdrto-Čebulovica. All measurements were performed with the georadar instrument Pulse EKKO IV with a lOOMHz antenna according to the method of reflection profiling.

  13. Novel high-resolution VGA QWIP detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, H.; Asplund, C.; Lindberg, A.; Smuk, S.; Alverbro, J.; Evans, D.; Sehlin, S.; Becanovic, S.; Tinghag, P.; Höglund, L.; Sjöström, F.; Costard, E.

    2017-02-01

    Continuing with its legacy of producing high performance infrared detectors, IRnova introduces its high resolution LWIR IDDCA (Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler assembly) based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) has 640×512 pixels, with small (15μm) pixel pitch, and is based on the FLIRIndigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The QWIP epitaxial structures are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at IRnova. Detector stability and response uniformity inherent to III/V based material will be demonstrated in terms of high performing detectors. Results showing low NETD at high frame rate will be presented. This makes it one of the first 15μm pitch QWIP based LWIR IDDCA commercially available on the market. High operability and stability of our other QWIP based products will also be shared.

  14. High-Resolution Movement EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štastný

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is to analyze possibilities of high-resolution movement classification using human EEG. For this purpose, a database of the EEG recorded during right-thumb and little-finger fast flexion movements of the experimental subjects was created. The statistical analysis of the EEG was done on the subject's basis instead of the commonly used grand averaging. Statistically significant differences between the EEG accompanying movements of both fingers were found, extending the results of other so far published works. The classifier based on hidden Markov models was able to distinguish between movement and resting states (classification score of 94–100%, but it was unable to recognize the type of the movement. This is caused by the large fraction of other (nonmovement related EEG activities in the recorded signals. A classification method based on advanced EEG signal denoising is being currently developed to overcome this problem.

  15. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  16. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  17. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  18. Theoretical analysis of high-resolution digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2006-06-21

    The performance of a high-resolution charge coupled device-based full-field digital mammography imager was analysed using a mathematical framework based on an adaptation of cascaded linear systems theory described by other investigators. This work has been conducted in order to understand the impact of various design parameters on the physical performance characteristics of the imager. Specifically, the effect of pixel size, scintillator thickness and packing density, x-ray spectra, air kerma, dark current, charge integration time, and pixel fill-factor on the frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency was studied using a charge-coupled device as a reference platform. The imaging system was modelled as a series of physical processes with gain and spatial spreading. For each stage, the signal and noise power spectra were computed and propagated through the imaging chain as inputs to subsequent stages. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical predictions was obtained for various x-ray spectral conditions that were investigated. The modulation transfer function, MTF(f) and detective quantum efficiency DQE(f) characteristics obtained in this study are encouraging and comparable to other digital mammography systems. The results of this study strongly suggest the feasibility of large area scintillator-based digital mammography imagers with pixel sizes below 100 microm.

  19. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  20. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  1. Intact MicroRNA Analysis Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullolli, Majlinda; Knouf, Emily; Arampatzidou, Maria; Tewari, Muneesh; Pitteri, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, and play key roles in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes and in disease. New tools to analyze miRNAs will add understanding of the physiological origins and biological functions of this class of molecules. In this study, we investigate the utility of high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of miRNAs through proof-of-concept experiments. We demonstrate the ability of mass spectrometry to resolve and separate miRNAs and corresponding 3' variants in mixtures. The mass accuracy of the monoisotopic deprotonated peaks from various miRNAs is in the low ppm range. We compare fragmentation of miRNA by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) which yields similar sequence coverage from both methods but additional fragmentation by HCD versus CID. We measure the linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation of miRNA loaded onto a C18 column. Lastly, we explore the use of data-dependent acquisition of MS/MS spectra of miRNA during online LC-MS and demonstrate that multiple charge states can be fragmented, yielding nearly full sequence coverage of miRNA on a chromatographic time scale. We conclude that high resolution mass spectrometry allows the separation and measurement of miRNAs in mixtures and a standard LC-MS setup can be adapted for online analysis of these molecules.

  2. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  3. AIRBORNE HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  4. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  5. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  6. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Stolzenberg, U; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the $X$/$X_0$ imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of $X$/$X_0$ imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of ...

  7. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  8. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  9. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  10. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  11. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  12. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  13. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G

    1976-03-01

    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum.

  14. Fast high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy through indirect zero-quantum coherence detection in inhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Han-Ping; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan-Qin; Wei, Zhi-Liang; Cai, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Zhong

    2014-06-01

    In many cases, high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are virtually impossible to obtain by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance methods because of inhomogeneity of magnetic field and inherent heterogeneity of sample. Although conventional intramolecular zero-quantum coherence (ZQC) can be used to obtain high-resolution spectrum in inhomogeneous field, the acquisition takes rather long time. In this paper, a spatially encoded intramolecular ZQC technique is proposed to fast acquire high-resolution NMR spectrum in inhomogeneous field. For the first time, the gradient-driven decoding technique is employed to selectively acquire intramolecular ZQC signals. Theoretical analyses and experimental observations demonstrate that high-resolution NMR spectral information can be retrieved within several scans even when the field inhomogeneity is severe enough to erase most spectral information. This work provides a new way to enhance the acquisition efficiency of high-resolution intramolecular ZQC spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields.

  15. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 2100–5500 cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 2100–5500 cm−1 at 1027 °C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1045±3 mbar) are measured. An NH3 concentration of 10% in volume fraction is used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in a high-temperature gas-flow cell using a Fourier...... Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09 cm−1. The spectra are analysed by comparison to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. 2308 lines have been assigned to 45 different bands, of which 1755 and 15 have been...

  16. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  17. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  18. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  19. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  20. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  1. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  2. Diagnostics of Ellerman bombs with high-resolution spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Fang, Cheng; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Xu, Zhi; Cao, Wen-Da

    2015-09-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the Hα and Ca II 8542Å lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3‧ - 0.8‧ and their durations are only 3-5 min. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700-3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5 × 1025 - 3.0 × 1026 erg despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs just appeared in a parasitic region with mixed polarities and were accompanied by mass motions. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation reveals that the three EBs are connected with a series of magnetic field lines associated with bald patches, which strongly implies that these EBs should be produced by magnetic reconnection in the solar lower atmosphere. According to the lightcurves and the estimated magnetic reconnection rate, we propose that there is a three phase process in EBs: pre-heating, flaring and cooling phases.

  3. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  4. Diagnostics of Ellerman Bombs with High-resolution Spectral Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Guo, Y; Chen, P F; Xu, Z; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are tiny brightenings often observed near sunspots. The most impressive characteristic of the EB spectra is the two emission bumps in both wings of the H$\\alpha$ and \\ion{Ca}{II} 8542 {\\AA} lines. High-resolution spectral data of three small EBs were obtained on 2013 June 6 with the largest solar telescope, the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope (NST), at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The characteristics of these EBs are analyzed. The sizes of the EBs are in the range of 0.3\\arcsec\\--0.8\\arcsec\\ and their durations are only 3--5 minutes. Our semi-empirical atmospheric models indicate that the heating occurs around the temperature minimum region with a temperature increase of 2700--3000 K, which is surprisingly higher than previously thought. The radiative and kinetic energies are estimated to be as high as 5$\\times$10$^{25}$--3.0$\\times$10$^{26}$ ergs despite the small size of these EBs. Observations of the magnetic field show that the EBs appeared just in a parasitic region with mixed polar...

  5. High resolution spectrograph for the 4MOST facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Shan; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Mathieu; Horville, David; Jagourel, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    4MOST (4-metre Multi-Object Spectrograph Telescope) is a wide field and high multiplex fibre-fed spectroscopic facility continuously running a public survey on one of ESO's 4-metre telescopes (NTT or VISTA). It is currently undergoing a concept study and comprises a multi-object (300) high resolution (20 000) spectrograph whose purpose is to provide detailed chemical information in two wavelength ranges (395-456.5 nm and 587-673 nm). It will complement the data produced by ESA's space mission Gaia to form an unprecedented galactic-archaeology picture of the Milky Way as the result of the public survey. Building on the developments carried out for the GYES1 instrument on the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope in 2010, the spectrograph is intended as being athermal and not featuring any motorised parts for high reliability and minimum maintenance, thereby allowing it to operate every night for five years. In addition to the fixed configuration which allows fine-tuning the spectrograph to a precise need, it features a dual-arm architecture with volume-phase holographic gratings to achieve the required dispersion at a maximum efficiency in each channel. By combining high yield time-wise and photon-wise, the spectrograph is expected to deliver more than a million spectra and make the most out of the selected 4-metre telescope.

  6. High Resolution Investigation of the Ethane Spectrum at 7 μ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Linda R.; Sung, K.; Di Lauro, C.; Lattanzi, F.; Vander Auwera, J.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. A. H.

    2010-10-01

    A new theoretical analysis of the ethane spectrum between 1330 and 1610 cm-1 has been undertaken in order to create the first line-by-line database of molecular parameters for this spectral region. For this, high resolution spectra were obtained at room and cold (130 K) temperatures with two Bruker Fourier transform spectrometers (at 0.002 cm-1 resolution in Brussels and at 0.003 cm-1 resolution in Pasadena). Over 5000 lines were assigned to five bands in the region: v6, v8, v4+v12 and 2v4+v9 cold bands, and one hot band (v4+v8-v4). This new study employed a much improved theoretical Hamiltonian to reproduce the very complicated spectral structures resulting from numerous interactions between these vibrational modes. This advancement has enabled us to provide a quantum mechanical prediction of line positions and intensities of C2H6 at 7 micron long needed for remote sensing of outer planets and Titan. Two manuscripts are in preparation. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and with funding from FRS-FNRS in Belgium.

  7. High-resolution x-ray analysis with multilayer gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnard, Philippe; André, Jean-Michel; 10.1002/xrs.1128

    2013-01-01

    Periodic multilayers are nowadays widely used to perform x-ray analysis in the soft x-ray range (photon energy lower than 1 keV). However, they do not permit to obtain high-resolution spectra like natural or synthetic crystals. Thus, multilayers cannot resolve interferences between close x-ray lines. It has been shown and demonstrated experimentally that patterning a grating profile within a multilayer structure leads to a diffractive optics with improved resolving power. We illustrate the use of a Mo/B4C multilayer grating in the Fe L and C K spectral ranges, around 700 eV and 280 eV respectively. First, in the Fe L range, the improved spectral resolution enables us to distinguish the Fe L\\alpha and L\\beta emissions (separated by 13 eV). In addition, using a sample made of a mix of LiF and an iron ore, we show that it is possible to easily resolve the F K and Fe L emissions. These examples demonstrate that an improved x-ray analysis can be obtained with multilayer gratings when there is the need to study sam...

  8. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Allene -D4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousan, Khetam Ibrahim Khasawinah

    Two parallel bands of allene-d(,4), (nu)(,6) (occurring at 1920.2289 cm('-1)) and (nu)(,5) (occurring at 2228.4133 cm('-1)), and the perpendicular band, (nu)(,8) (occurring at 2321.2484 cm('-1)), were recorded by using two spectrometers under high resolution. The combination band, (nu)(,2) + (nu)(,7), was measured also; the band origin is located at 2276.0053 cm('-1), rather distant from the previously reported one at 2267.0 cm('-1). Initially, by using the 4.5 m grating spectrometer, deconvolution of the spectra achieved a resolution of (TURN)0.007 cm('-1). Although the resolution was high, a detailed analysis of the K structure could not be obtained. Other measurements were carried out by using a BOMEM Fourier transform spectrometer. Deconvolution of the spectra achieved a resolution of (TURN)0.002 cm(' -1). This made it possible to resolve and analyze these bands in detail. Successful ground state and upper state analyses were completed from this data. Combining all the three bands together, a ground state analysis has resulted in better values of. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). than the previously published works on the same molecule by others. A set of accurate spectroscopic constants was obtained for each band. The spectrum of the (nu)(,8) band was analyzed in detail, including the perturbations. The perturbed states for (nu)(,8) were assigned as 2(nu)(,9) + (nu)(,10), (nu)(,2) + (nu)(,9) + (nu)(,11) and 2(nu)(,3) + (nu)(,4), and the spectroscopic constants for those perturbed states were calculated.

  9. High-resolution XES and RIXS studies with a von Hamos Bragg crystal spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Hoszowska, J; 10.1016/j.elspec.2004.02.005

    2004-01-01

    The high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal spectrometer was constructed for the study of K X-ray emission from low-Z elements and L and M X-ray spectra of medium to high Z elements. Recently, this instrument was applied to high-resolution XES and RIXS studies using X-ray synchrotron radiation at the ID21 and BM5 beamlines at the ESRF. An outline of the spectrometer design and performance characteristics will be given. The studies deal with the energy dependent KL double photoexcitation of argon, the L3 and M1 atomic- level widths of elements 54 spectra of manganese oxides.

  10. High energy high resolution photoemission from Heusler compounds in half tunnelling-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloskovskii, Andrei; Balke, Benjamin; Ouardi, Siham; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany); Yamamoto, Masafumi [Graduate School of Informatic Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    This work reports on high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy from the valence band of buried Co{sub 2}MnSi thin films excited by photons of about 5.9 keV energy. The measurements were performed on Co{sub 2}MnSi thin films covered by MgO(z)/AlO{sub x}(1 nm) with different thickness z from 2 nm to 20 nm of the MgO interlayer. The film structure corresponds to half a tunnelling magnetoresistive (TMR) junction. It is shown that the high energy spectra reveal the bulk electronic structure of the Heusler compound close to the Fermi energy even through the MgO layer. The high resolution measurements of the valence band close to the Fermi energy indicate a very large electron mean free path of the electrons through the MgO layer. The spectra of the buried thin films agree well with previous measurements from bulk samples.

  11. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  12. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  13. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 $\\mu$m have been obtained for ethane, C$_{2}$H$_{6}$. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm$^{-1}$. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ cross sections at elevate...

  14. Magneto-Optic Fiber Bragg Gratings with Application to High-Resolution Magnetic Field Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Jian Wu; Ying Yang; Kun Qiu

    2008-01-01

    Magneto-optic fiber Bragg gratings (MFBG) based on magneto-optic materials have a lot of potential applications for sensing and optical signal processing. The transmission and reflection spectra of guided optical waves in the MFBG are investigated. According to the sensitivity of MFBG spectral lines to the magneto-optic coupling intensity varying with applied magnetic field, a novel magnetic field sensor of high-resolution up to 0.01 nm/(kA/m) is predicted.

  15. Fragmentation reactions of labeled and untabeled Rhodamine B in a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemen, Martin; Gernert, Claus; Peters, Jonathan; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation reactions of Rhodamine B have been investigated by the use of electrospray ionization mass spectra in a high mass resolving ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Using high resolution, it could be shown that the loss of 44 mass units from the molecular ion is due to propane; the measured masses were inconsistent with loss of carbon dioxide. These conclusions are supported using deuterium-labeled Rhodamine B. This sample again only shows the loss of fully-deuterated propane verifying the high-resolution data. These findings illustrate very clearly that the conclusions based solely on low resolution spectra were false. The general implication on fragmentations of aromatic acids is discussed.

  16. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  17. High-resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3 μm Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μm absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 cm-1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μm region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μm band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μm emission plateau.

  18. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar atmospheric parameters?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    The determination of atmospheric parameters depends on the use of radiative transfer codes (among other elements such as model atmospheres) to compute synthetic spectra and/or derive abundances from equivalent widths. However, it is common to mix results from different surveys/studies where different setups were used to derive the parameters. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving atmospheric parameters from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  19. Laboratory simulation of cometary X-rays using a high-resolution microcalorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: beiersdorfer@llnl.gov; Chen, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Boyce, K.R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brown, G.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kahn, S.M. [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    X-ray emission following charge exchange has been studied at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II using a high-resolution microcalorimeter. The measured spectra include the K-shell emission from hydrogenlike and heliumlike C, N, O, and Ne needed for simulations of cometary x-ray emission. A comparison of the spectra produced in the interaction of O{sup 8+} with N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is presented that illustrates the dependence of the observed spectrum on the interaction gas.

  20. Laboratory simulation of cometary x rays using a high-resolution microcalorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Kahn, S M

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission following charge exchange has been studied on the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II using a high-resolution microcalorimeter. The measured spectra include the K-shell emission from hydrogenlike and heliumlike C, N, O, and Ne needed for simulations of cometary x-ray emission. A comparison of the spectra produced in the interaction of O8+ with N2 and CH4 is presented that illustrates the dependence of the observed spectrum on the interaction gas.

  1. How Much Can We Trust High-Resolution Spectroscopic Stellar Atmospheric Parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Nordlander, Thomas; Heiter, Ulrike; Jofré, Paula; Masseron, Thomas; Casamiquela, Laia; Tabernero, Hugo M.; Bhat, Shruthi S.; Casey, Andrew R.; Meléndez, Jorge; Ramírez, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    The determination of atmospheric parameters depends on the use of radiative transfer codes (among other elements such as model atmospheres) to compute synthetic spectra and/or derive abundances from equivalent widths. However, it is common to mix results from different surveys/studies where different setups were used to derive the parameters. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving atmospheric parameters from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  2. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  3. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  4. WISEP J061135.13-041024.0AB: A J-Band Flux Reversal Binary at the L/T Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelino, Christopher R; Marocco, Federico; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Michael C; Mace, Gregory; Mendez, Rene A; Tinney, C G; Jones, Hugh R A

    2014-01-01

    We present Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the brown dwarf WISEP J061135.13-041024.0 showing it is a binary with a component separation of 0.4". This system is one of the six known resolved binaries in which the magnitude differences between the components show a reversal in sign between the Y/J band and the H/K bands. Deconvolution of the composite spectrum results in a best fit binary solution with L9 and T1.5 components. We also present a preliminary parallax placing the system at a distance of 21.2+/-1.3 pc. Using the distance and resolved magnitudes we are able to place WISEP J061135.13-041024.0AB on a color-absolute magnitude diagram, showing that this system contributes to the well-known "J-band bump" and the components' properties appear similar to other late-type L and early-type T dwarfs. Fitting our data to a set of cloudy atmosphere models suggests the system has an age >1 Gyr with WISEP J061135.13-041024.0A having an effective temperature (Teff) of 1275-1325 K and mass of...

  5. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph Scientific Support Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In 1988, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was selected as the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) Scientific Support Contractor (SSC). This was to have been a few months before the launch of NASA's first Great Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As one of five scientific instruments on HST, the GHRS was designed to obtain spectra in the 1050-3300 A ultraviolet wavelength region with a resolving power, lambda/Delta(lambda) , of up to 100,000 and relative photometric accuracy to 1%. It was built by Ball AeroSpace Systems Group under the guidance of the GHRS Investigation Definition Team (IDT), comprised of 16 scientists from the US and Canada. After launch, the IDT was to perform the initial instrument calibration and execute a broad scientific program during a five-year Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) period. After a year's delay, the launch of HST occurred in April 1990, and CSC participated in the in-orbit calibration and first four years of GTO observations with the IDT. The HST primary mirror suffered from spherical aberration, which reduced the spatial and spectral resolution of Large Science Aperture (LSA) observations and decreased the throughput of the Small Science Aperture (SSA) by a factor of two. Periodic problems with the Side 1 carrousel electronics and anomalies with the low-voltage power supply finally resulted in a suspension of the use of Side 1 less than two years after launch. At the outset, the GHRS SSC task involved work in four areas: 1) to manage and operate the GHRS Data Analysis Facility (DAF); 2) to support the second Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program, as well as perform system engineering analysis of the GHRS as nesessary; 3) to assist the GHRS IDT with their scientific research programs, particularly the GSFC members of the team, and 4) to provide administrative and logistic support for GHRS public information and educational activities.

  6. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na i D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He i λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca ii K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na i D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  7. High-resolution optical spectroscopy of Plaskett's star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, N.; Rauw, G.; Martins, F.; Sana, H.; De Becker, M.; Gosset, E.

    2008-10-01

    Context: Plaskett's star (HD 47 129) is a very massive O + O binary that belongs to the Mon OB2 association. Previous work suggests that this system displays the Struve-Sahade effect although the measurements of the secondary radial velocities are very difficult and give controversial results. Both components have powerful stellar winds that collide and produce a strong X-ray emission. Aims: Our aim is to study the physical parameters of this system in detail and to investigate the relation between its spectral properties and its evolutionary status. Methods: We present here analysis of an extensive set of high-resolution optical spectra of HD 47 129. We used a disentangling method to separate the individual spectra of each star. We derived a new orbital solution and discuss the spectral classification of both components. A Doppler tomography technique applied to the emission lines Hα and He II λ 4686 yields a Doppler map that illustrates the wind interactions in the system. Finally, an atmosphere code is used to determine the different chemical abundances of the system components and the wind parameters. Results: HD 47 129 appears to be an O8 III/I + O7.5 III binary system in a post RLOF evolutionary stage, where matter has been transferred from the primary to the secondary star. The He overabundance of the secondary supports this scenario. In addition, the N overabundance and C underabundance of the primary component confirm previous results based on X-ray spectroscopy and indicate that the primary is an evolved massive star. We also determined a new orbital solution, with MP sin^3i = 45.4 ± 2.4 M⊙ and MS sin^3i = 47.3 ± 0.3 M⊙. Furthermore, the secondary star has a high rotational velocity (v sin i ˜ 300 km s-1) that deforms its surface, leading to a non-uniform distribution in effective temperature. This could explain the variations in the equivalent widths of the secondary lines with phase. We suggest that the wind of the secondary star is confined

  8. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 3 {\\mu}m region: Role of periphery

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 {\\mu}m absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 cm-1 range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 {\\mu}m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported hi...

  9. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics of H2CCO + and D2CCO +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Baohua; Bai, Ying; Shirley, David A.

    1993-08-01

    High resolution helium Iα (584 Å) photoelectron spectra of H2CCO and D2CCO are reported. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations show more vibrational fine structure than previously reported. The adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) of the cations' first, second, and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously. The doubletlike fine structures present in the first excited states of ketene cations imply the excitation of a ``soft'' mode that was not observed before. It was assigned to the ν5 mode, which is characterized by the CH2 (CD2) group out-of-plane wagging motion. The complexity of the photoelectron spectra obtained for the ionic first excited states is attributed to the possible dissociation and predissociation of this state. Strong isotope effects are observed in the vibronic (vibrational) couplings in most of the ionic states. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra for four of the six ionic states observed. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum of the upper potential energy surfaces (PES). The decay dynamics of the ionic first and fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultrafast intramolecular processes such as dissociation and predissociation.

  10. High resolution spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars and the chemical evolution of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemasle, B.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Francois, P.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Ballet, J.; Martins, F.; Bournaud, F.; Monier, R.; Reylé, C.

    2014-01-01

    From VLT-FLAMES high-resolution spectra, we determine the abundances of several α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in 47 Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment of Fornax at [Fe/H] between --2.0 and

  11. High resolution spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars and the chemical evolution of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemasle, B.; de Boer, T.J.L.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M.J.; Jablonka, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Shetrone, M.; Letarte, B.; Francois, P.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Ballet, J.; Bournaud, F.; Martins, F.; Monier, R.; Reyle, C.

    2014-01-01

    From VLT-FLAMES high-resolution spectra, we determine the abundances of several α, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in 47 Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf speroidal galaxy. We confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment of Fornax at [Fe/H] between -2.0 and -

  12. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  13. High resolution emission tomography; Tomographie d`emission haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valda Ochoa, A.; Valentin, L. [Groupe I.P.B., Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    We have developed an original high resolution tomograph for in-vivo small animal imaging. A first prototype is under evaluation. Initial results of its characterisation are presented. (authors) 3 figs.

  14. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  15. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  16. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  17. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  18. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... to, for example, atmospheric research, combustion and gasification. Some high-temperature, high-resolution IR/UV absorption/transmission measurements gases (e.g. CO2, SO2, SO3 and phenol) are presented....

  20. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  1. High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory.

  2. Geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong-you; GU Xing-fa; TAO Yu; QIAO Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of high-resolution remote sensing imagery and the necessity of geometric calibration for remote sensing sensors considering assurance of the geometric accuracy of remote sensing imagery. Then the paper analyzes the general methodology of geometric calibration. Taking the DMC sensor geometric calibration as an example, the paper discusses the whole calibration procedure. Finally, it gave some concluding remarks on geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors.

  3. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, some...... of the computations we present have never before been carried out by standard desktop computers on data sets of comparable size....

  4. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  5. High-resolution optical spectroscopy of RS Ophiuchi during 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, A.; Hakala, P.; Wynn, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) is a symbiotic variable and a recurrent nova (RN). We have monitored it with the Nordic Optical Telescope and obtained 30 high-resolution (R = 46 000) optical spectra over one orbital cycle during quiescence. To our knowledge, this is the best-sampled high-resolution spectroscopic data set of RS Oph over one orbital period. We do not detect any direct signatures of an accretion disc such as double peaked emission lines, but many line profiles are complex consisting of superimposed emission and absorption components. We measure the spin of the red giant and conclude that it is tidally locked to the binary orbit. We observe Na I absorption features, probably arising from the circumbinary medium, that has been shaped by previous RN outbursts. We do not detect any intrinsic polarization in the optical wavelengths.

  6. Applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning MRS in biomedical studies II-Human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christopher; Ehret, Felix; Palmas, Francesco; Vandergrift, Lindsey A; Jiang, Yanni; Schmitt, Vanessa; Dufner, Vera; Habbel, Piet; Nowak, Johannes; Cheng, Leo L

    2017-09-15

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) MRS is a powerful method for gaining insight into the physiological and pathological processes of cellular metabolism. Given its ability to obtain high-resolution spectra of non-liquid biological samples, while preserving tissue architecture for subsequent histopathological analysis, the technique has become invaluable for biochemical and biomedical studies. Using HRMAS MRS, alterations in measured metabolites, metabolic ratios, and metabolomic profiles present the possibility to improve identification and prognostication of various diseases and decipher the metabolomic impact of drug therapies. In this review, we evaluate HRMAS MRS results on human tissue specimens from malignancies and non-localized diseases reported in the literature since the inception of the technique in 1996. We present the diverse applications of the technique in understanding pathological processes of different anatomical origins, correlations with in vivo imaging, effectiveness of therapies, and progress in the HRMAS methodology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cosmochemistry, cosmology and fundamental constants: High-resolution spectroscopy of damped Lyman-alpha systems

    CERN Document Server

    Quast, R; Smette, A; Garcet, O; Ledoux, C; López, S; Wisotzki, L

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of molecular hydrogen-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems, and the novel H/ESO DLA survey produces compelling evidence for faint QSOs being attenuated by dust. We present a revised analysis of the molecular hydrogen-bearing DLA complex toward HE 0515-4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce to the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to t...

  8. High-resolution optical spectroscopy of RS Ophiuchi during 2008 -- 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Somero, A; Wynn, G A

    2016-01-01

    RS Ophiuchi is a symbiotic variable and a recurrent nova. We have monitored it with the Nordic Optical Telescope and obtained 30 high resolution (R=46 000) optical spectra over one orbital cycle during quiescence. To our knowledge this is the best-sampled high resolution spectroscopic dataset of RS Oph over one orbital period. We do not detect any direct signatures of an accretion disc such as double peaked emission lines, but many line profiles are complex consisting of superimposed emission and absorption components. We measure the spin of the red giant and conclude that it is tidally locked to the binary orbit. We observe Na I absorption features, probably arising from the circumbinary medium, that has been shaped by previous recurrent nova outbursts. We do not detect any intrinsic polarisation in the optical wavelengths.

  9. A high-throughput de novo sequencing approach for shotgun proteomics using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banfield Jillian F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution tandem mass spectra can now be readily acquired with hybrid instruments, such as LTQ-Orbitrap and LTQ-FT, in high-throughput shotgun proteomics workflows. The improved spectral quality enables more accurate de novo sequencing for identification of post-translational modifications and amino acid polymorphisms. Results In this study, a new de novo sequencing algorithm, called Vonode, has been developed specifically for analysis of such high-resolution tandem mass spectra. To fully exploit the high mass accuracy of these spectra, a unique scoring system is proposed to evaluate sequence tags based primarily on mass accuracy information of fragment ions. Consensus sequence tags were inferred for 11,422 spectra with an average peptide length of 5.5 residues from a total of 40,297 input spectra acquired in a 24-hour proteomics measurement of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The accuracy of inferred consensus sequence tags was 84%. According to our comparison, the performance of Vonode was shown to be superior to the PepNovo v2.0 algorithm, in terms of the number of de novo sequenced spectra and the sequencing accuracy. Conclusions Here, we improved de novo sequencing performance by developing a new algorithm specifically for high-resolution tandem mass spectral data. The Vonode algorithm is freely available for download at http://compbio.ornl.gov/Vonode.

  10. High Resolution Ionospheric Mapping Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Chotoo, K.; Roth, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    properties, and (if applicable) geographic location. Three case studies will be presented to highlight the type and quality of ionospheric information that can be retrieved: (1) The high spatial resolution of SAR-derived TEC maps is emphasized in a case study that focuses on high resolution mapping of aurora arcs in central Alaska. Here, TEC enhancements associated with aurora activity are mapped and compared to reference observations from sky cameras and GPS; (2) observations of mid-latitudal traveling ionospheric disturbances are shown to showcase the accuracy of SAR-derived TEC maps. Several SAR-based TEC mapping methods are compared to highlight their respective advantages and disadvantages regarding processing complexity and estimation accuracy; (3) a third example focuses on analyzing post-sunset scintillation phenomena in equatorial regions. SAR is used to assess the frequency of occurrence of scintillation and analyze their associated power spectra. To conclude the paper, the temporal and spatial sampling of the ionosphere provided by the fleet of current and future spaceborne SAR sensors is analyzed to provide an assessment of the global ionospheric mapping capabilities of SAR.

  11. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  12. Exoplanet transits enable high-resolution spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; Dahlén, Erik; Pazira, Hiva

    2016-01-01

    Observations of stellar surfaces - except for the Sun - are hampered by their tiny angular extent, while observed spectral lines are smeared by averaging over the stellar surface, and by stellar rotation. Exoplanet transits can be used to analyze stellar atmospheric structure, yielding high-resolution spectra across spatially highly resolved stellar surfaces, free from effects of spatial smearing and the rotational wavelength broadening present in full-disk spectra. During a transit, stellar surface portions successively become hidden, and differential spectroscopy between various transit phases provides spectra of those surface segments then hidden behind the planet. The small area subtended by even a large planet (about 1% of a main-sequence star) offers high spatial resolution but demands very precise observations. We demonstrate the reconstruction of photospheric FeI line profiles at a spectral resolution R=80,000 across the surface of the solar-type star HD209458. Any detailed understanding of stellar at...

  13. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 2100-5500 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 2100-5500 cm-1 at 1027 °C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1045±3 mbar) are measured. An NH3 concentration of 10% in volume fraction is used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in a high-temperature gas-flow cell using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09 cm-1. The spectra are analysed by comparison to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. 2308 lines have been assigned to 45 different bands, of which 1755 and 15 have been assigned or observed for the first time in this work.

  14. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  15. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  16. High Resolution Transmission Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Jovian Exoplanet Atmospheres: Constraints from Theoretical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kempton, Eliza M -R; Heng, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled 3-D atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9 to 55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3-D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple 1-D models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blue shifts of up to 3 km s$^{-1}$, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. Compared to 1-D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheri...

  17. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  18. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  20. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Robert J; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 $\\mu$m have been obtained for ethane, C$_{2}$H$_{6}$. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm$^{-1}$. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  1. BESO: first light at the high-resolution spectrograph for the Hexapod-Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ingo; Stahl, Otmar; Seifert, Walter; Chini, Rolf; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    BESO (Bochum Echelle Spectrograph for OCA)is a high-resolution echelle spectrograph which has been built by Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum and Landessternwarte Heidelberg. It is fiber-coupled to the 1.5m Hexapod-Telescope at the Observatario Cerro Armazones (OCA), Chile. The first light spectra show that the resolution of 48.000 over a spectral range from 370 nm to 840 nm has been achieved. An alignment by design approach has been followed to assemble the fiber-head optics at the telescope side of fiber coupled instrument.

  2. Zeeman Effect of Sm Atoms by High-Resolution Diode-Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution atomic-beam diode-laser spectroscopy in Sm I has been performed. Zeeman spectra have been measured for the three optical transitions at different external magnetic fields and well resolved at the magnetic fields of stronger than 6.0 mT. Using the known precise Landé -factors of the ground multiplet, the Landé -factors of the upper 4f66s6p   and levels have been determined, and their precision has been improved compared with the reference values.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, T.L.

    1988-09-25

    The first high-resolution spectrometer flown to observe gamma-ray bursts was launched on the ISEE-3 spacecraft over nine years ago. It recorded two events before instrument failure, giving results that were suggestive but marginal. Other studies, with coarser energy resolution, also show evidence for spectral features as well as for spectral evolution on short time scales. Absolute source strength calibration will be possible only with source identification, but understanding of the burst emission processes will surely come only from the measurements having the best spectral and temporal precision. The only high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometer now planned, here or abroad, for space flight is an instrument sequel to the ISEE-3 spectrometer, to be flown on the interplanetary 'GGS Wind' mission. Much larger and higher-sensitivity, high-resolution instruments may have their optimum opportunities in conjunction with studies of solar flares in the time frame of the solar maximum of 2002.

  4. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  5. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency.

  6. Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas

    CERN Document Server

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus; Linder, H Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, and a bias correction using Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gridded and Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) station data. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We present a comparison of data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with two other high resolution gridded products with overlapping temporal resolution (Tropical R...

  7. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods.

  8. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  9. Recommended isolated-line profile for representing high-resolution spectroscopic transitions (IUPAC Technical Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Campargue, Alain; Csaszar, Attila G; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R; Hodges, Joseph T; Lisak, Daniel; Naumenko, Olga V; Rothman, Laurence S; Tran, Ha; Zobov, Nikolai F; Buldyreva, Jeanna; Boone, Chris D; De Vizia, Maria Domenica; Gianfrani, Livio; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; McPheat, Robert; Murray, Jonathan; Ngo, Ngoc Hoa; Polyansky, Oleg L; Weidmann, Damien

    2014-01-01

    The report of an IUPAC Task Group, formed in 2011 on "Intensities and line shapes in high-resolution spectra of water isotopologues from experiment and theory" (Project No. 2011-022-2-100), on line profiles of isolated high-resolution rotational-vibrational transitions perturbed by neutral gas-phase molecules is presented. The well-documented inadequacies of the Voigt profile (VP), used almost universally by databases and radiative-transfer codes, to represent pressure effects and Doppler broadening in isolated vibrational-rotational and pure rotational transitions of the water molecule have resulted in the development of a variety of alternative line-profile models. These models capture more of the physics of the influence of pressure on line shapes but, in general, at the price of greater complexity. The Task Group recommends that the partially Correlated quadratic-Speed-Dependent Hard-Collision profile should be adopted as the appropriate model for high-resolution spectroscopy. For simplicity this should b...

  10. High-Resolution Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography of the Vascularization and Constitutive Hypoxemia of Cancerous Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Chekkoury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the design and alignment of illumination and ultrasonic transducers empower the fine scalability and versatility of optoacoustic imaging. In this study, we implement an innovative high-resolution optoacoustic mesoscopy for imaging the vasculature and tissue oxygenation within subcutaneous and orthotopic cancerous implants of mice in vivo through acquisition of tomographic projections over 180° at a central frequency of 24 MHz. High-resolution volumetric imaging was combined with multispectral functional measurements to resolve the exquisite inner structure and vascularization of the entire tumor mass using endogenous and exogenous optoacoustic contrast. Evidence is presented for constitutive hypoxemia within the carcinogenic tissue through analysis of the hemoglobin absorption spectra and distribution. Morphometric readouts obtained with optoacoustic mesoscopy have been verified with high-resolution ultramicroscopic studies. The findings described herein greatly extend the applications of optoacoustic mesoscopy toward structural and multispectral functional measurements of the vascularization and hemodynamics within solid tumors in vivo and are of major relevance to basic and preclinical oncological studies in small animal models.

  11. High resolution spectroscopic analysis of seven giants in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6723

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Arriagada, A; Vásquez, S; Ripepi, V; Musella, I; Marconi, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters associated with the Galactic bulge are important tracers of stellar populations in the inner Galaxy. High resolution analysis of stars in these clusters allows us to characterize them in terms of kinematics, metallicity, and individual abundances, and to compare these fingerprints with those characterizing field populations. We present iron and element ratios for seven red giant stars in the globular cluster NGC~6723, based on high resolution spectroscopy. High resolution spectra ($R\\sim48~000$) of seven K giants belonging to NGC 6723 were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Photospheric parameters were derived from $\\sim130$ FeI and FeII transitions. Abundance ratios were obtained from line-to-line spectrum synthesis calculations on clean selected features. An intermediate metallicity of [Fe/H]$=-0.98\\pm0.08$ dex and a heliocentric radial velocity of $v_{hel}=-96.6\\pm1.3~km s^{-1}$ were found for NGC 6723. Alpha-element abundances present enhancements of $[O/...

  12. High sensitivity, wide coverage, and high-resolution NIR non-cryogenic spectrograph, WINERED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Otsubo, Shogo; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tomoshiro; Fukue, Kei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kitano, Ayaka; Asano, Akira; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Mito, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Chikako; Minami, Atsushi; Izumu, Natsuko; Yamamoto, Ryo; Mizumoto, Misaki; Arasaki, Takayuki; Arai, Akira; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectroscopy is a fundamental observational method in astronomy. It provides significant information on the kinematics, the magnetic fields, and the chemical abundances, of astronomical objects embedded in or behind the highly extinctive clouds or at the cosmological distances. Scientific requirements have accelerated the development of the technology required for NIR high resolution spectrographs using 10 m telescopes. WINERED is a near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectrograph that is currently mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope of the Koyama Astronomical Observatory in Kyoto-Sangyo University, Japan, and has been successfully operated for three years. It covers a wide wavelength range from 0.90 to 1.35 μm (the z-, Y-, and J-bands) with a spectral resolution of R = 28,000 (Wide-mode) and R = 80,000 (Hires-Y and Hires-J modes). WINERED has three distinctive features: (i) optics with no cold stop, (ii) wide spectral coverage, and (iii) high sensitivity. The first feature, originating from the Joyce proposal, was first achieved by WINERED, with a short cutoff infrared array, cold baffles, and custom-made thermal blocking filters, and resulted in reducing the time for development, alignment, and maintenance, as well as the total cost. The second feature is realized with the spectral coverage of Δλ/λ 1/6 in a single exposure. This wide coverage is realized by a combination of a decent optical design with a cross-dispersed echelle and a large format array (2k x 2k HAWAII- 2RG). The Third feature, high sensitivity, is achieved via the high-throughput optics (>60 %) and the very low noise of the system. The major factors affecting the high throughput are the echelle grating and the VPH cross-disperser with high diffraction efficiencies of 83 % and 86 %, respectively, and the high QE of HAWAII-2RG (83 % at 1.23 μm). The readout noise of the electronics and the ambient thermal background radiation at longer wavelengths could be

  13. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  14. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ubachs, W; Eikema, K S E; de Oliveira, N; Nahon, L

    2013-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies. While the ns and ps pulsed laser sources, at Fourier-transform limited bandwidths, are used in wavelength scanning spectroscopy, the fs laser source is used in a two-pulse time delayed mode. In addition a Fourier-transform spectrometer for high resolution gas-phase spectroscopic studies in the VUV is described, exhibiting the multiplex advantage to measure many resonances simultaneously.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  16. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  17. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  18. High resolution positron tomography using PCR-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Sandrew, B.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Kizuka, H.

    1984-01-01

    PCR-I is a high resolution positron tomograph developed by the Physics Research Laboratory of the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore resolution limits of positron tomographs. PCR-I currently obtains images with 4.8 mm FWHM resolution at the center. Plane thickness may be varied between 5 and 10 mm. The instrument uses analog coding to obtain high resolution images without mechanical motion. This permits rapid dynamic imaging and gated cardiac imaging as well as conventional high resolution imaging. A series of studies has been carried out to demonstrate the ability of PCR-I to image structures in small animals. F-18 in the rat skeleton is clearly defined and various structures such as the spinal processes can be clearly resolved. A sequence of images at different spacing provides a three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat skeleton. Blood volume and palmitic acid have been imaged in the dog heart. Again, the sequence of images provides a clear delineation of the three dimensional nature of the blood pools and of the surrounding musculature. Blood flow, blood volume and glucose metabolism have been studied in the monkey brain. Structures within the brain of the Resus monkey can be clearly resolved. Increased activity resulting from induced seizures in the squirrel monkey have been observed and delineated. All of these studies indicate areas of future animal and clinical research using the high resolution tomograph, PCR-I.

  19. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    2007). HSCB Models can be employed for simulating mission scenarios, determining optimal strategies for disrupting terrorist networks, or training and...High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model ∑ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − −− = desired 1 move,desired, desired,,desired, desired,, N j ij jmoveij moveiD rp prp

  20. Towards high resolution data assimilation and ensemble forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due the increase in computational power of supercomputers the grid resolution of high resolution numerical weather prediction models is now reaching the 1 km scale. As a result, mesoscale processes related to high impact weather (such as deep convection) can now explicitly be resolved by the models.

  1. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  2. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  3. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  4. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  5. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  6. Signal Processing for High Resolution FMCW SAR and Moving Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Frequency Modulated ContinuousWave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) leads to lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. In FMCW SAR applications the conventional stop-and-go approximation used in pulse radar algorithms cannot be considered

  7. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  8. Ultra-high-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, F. van der

    2007-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the development of the first two in a series of dedicated ultra-high resolution Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems (U-SPECT-I and II) for the imaging of distributions of radio-isotope labeled tracers in small laboratory animals such as mice

  9. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  11. High resolution ultrasonography in isolated soft tissue and intramuscular cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 42-46

  12. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  13. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  14. High-resolution radio imaging of young supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Ros, E; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Mantovani, F; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W; Diamond, P J; Van Dyk, S D; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Shapiro, I I; Sramek, R

    2004-01-01

    The high resolution obtained through the use of VLBI gives an unique opportunity to directly observe the interaction of an expanding radio supernova with its surrounding medium. We present here results from our VLBI observations of the young supernovae SN 1979C, SN 1986J, and SN 2001gd.

  15. High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Jones, P.D.; Briffa, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Palaeoclimatology • high-resolution • last millennium • tree rings • dendroclimatology • chronology • uncertainty • corals • ice-cores • speleothems • documentary evidence • instrumental records • varves • borehole temperature • marine sediments • composite plus scaling • CPS • climate field...

  16. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    One of the most remarkable and exciting achievements in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the last years is the unprecedented sub-molecular resolution of both atomic and electronic structures of single molecules deposited on solid state surfaces. Despite its youth, the technique has already brought many new possibilities to perform different kinds of measurements, which cannot be accomplished by other techniques. This opens new perspectives in advanced characterization of physical and chemical processes and properties of molecular structures on surfaces. Here, we discuss the history and recent progress of the high resolution imaging with a functionalized probe by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We describe the mechanisms responsible for the high-resolution AFM, STM and IETS-STM contrast. The complexity of this technique requires new theoretical approaches, where a relaxation of the functionalized probe is considered. We emphasise the similarities of the mechanism driving high-resolution SPM with other imaging methods. We also summarise briefly significant achievements and progress in different branches. Finally we provide brief perspectives and remaining challenges of the further refinement of these high-resolution methods.

  17. High Resolution Near-IR Spectroscopy of Protostars With Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is now possible to measure absorption spectra of Class I protostars using D greater than or = 8m telescopes equipped with sensitive cryogenic IR spectrographs. Our latest high-resolution (R approx. 20,000) Keck data reveal that Class I protostars are indeed low-mass stars with dwarf-like features. However, they differ from T Tauri stars in that Class I protostars have much higher IR veilings (tau(sub k) greater than or = 1 - 3+) and they are rotating quickly, v sin i greater than 20 km/s. Interestingly, the vast majority of protostellar absorption spectra show stellar - not disk - absorption features. A preliminary H-R diagram suggests that protostellar photospheres may have different physical structures than T Tauri stars, perhaps due to their higher accretion rates.

  18. Infrared High-Resolution Integrated Light Spectral Analyses of M31 Globular Clusters from APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Caldwell, Nelson; Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Anibal; Lucatello, Sara; Majewski, Steven; O'Connell, Robert W; Pan, Kaike; Strader, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 25 M31 globular clusters (GCs), based on moderately high resolution (R = 22, 500) H-band integrated light spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Infrared spectra offer lines from new elements, of different strengths, and at higher excitation potentials compared to the optical. Integrated abundances of C, N, and O are derived from CO, CN, and OH molecular features, while Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti abundances are derived from atomic features. These abundances are compared to previous results from the optical, demonstrating the validity and value of infrared integrated light analyses. The CNO abundances are consistent with typical tip of the red giant branch stellar abundances, but are systematically offset from optical, Lick index abundances. With a few exceptions, the other abundances agree between the optical and the infrared within the 1{\\sigma} uncertainties. The first integrated K abundances are also presented, and demo...

  19. High resolution EUV spectroscopy of xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We performed high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy measurements of highly charged xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap. The spectra were recorded with a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer while varying the electron beam energy between 200 and 890 eV. We measured the wavelengths for several lines of Rh-like Xe9+ - Cd-like Xe6+ and Cu-like Xe25+- Se-like Xe20+ in the range of 150-200 Å with an uncertainty of 0.05 Å. Previously, most of these lines have been reported from EBITs with a wavelength uncertainty of 0.2 Å. Additionally, based on the electron beam energy dependence of the observed spectra we tentatively identified three new lines, which were reported as unidentified lines in the previous studies.

  20. High resolution Laplace DLTS studies of defects in ion-implanted silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans-Freeman, J.H. E-mail: j.evans-freeman@umist.ac.uk; Abdelgader, N.; Kan, P.Y.Y.; Peaker, A.R

    2002-01-01

    We have used high resolution Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) to investigate defects in n-type silicon caused by implantation of Si, Ge or Er with doses of the order of 1x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. These are compared with defects created in proton irradiated n-type silicon. Unlike the simple proton irradiated case, LDLTS spectra of ion implanted silicon show that there are many emission rates associated with defects with energies in the region of E{sub c}-400 meV. We have carried out annealing studies and Laplace DLTS depth profiling and show that the complex spectra measured from a region less than half way through the implant simplify as the profile is moved through the implant and towards the tail. Annealing studies show that these defects survive an anneal that should remove the E-centre.

  1. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy: the coming-of-age

    CERN Document Server

    Kaastra, J S

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of Chandra and XMM-Newton, high-resolution X-ray spectra of cosmic sources of all kinds have become available. These spectra have resulted in major scientific breakthroughs. However, due to the techniques used, in general high-quality spectra can only be obtained for the brightest few sources of each class. Moreover, except for the most compact extended sources, like cool core clusters, grating spectra are limited to point sources. Hitomi made another major step forward, in yielding for the first time a high-quality spectrum of an extended source, and improved spectral sensitivity in the Fe-K band. For point sources with the proposed Arcus mission, and for all sources with the launch of Athena, X-ray spectroscopy will become mature. It allows us to extend the investigations from the few handful of brightest sources of each category to a large number of sources far away in space and time, or to get high time-resolution, high-spectral resolution spectra of bright time variable sources.

  2. Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Lohra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high resolution ultrasound in diagnosis and need of surgical intervention in treatment of subcutaneous cysticercosis. MATERIALS and METHODS: retrospective study of seven cases of extraneural cysticercosis, all involving the subcutaneous tissues or muscles over the arms and torso. Either high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, or excision biopsy, or a combination of these were used to arrive at a diagnosis. All patients were followed up with serial ultrasounds. All patients received oral nitazoxanide for autoinfection. Surgical excision was resorted to in two patients, in whom it was possible to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: of the seven cases of subcutaneous cysticercosis all have rural background, most of the patients (6 were vegetarian and one was non vegetarian. Age and gender of patient, size and duration of lesion were insignificant in establishing the diagnosis. High resolution ultrasound was highly significant in establishing the diagnosis over FNAC and histopathology. Five of the cases resolved spontaneously and surgical intervention was required only in two cases. INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSIONS: With heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated subcutaneous cysticercosis in patients with close animal contact, and the widespread availability of high resolution ultrasound and FNAC, subcutaneous cysticercosis can be diagnosed readily. Surgery can be avoided in the great majority of these patients, as the cysts mostly resolve on their own

  3. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  4. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics using supersonic molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, B.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution He I[alpha] photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and ketene and their deuterated compounds, are reported. The combination of a (H2CO) double-pass high-resolution electron-energy analyzer and effective rotational cooling of the sample by supersonic expansion enable the spectroscopy of these molecular cations. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra, shedding light on the ultrafast intramolecular dynamics of the molecular cations. This study reveals much more vibrational structural detail in the first electronic excited state of H2CO cations. The first electronic excited state of H2CO cations may have nonplanar equilibrium geometry. Strong isotope effects on vibronic (vibrational) coupling are observed in the second electronic excited state of H2CO. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for all four observed electronic states of H2CO. The correlation function of the first electronic excited state of H2CO shows a slow decay rate on the femtosecond time scale. The ultrafast decay of the H2CO cations in the third electronic excited state implies that dissociation and intramolecular processes are the main decay pathways. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations have more fine structure than before. The AIEs of the first and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously more accurately. The doublet-like fine structures present in the lint excited state of ketene implies the excitation of a soft'' mode not observed before. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for 4 of the 6 observed electronic states. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum on the upper PES. The decay dynamics of the first and the fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultra-fast intramolecular processes like predissociation.

  5. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics using supersonic molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, B.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution He I{alpha} photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and ketene and their deuterated compounds, are reported. The combination of a (H2CO) double-pass high-resolution electron-energy analyzer and effective rotational cooling of the sample by supersonic expansion enable the spectroscopy of these molecular cations. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra, shedding light on the ultrafast intramolecular dynamics of the molecular cations. This study reveals much more vibrational structural detail in the first electronic excited state of H2CO cations. The first electronic excited state of H2CO cations may have nonplanar equilibrium geometry. Strong isotope effects on vibronic (vibrational) coupling are observed in the second electronic excited state of H2CO. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for all four observed electronic states of H2CO. The correlation function of the first electronic excited state of H2CO shows a slow decay rate on the femtosecond time scale. The ultrafast decay of the H2CO cations in the third electronic excited state implies that dissociation and intramolecular processes are the main decay pathways. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations have more fine structure than before. The AIEs of the first and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously more accurately. The doublet-like fine structures present in the lint excited state of ketene implies the excitation of a ``soft`` mode not observed before. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for 4 of the 6 observed electronic states. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum on the upper PES. The decay dynamics of the first and the fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultra-fast intramolecular processes like predissociation.

  6. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy in unstable fields via intermolecular zero-quantum coherences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meijin; Chen, Xi; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2010-06-21

    Intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) have been utilized to achieve high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) proton spectra under inhomogeneous and/or unstable fields. In this paper, we demonstrated that despite the insensitivity of iZQCs to B(0) variations, the influence of unstable fields on the observable single-quantum coherence signals causes strong t(1) noises in the high-resolution iZQC spectra. Short-time acquisition (STA) and phase spectrum schemes were proposed for noise suppression in in vivo iZQC magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) under temporal B(0) variations. The feasibility of these schemes were verified by localized spectroscopic studies under B(0) variations generated by the Z0 coil current oscillations and by voxel position variations in the presence of field gradients, which simulate the field conditions of MRS in the presence of physiological motions. The phase scheme not only improves the signal-to-noise ratio but also further reduces the linewidth by half.

  7. Cosmic evolution of the CIV in high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tescari, E; D'Odorico, V; Cristiani, S; Calura, F; Borgani, S; Tornatore, L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of triply ionized Carbon (CIV) in the Intergalactic Medium using a set of high-resolution and large box-size cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of a $\\Lambda$CDM model. We rely on a modification of the GADGET-2 code that self-consistently follows the metal enrichment mechanism by means of a detailed chemical evolution model. We focus on several numerical implementations of galactic feedback: galactic winds in the energy driven and momentum driven prescriptions and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) powered by gas accretion onto massive black holes. We extract mock IGM transmission spectra in neutral hydrogen (HI) and CIV and perform Voigt profile fitting. The results are then compared with high-resolution quasar (QSO) spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT and the HIRES spectrograph at Keck. We find that feedback has little impact on statistics related to the neutral hydrogen, while CIV is more affected by galactic winds and/or AGN feedback. When the same analysis is...

  8. Astrophysical Observations of Oxygen Lines Using High-Resolution X-ray Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Oxygen has importance in astrophysics as the most cosmically abundant element with Z > 2 . In the interstellar medium (the material between the stars in the galaxy; ISM), it is predominately found in atomic form, mostly in its neutral stage (90 %) , with some fraction being singly-ionized (10 %) and doubly-ionized (Mendoza, Thomas Gorczyca.

  9. Arcus: The next generation of high-resolution X-ray grating spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-11-01

    We present the design and scientific motivation for Arcus, an X-ray grating spectrometer mission to be deployed on the International Space Station. This mission will observe structure formation at and beyond the edges of clusters and galaxies, feedback from supermassive black holes, the structure of the interstellar medium and the formation and evolution of stars. Key mission requirements will be R>2500 and >600 cm^2 of effective area at the crucial O VII and O VIII lines, with the full bandpass going from 8-52Å, with an overall minimum resolution of 1300 and effective area >150 cm^2. We will use the silicon pore optics proposed for ESA's Athena mission, paired with off-plane gratings being developed at the University of Iowa and combined with MIT/Lincoln Labs CCDs.

  10. Electronic Wave Packet Interferometry of Gas Phase Samples: High Resolution Spectra and Collective Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienkemeier, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.

  11. Water vapor isotopologues retrievals from high resolution GOSAT short-wave infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frankenberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of the isotopic composition of water vapor can provide valuable information on the hydrological cycle. Here, we demonstrate feasibility of retrievals of the relative abundance of HDO (the HDO/H2O ratio from the Japanese GOSAT satellite. For this purpose, we use high spectral resolution nadir radiances around 6400 cm−1 (1.56 μm to retrieve vertical column amounts of H2O and HDO. Retrievals of H2O correlate well with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts integrated profiles (r2 = 0.96. Typical precision errors in the retrieved column averaged deuterium depletion (δD are 20–40‰. We validate δD against a TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network ground-based station in Lamont, Oklahoma. Using retrievals in very dry areas over Antarctica, we detect a small systematic offset in retrieved H2O and HDO column amounts and take this into account for a bias-correction of δD. Monthly averages of δD in the June 2009 to September 2011 time-frame are well correlated with TCCON (r2 = 0.79 and exhibit a slope of 0.98 (1.23 if not bias corrected. We also compare seasonal averages on the global scale with results from the SCIAMACHY instrument in the 2003–2005 timeframe. Despite the lack of temporal overlap, seasonal averages in general agree well, with spatial correlations (r2 ranging from 0.62 in September through November to 0.83 in June through August. However, we observe higher variability in GOSAT δD, indicated by fitted slopes between 1.2 and 1.46. The discrepancies are likely related to differences in vertical sensitivities but warrant further validation of both GOSAT and SCIAMACHY and an extension of the validation dataset.

  12. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  13. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...

  14. High resolution measurements of the electron scattering for applications in electron microscopy and Monte-Carlo simulations of electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, D

    2000-01-01

    scanning electron microscope is examined. By means of the scattering at mono-crystalline samples the influence of channeling (anomalous absorption and transmission) on backscattered electron spectra is shown. Captions are given in English language. This work presents high resolution measurements of the energy and complete angular distribution of the scattering of 20 keV electrons (energy resolution 0.55%). The examinations include take-off angles close to the target surface and non-perpendicular incidences of electrons partly for the first time. The results are of interest for the understanding of fundamental scattering processes, the interpretation of signals and new detector systems in electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy. Furthermore, they are used for the verification of electron scattering models and simulations. The applied compact electrostatic spectrometers with spherical and toroidal geometries are characterized and compared. High resolution spectra are obtained by deconvolution of the measu...

  15. High-resolution field desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass analysis of nonpolar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Tanner M; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Qian, Kuangnan; Quinn, John P; Marshall, Alan G

    2003-05-01

    We report the first field desorption ionization broadband high-resolution (m/Deltam(50%) approximately 65 000) mass spectra. We have interfaced a field ionization/field desorption source to a home-built 9.4-T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The instrumental configuration employs convenient sample introduction (in-source liquid injection) and external ion accumulation. We demonstrate the utility of this configuration by generating high-resolution positive-ion mass spectra of C(60) and a midboiling crude oil distillate. The latter contains species not accessible by common soft-ionization methods, for example, low-voltage electron ionization, electrospray ionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. The present work demonstrates significant advantages of FI/FD FT-ICR MS for analysis of nonpolar molecules in complex mixtures.

  16. High-resolution soft x-ray photoionization studies of selected molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.A.

    1993-08-01

    Near-edge soft x-ray photoionization spectra were measured for CO, SF{sub 6}, H{sub 2}S, and D{sub 2}S in the gas phase, using the Free University of Berlin plane-grating SX-700-II monochromator at the synchrotron radiation source BESSY. Photoionization spectra of carbon monoxide were measured near the carbon and oxygen K edges. Vibrational spacings and bond lengths are derived for several resonances. Results are consistent with equivalent-core model and indicate the different influences of the carbon and oxygen Is core holes. Corresponding spectra of H{sub 2}CO and D{sub 2}CO were also measured. Assignment of complex vibrational structure in valence-shell and Rydberg resonances is facilitated by comparison of spectra for the two isotopic species. Geometric and vibrational parameters are derived for several carbon 1s core-excited states. Isotopic shifts are observed in the energies and linewidths of some core-excited states. Sulfur hexafluoride photoionization spectra, measured near the sulfur L{sub 2,3} edges, show several series of weak, narrow Rydberg resonances. High resolution and good counting statistics allow a complete assignment of these states. Lineshapes of the broad inner-well resonances are analyzed to establish the magnitudes of vibrational and lifetime broadening in these states. Spectra of the H{sub 2}S and D{sub 2}S molecules were also measured near the sulfur L{sub 2,3} edges. Besides lower-energy transitions to inner-well states, a complex manifold of overlapping Rydberg resonances is observed. The rich fine structure of these states arises mainly from removal of orbital degeneracies in molecular field. Additional structure due to vibrational excitations in the final state is identified by comparison of the spectra for the two isotopic species.

  17. Using microcontact printing to fabricate microcoils on capillaries for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance on nanoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A.; Jackman, R.J.; Whitesides, G.M. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Olson, D.L.; Sweedler, J.V. [Beckman Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This letter describes a method for producing conducting microcoils for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopy on nanoliter volumes. This technique uses microcontact printing and electroplating to form coils on microcapillaries. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra collected using these microcoils, have linewidths less than 1 Hz for model compounds and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for ethylbenzene of 2.6 nmol in 13 min. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius Streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M; Bonifacio, P.; A. Buzzoni; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G; Sbordone, L.; S. Zaggia

    2006-01-01

    Context. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently being disrupted under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstruction of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained by combining core and stream information. Aims. We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and $\\alpha$-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods. Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HAR...

  19. Gemini Planet Imager Observational Calibrations III: Empirical Measurement Methods and Applications of High-Resolution Microlens PSFs

    OpenAIRE

    Ingraham, Patrick; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Perrin, Marshall D.; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Draper, Zachary H.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Fesquet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The newly commissioned Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an advanced coronagraph, precision wavefront control and a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph (IFS) to measure the spectra of young extrasolar giant planets between 0.9-2.5 um. Each GPI detector image, when in spectral model, consists of ~37,000 microspectra which are under or critically sampled in the spatial direction. This paper demonstrates how to obtain high-resolution microlens PSFs and discusses ...

  20. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report an imaging method, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex sample image. By adopting a wavefront correction strategy, the FPM method can also correct for aberrations and digitally extend a microscope's depth-of-focus beyond the physical limitations of its optics. As a demonstration, we built a microscope prototype with a resolution of 0.78 um, a field-of-view of ~120 mm2, and a resolution-invariant depth-of-focus of 0.3 mm (characterized at 632 nm). Gigapixel colour images of histology slides verify FPM's successful operation. The reported imaging procedure transforms the general challenge of high-throughput, high-resolution microscopy from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of the system's optics to one that is solvable through computation.

  1. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  2. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  3. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  4. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  5. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  6. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit hi...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors......In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  7. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  8. High-resolution ultrasonographic findings in thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Ultrasonography, it's excellent ability of differentiating cystic from solid lesion and depicting detailed architecture, proved itself useful in the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies. Advanced high resolution equipment made hidden small lesion detected and finer structure clearly seen. They seemed to throw light on the histological diagnosis of thyroid diseases, especially differentiation of benignancy and malignancy. Author reviewed pictures of high-resolution ultrasonography of thyroid disease (24 cases) and correlated them with proven pathological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Multiplicity of lesion favors benignancy (4 cases). 2. Well defined margin favors benignancy (14/17), while ill defined margin favors malignancy (3/4), and lesion of no margin favors thyroiditis (3/3). 3. Surrounding halo favors benignancy (7 cases). 4. Hypoechogenicity were found in most of malignancy and thyroiditis. Cystic components in solid nodule were common findings in benign and malignant lesions. Calcification was not found in malignancy.

  9. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  10. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  11. Application Research on High Resolution Radar Target Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhi Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In high resolution radar system, the same target always has original data; so we need to merge multiple data from the same target as one target. Because of the system’s real-time requirement, we usually have to carry out target aggregation as quickly as possible. In this paper, we propose a quick target aggregation method based on clustering algorithm. The proposed method divides original data into subsets by single dimensional distance, and then merges subsets according to single dimensional distance and setdensity. At last we apply the proposed method to carry out target aggregation for airport scene surveillance radar system. Experimental result shows the proposed method has high execution efficiency and is not sensitive to noise data; it is useful for high resolution radar target aggregation.

  12. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Siruguri; P D Babu; M Gupta; A V Pimpale; P S Goyal

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator and open beam geometry, enabling the use of smaller samples. The resolution curve of the instrument was found to have little variation over a wide angular region and a / ∼ 0.3% has been achieved. The instrument provides sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for studying magnetic properties of materials.

  13. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  14. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  15. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; LIANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Chun-Lei; CAO Xue-Lei; JIANG Wei-Chun; ZHANG Jia-Yu; CUI Xing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed.A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer.The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics,a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit.A ground test system is also developed to test SOX.The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved.

  16. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  17. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  18. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungenschmid, D. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Buchberger, W. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Schoen, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Schoepf, R. [Radiologic Inst., Landeck (Austria); Mihatsch, T. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Birbamer, G. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Wicke, K. [Inst. of Computed Tomography, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1993-12-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  19. Fusion Experiments of HSI and High Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    map derived from the unsharpened HSI. The classification is performed with an unsupervised feature extraction using principal component analysis (PCA... Classification of Hyperspectral Data in Urban Area", P. 169-172, SPIE Vol.3502 8. R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, Addison-Wesley...MA 02420-9185 Abstract In this paper, the fusion of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor data and high-resolution panchromatic imagery (HPI) is

  20. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  1. Validation of AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on stratospheric temperature observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We validate a nine-year record (2003 - 2011) of data retrieved with a scientific retrieval processor independent from the operational processor operated by NASA. The retrieval discussed here provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual AIRS footprint and has nine times better horizontal sampling than the operational data provided by NASA. The high-resolution temperature data are considered optimal for for gravity wave studies. For validation the high-resolution retrieval data are compared with results from the AIRS operational Level-2 data and the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis. Due to the large amount of data we performed statistical comparisons of monthly zonal mean cross-sections and time series. The comparisons show that the high-resolution temperature data are in good agreement with the validation data sets. The bias in the zonal averages is mostly within ±2K. The bias reaches a maximum of 7K to ERA-Interim and 4K to the AIRS operational data at the stratopause, it is related to the different resolutions of the data sets. Variability is nearly the same in all three data sets, having maximum standard deviations around the polar vortex in the mid and upper stratosphere. The validation presented here indicates that the high-resolution temperature retrievals are well-suited for scientific studies. In particular, we expect that they will become a valuable asset for future studies of stratospheric gravity waves.

  2. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  3. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M. [Radiology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Jaffe, Adam [Portex Respiratory Medicine Unit, The Institute of Child Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  5. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...... conditions. Here, we provide background information on proteomics by mass-spectrometry and describe the practice of a comprehensive yeast proteome analysis....

  6. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  7. High resolution temperature measurement technique for measuring marine heat flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YangYang; YANG; XiaoQiu; WU; BaoZhen; SUN; ZhaoHua; SHI; XiaoBin

    2013-01-01

    High resolution temperature measurement technique is one of the key techniques for measuring marine heat flow. Basing on Pt1000 platinum resistance which has the characteristics of high accuracy and good stability, we designed a bridge reversal excitation circuit for high resolution temperature measurement. And the deep ocean floor in-situ test results show that: (1) temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the first version circuit board (V1) are 1.960-1.990 mK and 0.980-0.995 m Kat 1.2-2.7°C, respectively; and temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the second circuit board (V2) are 2.260mK and 1.130 mK at 1.2-1.3°C, respectively; (2) During the 2012NSFC-IndOcean cruise, seafloor geothermal gradient at Ind2012HF03,-07 and-12 stations (water depth ranges from 3841 to 4541 m) were successfully measured, the values are 59.1,75.1 and 71.6°C/km, respectively. And the measurement errors of geothermal gradient at these three stations are less than 3.0% in terms of the peak-to-peak resolution. These indicate that the high resolution temperature measurement technique based on Pt1000 platinum resistance in this paper can be applied to marine heat flow measurement to obtain high precision geothermal parameters.

  8. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  9. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  10. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  11. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  12. High resolution, large dynamic range field map estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Joseph; Reese, Timothy; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We present a theory and a corresponding method to compute high resolution field maps over a large dynamic range. Theory and Methods We derive a closed-form expression for the error in the field map value when computed from two echoes. We formulate an optimization problem to choose three echo times which result in a pair of maximally distinct error distributions. We use standard field mapping sequences at the prescribed echo times. We then design a corresponding estimation algorithm which takes advantage of the optimized echo times to disambiguate the field offset value. Results We validate our method using high resolution images of a phantom at 7T. The resulting field maps demonstrate robust mapping over both a large dynamic range, and in low SNR regions. We also present high resolution offset maps in vivo using both, GRE and MEGE sequences. Even though the proposed echo time spacings are larger than the well known phase aliasing cutoff, the resulting field maps exhibit a large dynamic range without the use of phase unwrapping or spatial regularization techniques. Conclusion We demonstrate a novel 3-echo field map estimation method which overcomes the traditional noise-dynamic range trade-off. PMID:23401245

  13. High Resolution CO Observations of Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q; Galván-Madrid, R; Liu, H-Y B

    2011-01-01

    Context. To further understand the processes involved in the formation of massive stars, we have undertaken a study of the gas dynamics surrounding three massive star forming regions. By observing the large scale structures at high resolution, we are able to determine properties such as driving source, and spatially resolve the bulk dynamical properties of the gas such as infall and outflow. Aims. With high resolution observations, we are able to determine which of the cores in a cluster forming massive stars is responsible for the large scale structures. Methods. We present CO observations of three massive star forming regions with known HII regions and show how the CO traces both infall and outflow. By combining data taken in two SMA configurations with JCMT observations, we are able to see large scale structures at high resolution. Results. We find large (0.26-0.40 pc), massive (2-3 M_sun) and energetic (13-17 \\times 10^44 erg) outflows emanating from the edges of two HII regions suggesting they are being ...

  14. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  15. High-resolution noise radar using slow ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Konstantin; Vyplavin, Pavlo; Zemlyanyi, Oleg; Lukin, Sergiy; Palamarchuk, Volodymyr

    2011-06-01

    Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has some limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. Those limitations are caused by a tradeoff in performance of currently available ADCs: the faster is ADC the smaller is its depth (number of bits) available. Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing doesn't enable to get both high range resolution and high dynamic range. In the paper we present a way to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs. The design is based upon generation of both probing and reference signals digitally and realization of their cross-correlation in an analog correlator. The output of the correlator is a narrowband signal that requires rather slow ADC to be sampled which nowadays may give up to 130 dB dynamic range.

  16. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  17. High-resolution photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled Fe4O- and Fe5O-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, Marissa L.; DeVine, Jessalyn A.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2016-08-01

    We report high-resolution photodetachment spectra of the cryogenically cooled iron monoxide clusters Fe4O- and Fe5O- obtained with slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging (cryo-SEVI). Well-resolved vibrational progressions are observed in both sets of spectra, and transitions to low-lying excited states of both species are seen. In order to identify the structural isomers, electronic states, and vibrational modes that contribute to the cryo-SEVI spectra of these clusters, experimental results are compared with density functional theory calculations and Franck-Condon simulations. The main bands observed in the SEVI spectra are assigned to the 15A2←16B2 photodetachment transition of Fe4O- and the 17A'←18A″ photodetachment transition of Fe5O-. We report electron affinities of 1.6980(3) eV for Fe4O and 1.8616(3) eV for Fe5O, although there is some uncertainty as to whether the 15A2 state is the true ground state of Fe4O. The iron atoms have a distorted tetrahedral geometry in Fe4O0/- and a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal arrangement in Fe5O0/-. For both neutral and anionic species, the oxygen atom preferably binds in a μ2-oxo configuration along the cluster edge. This finding is in contrast to prior predictions that Fe5O0/- exhibits a μ3 face-bound structure.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: THE REALM OF ANHARMONICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltseva, Elena; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Oomens, Jos, E-mail: w.j.buma@uva.nl, E-mail: petrignani@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-20

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3-μm CH stretching region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (∼4 K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main bands that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the aromatic infrared bands, specifically the 3-μm band, are discussed.

  19. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  20. Multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning: high-resolution solid state NMR spectroscopy of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Goldbourt, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of the multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning experiment (MQMAS) are discussed in this review. The significance of this experiment, introduced by Frydman and Harwood, is in its ability to provide high-resolution NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei (I /geq 3/2). This technique has proved to be useful in various systems ranging from inorganic materials to biological samples. This review addresses the development of various pulse schemes aimed at improving the signal-to-noise ratio and anisotropic lineshapes. Representative spectra are shown to underscore the importance and applications of the MQMAS experiment. Refs. 97 (author)

  1. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  2. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Theoretical performance analysis for CMOS based high resolution detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-06

    High resolution imaging capabilities are essential for accurately guiding successful endovascular interventional procedures. Present x-ray imaging detectors are not always adequate due to their inherent limitations. The newly-developed high-resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF-CCD) detector has demonstrated excellent clinical image quality; however, further improvement in performance and physical design may be possible using CMOS sensors. We have thus calculated the theoretical performance of two proposed CMOS detectors which may be used as a successor to the MAF. The proposed detectors have a 300 μm thick HL-type CsI phosphor, a 50 μm-pixel CMOS sensor with and without a variable gain light image intensifier (LII), and are designated MAF-CMOS-LII and MAF-CMOS, respectively. For the performance evaluation, linear cascade modeling was used. The detector imaging chains were divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (quantum gain, binomial selection, stochastic and deterministic blurring, additive noise). Ranges of readout noise and exposure were used to calculate the detectors' MTF and DQE. The MAF-CMOS showed slightly better MTF than the MAF-CMOS-LII, but the MAF-CMOS-LII showed far better DQE, especially for lower exposures. The proposed detectors can have improved MTF and DQE compared with the present high resolution MAF detector. The performance of the MAF-CMOS is excellent for the angiography exposure range; however it is limited at fluoroscopic levels due to additive instrumentation noise. The MAF-CMOS-LII, having the advantage of the variable LII gain, can overcome the noise limitation and hence may perform exceptionally for the full range of required exposures; however, it is more complex and hence more expensive.

  5. On high-resolution manoeuvres control via trajectory optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A H MAZINAN; M SHAHI

    2017-02-01

    This research is on a realization of control approach in line with the trajectory optimization for the purpose of dealing with overactuated spacecraft in the process of the high-resolution manoeuvres. The idea behind the research is to realize closed control loops to cope with the rotational angles and the corresponding angular rates,synchronously, to handle the spacecraft manoeuvres. It is to be noted that the traditional techniques may not have sufficient merit to deal with such a complicated process, suitably. The proposed trajectory optimization is designed to provide the three-axis referenced commands, in finite burn, for transferring the aforementioned overactuated spacecraft from the initial orbit to its final outcomes in the orbital transfer process. The outcomes are realized through the variations of the orbital parameters, including the inclination, the eccentricity, the angular momentum, the semi-major axis and so on, in the high-resolution manoeuvres. It aims to get the system under control to guarantee the performance of the three-dimensional rotational angles tracking to be desirable, instantly. The contribution of the research is to make the high-thrust optimization trajectory,which is organized in association with the new configuration of the three-axis attitude control approach, to be applicable to manage the present overactuated spacecraft in the procedure of high-resolution orbital transfer process. The investigated outcomes of the research are efficient and competitive along with the potential materials through a series of experiments, as long as the desirable tracking performance in the three-dimensional space manoeuvres is apparently guaranteed.

  6. Velocity and abundance precisions for future high-resolution spectroscopic surveys: a study for 4MOST

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Sbordone, L; Sartoretti, P; Hansen, C J; Royer, F; Leclerc, N; Bonifacio, P; Christlieb, N; Ludwig, H G; Grebel, E K; de Jong, R S; Chiappini, C; Walcher, J; Mignot, S; Feltzing, S; Cohen, M; Minchev, I; Helmi, A; Piffl, T; Depagne, E; Schnurr, O

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for future, large-scale, multi-object, high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy, we present a series of tests of the precision in radial velocity and chemical abundances that any such project can achieve at a 4m class telescope. We briefly discuss a number of science cases that aim at studying the chemo-dynamical history of the major Galactic components (bulge, thin and thick disks, and halo) - either as a follow-up to the Gaia mission or on their own merits. Based on a large grid of synthetic spectra that cover the full range in stellar parameters of typical survey targets, we devise an optimal wavelength range and argue for a moderately high-resolution spectrograph. As a result, the kinematic precision is not limited by any of these factors, but will practically only suffer from systematic effects, easily reaching uncertainties <1 km/s. Under realistic survey conditions (namely, considering stars brighter than r=16 mag with reasonable exposure times) we prefer an ideal resolving...

  7. A High-Resolution Capability for Large-Eddy Simulation of Jet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2011-01-01

    A large-eddy simulation (LES) code that utilizes high-resolution numerical schemes is described and applied to a compressible jet flow. The code is written in a general manner such that the accuracy/resolution of the simulation can be selected by the user. Time discretization is performed using a family of low-dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes, selectable from first- to fourth-order. Spatial discretization is performed using central differencing schemes. Both standard schemes, second- to twelfth-order (3 to 13 point stencils) and Dispersion Relation Preserving schemes from 7 to 13 point stencils are available. The code is written in Fortran 90 and uses hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization. The code is applied to the simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet flow. Four-stage third-order Runge-Kutta time stepping and the 13 point DRP spatial discretization scheme of Bogey and Bailly are used. The high resolution numerics used allows for the use of relatively sparse grids. Three levels of grid resolution are examined, 3.5, 6.5, and 9.2 million points. Mean flow, first-order turbulent statistics and turbulent spectra are reported. Good agreement with experimental data for mean flow and first-order turbulent statistics is shown.

  8. High Resolution HDS/SUBARU chemical abundances of the young stellar cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Correnti, M; Bonifacio, P; Geisler, D

    2010-01-01

    Context. Palomar\\,1 is a peculiar globular cluster (GC). It is the youngest Galactic GC and it has been tentatively associated to several of the substructures recently discovered in the Milky Way (MW), including the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity and the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS). Aims. In order to provide further insights into its origin, we present the first high resolution chemical abundance analysis for one red giant in Pal\\,1. Methods. We obtained high resolution (R=30000) spectra for one red giant star in Pal\\,1 using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted at the SUBARU telescope. We used ATLAS-9 model atmospheres coupled with the SYNTHE and WIDTH calculation codes to derive chemical abundances from the measured line equivalent widths of 18 among $\\alpha$, Iron-peak, light and heavy elements. Results. The Palomar~1 chemical pattern is broadly compatible to that of the MW open clusters population and similar to disk stars. It is, instead, remarkably different from that of the Sa...

  9. Interstellar dust grain composition from high-resolution X-ray absorption edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia

    2016-06-01

    X-ray light is sufficient to excite electrons from n=1 (K-shell) and n=2 (L-shell) energy levels of neutral interstellar metals, causing a sharp increase in the absorption cross-section. Near the ionization energy, the shape of the photoelectric absorption edge depends strongly on whether the atom is isolated or bound in molecules or minerals (dust). With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, we can directly measure the state of metals and the mineral composition of dust in the interstellar medium. In addition, the scattering contribution to the X-ray extinction cross-section can be used to gauge grain size, shape, and filling factor. In order to fully take advantage of major advances in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, lab measurements of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) from suspected interstellar minerals are required. Optical constants derived from the absorption measurements can be used with Mie scattering or anomalous diffraction theory in order to model the full extinction cross-sections from the interstellar medium. Much like quasar spectra are used to probe other intergalactic gas, absorption spectroscopy of Galactic X-ray binaries and bright stars will yield key insights to the mineralogy and evolution of dust grains in the Milky Way.

  10. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P A; Schmid, Adrien W

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis.

  11. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  12. High-Resolution Differential Thermography of Semiconductor Edifices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Marie Sastine

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a cost-effective, high-resolution, and noninvasive imaging technique for thermal mapping of semiconductor edifices in integrated circuits. Initial implementation was done using a power-stabilized optical feedback laser system that detects changes in the optical beam-induced current when the package temperature of the device is increased. The linear change in detected current can be translated to a thermal gradient, which can reveal semiconductor “hotspots”—localized sites with anomalous thermal activity. These locales are possible fault sites or areas susceptible to defects, which are the best jump-off points for failure analysis.

  13. Quantitative high resolution electron microscopy of grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.H., King, W.E., Cohen, D., Carter, C.B.

    1996-12-12

    The {Sigma}11 (113)/[1{bar 1}0] symmetric tilt grain boundary has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The method by which the images are prepared for analysis is described. The statistics of the image data have been found to follow a normal distribution. The electron-optical imaging parameters used to acquire the image have been determined by nonlinear least-square image simulation optimization within the perfect crystal region of the micrograph. A similar image simulation optimization procedure is used to determine the atom positions which provide the best match between the experimental image and the image simulation.

  14. Calibration of a High Resolution Airborne 3-D SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Grinder-Pedersen, Jan; Madsen, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    (EMI). In order to achieve a high geodetic fidelity when using such systems operationally, calibration procedures must be applied. Inaccurate navigation data and system parameters as well as system imperfections must be accounted for. This paper presents theoretical models describing the impact of key......The potential of across-track interferometric (XTI) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for producing high resolution 3D imagery has been demonstrated by several airborne systems including EMISAR, the dual frequency, polarimetric, and interferometric SAR developed at the Dept. of Electromagnetic Systems...

  15. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution upconversion of incoherent infrared radiation by means of sum-frequency mixing with a laser followed by simple CCD Si-camera detection. Noise associated with upconversion is, in strong contrast to room temperature direct mid-IR detection, extremely small, thus very faint...... signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...

  16. Expiratory high-resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a powerful adjunct to inspiratory HRCT in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease (DLD), revealing air-trapping even when the inspiratory scan is normal. Expiratory scans are also useful in the differentiation of inhomogeneous lung opacity, which is not uncommon in various types of DLD. The history and technique of expiratory HRCT are described as well as the basic understanding of lung attenuation and the diagnostic value of expiratory scans DLD. The clinical significance of the presence of expiratory air-trapping in the absence of inspiratory scan abnormality is also presented. (author)

  17. High-resolution detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Soman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a modern soft X-ray spectroscopy technique used to investigate the structure of and excitations in materials. It requires high resolution spectrometers and a brilliant, tunable, X-ray source and therefore is carried out at spectrometers such as SAXES at the Swiss Light Source Light, a synchrotron at the Paul Scherrer Institut.\\ud \\ud SAXES uses a grating to disperse X-rays scattered from a sample across a position sensitive detector, a Charge-Coup...

  18. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  19. High resolution study of magnetic ordering at absolute zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Husmann, A; Rosenbaum, T F; Aeppli, G

    2004-05-07

    High resolution pressure measurements in the zero-temperature limit provide a unique opportunity to study the behavior of strongly interacting, itinerant electrons with coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom. Approaching the precision that has become the hallmark of experiments on classical critical phenomena, we characterize the quantum critical behavior of the model, elemental antiferromagnet chromium, lightly doped with vanadium. We resolve the sharp doubling of the Hall coefficient at the quantum critical point and trace the dominating effects of quantum fluctuations up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  20. Alternative high-resolution lithographic technologies for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitner, Uwe D.; Weichelt, Tina; Bourgin, Yannick; Kinder, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Modern optical applications have special demands on the lithographic fabrication technologies. This relates to the lateral shape of the structures as well as to their three dimensional surface profile. On the other hand optical nano-structures are often periodic which allows for the use of dedicated lithographic exposure principles. The paper briefly reviews actual developments in the field of optical nano-structure generation. Special emphasis will be given to two technologies: electron-beam lithography based on a flexible cell-projection method and the actual developments in diffractive mask aligner lithography. Both offer a cost effective fabrication alternative for high resolution structures or three-dimensional optical surface profiles.

  1. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  2. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  3. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  4. High-resolution ultrasonography in the assessment of meralgia paresthetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindakannan, Therimadasamy; Wilder-Smith, Einar P

    2012-03-01

    Meralgia paresthetica can be difficult to diagnose, as neurophysiological studies are often hard to interpret due to excess fatty tissue and the varying anatomy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. We retrospectively analyzed the use of high-resolution ultrasound (HRU) for confirming clinical meralgia paresthetica and compared results with nerve conduction studies. In all 6 patients evaluated, HRUs showed significantly enlarged nerve diameter and in 3 enlarged cross-sectional area, 4 had absent nerve potentials, and in 2 the potentials could not be recorded on either side. HRU seems promising for confirming meralgia paresthetica and can accurately localize nerve entrapment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  6. Multispectral high-resolution hologram generation using orthographic projection images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, I.; Guo, C.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new method of synthesizing a digital hologram of three-dimensional (3D) real-world objects from multiple orthographic projection images (OPI). A high-resolution multiple perspectives of 3D objects (i.e., two dimensional elemental image array) are captured under incoherent white light using synthetic aperture integral imaging (SAII) technique and their OPIs are obtained respectively. The reference beam is then multiplied with the corresponding OPI and integrated to form a Fourier hologram. Eventually, a modified phase retrieval algorithm (GS/HIO) is applied to reconstruct the hologram. The principle is validated experimentally and the results support the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Design for a focusing high-resolution neutron crystal diffractometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, I; Popovici, M; Popa, N C

    1999-01-01

    A new concept of high-resolution focusing configuration begins to be accepted as an alternative solution to the existing conventional configurations. Among the earliest work performed in this direction is that performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti. These results are presented below. The experimentally determined resolution properties for two focusing configurations obtained at TRIGA reactor Pitesti and at VVRS reactor Bucharest are given in order to be compared with those obtained for the conventional ones. The principles to get focusing in crystal neutron diffractometry are presented. The main characteristics for a focusing instrument are given. (author)

  8. High resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuChao; YI Fan; JIA JingYu; ZHANG YunPeng; ZHANG ShaoDong; YU ChangMing; TAN Ying

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of water content in atmosphere and water phase change in cloud is important for atmospheric study.For this purpose,we have developed a high resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar that can collect Raman signals from ice,water droplets and water vapor simultaneously.A double-grating polychromator and a 32-channel photomultiplier-tube detector are used to obtain a spectral resolution of ~0.19 nm in the full Raman spectrum range of water.Preliminary observations present the water Raman spectrum characteristics of both the mixed-phase cloud and humid air under cloudless condition.

  9. High-resolution AMLCD for the electronic library system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Russel A.; Middo, Kathy; Turner, William D.; Lewis, Alan; Thompson, Malcolm J.; Silverstein, Louis D.

    1994-06-01

    The Electronic Library System (ELS), is a proposed data resource for the cockpit which can provide the aircrew with a vast array of technical information on their aircraft and flight plan. This information includes, but is not limited to, approach plates, Jeppeson Charts, and aircraft technical manuals. Most of these data are appropriate for digitization at high resolution (300 spi). Xerox Corporation has developed a flat panel active matrix liquid crystal display, AMLCD, that is an excellent match to the ELS, due to its innovative and aggressive design.

  10. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  11. High resolution polar Kerr magnetometer for nanomagnetism and nanospintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M; Ferré, J; Mougin, A; Cromières, J-P; Klein, V

    2008-03-01

    A new high resolution polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr magnetometer, devoted to the study of nanometer sized elements with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is described. The unique performances of this setup in terms of sensitivity (1.2x10(-15) emu), stability (lateral drift +/-35 nm over 3 h), and resolution (laser spot full width at half maximum down to 470 nm) are demonstrated, and illustrated by Kerr hysteresis loop measurements on a unique ultrathin magnetic nanodot, and over small segments of ultranarrow magnetic tracks. Large scanning MO Kerr microscopy images were also obtained with the same performances.

  12. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  13. Quantitative high-resolution melting analysis for detecting adulterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Eduard; Ruzicka, Joana; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Admixtures of different plant species are a common problem in raw materials for medicinal use. Two exemplary assays were developed to admixtures in Helleborus niger with high-resolution melting analysis. HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool in detecting admixtures, able to detect a ratio of 1:1000 with unknown species, and of 1:200,000 with Veratrum nigrum. The example proves the ability of HRM for quantification in multiplex PCR. The method is not limited to detecting adulterations. It can also be used to quantify a specific target by integrating a second amplicon in the assay as internal standard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ubachs, W.; Salumbides, E. J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; de Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.

    2013-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies. While the ns and ps pulsed laser sources, at Fourier-transform limited bandwidths, are used in wavelength scanning spectroscopy, the fs laser source is used in a two-pulse time delayed mode. In addit...

  15. Microstrain in Nanocrystalline Copper by High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Changping; RUAN Xuefeng; ZOU Huamin

    2009-01-01

    The elastic microstrains in a crystallite of electrodeposited nanocrystalline copper were investigated by analyzing the high resolution electron microscopy(HRTEM)image.The mi-crostrain was considered as consisting of two parts,in which the uniform part was determined with fast Fourier transformation of the HRTEM image,while the non-uniform part of the microstrain in the crystallite was measured by means of peak finding.Atomic column spacing measurements show that the crystal lattice is contracted in the longitudinal direction,while expanded in the transverse direction of the elliptical crystallite,indicating that the variation of microstrain exists mainly near the grain boundary.

  16. High resolution resonant recombination measurements using evaporative cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilmann, C; Lopez-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Mokler, P H; Ullrich, J, E-mail: christian.beilmann@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    We report on a method significantly improving the energy resolution of dielectronic recombination (DR) measurements in electron beam ion traps (EBITs). The line width of DR resonances can be reduced to values distinctly smaller than the corresponding space charge width of the uncompensated electron beam. The experimental technique based on forced evaporative cooling is presented together with test measurements demonstrating its high efficiency. The principle for resolution improvement is elucidated and the limiting factors are discussed. This method opens access to high resolution DR measurements at high ion-electron collision energies required for innermost shell DR in highly charged ions (HCI).

  17. High-resolution second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan V.; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2005-04-01

    A high-resolution Second Harmonic Optical Coherence Tomography (SH-OCT) system is demonstrated using a spectrum broadened femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. An axial resolution of 4.2 μm at the second harmonic wave center wavelength of 400 nm has been achieved. Because the SH-OCT system uses the second harmonic generation signals that strongly depend on the orientation, polarization and local symmetry properties of chiral molecules, this technique provides unique contrast enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography. The system is applied to image biological tissues like the rat-tail tendon. Images of highly organized collagen fibrils in the rat-tail tendon have been demonstrated.

  18. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    to control the solution flow at the tip. Through addition of reference and counter electrodes, the pipette system becomes a microscopic electrochemical cell, which can then be used with high precision to determine the electrochemical characteristics of the microstructural region of interest. The capability...... of the technique could be further enhanced by adding new features such as high resolution video visualization systems, fretting/tribo-corroson attachments, and also by integrating it with stress corrosion testing, corrosion investigation of concrete for a few to name with. The corrosion group in MPT, Technical...

  19. Advances in high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods in inhomogeneous magnetic fields using intermolecular multiple quantum coherences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Strong and extremely homogeneous static magnetic field is usually required for high-resolution nu-clear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, in the cases of in vivo and so on, the magnetic field inho-mogeneity owing to magnetic susceptibility variation in samples is unavoidable and hard to eliminate by conventional methods such as shimming. Recently, intermolecular multiple quantum coherences (iMQCs) have been employed to eliminate inhomogeneous broadening and obtain high-resolution NMR spectra, especially for in vivo samples. Compared to other high-resolution NMR methods, iMQC method exhibits its unique feature and advantage. It simultaneously holds information of chemical shifts, multiplet structures, coupling constants, and relative peak areas. All the information is often used to analyze and characterize molecular structures in conventional one-dimensional NMR spec-troscopy. In this work, recent technical developments including our results in this field are summarized; the high-resolution mechanism is analyzed and comparison with other methods based on interactions between spins is made; comments on the current situation and outlook on the research directions are also made.

  20. De Novo Peptide Sequencing: Deep Mining of High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Tawhidul; Mohamedali, Abidali; Fernandes, Criselda Santan; Baker, Mark S; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2017-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry has revolutionized proteomics over the past decade, resulting in tremendous amounts of data in the form of mass spectra, being generated in a relatively short span of time. The mining of this spectral data for analysis and interpretation though has lagged behind such that potentially valuable data is being overlooked because it does not fit into the mold of traditional database searching methodologies. Although the analysis of spectra by de novo sequences removes such biases and has been available for a long period of time, its uptake has been slow or almost nonexistent within the scientific community. In this chapter, we propose a methodology to integrate de novo peptide sequencing using three commonly available software solutions in tandem, complemented by homology searching, and manual validation of spectra. This simplified method would allow greater use of de novo sequencing approaches and potentially greatly increase proteome coverage leading to the unearthing of valuable insights into protein biology, especially of organisms whose genomes have been recently sequenced or are poorly annotated.

  1. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - I. Observations and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Alecian, E; Catala, C; Grunhut, J H; Landstreet, J D; Bagnulo, S; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Marsden, S; Waite, I

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we describe and report the analysis of a large survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars in circular spectropolarimetry. Using the ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii and Bernard Lyot Telescopes, respectively, we have acquired 132 circularly-polarised spectra of 70 Herbig Ae/Be stars and Herbig candidates. The large majority of these spectra are characterised by a resolving power of about 65,000, and a spectral coverage from about 3700 ang to 1 micron. The peak SNR per CCD pixel ranges from below 100 (for the faintest targets) to over 1000 (for the brightest). The observations were acquired with the primary aim of searching for magnetic fields in these objects. However, our spectra are suitable for a variety of other important measurements, including rotational properties, variability, binarity, chemical abundances, circumstellar environment conditions and structure, etc. In this first paper, we describe the sample selection, ...

  2. A Spitzer high resolution mid-infrared spectral atlas of starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Charmandaris, V; Lebouteiller, V; Farrah, D; Devost, D; Brandl, B R; Wu, Yanling; Armus, L; Hao, L; Sloan, G C; Weedman, D; Houck, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present an atlas of Spitzer/IRS high resolution (R~600) 10-37um spectra for 24 well known starburst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Six out of the eight objects with a known AGN component show emission of the high excitation [NeV] line. This line is also seen in one other object (NGC4194) with, a priori, no known AGN component. In addition to strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features in this wavelength range (11.3, 12.7, 16.4um), the spectra reveal other weak hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2um, and a previously unreported emission feature at 10.75um. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7um is detected in many of the starbursts. We use the fine-structure lines to derive the abundance of neon and sulfur for 14 objects where the HI 7-6 line is detected. We further use the molecular hydrogen lines to sample the properties of the warm molecular gas. Several basic diagrams ch...

  3. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of narrow gap III-V semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Veal, T D

    2002-01-01

    The electronic properties of n-type narrow gap III-V semiconductor surfaces and interfaces are investigated using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Changing the incident electron energy, alters the wave-vector transfer parallel to the surface, allowing the probing depth to be varied over typical space-charge layer widths (100 - 2000 A). Semi-classical dielectric theory simulations of the HREEL spectra are performed to extract quantitative information from the probing energy-dependence of the surface plasmon and phonon peaks. The plasma frequency used in the simulations is related to the electron concentration and effective mass using the Kane model of the non-parabolic conduction band. Space-charge layer parameters are obtained by comparing calculated smooth charge profiles with the histogram profiles that are used in the simulations. Complementary experimental techniques are employed to correlate the reconstruction, chemical composition and morphology of the surface with the electro...

  4. High-resolution XPS studies of electrochemically synthesized conducting polyaniline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.N. (Dept. de Chimie Appliquee et Genie Chimique, Univ. Claude Bernard, 69 - Villeurbanne (France) Lab. de Physique de la Matiere, Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)); Gaillard, F.; Bouyssoux, G. (Dept. de Chimie Appliquee et Genie Chimique, Univ. Claude Bernard, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)); Sartre, A. (Science et Surface S.A., 69 - Charbonnieres (France))

    1990-05-01

    The electronic structure of electrochemically synthesized acceptor-doped, KOH-treated and electrochemically reduced polyaniline films has been examined by a high-resolution XPS technique. The deconvoluted core level C 1s and N 1s XPS lines show clear evidence of the existence of imine, amine and multiple charged states of N, which can be conveniently explained by assuming protonated and bipolaron states in the polymer. The shake-up satellites observed in the N 1s and C 1s spectra are interpreted in terms of a {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup *} transition accompanying core ionization. The trend of evolution of shake-up intensity for these films agree with the principle of {pi}-electron-donating power of the nitrogen functionality. (orig.).

  5. Tissue differentiation by means of high resolution optical emission spectroscopy during electrosurgical intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Ines; Scharpf, Marcus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Nüßle, Daniela; Spether, Dominik; Neugebauer, Alexander; Bibinov, Nikita; Stenzl, Arnulf; Fend, Falko; Enderle, Markus; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Electrosurgery is the use of radio-frequency electric current for the cutting of biological tissue e.g. for resection of tumour tissue. In this work, the optical emission of plasma being generated during the electrosurgical procedure is investigated with a high resolution echelle spectrometer to find differences between tumour tissue and normal renal tissue in a pre-clinical ex vivo study. Trace elements like zinc, iron, copper and cadmium are present in the tissue spectra as well as the electrolytes magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium and some diatomic molecules such as hydroxyl radical, cyano radical, dicarbon, nitrogen monohydride and molecular nitrogen which are mainly dissociated from polyatomic molecules. With the atomic emission line of cadmium at 228.8 nm the treated tissue can be differentiated in tumorous and healthy tissue with correct assignment of 95% for tumour tissue and 92% for normal renal tissue.

  6. Compact high-resolution micro-spectrometer on chip: spectral calibration and first spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diard, Thomas; de la Barrière, Florence; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Le Coarer, Etienne; Martin, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Compact and hand-held spectrometers may be very interesting for the measurement of spectral signatures of chemicals or objects. To achieve this goal, ONERA and IPAG have developed a new on chip Fourier Transform Spectrometer operating in the visible spectral range with a high spectral resolution (near 2 cm-1), named visible HR SPOC (visible High Resolution Spectrometer On Chip). It is directly inspired from the MICROSPOC infrared spectrometer, studied at ONERA in the past years. This spectrometer is made of a stair-step two-wave interferometer directly glued on a CMOS detector making it a very compact prototype. After calibrating the optical path difference, measurements of experimental spectra are presented.

  7. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The "Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium" (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  8. Forensic examination of electrical tapes using high resolution magic angle spinning ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, Torsten; Simmross, Ulrich; Poppe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The application of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy is ideally suited for the differentiation of plastics. In addition to the actual material composition, the different types of polymer architectures and tacticity provide characteristic signals in the fingerprint of the (1)H NMR spectra. The method facilitates forensic comparison, as even small amounts of insoluble but swellable plastic particles are utilized. The performance of HR-MAS NMR can be verified against other methods that were recently addressed in various articles about forensic tape comparison. In this study samples of the 90 electrical tapes already referenced by the FBI laboratory were used. The discrimination power of HR-MAS is demonstrated by the fact that more tape groups can be distinguished by NMR spectroscopy than by using the combined evaluation of several commonly used analytical techniques. An additional advantage of this robust and quick method is the very simple sample preparation.

  9. The Diffuse Interstellar Cloud Experiment: a high-resolution far-ultraviolet spectrograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindhelm, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Burgh, Eric B; Green, James C

    2012-03-01

    We have designed, assembled, and launched a sounding rocket payload to perform high-resolution far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The instrument is functionally a Cassegrain telescope followed by a modified Rowland spectrograph. The spectrograph was designed to achieve a resolving power (R=λ/δλ) of 60,000 in a compact package by adding a magnifying secondary optic. This is enabled by using a holographically ruled grating to minimize aberrations induced by the second optic. We designed the instrument to observe two stars on opposing sides of a nearby hot/cold gas interface. Obtaining spectra of the O VI doublet in absorption toward these stars can provide new insight into the processes governing hot gas in the local interstellar medium. Here we present the optical design and alignment of the telescope and spectrograph, as well as flight results.

  10. Airborne ROWS data report for the high resolution experiment, June 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.; Bailey, S.; Stewart, K.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) data collected during the Office of Naval Research's High Resolution Remote Sensing Experiment of June 1993 are presented. This data summary covers six flights made using NASA's T-39 aircraft over a region of the North Atlantic off the coast of North Carolina and includes multiple crossings of the gulf stream. The Ku-band ROWS was operated in a configuration which continuously switched between an altimeter and a spectrometer channel. Data derived from the two channels include altimeter radar cross section, altimeter-derived sea surface mean square slope and wind speed, and directional and nondirectional longwave spectra. Discussion is provided for several events of particular interest.

  11. A high-resolution solid-state NMR approach for the structural studies of bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Dürr, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2006-05-17

    Bicelles are increasingly being used as membrane mimicking systems in NMR experiments to investigate the structure of membrane proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a 2D solid-state NMR approach that can be used to measure the structural constraints, such as heteronuclear dipolar couplings between 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclei, in bicelles without the need for isotopic enrichment. This method does not require a high radio frequency power unlike the presently used rotating-frame separated-local-field (SLF) techniques, such as PISEMA. In addition, multiple dipolar couplings can be measured accurately, and the presence of a strong dipolar coupling does not suppress the weak couplings. High-resolution spectra obtained from magnetically aligned DMPC:DHPC bicelles even in the presence of peptides suggest that this approach will be useful in understanding lipid-protein interactions that play a vital role in shaping up the function of membrane proteins.

  12. SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE FROM MHD TO SUB-ION SCALES: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-10

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  13. High resolution Si(Li) X-ray spectrometer with high throughput rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacso, J.; Kalinka, G.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kovacs, P.; Lakatos, T. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommag Kutato Intezete, Debrecen)

    1982-06-01

    The paper presents the description of a modern Si(Li) X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI. The Si(Li) detectors are single-grooved with an active area of 20-50 mm/sup 2/. The Be window is coated with a special protective layer against corrosion. A small getter-ion pump maintains the high vacuum in the cryostat chamber. The preamplifier employs pulsed drain feedback; in its first stage selected, teflon-encapsulated field effect transistors are used. The analogue signal processor is direct coupled and employs time variant pulse shaping. This construction provides high resolution (150-170 eV), high throughput rate, excellent stability, effective pile-up elimination, accurate live-time correction and simplicity in the applications. The live-time correction is performed by a random pulse generator, its average frequency is stabilized and the corresponding peak appears at zero energy in the spectra.

  14. The inner dusty regions of protoplanetary discs - I. High resolution temperature structure

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkovic, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    The current understanding of the physical conditions in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs is becoming increasingly challenged by the more detailed observational and theoretical explorations. Calculation of dust temperature is one of the key features we strive to understand and a necessary step in image and flux reconstruction. We explore coexistence of small (0.1mic radius) and big (2mic radius) dust grains can coexist at distances from the star where small grains would not survive without big grains shielding them from the direct starlight. The study required a high resolution radiative transfer calculation capable of resolving large temperature gradients and disc surface curvatures caused by dust sublimation. The calculation was also capable of resolving temperature inversion effect in big grains, where the maximum dust temperature is at visual optical depth of tau_V~1.5. We also show disc images and spectra, with disentangled contributions from small and big grains. Big grains dominate the near IR ...

  15. Using a multimode fiber as a high resolution, low loss spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate that a conventional multimode fiber can function as a high resolution, low loss spectrometer. The proposed spectrometer consists only of the fiber and a camera that images the speckle pattern generated by interference among the fiber modes. While this speckle pattern is detrimental to many applications, it encodes information about the spectral content of the input signal which can be recovered using calibration data. We achieve a spectral resolution of 0.15 nm over 25 nm bandwidth using 1 meter long fiber, and 0.03 nm resolution over 5 nm bandwidth with a 5 meter fiber. The insertion loss is less than 10%, and the signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed spectra is over 1000.

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of CH2D+ in a cold 22-pole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Sabrina; Krieg, Jürgen; Klemann, André; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-10-03

    The method of laser-induced reaction (LIR) is used to obtain high-resolution IR spectra of CH2D(+) in collision with n-H2 at a nominal temperature of 14 K. For this purpose, a home-built optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable in the range of 2500-4000 cm(-1), has been coupled to a 22-pole ion trap apparatus. In total, 112 lines of the ν1 and ν4 bands have been recorded. A line list is inferred from a careful analysis of the shape of the LIR signal. Line positions have been determined to an accuracy of 1 × 10(-4) cm(-1), allowing for the prediction of pure rotational transitions with MHz accuracy. In addition, an IR-THz double-resonance LIR depletion technique is applied to H2D(+) to demonstrate the feasibility for pure rotational spectroscopy with LIR.

  17. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  18. High resolution spectroscopy of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang with SARG at TNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; Boattini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; D'Abramo, G.; Buzzoni, A.

    2002-11-01

    A program of high resolution spectroscopy of comets is being conducted at TNG in Canary Islands using the echelle spectrograph SARG. The aim of the program is to catalogue known and unknown emission lines, compare them with the lines already listed in existing catalogues and possibly identify unknown lines. In the visible range of the spectrum emission lines of daughter molecules and ions can be found, and many of them are still unidentified. The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed with SARG during the night 19-20 of April and spectra with two different setups were taken. In the first case a narrow band filter was used to isolate the sodium emissions with a long slit and R = 43000. The data show very interesting cometary sodium emissions in the coma. The second setup used a short slit covering the spectral range of 4620-7920 Å with R = 57000.

  19. Using operationally synthesized multiple-Doppler winds for high resolution horizontal wind forecast verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Olivier; Montmerle, Thibaut; Tabary, Pierre

    2008-05-01

    The potential value of operational Doppler radar networks for high resolution wind forecast verification is investigated through comparing wind outputs of the cloud resolving model AROME against newly available operational multiple-Doppler winds in northern France. Quantitative comparisons of radar and model winds for a 16-h frontal precipitation event show good agreement, with differences in wind speed (resp. direction) generally comprised between +/-2.5 m.s-1 (resp. +/-15°). Power spectra deduced from the scale decomposition of radar and model outputs also show good agreement through all scales. The method is also applied to validate the divergence structures as analyzed by AROME's 3Dvar assimilation system that considers, among a comprehensive set of observation types, the same radial velocities than those considered in the wind retrieval.

  20. A non-iterative linear retrieval for infrared high resolution limb sounders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Millán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently most of the high spectral resolution infrared limb sounders use subsets of the recorded spectra (microwindows in their retrieval schemes to reduce the computing time of rerunning the radiative transfer model. A fast linear retrieval scheme is described which allows the whole spectral signature of the target molecule to be used. We determine how close the linearisation point needs to be to the solution in order to fall in the linear regime and also suggest an adjustment to the forward model and Jacobians to propagate the change in pressure and temperature on the gas concentration retrievals. As an example, this technique is implemented for the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument, but it is applicable to any high resolution limb sounder.