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Sample records for high-resolution computed tomography-pathology

  1. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation; Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doencas pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

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    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2003-12-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  2. Spontaneous Rupture of Pheochromocytoma: Computed Tomography-Pathologic Features and Correlation

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    Park, B.K.; Kim, C.K.; Kwon, G.Y. (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, and Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-03-15

    Spontaneous rupture is a rare complication of pheochromocytoma. Its preoperative diagnosis is of great importance in determining treatment and prognosis. We describe computed tomography pathologic findings and correlate their features in a case with ruptured pheochromocytoma

  3. Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doenças pulmonares difusas: correlação da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução com a anatomopatologia Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

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    Maria Lúcia de Oliveira Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Opacidade em vidro fosco é achado freqüentemente visto na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax e se traduz pelo aumento do coeficiente de atenuação dos pulmões, mas sem apagar as marcas broncovasculares. Por sua inespecificidade, a associação com outros achados radiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos deve ser considerada para uma interpretação diagnóstica mais correta. Neste trabalho foram analisados 62 exames tomográficos de pacientes com doenças pulmonares difusas, de 14 etiologias diferentes, em que opacidades em vidro fosco foram o achado único ou predominante, e feita correlação anatomopatológica por meio de biópsias ou necropsias. Na pneumocistose as opacidades em vidro fosco corresponderam, histologicamente, à ocupação alveolar por material espumoso contendo parasitos; no carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar, a espessamento dos septos alveolares e ocupação de sua luz por muco e células tumorais; na paracoccidioidomicose, a espessamento dos septos alveolares, áreas de fibrose e alvéolos contendo exsudato broncopneumônico; na sarcoidose, a fibrose ou a acúmulo de granulomas; na fibrose pulmonar idiopática, a espessamento dos septos alveolares por fibrose; na bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, a pneumonia intersticial com áreas de organização intra-alveolar. A ocupação alveolar por sangue foi observada nos casos de leptospirose, hemossiderose idiopática, metástases de tumor renal e na aspergilose invasiva; por vacúolos de gordura na pneumonia lipídica; por material protéico e lipoprotéico na silicoproteinose e na proteinose alveolar; e por líquido de edema na insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its unspecificity

  4. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

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    Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  5. High resolution computed tomography for peripheral facial nerve paralysis

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    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution computer tomographic examinations of the petrous bones were performed on 19 patients with confirmed peripheral facial nerve paralysis. High resolution CT provides accurate information regarding the extent, and usually regarding the type, of pathological process; this can be accurately localised with a view to possible surgical treatments. The examination also differentiates this from idiopathic paresis, which showed no radiological changes. Destruction of the petrous bone, without facial nerve symptoms, makes early suitable treatment mandatory.

  6. High Resolution Muon Computed Tomography at Neutrino Beam Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Suerfu, Burkhant

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pio...

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

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    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya (Kameda General Hospital, Chiba (Japan)); Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1992-05-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author).

  9. Diagnostic value of high resolutional computed tomography of spine

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    Yang, S. M.; Im, S. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Choi, K. C. [Jeonbug National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Non-enhanced high resolution computed tomography provide clear visualization of soft tissue in the canal and bony details of spine, particularly of the lumbar spine. We observed 70 cases of spine CT using GE CT/T 8800 scanner during the period from Dec. 1982 to Sep. 1983 at Jeonbug National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution of cases were 55 males and 15 females : age was from 17 years to 67 years; sites were 11 cervical spine, 5 thoracic spine and 54 lumbosacral spine. 2. CT diagnosis showed 44 cases of lumbar disc herniation, 7 cases of degenerative disease, 3 cases of spine fracture and each 1 cases of cord tumor, metastatic tumor, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, epidural abscess, spine tbc., meningocele with diastematomyelia. 3. Sites of herniated nucleus pulposus were 34 cases (59.6%) between L4-5 interspace and 20 cases (35.1%) between L5-S1 interspace. 13 cases (29.5%) of lumbar disc herniation disclosed multiple lesions. Location of herniation were central type in 28 cases(49.1%), right-central type in 12 cases(21.2%), left-central type in 11 cases (19.2%) and far lateral type in 6 cases(10.5%). 4. CT findings of herniated nucleus pulposus were as follows : focal protrusion of posterior disc margin and obliteration of anterior epidural fat in all cases, dural sac indentation in 26 cases(45.6%), soft tissue mass in epidural fat in 21 cases(36.8%), displacement or compression of nerve root sheath in 12 cases(21%). 5. Multiplanar reformatted images and Blink mode provide more effective evaluation about definite level and longitudinal dimension of lesion, such as obscure disc herniation, spine fracture, cord tumor and epidural abscess. 6. Non-enhanced and enhanced high resolutional computed tomography were effectively useful in demonstrating compression or displacement of spinal cord and nerve root, examing congenital anomaly such as meningocele and primary or metastatic spinal lesions.

  10. Pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography findings in nephropathia epidemica

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    Paakkala, Antti, E-mail: antti.paakkala@pshp.fi [Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Jaervenpaeae, Ritva, E-mail: ritva.jarvenpaa@pshp.fi [Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Maekelae, Satu, E-mail: satu.marjo.makela@uta.fi [Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Medical School, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini, E-mail: heini.huhtala@uta.fi [School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Mustonen, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.mustonen@uta.fi [Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, 33521 Tampere (Finland); Medical School, University of Tampere, 33521 Tampere (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with Puumala hantavirus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE), and to determine if these findings correspond to chest radiograph findings. Materials and methods: HRCT findings and clinical course were studied in 13 hospital-treated NE patients. Chest radiograph findings were studied in 12 of them. Results: Twelve patients (92%) showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT, while only 8 had changes in their chest radiography. Atelectasis, pleural effusion, intralobular and interlobular septal thickening were the most common HRCT findings. Ground-glass opacification (GGO) was seen in 4 and hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in 3 patients. Atelectasis and pleural effusion were also mostly seen in chest radiographs, other findings only in HRCT. Conclusion: Almost every NE patient showed lung parenchymal abnormalities in HRCT. The most common findings of lung involvement in NE can be defined as accumulation of pleural fluid and atelectasis and intralobular and interlobular septal thickening, most profusely in the lower parts of the lung. As a novel finding, lymphadenopathy was seen in a minority, probably related to capillary leakage and overall fluid overload. Pleural effusion is not the prominent feature in other viral pneumonias, whereas intralobular and interlobular septal thickening are characteristic of other viral pulmonary infections as well. Lung parenchymal findings in HRCT can thus be taken not to be disease-specific in NE and HRCT is useful only for scientific purposes.

  11. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Rebouças; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; da Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro; Sugita, Denis Masashi; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground-glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. PMID:27141134

  12. High-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a pictorial essay

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    Torres, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva; Moreira, Marise Amaral Reboucas; Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus; Moreira, Maria Auxiliadora do Carmo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Gama, Roberta Rodrigues Monteiro da [Hospital do Cancer de Barretos, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Sugita, Denis Masashi, E-mail: pedroptstorres@yahoo.com.br [Anapolis Unievangelica, Anapolis, GO (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a diffuse interstitial and granulomatous lung disease caused by the inhalation of any one of a number of antigens. The objective of this study was to illustrate the spectrum of abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography and histopathological findings related to hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had been diagnosed with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (on the basis of clinical-radiological or clinical-radiological-pathological correlations) and had undergone lung biopsy. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is clinically divided into acute, subacute, and chronic forms; high-resolution computed tomography findings correlate with the time of exposure; and the two occasionally overlap. In the subacute form, centrilobular micronodules, ground glass opacities, and air trapping are characteristic high-resolution computed tomography findings, whereas histopathology shows lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, bronchiolitis, variable degrees of organizing pneumonia, and giant cells. In the chronic form, high-resolution computed tomography shows traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, and lung fibrosis, the last also being seen in the biopsy sample. A definitive diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be made only through a multidisciplinary approach, by correlating clinical findings, exposure history, high-resolution computed tomography findings, and lung biopsy findings. (author)

  13. Computational high-resolution optical imaging of the living human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Adie, Steven G.; Scott Carney, P.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-07-01

    High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures. In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions and individual nerve fibre bundles in the living human retina. However, the introduction of HAO hardware and supporting software adds considerable complexity and cost to an imaging system, limiting the number of researchers and medical professionals who could benefit from the technology. Here we demonstrate a fully automated computational approach that enables high-resolution in vivo ophthalmic imaging without the need for HAO. The results demonstrate that computational methods in coherent microscopy are applicable in highly dynamic living systems.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

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    Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Unit of Radiology; Capone, Domenico; Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at characterizing main lung changes observed in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis by means of high-resolution computed tomography. Materials and Methods: High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with proven disease diagnosed by open lung biopsy, immunohistochemistry studies and/or extrapulmonary manifestations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Small rounded, thin-walled cystic lesions were observed in the lung of all the patients. Nodules with predominantly peripheral distribution over the lung parenchyma were observed in 75% of the patients. The lesions were diffusely distributed, predominantly in the upper and middle lung fields in all of the cases, but involvement of costophrenic angles was observed in 25% of the patients. Conclusion: Comparative analysis of high-resolution computed tomography and chest radiography findings demonstrated that thinwalled cysts and small nodules cannot be satisfactorily evaluated by conventional radiography. Because of its capacity to detect and characterize lung cysts and nodules, high-resolution computed tomography increases the probability of diagnosing pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. (author)

  15. High resolution computed tomography for malformations of the cochlear and vestibular organs

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    Koester, O.; Straehler-Pohl, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    1987-07-01

    Twenty-one patients with congenital deformities of the petrous bones were examined by high resolution computed tomography. This allows an accurate description of the extent of the malformation in all parts of the cochlear and vestibular organs; only localised changes in the auditory ossicles, such as fixation of the stapes and changes in the soft tissue portions of the labyrinth, cannot be shown. Improved demonstration of soft tissues while using less radiation makes high resolution CT preferable to conventional polytomography. It is also easier to perform and provides axial projections which are essential for the elucidation of malformations of the middle and inner ear.

  16. Lipoid pneumonia in adults: findings on high-resolution computed tomography

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    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [The Cardiothoracic Centre NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Rodrigues, Rosana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF); Mancano, Alexandre Dias [Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Capone, Domenico [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Fialho, Suzane Mansur [Centro Nuclear da Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Carolina Althoff [University of Ottawa (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at describing the findings on high-resolution computed tomography in patients with exogenous lipoid pneumonia secondary to mineral oil aspiration. Materials and methods: Eight adult patients - four men and four women - with mean age of 69.4 years were studied. All of the patients were users of mineral oil for treating intestinal constipation. High-resolution computed tomography studies of these patients were blindly evaluated by two radiologists. Results: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density and crazy paving pattern were the most frequent findings. The lesions were bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two. Conclusion: Air-space consolidation with areas of fat density, associated with a clinical history of mineral oil ingestion virtually indicates a diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. (author)

  17. A study with high resolution computed tomography of bone destruction in cholesteatoma

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    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamaso, Tatsuya; Higo, Ryusaburo (Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)); Senba, Tetsuo; Iinuma, Yoshitaka

    1992-07-01

    The modes and incidences of bone destruction in the middle ear cholesteatoma were evaluated by high resolution computed tomography, comparing with chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) as control. The head of the malleus, the body and long process of the incus were more markedly destroyed in cholesteatoma than in COM with statistical significance. With the further extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum, the tegmen of the aditus ad antrum, the lateral semicircular canal, the handle of the malleus and the Korner's septum were involved in bone destruction. (author).

  18. High resolution computed tomographic assessment of asbestosis and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Jarad, N; Strickland, B; Pearson, M C; Rubens, M B; Rudd, R M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the distribution and configuration of lung opacities in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and asbestosis by high resolution computed tomography. METHODS: Eighteen patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and 24 with asbestosis were studied. Two independent observers assessed the type and distributions of opacities in the upper, middle, and lower zones of the computed tomogram. RESULTS: Upper zone fibrosis occurred in 10 of the 18 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in six of the 24 patients with asbestosis. A specific pattern in which fibrosis was distributed posteriorly in the lower zones, laterally in the middle zones, and anteriorly in the upper zones was seen in 11 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in four with asbestosis. Band like intrapulmonary opacities, often merging with the pleura, were seen in 19 patients with asbestosis but in only two with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Areas with a reticular pattern and a confluent or ground glass pattern were the commonest features of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (15 and 14 patients respectively) but were uncommon in asbestosis (four and three patients). Pleural thickening or plaques were seen in 21 patients with asbestosis and in none with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. CONCLUSION: Apart from showing pleural disease high resolution computed tomography showed that confluent (ground glass) opacities are common in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and rare in asbestosis whereas thick, band like opacities are common in asbestosis and rare in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:1412123

  19. Brochopulmonary dysplasia: New high resolution computed tomography scorting system and correlation between the high resolution computed tomography score and clinical severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sumi; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Han Suk; Lee, Whal; Jung, Ah Young; Kim, In One; Choi, Jung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (KR)

    2013-04-15

    To develop an high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system for the assessment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and determine its usefulness as compared with the chest radiographic score. Forty-two very low-birth-weight preterm infants with BPD (25 male, 17 female) were prospectively evaluated with HRCT performed at the mean age of 39.1-week postmenstrual age. Clinical severity of BPD was categorized as mild, moderate or severe. The HRCT score (0-36) of each patient was the sum of the number of bronchopulmonary segments with 1) hyperaeration and 2) parenchymal lesions (linear lesions, segmental atelectasis, consolidation and architectural distortion), respectively. We compared the HRCT scores with the chest radiographic scores (the Toce system) in terms of correlation with clinical severity. The HRCT score had good interobserver (r = 0.969, p < 0.001) and intraobserver (r = 0.986, p < 0.001) reproducibility. The HRCT score showed better correlation (r = 0.646, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the chest radiographic score (r = 0.410, p = 0.007). The hyperaeration score showed better correlation (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) with the clinical severity of BPD than the parenchymal score (r = 0.523, p < 0.001). We have developed a new HRCT scoring system for BPD based on the quantitative evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities of BPD consisting of the hyperaeration score and the parenchymal score. The HRCT score shows better correlation with the clinical severity of BPD than the radiographic score.

  20. High-resolution Surface Relative Humidity Computation Using MODIS Image in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guangxiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yunhao; Abdul Patah NORIZAN; Liphong TAY

    2006-01-01

    Forest fire is a serious disaster all over the world. The Fire Weather Index (FWI) System can be used in applied forestry as a tool to investigate and manage all types of fire. Relative humidity (RH) is a very important parameter to calculate FWI. However, RH interpolated from meteorological data may not be able to provide precise and confident values for areas between far separated stations. The principal objective of this study is to provide high-resolution RH for FWI using MODIS data. The precipitable water vapor (PW) can be retrieved from MODIS using split window techniques. Four-year-time-series (2000-2003) of 8-day mean PW and specific humidity (Q) of Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the statistic expression between PW and Q was developed. The root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of Q estimated by PW is generally less than 0.0004 and the correlation coefficient is 0.90. Based on the experiential formula between PW and Q, surface RH can be computed with combination of auxiliary data such as DEM and air temperature (Ta). The mean absolute errors of the estimated RH in Peninsular Malaysia are less than 5% compared to the measured RH and the correlation coefficient is 0.8219. It is proven to be a simple and feasible model to compute high-resolution RH using remote sensing data.

  1. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F.; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-01

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  2. Smoking Related Interstitial Lung Disease - High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT findings in 40 smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssriah Yahia Sabri

    2014-06-01

    In the appropriate clinical context high-resolution CT plays an integral role in the evaluation of SR-ILD, the presence of typical changes at high-resolution CT renders the diagnosis almost certain and may obviate further testing. Lung biopsy may be needed when the findings at high-resolution CT are relatively nonspecific or when a confident definitive diagnosis is needed.

  3. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear. Its effectiveness, limits of diagnosis and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu (Iwaki Kyoritsu General Hospital, Fukushima (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was observed in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases.

  4. Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases on high-resolution chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital]. E-mail: isabela.silva@vch.ca; Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Vancouver General Hospital. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-05-15

    Intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases are very common. The frequency of intrathoracic manifestations and the patterns of abnormality are variable depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and may simultaneously involve one or more of the following: lung parenchyma, airways, pulmonary vessels, pericardium, and pleura. The most common pulmonary manifestations are diffuse interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension which together represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality of these patients. Pulmonary, airway and pleural involvement may also be secondary to the disease therapy, or result from bacterial pneumonia or opportunistic infection. In the present review, the authors summarize the main intrathoracic manifestations of collagen vascular diseases and the differential diagnosis on high-resolution chest computed tomography. (author)

  5. High-resolution computed tomography of cholesteatoma of the middle ear. CT, otological, and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Fukusumi, Akio; Okudera, Toshio; Kato, Toshihiko; Soda, Toyoji

    1988-08-01

    The high-resolution computed tomography (CT) appearances of 72 consecutive cases (92 ears) of chronic otomastoiditis were reviewed. The cholesteatomas were verified surgically and/or otologically in 35 of these 92 ears. Discussion was made with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis of cholesteatoma of the middle ear from the non-cholesteatoma otitis media. The CT findings suggestive of cholesteatoma were as follows: the definitive findings was of a soft-tissue opacity filling Purssak's space, with a medial displacement of the malleus and the incus; the possible findings were 1) a bony erosion of the wall of the middle ear cavity, 2) a partial or complete disappearance of the malleus and/or the incus, and 3) an opacification of Purssak's space and the superomedial aspect of the external auditory meatus.

  6. A Fast Full Tensor Gravity computation algorithm for High Resolution 3D Geologic Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, V.; Crain, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    We present an algorithm to rapidly calculate the vertical gravity and full tensor gravity (FTG) values due to a 3-D geologic model. This algorithm can be implemented on single, multi-core CPU and graphical processing units (GPU) architectures. Our technique is based on the line element approximation with a constant density within each grid cell. This type of parameterization is well suited for high-resolution elevation datasets with grid size typically in the range of 1m to 30m. The large high-resolution data grids in our studies employ a pre-filtered mipmap pyramid type representation for the grid data known as the Geometry clipmap. The clipmap was first introduced by Microsoft Research in 2004 to do fly-through terrain visualization. This method caches nested rectangular extents of down-sampled data layers in the pyramid to create view-dependent calculation scheme. Together with the simple grid structure, this allows the gravity to be computed conveniently on-the-fly, or stored in a highly compressed format. Neither of these capabilities has previously been available. Our approach can perform rapid calculations on large topographies including crustal-scale models derived from complex geologic interpretations. For example, we used a 1KM Sphere model consisting of 105000 cells at 10m resolution with 100000 gravity stations. The line element approach took less than 90 seconds to compute the FTG and vertical gravity on an Intel Core i7 CPU at 3.07 GHz utilizing just its single core. Also, unlike traditional gravity computational algorithms, the line-element approach can calculate gravity effects at locations interior or exterior to the model. The only condition that must be met is the observation point cannot be located directly above the line element. Therefore, we perform a location test and then apply appropriate formulation to those data points. We will present and compare the computational performance of the traditional prism method versus the line element

  7. High-resolution computed tomography of the middle ear and mastoid. Part III. Surgically altered anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.; Goodman, R.S.; Russell, K.B.; Ladenheim, S.F.; Wolfson, R.J.

    1983-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examination of the surgically altered middle ear and mastoid. Closed-cavity and open-cavity types of mastoidectomy are illustrated. Recurrent cholesteatoma in the mastoid bowl is easily diagnosed. Different types of tympanoplasty are discussed and illustrated, as are tympanostomy tubes and various ossicular reconstructive procedures. Baseline high-resolution CT of the postoperative middle ear and mastoid is recommended at approximately 3 months following the surgical procedure.

  8. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Kakinuma

    Full Text Available The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT scanners.This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner.The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU] was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001. The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001 for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures.Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners.

  9. Computational high-resolution heart phantoms for medical imaging and dosimetry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Songxiang; Gupta, Rajiv; Kyprianou, Iacovos

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular, are the leading cause of death worldwide. They are principally diagnosed using either invasive percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograms or non-invasive computed tomography angiograms (CTA). Minimally invasive therapies for CAD such as angioplasty and stenting are rendered under fluoroscopic guidance. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities employ ionizing radiation and there is concern for deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Accurate simulation to optimize image quality with minimal radiation dose requires detailed, gender-specific anthropomorphic phantoms with anatomically correct heart and associated vasculature. Such phantoms are currently unavailable. This paper describes an open source heart phantom development platform based on a graphical user interface. Using this platform, we have developed seven high-resolution cardiac/coronary artery phantoms for imaging and dosimetry from seven high-quality CTA datasets. To extract a phantom from a coronary CTA, the relationship between the intensity distribution of the myocardium, the ventricles and the coronary arteries is identified via histogram analysis of the CTA images. By further refining the segmentation using anatomy-specific criteria such as vesselness, connectivity criteria required by the coronary tree and image operations such as active contours, we are able to capture excellent detail within our phantoms. For example, in one of the female heart phantoms, as many as 100 coronary artery branches could be identified. Triangular meshes are fitted to segmented high-resolution CTA data. We have also developed a visualization tool for adding stenotic lesions to the coronaries. The male and female heart phantoms generated so far have been cross-registered and entered in the mesh-based Virtual Family of phantoms with matched age/gender information. Any phantom in this family, along with user

  10. Computational high-resolution heart phantoms for medical imaging and dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Songxiang; Kyprianou, Iacovos [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Gupta, Rajiv, E-mail: songxiang.gu@fda.hhs.gov, E-mail: rgupta1@partners.org, E-mail: iacovos.kyprianou@fda.hhs.gov [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary artery disease (CAD) in particular, are the leading cause of death worldwide. They are principally diagnosed using either invasive percutaneous transluminal coronary angiograms or non-invasive computed tomography angiograms (CTA). Minimally invasive therapies for CAD such as angioplasty and stenting are rendered under fluoroscopic guidance. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities employ ionizing radiation and there is concern for deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Accurate simulation to optimize image quality with minimal radiation dose requires detailed, gender-specific anthropomorphic phantoms with anatomically correct heart and associated vasculature. Such phantoms are currently unavailable. This paper describes an open source heart phantom development platform based on a graphical user interface. Using this platform, we have developed seven high-resolution cardiac/coronary artery phantoms for imaging and dosimetry from seven high-quality CTA datasets. To extract a phantom from a coronary CTA, the relationship between the intensity distribution of the myocardium, the ventricles and the coronary arteries is identified via histogram analysis of the CTA images. By further refining the segmentation using anatomy-specific criteria such as vesselness, connectivity criteria required by the coronary tree and image operations such as active contours, we are able to capture excellent detail within our phantoms. For example, in one of the female heart phantoms, as many as 100 coronary artery branches could be identified. Triangular meshes are fitted to segmented high-resolution CTA data. We have also developed a visualization tool for adding stenotic lesions to the coronaries. The male and female heart phantoms generated so far have been cross-registered and entered in the mesh-based Virtual Family of phantoms with matched age/gender information. Any phantom in this family, along with user

  11. [High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography for the assessment of morphological and mechanical bone parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Henrique; Fuller, Ricardo; Pereira, Rosa Maria R

    2015-01-01

    High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) is a new technology commercially available for less than 10 years that allows performing in vivo assessment of bone parameters. HR-pQCT assesses the trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number and connectivity density and, in addition, cortical bone density and thickness and total bone volume and density in high-definition mode, which additionally allows obtaining digital constructs of bone microarchitecture. The application of mathematics to captured data, a method called finite element analysis (FEA), allows the estimation of the physical properties of the tissue, simulating supported loads in a non-invasive way. Thus, HR-pQCT simultaneously acquires data previously provided separately by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging and histomorphometry, aggregating biomechanical estimates previously only possible in extracted tissues. This method has a satisfactory reproducibility, with coefficients of variation rarely exceeding 3%. Regarding accuracy, the method shows a fair to good agreement (r(2) = 0.37-0.97). The main clinical application of this method is in the quantification and monitoring of metabolic bone disorders, more fully evaluating bone strength and fracture risk. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, this allows gauging the number and size of erosions and cysts, in addition to joint space. In osteoarthritis, it is possible to characterize the bone marrow edema-like areas that show a correlation with cartilage breakdown. Given its high cost, HR-pQCT is still a research tool, but the high resolution and efficiency of this method reveal advantages over the methods currently used for bone assessment, with a potential to become an important tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung density on high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) reflects degree of inflammation in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased cell concentration in the lower respiratory tract indicating a chronic inflammatory state, which in some individuals may lead to development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Computer tomography (CT) imaging provides means of quantifying pulmonary structure and early signs of disease. We investigated whether lung density on high resolution CT differs between smokers and never-smokers and if this were associated to intensity of inflammation. Methods Forty smoking volunteers with normal pulmonary function, 40 healthy never-smokers and 40 patients with COPD of GOLD stage I-II, were included. Mean lung attenuation and percentage of pixels in the lung with attenuation between −750 and −900 HU (percentage higher density spectrum (%HDS)) were calculated on inspiratory CT-scans. Markers of systemic inflammation in blood and cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were recorded. Results Lung density expressed as %HDS was increased in smokers (44.0 ± 5.8%) compared to both never-smokers (38.3 ± 5.8%) and patients with COPD (39.1 ± 5.8%), (p lungs than males, which was dependent on body height. Cell concentration in BAL were correlated to lung density in smokers (r = 0.50, p Lung density on CT is associated with cell concentration in BAL in smokers and may mirror an inflammatory response in the lung. Gender difference in lung density is dependent on height. In COPD with emphysema, loss of lung tissue may counterbalance the expected increase in density due to inflammation. The findings may help to interpret high resolution CT in the context of smoking and gender and highlight the heterogeneity of structural changes in COPD. PMID:24564813

  13. High resolution functional photoacoustic computed tomography of the mouse brain during electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging technique which is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin. An important application of PACT is functional brain imaging of small animals. The conversion of light to acoustic waves allows PACT to provide high resolution images of cortical vasculatures through the intact scalp. Here, PACT was utilized to study the activated areas of the mouse brain during forepaw and hindpaw stimulations. Temporal PACT images were acquired enabling computation of hemodynamic changes during stimulation. The stimulations were performed by trains of pulses at different stimulation currents (between 0.1 to 2 mA) and pulse repetition rates (between 0.05 Hz to 0.01Hz). The response at somatosensory cortex-forelimb, and somatosensory cortex-hindlimb, were investigated. The Paxinos mouse brain atlas was used to confirm the activated regions. The study shows that PACT is a promising new technology that can be used to study brain functionality with high spatial resolution.

  14. High-resolution x-ray computed tomography to understand ruminant phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography has become a vital technique to study fossils down to the true micrometer level. Paleontological research requires the non-destructive analysis of internal structures of fossil specimens. We show how X-ray computed tomography enables us to visualize the inner ear of extinct and extant ruminants without skull destruction. The inner ear, a sensory organ for hearing and balance has a rather complex three-dimensional morphology and thus provides relevant phylogenetical information what has been to date essentially shown in primates. We made visible the inner ears of a set of living and fossil ruminants using the phoenix x-ray nanotom®m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH). Because of the high absorbing objects a tungsten target was used and the experiments were performed with maximum accelerating voltage of 180 kV and a beam current of 30 μA. Possible stem ruminants of the living families are known in the fossil record but extreme morphological convergences in external structures such as teeth is a strong limitation to our understanding of the evolutionary history of this economically important group of animals. We thus investigate the inner ear to assess its phylogenetical potential for ruminants and our first results show strong family-level morphological differences.

  15. Fast high-resolution computer-generated hologram computation using multiple graphics processing unit cluster system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shiraki, Atsushi; Okada, Naohisa; Oikawa, Minoru; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-10-20

    To overcome the computational complexity of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), we implement an optimized CGH computation in our multi-graphics processing unit cluster system. Our system can calculate a CGH of 6,400×3,072 pixels from a three-dimensional (3D) object composed of 2,048 points in 55 ms. Furthermore, in the case of a 3D object composed of 4096 points, our system is 553 times faster than a conventional central processing unit (using eight threads).

  16. A heterogeneous and parallel computing framework for high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Luke; Liang, Qiuhua

    2015-04-01

    Shock-capturing hydrodynamic models are now widely applied in the context of flood risk assessment and forecasting, accurately capturing the behaviour of surface water over ground and within rivers. Such models are generally explicit in their numerical basis, and can be computationally expensive; this has prohibited full use of high-resolution topographic data for complex urban environments, now easily obtainable through airborne altimetric surveys (LiDAR). As processor clock speed advances have stagnated in recent years, further computational performance gains are largely dependent on the use of parallel processing. Heterogeneous computing architectures (e.g. graphics processing units or compute accelerator cards) provide a cost-effective means of achieving high throughput in cases where the same calculation is performed with a large input dataset. In recent years this technique has been applied successfully for flood risk mapping, such as within the national surface water flood risk assessment for the United Kingdom. We present a flexible software framework for hydrodynamic simulations across multiple processors of different architectures, within multiple computer systems, enabled using OpenCL and Message Passing Interface (MPI) libraries. A finite-volume Godunov-type scheme is implemented using the HLLC approach to solving the Riemann problem, with optional extension to second-order accuracy in space and time using the MUSCL-Hancock approach. The framework is successfully applied on personal computers and a small cluster to provide considerable improvements in performance. The most significant performance gains were achieved across two servers, each containing four NVIDIA GPUs, with a mix of K20, M2075 and C2050 devices. Advantages are found with respect to decreased parametric sensitivity, and thus in reducing uncertainty, for a major fluvial flood within a large catchment during 2005 in Carlisle, England. Simulations for the three-day event could be performed

  17. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Satija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  18. A computational method to help identify and measure metal lines in high resolution QSO spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Heng Shi; David Tytler; Jin-Liang Hou; David Kirkman; Jeffery Lee; Benjamin Ou

    2011-01-01

    A computational code is developed to help identify metal absorption lines in high resolution QSO spectra,especially in the Lyα forest.The input to the code includes a list of line central wavelengths,column densities and Doppler widths.The code then searches for candidate metal absorption systems and assesses the probability that each system could be real.The framework of the strategy we employ is described in detail and we discuss how to estimate the errors in line profile fitting that are essential to identification.A series of artificial spectra is constructed to calibrate the performance of the code.Due to the effects of blending and noise on Voigt profile fitting,the completeness of the identification depends on the column density of absorbers.For intermediate and strong artificial metal absorbers,more than 90% could be confirmed by the code.The results of applying the code to the real spectra of QSOs HS0757+5218 and Q0100+1300 are also presented.

  19. Can chest high-resolution computed tomography findings diagnose pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Flavia Angelica Ferreira; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Zanetti, Glaucia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina e Apoio Diagnostico; Silva, Claudio S. [Radiology Department, Facultad de Medicina Clinica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago (Chile); Hochhegger, Bruno [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at retrospectively reviewing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in order to evaluate the frequency of tomographic findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma. Materials and methods: thirteen patients (9 females and 4 males; age, 9 to 59 years; mean age, 34.5 years) were included in the present study. The HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers whose decisions were made by consensus. The inclusion criterion was the presence of abnormalities typical of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis at HRCT, which precludes lung biopsy. However, in 6 cases lung biopsy was performed. Results: ground-glass opacities and small parenchymal nodules were the predominant tomographic findings, present in 100% of cases, followed by small subpleural nodules (92.3%), subpleural cysts (84.6%), subpleural linear calcifications (69.2%), crazy-paving pattern (69.2%), fissure nodularity (53.8%), calcification along interlobular septa (46.2%) and dense consolidation (46.2%). Conclusion: as regards distribution of the lesions, there was preferential involvement of the lower third of the lungs. No predominance of distribution in axial and anteroposterior directions was observed. (author)

  20. Preoperative Diagnosis of Extraglandular Invasion of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: High Resolution Sonography versus Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Kwag, Hyon Joo; Kook, Shin Ho; Yun, Ji Sup; Kim, Dong Hoon [Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of high-resolution sonography (HRS) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in determining the presence of extraglandular invasion of thyroid papillary cancer and to define ultrasound (US) features of perithyroidal invasion that correlate with histopathological findings. We prospectively evaluated extracapsular invasion in 177 thyroid cancer patients using both HRS and MDCT. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were assessed with a four-point confidence scale (0 = no extracapsular invasion:1 = possible invasion:2 = probable invasion:3 = definite invasion) by two reviewers for each imaging modality. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were analyzed for each modality, along with interobserver variability. MDCT had a mean area under the ROC curve larger than that of HRS (HRS = 0.733, MDCT = 0.807, p < 0.05). HRS and MDCT were significantly different with regard to diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for extrathyroidal extension (p < 0.05: HRS = 75.7%, 66.1%, and 69.8%, respectively: MDCT = 86.7%,69.7%, and 76%, respectively). Interobserver reliability was greater for MDCT than for HRS (kappa value, 0.861 versus 0.429). The cutoff value used in HRS for estimating the status of perithyroidal invasion was 2. Conclusion: HRS may be useful for preoperative investigation of thyroid papillary carcinoma extension, but it was inferior to MDCT because of lower diagnostic accuracy and lower interobserver reliability

  1. Incomplete and accessory fissures of the lung evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.hermanova2@fnol.cz; Čtvrtlík, Filip, E-mail: filip.ctvrtlik@fnol.cz; Heřman, Miroslav, E-mail: herman@fnol.cz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess incomplete and accessory interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and methods: Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. We assessed the localization, extension, and type of the incompleteness of fissures as well as the presence and localization of accessory fissures. We searched for possible correlation among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Results: On the left side, an incomplete oblique fissure was found in 24%. The discontinuity was present in the parahilar region and the area of the incompleteness was most frequently between 21% and 40%. The right oblique fissure was incomplete in 35%, mostly parahilarly, with the most frequent discontinuity below 20%. An incomplete horizontal fissure was found in 74%. Accessory fissures were identified in 16% of patients, with the same frequency on both sides. The most frequent finding was accessory horizontal fissure with 8.0% on the left side, superior accessory fissure (7.2%) and inferior accessory fissure (5.2%) on the right side. No correlation was found among the localization of interlobar fissures, the presence of incompleteness, and accessory fissures. Conclusion: Incomplete and accessory fissures are frequent anatomic variations of interlobar fissures.

  2. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: high resolution computed tomography patterns and pulmonary function indices as prognostic determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Simon L.F.; Devaraj, Anand; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Diseases Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function indices (PFTs) for determining prognosis in patients with chronic fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Case records, PFTs (FEV{sub 1}, FVC and DLco) and HRCTs of ninety-two patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis were evaluated. HRCT studies were scored by two observers for total disease extent, ground-glass opacification, fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, centrilobular emphysema and consolidation. Traction bronchiectasis within each pattern was graded. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models the prognostic strength of individual HRCT patterns and pulmonary function test variables were determined. There were forty two deaths during the study period. Increasing severity of traction bronchiectasis was the strongest predictor of mortality (HR 1.10, P < 0.001, 95%CI 1.04-1.16). Increasing global interstitial disease extent (HR 1.02, P = 0.02, 95%CI 1.00-1.03), microcystic honeycombing (HR 1.09, P = 0.019, 95%CI 1.01-1.17) and macrocystic honeycombing (HR 1.06, P < 0.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.10) were also independent predictors of mortality. In contrast, no individual PFT variable was predictive of mortality once HRCT patterns were accounted for. HRCT patterns, in particular, severity of traction bronchiectasis and extent of honeycombing are superior to pulmonary function tests for predicting mortality in patients with CHP. (orig.)

  3. Void measurement using high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberle, Andre, E-mail: a.bieberle@hzdr.de [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Hoppe, Dietrich; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We present a CT system determining void distributions in thermo hydraulic facilities. > The system has been carefully designed for harsh operating conditions. > To increase measurement accuracy a scattered correction algorithm was developed. > First results of laboratory measurements on a bundle mock-up are presented. - Abstract: We present a high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (CT) measurement system for the determination of cross-sectional time-averaged void distributions in thermo hydraulic facilities. The system has been carefully designed for harsh operating conditions, such as varying temperature fields and strong magnetic fields, typically produced by thermal hydraulic test loops with direct electric bundle heating. Measurements are non invasive, thus the two-phase flow in the test section is not influenced. The gamma-ray CT system consists of a collimated {sup 137}Cs isotopic source, a gamma radiation detector arc including 320 single elements, a pulse processing unit and a thermal stabilisation unit. The spatial resolution of the CT system is about 2 mm in plane. Recently, the thermal design of the detector arc is improved to secure maintenance of constant temperature of thermally sensitive components under changing environmental conditions. This turned out to be a key issue for achieving accurate quantitative measurements. First results of laboratory measurements on a bundle mock-up with this improved system are presented.

  4. Fusing visual and clinical information for lung tissue classification in high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Racoceanu, Daniel; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Cohen, Gilles; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the clinical context of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of the chest on tissue classification. 2D regions of interest in HRCT axial slices from patients affected with an interstitial lung disease are automatically classified into five classes of lung tissue. Relevance of the clinical parameters is studied before fusing them with visual attributes. Two multimedia fusion techniques are compared: early versus late fusion. Early fusion concatenates features in one single vector, yielding a true multimedia feature space. Late fusion consisting of the combination of the probability outputs of two support vector machines. The late fusion scheme allowed a maximum of 84% correct predictions of testing instances among the five classes of lung tissue. This represents a significant improvement of 10% compared to a pure visual-based classification. Moreover, the late fusion scheme showed high robustness to the number of clinical parameters used, which suggests that it is appropriate for mining clinical attributes with missing values in clinical routine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto Univ. Hospital. Dept. of Respiratory Function]. E-mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Mogami, Roberto; Capone, Domenico; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences; Tessarollo, Bernardo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Image; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2008-05-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  6. Computation of a high-resolution MRI 3D stereotaxic atlas of the sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Arsène; Delgadillo, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu

    2017-02-15

    The sheep model was first used in the fields of animal reproduction and veterinary sciences and then was utilized in fundamental and preclinical studies. For more than a decade, magnetic resonance (MR) studies performed on this model have been increasingly reported, especially in the field of neuroscience. To contribute to MR translational neuroscience research, a brain template and an atlas are necessary. We have recently generated the first complete T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W MR population average images (or templates) of in vivo sheep brains. In this study, we 1) defined a 3D stereotaxic coordinate system for previously established in vivo population average templates; 2) used deformation fields obtained during optimized nonlinear registrations to compute nonlinear tissues or prior probability maps (nlTPMs) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) tissues; 3) delineated 25 external and 28 internal sheep brain structures by segmenting both templates and nlTPMs; and 4) annotated and labeled these structures using an existing histological atlas. We built a quality high-resolution 3D atlas of average in vivo sheep brains linked to a reference stereotaxic space. The atlas and nlTPMs, associated with previously computed T1W and T2W in vivo sheep brain templates and nlTPMs, provide a complete set of imaging space that are able to be imported into other imaging software programs and could be used as standardized tools for neuroimaging studies or other neuroscience methods, such as image registration, image segmentation, identification of brain structures, implementation of recording devices, or neuronavigation. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:676-692, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography findings in elderly patients with asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sevda [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Kirikkale, 71100 Kirikkale (Turkey)]. E-mail: dryilmazsevda@yahoo.com; Ekici, Aydanur [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Kirikkale, 71100 Kirikkale (Turkey); Ekici, Mehmet [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Kirikkale, 71100 Kirikkale (Turkey); Keles, Hatice [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Kirikkale, 71100 Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: Based on the hypothesis that airway remodelling is related to the duration of asthma, HRCT scanning should show greater abnormalities in the early-onset than the late-onset asthmatics. It was, therefore, intended to assess the presence and the frequency of airway and parenchymal abnormalities with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in elderly asthmatic patients, and to determine whether these abnormalities are related to the duration of asthma. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight clinically stable asthmatic patients aged {>=}60 yr were included in this prospective study. The patients were separated into two groups according to the duration of symptoms as late-onset asthma (n = 31) with disease duration of <5 yr, and early-onset asthma (n = 37) with disease duration of {>=}5 yr. All patients were lifelong non-smoker and had been using inhaled beta agonists and inhaled steroids. HRCT-scanning and histamine inhalation test were performed on all patients. Results: In comparison with late-onset asthmatic patients, those with early-onset asthma had significantly higher frequency of emphysema (21.6% versus 0.0%, p = 0.006), bronchial dilatation (13.9% versus 0.0%, p 0.03) and bronchial wall thickness (41.7% versus 12.9%, p = 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that early-onset of disease was an independent risk factor for the presence of irreversible HRCT-scan abnormalities in elderly asthmatics [odds ratio (OR): 9.4 (2.7-32.7), p 0.00001]. Conclusion: Present data suggest that HRCT abnormalities in early-onset elderly asthmatics reflect parenchymal and airway changes that become irreversible throughout the long course of the disease.

  8. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira, E-mail: gazzoni4@gmail.com [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Av. Cristovão Colombo 4105, ap.603-C, Post Code: 90560-005, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Severo, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: severo@santacasa.tche.br [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, 2° andar, Post Code: 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Radiology Department, Av. Pedro Calmon, n° 550 – Cidade Universitária, Post Code: 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pasqualotto, Alessandro, E-mail: acpasqualotto@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia, E-mail: ana_sartori@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schio, Sadi, E-mail: smschio@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Camargo, José, E-mail: jjcamargo@terra.com.br [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.

  9. Surface anatomy of the pulmonary fissures determined by high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlík, Filip; Heřman, Miroslav

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the surface anatomy of the interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. The localization of the oblique fissures was marked at three sites: posteriorly at its most superior medial limit, laterally in the midaxillary line, and inferiorly at the junction of the middle and lateral thirds of the hemithorax; posteriorly and laterally, this was to the nearest rib whilst inferiorly the position was described in relation to the diaphragm or chest wall. The localization of the horizontal fissure was marked anteriorly in relation to the nearest rib (or costal cartilage) and posteriorly where it intersected with the oblique fissure (superior, middle, or inferior third). Shapes of the fissures and differences between inspiration and expiration were also documented. Descriptive statistics were used to report the most frequent positions. The most frequent localization of the oblique fissure on the left side was posteriorly at the fourth rib (45%), laterally at the sixth rib (52%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (60%). The right oblique fissure was located posteriorly at the fifth rib (50%), laterally at the sixth rib (50%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (71%). The horizontal fissure most commonly originated in the middle third of the oblique fissure (61%) and met the anterior thoracic wall at the level of the fourth rib (51%). The most frequent shape of the left oblique fissure was linear (78%), whereas S-shaped and linear configurations (28% each) were most frequent on the right. No difference was found in the surface markings of the fissures between inspiration and expiration in 90% of cases. The considerable individual variation in the position and shape of the interlobar fissures helps to explain the variable descriptions of their surface anatomy in the

  10. Radiologist agreement on the quantification of bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Milene Carneiro Barbosa; Ota, Maurício Kenji; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sergio Studart; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate radiologist agreement on the quantification of bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and Methods The HRCT scans of 43 patients with bronchiectasis were analyzed by two radiologists, who used a scoring system to grade the findings. Kappa (κ) values and overall agreement were calculated. Results For the measurement and appearance of bronchiectasis, the interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.45 and κ = 0.43, respectively), as was the intraobserver agreement (κ = 0.54 and κ = 0.47, respectively). Agreement on the presence of mucous plugging was fair, for central distribution (overall interobserver agreement of 68.3% and κ = 0.39 for intraobserver agreement) and for peripheral distribution (κ = 0.34 and κ = 0.35 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). The agreement was also fair for peribronchial thickening (κ = 0.21 and κ = 0.30 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). There was fair interobserver and intraobserver agreement on the detection of opacities (κ = 0.39 and 71.9%, respectively), ground-glass attenuation (64.3% and κ = 0.24, respectively), and cysts/bullae (κ = 0.47 and κ = 0.44, respectively). Qualitative analysis of the HRCT findings of bronchiectasis and the resulting individual patient scores showed that there was an excellent correlation between the observers (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 and 0.81 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). Conclusion In the interpretation of HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, radiologist agreement appears to be fair. In our final analysis of the findings using the proposed score, we observed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreement. PMID:28298729

  11. High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography for Assessment of Bone Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia

    2014-03-01

    The study of bone quality is motivated by the high morbidity, mortality, and societal cost of skeletal fractures. Over 10 million people are diagnosed with osteoporosis in the US alone, suffering 1.5 million osteoporotic fractures and costing the health care system over 17 billion annually. Accurate assessment of fracture risk is necessary to ensure that pharmacological and other interventions are appropriately administered. Currently, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on 2D dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to determine osteoporotic status and predict fracture risk. Though aBMD is a significant predictor of fracture risk, it does not completely explain bone strength or fracture incidence. The major limitation of aBMD is the lack of 3D information, which is necessary to distinguish between cortical and trabecular bone and to quantify bone geometry and microarchitecture. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) enables in vivo assessment of volumetric BMD within specific bone compartments as well as quantification of geometric and microarchitectural measures of bone quality. HR-pQCT studies have documented that trabecular bone microstructure alterations are associated with fracture risk independent of aBMD.... Cortical bone microstructure - specifically porosity - is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue and may further explain the aBMD-independent effect of age on bone fragility and fracture risk. The application of finite element analysis (FEA) to HR-pQCT data permits estimation of patient-specific bone strength, shown to be associated with fracture incidence independent of aBMD. This talk will describe the HR-pQCT scanner, established metrics of bone quality derived from HR-pQCT data, and novel analyses of bone quality currently in development. Cross-sectional and longitudinal HR-pQCT studies investigating the impact of aging, disease, injury, gender, race, and

  12. Evaluation of pulmonary changes due to biomass fuels using high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Mustafa; Tas, Fikret [Department of Radiology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Bulut, Sema [Department of Radiology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Akkurt, Ibrahim; Seyfikli, Zehra [Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Department of Respiratory Disease, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas (Turkey)

    2003-10-01

    Biomass fuels are frequently used in rural areas of the world for cooking and heating frequently. It has been reported that the use of these fuels causes hazardous effects on the lungs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary changes due to the use of biomass fuels in a female population that lives in our territory by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study analyzed three groups of women. The first group comprised those subjects who were exposed to biomass without respiratory symptoms (group 1; n=32). The second group comprised those individuals that were exposed to biomass and showed respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sputum production, and dyspnea (group 2; n=30). The third group was composed of women who were not exposed to biomass and also had no respiratory symptoms (group 3; n=30). Women with a history of concomitant pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. All groups were examined with HRCT. Groups 1 and 2 (individuals exposed to biomass fuels) had more pathologic findings than group 3 (not exposed to biomass fuels). Ground-glass appearance was seen in 71.9% in group 1, 23.3% in group 2, and 3.3% in group 3. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Fibrotic bands were seen 50% in group 1, 63.3% in group 2, and only 6.7% in group 3 (p<0.001). Exposure to biomass fuels was the cause or predisposing factor for many pulmonary diseases, ranging from chronic bronchitis to diffuse lung diseases. We believe that these pathological changes due to biomass fuels can be detected earlier by HRCT and the diseases might be prevented or treated earlier. (orig.)

  13. Radiologist agreement on the quantification of bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Milene Carneiro Barbosa de, E-mail: milenebrito7@gmail.com [Clinica da Imagem do Tocantins, Araguaia, TO (Brazil); Ota, Mauricio Kenji [Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisa e Estudos de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Leitao Filho, Fernando Sergio Studart [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes [Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate radiologist agreement on the quantification of bronchiectasis by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Materials and Methods: The HRCT scans of 43 patients with bronchiectasis were analyzed by two radiologists, who used a scoring system to grade the findings. Kappa (κ) values and overall agreement were calculated. Results: For the measurement and appearance of bronchiectasis, the interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.45 and κ = 0.43, respectively), as was the intraobserver agreement (κ = 0.54 and κ = 0.47, respectively). Agreement on the presence of mucous plugging was fair, for central distribution (overall interobserver agreement of 68.3% and κ = 0.39 for intraobserver agreement) and for peripheral distribution (κ = 0.34 and κ = 0.35 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). The agreement was also fair for peri bronchial thickening (κ = 0.21 and κ = 0.30 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). There was fair interobserver and intraobserver agreement on the detection of opacities (κ = 0.39 and 71.9%, respectively), ground-glass attenuation (64.3% and κ = 0.24, respectively), and cysts/bullae (κ = 0.47 and κ = 0.44, respectively). Qualitative analysis of the HRCT findings of bronchiectasis and the resulting individual patient scores showed that there was an excellent correlation between the observers (intra class correlation coefficient of 0.85 and 0.81 for interobserver and intraobserver agreement, respectively). Conclusion: In the interpretation of HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, radiologist agreement appears to be fair. In our final analysis of the findings using the proposed score, we observed excellent interobserver and intraobserver agreement. (author)

  14. The subclinical involvement of the lung in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bichi Secchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is one of the most frequent extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and represents a serious complication, being the second cause of death after infection. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT, owing to its increased sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy respect to the conventional chest radiograph (CXR, allows to detect pulmonary abnormalities in RA patients more frequently than CXR. The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary involvement by HRCT in lifelong non-smoking RA patients without symptoms and clinical signs of pulmonary disease. Seventy-two patients (54 women and 18 men with a mean age of 56.8±10.4 years (range, 40- 77 years and mean duration of disease of 6.9±4.7 years (range, 2-12 years entered the study. 52/72 (72% were positive for rheumatoid factor (> 20 UI/ml. Standard CXR and HRCT were carried out in each patient. CXR showed a mild interstitial fibrosis in 7 patients (9.7%, whereas HRCT demonstrated pulmonary abnormalities in an higher number of them (22/72 = 30.5%. The most frequent abnormal findings on HRCT were irregular pleural margins (13.8% and septal/subpleural lines (18%, both compatible with pulmonary fibrosis. Ground-glass opacities were found in 8.3% of the patients. Pulmonary nodules (diameter, range 0,5-2 cm predominantly located in the subpleural portions of the lung, were demonstrated in the same percentage (8.3% of patients. Small airway involvement, represented by bronchiectasis/bronchioloectasis, was shown in 15.2% of patients. Subpleural cysts were present in two cases (2.8%. No patient had evidence of honeycombing on HRCT. In conclusion, HRCT is an accurate, non-invasive and safe method of diagnosing lung abnormalities in RA patients without signs and clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease...

  15. Region-of-interest cone beam computed tomography (ROI CBCT) with a high resolution CMOS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Takemoto, H.; Silver, M. D.; Nagesh, S. V. S.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems with rotational gantries that have standard flat panel detectors (FPD) are widely used for the 3D rendering of vascular structures using Feldkamp cone beam reconstruction algorithms. One of the inherent limitations of these systems is limited resolution (<3 lp/mm). There are systems available with higher resolution but their small FOV limits them to small animal imaging only. In this work, we report on region-of-interest (ROI) CBCT with a high resolution CMOS detector (75 μm pixels, 600 μm HR-CsI) mounted with motorized detector changer on a commercial FPD-based C-arm angiography gantry (194 μm pixels, 600 μm HL-CsI). A cylindrical CT phantom and neuro stents were imaged with both detectors. For each detector a total of 209 images were acquired in a rotational protocol. The technique parameters chosen for the FPD by the imaging system were used for the CMOS detector. The anti-scatter grid was removed and the incident scatter was kept the same for both detectors with identical collimator settings. The FPD images were reconstructed for the 10 cm x10 cm FOV and the CMOS images were reconstructed for a 3.84 cm x 3.84 cm FOV. Although the reconstructed images from the CMOS detector demonstrated comparable contrast to the FPD images, the reconstructed 3D images of the neuro stent clearly showed that the CMOS detector improved delineation of smaller objects such as the stent struts (~70 μm) compared to the FPD. Further development and the potential for substantial clinical impact are suggested.

  16. Canine tarsal architecture as revealed by high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galateanu, G; Apelt, D; Aizenberg, I; Saragusty, J; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-06-01

    Central tarsal bone (CTB) fractures are well documented and are a subject of increasing importance in human, equine and canine athletes although the mechanism of these fractures in dogs is not fully understood and an extrapolation from human medicine may not be accurate. This study reports the use of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of 91 tarsal joints from 47 dogs to generate a more detailed in situ anatomical description of the CTB architecture in order to obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CTB fractures in this species. The dogs studied represented a wide range of ages, breeds and levels of habitual physical activity and the angles of the tarsal joints studied ranged between maximal flexion (16.4°) and maximal extension (159.1°). Regardless of tarsal angle, the CTB articulated with the calcaneus exclusively at the level of its plantar process (PPCTB) in all dogs. The PPCTB presented two distinct parts in all dogs, a head and a neck. The calcaneus tended to rely on the PPCTB neck during flexion and on the PPCTB head during extension. This study describes new tarsal elements for the first time, including the calcaneal articular process, the fourth tarsal bone plantar articular process and the talar plantar prominence of the CTB. Based on calcaneo-PPCTB architecture, it is postulated that the PPCTB is a keystone structure and that at least some of CTB fractures in dogs could either commence at or are induced at this level due to the impingement forces exercised by the calcaneus.

  17. Persistent asthma in adults: comparison of high resolution computed tomography of the lungs after one year of follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael; Kavakama, Jorge Issamu; Terra Filho, Mario; Vargas, Francisco [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Div. de Doencas Respiratorias

    2001-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of high resolution computed tomography of the thorax in detecting abnormalities in chronic asthmatic patients and to determine the behavior of these lesions after at least one year. Fourteen persistent asthmatic patients with a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second that was 63% of predicted and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second /forced vital capacity of 60% had two high resolution computed tomography separated by an interval of at least one year. All 14 patients had abnormalities on both scans. The most common abnormality was bronchial wall thickening, which was present in all patients on both computed tomography. Bronchiectasis was suggested on the first computed tomography in 5 of the 14 (36%) patients, but on follow-up, the bronchial dilatation had disappeared in 2 and diminished in a third. Only one patient had any emphysematous changes; a minimal persistent area of para septal emphysema was present on both scans. In 3 patients, a 'mosaic' appearance was observed on the first scan, and this persisted on the follow-up computed tomography. Two patients had persistent areas of mucoid impaction. In a third patient, mucus plugging was detected only on the second computed tomography. We conclude that there are many abnormalities on the high resolution computed tomography of patients with persistent asthma. Changes suggestive of bronchiectasis, namely bronchial dilatation, frequently resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the diagnosis of bronchiectasis by high resolution computed tomography in asthmatic patients must be made with caution, since bronchial dilatation can be reversible or can represent false dilatation. Non smoking chronic asthmatic subjects in this study had no evidence of centrilobular or panacinar emphysema. (author)

  18. High-resolution EEG techniques for brain-computer interface applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Aloise, Fabio; Bufalari, Simona; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Tocci, Andrea; Bianchi, Luigi; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Gao, Shangkai; Millan, Jose; Babiloni, Fabio

    2008-01-15

    High-resolution electroencephalographic (HREEG) techniques allow estimation of cortical activity based on non-invasive scalp potential measurements, using appropriate models of volume conduction and of neuroelectrical sources. In this study we propose an application of this body of technologies, originally developed to obtain functional images of the brain's electrical activity, in the context of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Our working hypothesis predicted that, since HREEG pre-processing removes spatial correlation introduced by current conduction in the head structures, by providing the BCI with waveforms that are mostly due to the unmixed activity of a small cortical region, a more reliable classification would be obtained, at least when the activity to detect has a limited generator, which is the case in motor related tasks. HREEG techniques employed in this study rely on (i) individual head models derived from anatomical magnetic resonance images, (ii) distributed source model, composed of a layer of current dipoles, geometrically constrained to the cortical mantle, (iii) depth-weighted minimum L(2)-norm constraint and Tikhonov regularization for linear inverse problem solution and (iv) estimation of electrical activity in cortical regions of interest corresponding to relevant Brodmann areas. Six subjects were trained to learn self modulation of sensorimotor EEG rhythms, related to the imagination of limb movements. Off-line EEG data was used to estimate waveforms of cortical activity (cortical current density, CCD) on selected regions of interest. CCD waveforms were fed into the BCI computational pipeline as an alternative to raw EEG signals; spectral features are evaluated through statistical tests (r(2) analysis), to quantify their reliability for BCI control. These results are compared, within subjects, to analogous results obtained without HREEG techniques. The processing procedure was designed in such a way that computations could be split into a

  19. Addressing capability computing challenges of high-resolution global climate modelling at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine; Norman, Matthew; Evans, Katherine; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick; Hack, James; Mayer, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    During 2013, high-resolution climate model simulations accounted for over 100 million "core hours" using Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The suite of climate modeling experiments, primarily using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) at nearly 0.25 degree horizontal resolution, generated over a petabyte of data and nearly 100,000 files, ranging in sizes from 20 MB to over 100 GB. Effective utilization of leadership class resources requires careful planning and preparation. The application software, such as CESM, need to be ported, optimized and benchmarked for the target platform in order to meet the computational readiness requirements. The model configuration needs to be "tuned and balanced" for the experiments. This can be a complicated and resource intensive process, especially for high-resolution configurations using complex physics. The volume of I/O also increases with resolution; and new strategies may be required to manage I/O especially for large checkpoint and restart files that may require more frequent output for resiliency. It is also essential to monitor the application performance during the course of the simulation exercises. Finally, the large volume of data needs to be analyzed to derive the scientific results; and appropriate data and information delivered to the stakeholders. Titan is currently the largest supercomputer available for open science. The computational resources, in terms of "titan core hours" are allocated primarily via the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) and ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC) programs, both sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Titan is a Cray XK7 system, capable of a theoretical peak performance of over 27 PFlop/s, consists of 18,688 compute nodes, with a NVIDIA Kepler K20 GPU and a 16-core AMD Opteron CPU in every node, for a total of 299,008 Opteron cores and 18,688 GPUs offering a cumulative 560

  20. Bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and healthy individuals: demonstration with high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. E-mail: gerd.schueller@univie.ac.at; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Herold, C.J

    2004-11-01

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to assess the extent of bronchial reactivity after inhalative bronchoprovocation and dilation in hyperresponsive patients and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Patients with mild intermittent asthma, 15 with a >20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}+) in PaO{sub 2}, 12 with a <20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}-) in PaO{sub 2} after provocation, and eight healthy humans were included in the study. Changes in cross-sectional area in a total of 1256 bronchi and in bronchial wall area (792 bronchi) were evaluated after histamine-triggered bronchoprovocation and salbutamol-induced bronchodilation at high lung volumes (FVC 80%). Data were compared with the results of pulmonary function tests (FEV{sub 1}, PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}). Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in bronchial cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and a significant increase in bronchial wall area (P<0.001) were observed subsequent to bronchoprovocation. After bronchodilation, the increase in cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and the further increase in airway wall area (P<0.01) were significant in all groups. In PC{sub 20}+ and PC{sub 20}- asthmatics, significant differences (P<0.05) in PaO{sub 2}, >10 mmHg between baseline and provocation were observed. In healthy persons, the PaO{sub 2} decrease was <10 mmHg (P>0.05). After histamine provocation, the decrease in FEV{sub 1} was measured in the PC{sub 20}+ group, whereas a <20% FEV{sub 1} decrease was found in the PC{sub 20}- and the control groups, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. Conclusions: HRCT demonstrated bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and, unexpectedly, in healthy subjects. The applied pulmonary function tests failed to characterize bronchial reactions in the healthy subjects. Based on these results, HRCT is a useful tool by which

  1. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: correlation of high-resolution computed tomography findings with anatomopathology; Pneumonia intersticial linfocitica: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Damato, Simone [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Rodrigues, Rosana; Mendonca, Renato Goncalves de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Valiante, Paulo Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Miyagui, Tizuko [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Aide, Miguel Abidon [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Disciplina de Pneumologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the main high-resolution computed tomography findings of two patients with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography findings were correlated with pathology findings of material obtained from open biopsies. One patient had diffuse ground glass opacities seen on high-resolution computed tomography whereas the other patient had peribroncovascular thickening. Anatomopathology studies showed that the main pattern was polyclonal lymphocyte interstitial infiltration, particularly along alveolar septa. The current study demonstrated a close correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology findings. (author)

  2. Pulmonary Gaucher`s disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Istanbul, School of Medicine (Turkey); Berkmen, Y.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Goekmen, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Istanbul, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    1995-05-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher`s disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher`s disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  3. Overall anatomical features and clinical value of the sacral nerve in high resolution computed tomography reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jing-fu; WANG Yan-hua; JIANG Bao-guo; ZHANG Pei-xun; LI Yan-ying; ZHANG Dian-ying

    2010-01-01

    Background Sacral nerve injury is a common complication of pelvic or sacral fractures. As the sacral nerve courser within the sacrum and has a complex relationship with the surrounding tissues, different parts of the sacral plexus injury have similar clinical symptoms and signs. Since lack of specific imaging technique in the diagnosis of sacral nerve injury,especially on multi-segment, multi-site, how to determine the preoperative location and extent of the sacral nerve injury accurately becomes a concem of the general orthopaedic and images practitioners. This study was conducted to gain an insight into the overall anatomical features of the sacral nerve (SN) on the same slice in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) reconstruction and to determine the value of this information for the clinical diagnosis of related diseases.Methods Fifty healthy volunteers and 30 patients (40 sides) with SN lesions confirmed by surgery were scanned using a 16-slice helical CT scanner (Light Speed, GE, USA). Among the patients, 6 with intervertebral disk hernia (6 sides), 8with spinal stenosis (12 sides), 11 with pelvic trauma (14 sides), 4 with pelvic malignancies (6 sides), and 1 with sacral vertebral tuberculosis (2 sides). The SN multiplanar reconstruction was performed using a UNIX-based SCD4.1workstation where the image was set on the same slice. All images were stored in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format. The display of nerves in different sections was analyzed using a five-graded scale with coordinate curves of each individual score. The overall anatomic features visible on the slice were analyzed and the abnormalities of the lesions were studied.Results The image of the same slice clearly revealed the shape, running direction, thickness, tension and adjacent anatomy of the S1-S4 nerves. The rank of display rates in different sections was: outward-rotated oblique sagittal >outward-rotated oblique coronal > oblique coronal plane > coronal

  4. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T.M.; Majumdar, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary An automated image processing method is presented for simulating areal bone mineral density measures using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the ultra-distal radius. The accuracy of the method is validated against clinical dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique represents a useful reference to gauge the utility of novel 3D quantification methods applied to HR-pQCT in multi-center clinical studies and potentially negates the need for sepa...

  5. Progressive systemic sclerosis: high-resolution computed tomography findings; Esclerose sistemica progressiva: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Pimenta, Rodrigo; Ono, Sergio E.; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia Medica]. E-mail: dante.luiz@onda.com.br; Inoue, Cesar [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-09-15

    Objective: To describe the high-resolution computed tomography findings in the lung of patients with systemic sclerosis, independently of the respiratory symptoms. Materials and methods: Seventy-three high-resolution computed tomography scans of 44 patients with clinical diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were reviewed and defined by the consensus of two radiologists. Results: Abnormalities were seen in 91.8% (n = 67) of the scans. The most frequent findings were reticular pattern (90.4%), ground-glass opacities (63%), traction bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis (56.2%), esophageal dilatation (46.6%), honeycombing pattern (28.8%) and signs of pulmonary hypertension (15.6%). In most cases the lesions were bilateral (89%) and symmetrical (58.5%). The lesions were predominantly located in the basal (91.2%) and peripheral (92.2%) regions. Conclusion: In the majority of the patients, progressive systemic sclerosis can cause pulmonary fibrosis mainly characterized by reticular pattern with basal and peripheral distribution on high-resolution computed tomography. (author)

  6. Air cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1984-05-01

    While high-resolution CT/air cisternography is considered the preferred method of investigating non-enhancing or small acoustic neuromas, it is not without pitfalls. Eight such studies were reviewed, emphasizing procedural problems and sources of interpretive error. Two patients presented difficulty in transporting the air bolus due to a spinal cord tumor coexisting with bilaterial acoustic neuromas; spinal cord decompression was required in one case. Three potential false positives were avoided by persistent efforts to fill the internal auditory canal. Of 4 patients thought to have a tiny acoustic neuroma, elective vestibular nerve section in 2 revealed no evidence of tumor.

  7. High-resolution Fourier hologram synthesis from photographic images through computing the light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Ren, Zhenbo; Lam, Edmund Y

    2016-03-01

    We present a technique for synthesizing the Fourier hologram of a three-dimensional scene from its light field. The light field captures the volumetric information of an object, and an important advantage is that it does not require coherent illumination, as in conventional holography. In this work, we show how to obtain a high-resolution digital hologram with the light field obtained from a series of photographic images captured along the optical axis. The method is verified both by simulations and experimentally captured light field.

  8. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%, whereas 20 (23.3% had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72% infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg were significantly different (p = 0.015. Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. CONCLUSION: The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low

  9. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  10. Use of high-resolution computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of stage IA adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yoshihiro; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Okada, Morihito

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative determination of malignant behavior is critical in choosing suitable therapeutic strategies such as sublobar resection for patients with small lung cancers. The aim of present review was to evaluate high-resolution computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography as tools for management of clinical stage IA adenocarcinoma.

  11. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Nakayama, Tomoko [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko [Oita Nishibeppu National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kazufumi [Oita University Hospital, Hospital Infection Control Center, Oita (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  12. Structural analysis of advanced polymeric foams by means of high resolution X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacucchi, M.; De Pascalis, F.; Scatto, M.; Capodieci, L.; Albertoni, R.

    2016-06-01

    Advanced polymeric foams with enhanced thermal insulation and mechanical properties are used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties of a foam strongly depend upon its cell structure. Traditionally, their microstructure has been studied using 2D imaging systems based on optical or electron microscopy, with the obvious disadvantage that only the surface of the sample can be analysed. To overcome this shortcoming, the adoption of X-ray micro-tomography imaging is here suggested to allow for a complete 3D, non-destructive analysis of advanced polymeric foams. Unlike metallic foams, the resolution of the reconstructed structural features is hampered by the low contrast in the images due to weak X-ray absorption in the polymer. In this work an advanced methodology based on high-resolution and low-contrast techniques is used to perform quantitative analyses on both closed and open cells foams. Local structural features of individual cells such as equivalent diameter, sphericity, anisotropy and orientation are statistically evaluated. In addition, thickness and length of the struts are determined, underlining the key role played by the achieved resolution. In perspective, the quantitative description of these structural features will be used to evaluate the results of in situ mechanical and thermal test on foam samples.

  13. Exploration of the pituitary stalk and gland by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Fukami, T.; Takase, K.; Matsumoto, K.

    1984-11-01

    By means of high-resolution CT, pituitary stalks and glands were demonstrated in 189 normal subjects and in six patients with microadenomas. In the horizontal view and in reconstructed coronal and sagittal projections, the normal stalks and glands showed homogeneous enhancement with the contrast medium. On metrizamide CT, the stalks and glands were demonstrated in high-density areas as a ''defect''. The detection-rate of the stalks and glands was more than 93.6% in all dimensions on enhanced CT and 100% on metrizamide CT. On reconstructed sagittal projections, there was a tendency for the glands to decrease in size with advancing age. Under the age of 29, especially in females, most of the glands were demonstrated as an oval area that filled the sella turcica. After the age of 50, the gland frequently was flattened with enlargement of the CSF space within the sella turcica, giving an appearance reminiscent of the ''empty stella''. Of six patients with microadenomas, five presented the appearance of oval gland, and one showed visualization of CSF space in the anterosuperior portion of the stella turcica. On reconstructed coronal projections, the angle of inclination of stalks was 1.5+-1.2/sup 0/ in normal subjects and 9.3+-2.4/sup 0/ in patients with microadenomas.

  14. Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, Mostafa E-mail: m.ghanei@bmsu.ac.ir; Mokhtari, Majid; Mohammad, Mehdi Mir; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-11-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM). Chemical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) including SM were used by Iraq during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1989. We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms. Method: The medical records of 155 patients exposed to SM during Iran-Iraq war and suffered respiratory complications were reviewed. Chest HRCTs of these patients were examined. Ten healthy controls with no history of exposure to HD were matched for age, gender, and chest HRCT protocol applied. Results: Fifty chest HRCTs of these patients were randomly selected for this study. The most frequent findings were; air trapping 38 (76%), bronchiectasis 37 (74%), mosaic parenchymal attenuation (MPA) 36 (72%), irregular and dilated major airways 33 (66%) bronchial wall thickening (BWT) 45 (90%), and interlobular septal wall thickening (SWT) 13 (26%), respectively. Air trapping in one patient (10%) was the only positive finding in the control group. Conclusions: Chest HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, air trapping, MPA, SWT, and BWT were seen in our patients 15 years after exposure to HD. These findings suggest the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We did not encounter chest HRCT features consistent with pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Bone Structure and Estimated Bone Strength in Obese Patients Evaluated by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine; Frederiksen, Katrine Diemer; Hansen, Stinus;

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), but whether obesity-related higher bone mass increases bone strength and thereby protect against fractures is uncertain. We estimated effects of obesity on bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in 36 patients (12 males and 24...... females, age 25-56 years and BMI 33.2-57.6 kg/m(2)) matched with healthy controls (age 25-54 years and BMI 19.5-24.8 kg/m(2)) in regard to gender, menopausal status, age (±6 years) and height (±6 cm) using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  16. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and transcranial pulsed current stimulation: a computer based high-resolution modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhishek; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Bikson, Marom; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-15

    The field of non-invasive brain stimulation has developed significantly over the last two decades. Though two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation--transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)--are becoming established tools for research in neuroscience and for some clinical applications, related techniques that also show some promising clinical results have not been developed at the same pace. One of these related techniques is cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), a class of transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS). In order to understand further the mechanisms of CES, we aimed to model CES using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived finite element head model including cortical and also subcortical structures. Cortical electric field (current density) peak intensities and distributions were analyzed. We evaluated different electrode configurations of CES including in-ear and over-ear montages. Our results confirm that significant amounts of current pass the skull and reach cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, depending on the montage, induced currents at subcortical areas, such as midbrain, pons, thalamus and hypothalamus are of similar magnitude than that of cortical areas. Incremental variations of electrode position on the head surface also influence which cortical regions are modulated. The high-resolution modeling predictions suggest that details of electrode montage influence current flow through superficial and deep structures. Finally we present laptop based methods for tPCS dose design using dominant frequency and spherical models. These modeling predictions and tools are the first step to advance rational and optimized use of tPCS and CES.

  17. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Feist, Chris [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  18. The Effects of Limiters on High Resolution Computations of Hypersonic Flows over Bodies with Complex Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BoZHENG; Chun-HianLEE

    1998-01-01

    The effects of certain limiters used in TVD-type of schemes on the resolution of numerical computations in hypersonic flows are investigayted.An explicit TVD scheme of Harten-Yee type with velocity-dependent entropy correction function is employed in the computations,Numerical experiments for hypersonic invicid as well as viscous lfows over a double-ellipsoid show that the limiters will affect the numerical results substantially,and may even cause the solutions to diverge.

  19. Development of a High Resolution Weather Forecast Model for Mesoamerica Using the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Venner, Jason; Moreno-Madrinan, Max. J.; Delgado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two years, scientists in the Earth Science Office at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have explored opportunities to apply cloud computing concepts to support near real ]time weather forecast modeling via the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Collaborators at NASA fs Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and the SERVIR project at Marshall Space Flight Center have established a framework that provides high resolution, daily weather forecasts over Mesoamerica through use of the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform at Ames Research Center. Supported by experts at Ames, staff at SPoRT and SERVIR have established daily forecasts complete with web graphics and a user interface that allows SERVIR partners access to high resolution depictions of weather in the next 48 hours, useful for monitoring and mitigating meteorological hazards such as thunderstorms, heavy precipitation, and tropical weather that can lead to other disasters such as flooding and landslides. This presentation will describe the framework for establishing and providing WRF forecasts, example applications of output provided via the SERVIR web portal, and early results of forecast model verification against available surface ] and satellite ]based observations.

  20. Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ju; Lim, Chi Yeon; Gu, Namyi; Park, Choul Yong

    2017-07-18

    In the present study, the visual discomfort induced by smart mobile devices was assessed in normal and healthy adults. Fifty-nine volunteers (age, 38.16 ± 10.23 years; male : female = 19 : 40) were exposed to tablet computer screen stimuli (iPad Air, Apple Inc.) for 1 hour. Participants watched a movie or played a computer game on the tablet computer. Visual fatigue and discomfort were assessed using an asthenopia questionnaire, tear film break-up time, and total ocular wavefront aberration before and after viewing smart mobile devices. Based on the questionnaire, viewing smart mobile devices for 1 hour significantly increased mean total asthenopia score from 19.59 ± 8.58 to 22.68 ± 9.39 (p Visual fatigue and discomfort were significantly induced by viewing smart mobile devices, even though the devices were equipped with state-of-the-art display technology.

  1. High-resolution arthrosonography of the temporomandibular joint with video and computer support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Robert; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Deppe, Herbert; Horch, Hans-Henning; Kling, Bettina

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the temporomandibular joint has been problematic due to the lower frequency of the transducers used up to the present time. Imaging of temporomandibular joint structures being utilizable for diagnosis and therapy was only possible through time-consuming and expensive radiological image yielding procedures (computertomography, magnetic resonance imaging). 84 temporomandibular joints in 42 patients were examined clinically, radiologically, by axiographic tracing, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound imaging. An ultrasound unit was used with a high- frequency 13MHz transducer. The temporomandibular joint was examined preauricularily; by this the lateral section of the joint could be represented. The image sequences in functional condylus movements were taped via a video output into a film recorder. Selected ultrasound images from the beginning to the end of the movement could then be digitalized and read into a personal computer to be evaluated. The computer then calculated a line of movement and the angle of the joint's course. By ultrasound imaging the joint space could be represented and measured clearly. Compared with the space measured in the magnetic resonance image the value determined by ultrasonography was a tenth power more exact. The computer-supported image analysis of the condylus movements led to an exact presentation of the condylus course. The sonographically determined condylar guidance corresponded to the value traced by axiography with high significance within a range of 3 degrees. The temporomandibular joint's disc could be localized just as exactly as with the magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a 13MHz transducer offers a new low-cost method of noninvasive dynamic imaging of important temporomandibular joint structures. The possibility of video and computer support enables movement analysis and opens new possibilities in the morphological and functional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint.

  2. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described.

  3. Petrophysical analysis of limestone rocks by nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.F.S. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, I., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy, IPRJ-UERJ, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Ferrucio, P.L.; Abreu, C.J.; Borghi, L. [Geology Department, Geosciences Institute, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, COPPE-PEN, UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    This study presents the pore-space system analysis of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well cores, which were drilled in the Sao Jose do Itaborai Basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. The analysis presented herein has been developed based on two techniques: nuclear logging and 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography. Nuclear logging has been proven to be the technique that provides better quality and more quantitative information about the porosity using radioactive sources. The Density Gamma Probe and the Neutron Sonde used in this work provide qualitative information about bulk density variations and compensated porosity of the geological formation. The samples obtained from the well cores were analyzed by microtomography. The use of this technique in sedimentary rocks allows quantitative evaluation of pore system and generates high-resolution 3D images ({approx}microns order). The images and data obtained by microtomography were integrated with the response obtained by nuclear logging. The results obtained by these two techniques allow the understanding of the pore-size distribution and connectivity, as well as the porosity values. Both techniques are important and they complement each other.

  4. Ultra High-Resolution In vivo Computed Tomography Imaging of Mouse Cerebrovasculature Using a Long Circulating Blood Pool Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Villamizar, Carlos A; Rendon, David; Paldino, Michael J; Milewicz, Dianna M; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Annapragada, Ananth V

    2015-05-18

    Abnormalities in the cerebrovascular system play a central role in many neurologic diseases. The on-going expansion of rodent models of human cerebrovascular diseases and the need to use these models to understand disease progression and treatment has amplified the need for reproducible non-invasive imaging methods for high-resolution visualization of the complete cerebral vasculature. In this study, we present methods for in vivo high-resolution (19 μm isotropic) computed tomography imaging of complete mouse brain vasculature. This technique enabled 3D visualization of large cerebrovascular networks, including the Circle of Willis. Blood vessels as small as 40 μm were clearly delineated. ACTA2 mutations in humans cause cerebrovascular defects, including abnormally straightened arteries and a moyamoya-like arteriopathy characterized by bilateral narrowing of the internal carotid artery and stenosis of many large arteries. In vivo imaging studies performed in a mouse model of Acta2 mutations demonstrated the utility of this method for studying vascular morphometric changes that are practically impossible to identify using current histological methods. Specifically, the technique demonstrated changes in the width of the Circle of Willis, straightening of cerebral arteries and arterial stenoses. We believe the use of imaging methods described here will contribute substantially to the study of rodent cerebrovasculature.

  5. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation; Comprometimento pulmonar nas leucemias: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@bol.com.br; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  6. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-01-01

    for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD......Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them...... with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used...

  7. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-06-01

    Blow-out fractures affect the volume and surface area of the orbital cavity. Estimation of these values after the trauma may help in deciding whether or not a patient is a candidate for surgery. Recent studies have provided estimates of orbital volume and area of bone defect, and correlated them with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used for surface area. To authors' knowledge, this study is the first to have measured the entire surface area of the orbital cavity.The volume and surface area of the orbital cavity were estimated in computed tomography scans of 11 human cadavers using unbiased stereological sampling techniques. The mean (± SD) total volume and total surface area of the orbital cavities was 24.27 ± 3.88 cm and 32.47 ± 2.96 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference in volume (P = 0.315) or surface area (P = 0.566) between the 2 orbital cavities.The stereological technique proved to be a robust and unbiased method that may be used as a gold standard for comparison with automated computer software. Future imaging studies in blow-out fracture patients may be based on individual and relative calculation involving both herniated volume and fractured surface area in relation to the total volume and surface area of the uninjured orbital cavity.

  8. Designing A New CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bakhshayesh Karam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases and lung cancer are among the most dangerous diseases with high mortality in both men and women. Lung nodules are abnormal pulmonary masses and are among major lung symptoms. A Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system may play an important role in accurate and early detection of lung nodules. This article presents a new CAD system for lung nodule detection from chest computed tomography (CT images.Methods: Twenty-five adult patients with lung nodules in their CT scan images presented to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2011-2012 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned into two experimental (9 female, 6 male, mean age 43±5.63 yrs and control (6 female, 4 male, mean age 39±4.91 yrs groups. A fully-automatic method was developed for detecting lung nodules by employing medical image processing and analysis and statistical pattern recognition algorithms.esults: Using segmentation methods, the lung parenchyma was extracted from 2-D CT images. Then, candidate regions were labeled in pseudo-color images. In the next step, some features of lung nodules were extracted. Finally, an artificial feed forward neural network was used for classification of nodules.Conclusion: Considering the complexity and different shapes of lung nodules and large number of CT images to evaluate, finding lung nodules are difficult and time consuming for physicians and include human error. Experimental results showed the accuracy of the proposed method to be appropriate (P<0.05 for lung nodule detection.

  9. High-resolution combined global gravity field modelling: Solving large kite systems using distributed computational algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerle, Philipp; Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    One of the major obstacles in modern global gravity field modelling is the seamless combination of lower degree inhomogeneous gravity field observations (e.g. data from satellite missions) with (very) high degree homogeneous information (e.g. gridded and reduced gravity anomalies, beyond d/o 1000). Actual approaches mostly combine such data only on the basis of the coefficients, meaning that previously for both observation classes (resp. models) a spherical harmonic analysis is done independently, solving dense normal equations (NEQ) for the inhomogeneous model and block-diagonal NEQs for the homogeneous. Obviously those methods are unable to identify or eliminate effects as spectral leakage due to band limitations of the models and non-orthogonality of the spherical harmonic base functions. To antagonize such problems a combination of both models on NEQ-basis is desirable. Theoretically this can be achieved using NEQ-stacking. Because of the higher maximum degree of the homogeneous model a reordering of the coefficient is needed which leads inevitably to the destruction of the block diagonal structure of the appropriate NEQ-matrix and therefore also to the destruction of simple sparsity. Hence, a special coefficient ordering is needed to create some new favorable sparsity pattern leading to a later efficient computational solving method. Such pattern can be found in the so called kite-structure (Bosch, 1993), achieving when applying the kite-ordering to the stacked NEQ-matrix. In a first step it is shown what is needed to attain the kite-(NEQ)system, how to solve it efficiently and also how to calculate the appropriate variance information from it. Further, because of the massive computational workload when operating on large kite-systems (theoretically possible up to about max. d/o 100.000), the main emphasis is put on to the presentation of special distributed algorithms which may solve those systems parallel on an indeterminate number of processes and are

  10. Simple a posteriori slope limiter (Post Limiter) for high resolution and efficient flow computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    A simple and efficient a posteriori slope limiter (;Post Limiter;) is proposed for compressible Navier-Stokes and Euler equations, and examined in 1D and 2D. The Post Limiter tries to employ un-limited solutions where and when possible (even at shocks), and blend the un-limited and (1st-order) limited solutions smoothly, leading to equivalently four times resolution in 1D. This idea was inspired by a posteriori limiting approaches originally developed by Clain et al. (2011) [18] for higher-order flow computations, but proposed here is an alternative suitable and simplified for 2nd-order spatial accuracy with improved both solution and convergence. In fact, any iteration processes are no longer required to determine optimal orders of accuracy, since the limited and un-limited values are available at one time at 2nd-order. In 2D, several numerical examples have been dealt with, and both the κ = 1 / 3 MUSCL (in a structured solver) and Green-Gauss (in an unstructured solver) reconstructions demonstrated resolution improvement (nearly 4 × 4 times), convergence acceleration, and removal of numerical noises. Even on triangular meshes (on which least-squares reconstruction is used), the unstructured solver showed the improved solutions if cell geometries (cell-orientation angles) are properly taken into account. Therefore, the Post Limiter is readily incorporated into existing codes.

  11. High Resolution Topography of Polar Regions from Commercial Satellite Imagery, Petascale Computing and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Kramer, WIlliam; Bauer, Greg; Bates, Brian; Williamson, Cathleen

    2017-04-01

    Surface topography is among the most fundamental data sets for geosciences, essential for disciplines ranging from glaciology to geodynamics. Two new projects are using sub-meter, commercial imagery licensed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and open source photogrammetry software to produce a time-tagged 2m posting elevation model of the Arctic and an 8m posting reference elevation model for the Antarctic. When complete, this publically available data will be at higher resolution than any elevation models that cover the entirety of the Western United States. These two polar projects are made possible due to three equally important factors: 1) open-source photogrammetry software, 2) petascale computing, and 3) sub-meter imagery licensed to the United States Government. Our talk will detail the technical challenges of using automated photogrammetry software; the rapid workflow evolution to allow DEM production; the task of deploying the workflow on one of the world's largest supercomputers; the trials of moving massive amounts of data, and the management strategies the team needed to solve in order to meet deadlines. Finally, we will discuss the implications of this type of collaboration for future multi-team use of leadership-class systems such as Blue Waters, and for further elevation mapping.

  12. Performance of magnetic resonance imaging in pulmonary fungal disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana; Souza, Arthur; Zanon, Matheus; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) in patients diagnosed with pulmonary mycosis. We prospectively included 21 patients diagnosed with pulmonary mycosis between January 2013 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria were presence of respiratory symptoms, histopathological diagnosis of mycosis and absence of mycosis treatment. Reviewers identified one predominant imaging pattern per patient: nodular, reticular or airspace pattern. Afterwards, all CT findings were analysed separately per lobe and compared to MRI. Nodular pattern was the most common found (CT: 76.20%; MRI: 80.96%), followed by airspace pattern (CT and MRI: 9.52%) and reticular (CT: 9.52%; MRI: 4.76%). Compared to CT, MRI performance varied according to radiological finding and pulmonary region. For nodules, MRI presented high sensitivity (100% [95% CI: 93.52-100]) and specificity (100% [95% CI: 92.00-100]). For bronchiectasis and septal thickening, there were poorer positive predictive values (33.33% [95% CI: 1.77-87.47]; and 83.33% [95% CI: 50.88-97.06] respectively). As specificity and negative predictive value had superior results than sensitivity and positive predictive value, rather than for diagnosis of this condition, MRI might be more considered for the follow-up of patients with pulmonary mycosis, an alternative to multiple radiation exposures with CT follow-up. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. [High-resolution computed tomography in injuries to the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, F; Burzi, M; Sartoni Galloni, S; Laus, M

    1989-03-01

    Correct orthopedic therapy for traumas of the cervical rachis requires perfect knowledge of the spatial balance of the fracture focus. The authors believe Computed Tomography (CT) to be the most suitable, and often indispensable, method for this purpose. Twenty-four patients were examined for traumatic pathology of the cervical rachis. In 7 cases with clinically minor traumas, the negative outcome of the traditional exam was considered reliable and sufficient for therapeutic purposes. The extant 17 patients were examined also by means of CT, either to better determine the characteristics of skeletal lesions already ascertained with traditional techniques or to assess the presence of clinically-suspected osteo-articular lesions, even with negative conventional X-rays. For 9 of these patients orthopedic treatment was considered sufficient, whereas 8 patients underwent surgery and were subsequently examined with CT, which allowed correct evaluation of postoperative pictures even in the presence of metal prostheses. In 10 cases CT demonstrated the presence of lesions which had not been diagnosed with traditional X-ray techniques.

  14. Monitoring of experimental rat lung transplants by high-resolution flat-panel volumetric computer tomography (fpVCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greschus, Susanne; Kuchenbuch, Tim; Plötz, Christian; Obert, Martin; Traupe, Horst; Padberg, Winfried; Grau, Veronika; Hirschburger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of experimental lung transplants with high resolution would be favorable to exclude technical failure and to follow up graft outcome in the living animal. Here we describe a flat-panel Volumetric Computed Tomography (fpVCT) technique using a prototype scanner. Lung transplantation was performed in allogeneic as well as in corresponding syngeneic rat strain combinations. At different time points post-transplantation, fpVCT was performed. Lung transplants can be visualized in the living rat with high-spatial resolution. FpVCT allows a detailed analysis of the lung and the bronchi. Infiltrates developing during rejection episodes can be diagnosed and follow-up studies can easily be performed. With fpVCT it is possible to control the technical success of the surgical procedure. Graft rejection can be visualized individually in the living animal noninvasively, which is highly advantageous for studying the pathogenesis of chronic rejection or to monitor new therapies.

  15. A full coverage, high-resolution, topographic model of Greenland computed from a variety of digital elevation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Simon

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a new high-resolution elevation model of Greenland, including the ice sheet as well as the ice free regions, is presented. It is the first published full coverage model, computed with an average resolution of 2 km and providing an unprecedented degree of detail. The topography...... airborne laser data from the analysis and treating them as ground truth observations. The mean accuracy of the ice sheet elevations is estimated to be 12-13 m, and it is found that on surfaces of a slope between 0.2 degrees and 0.8 degrees, corresponding to approximately 50% of the ice sheet, the model...... is modeled from a wide selection of data sources, including satellite radar altimetry from Geosat and ERS 1, airborne radar altimetry and airborne laser altimetry over the ice sheet, and photogrammetric and manual map scannings in the ice free region. The ice sheet model accuracy is evaluated by omitting...

  16. Microstructural characterization of electron beam-physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings through high-resolution computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand; Herman, Herbert; Decarlo, Francesco; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), deposited using the electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process, comprise a unique architecture of porosity capable of bridging the technological gap between insulation/life extension and prime reliance. The TBC microstructures consist of columnar structure, nucleated via vapor condensation, along with a high degree of intercolumnar porosity, thus providing enhanced stress relief on thermomechanical loading and also accommodating misfit stresses resulting from CTE mismatch. In this article, we report the characterization of these coatings using high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) at 1.3- µm resolution. Experiments focused on quantitative characterization/visualization of imperfections in these coatings and on the relative changes in microstructural features upon isothermal annealing. The influence of time/temperature of exposure was investigated and the results were correlated with elastic modulus.

  17. Huntington's disease mouse models online: high-resolution MRI images with stereotaxic templates for computational neuroanatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sawiak

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has proved to be an ideal modality for non-destructive and highly detailed assessment of structural morphology in biological tissues. Here we used MRI to make a dataset of ex vivo brains from two different rodent models of Huntington's disease (HD, the R6/2 line and the YAC 128 mouse. We are making the whole dataset (399 transgenic HD and wildtype (WT brains, from mice aged 9-80 weeks publicly available. These data will be useful, not only to investigators interested in the study of HD, but also to researchers of computational neuroanatomy who may not have access to such large datasets from mouse models. Here we demonstrate a number of uses of such data, for example to produce maps of grey and white matter and cortical thickness. As an example of how the library might provide insights in mouse models of HD, we calculated whole brain grey matter volumes across different age groups with different numbers of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeats in a fragment of the gene responsible for HD in humans. (The R6/2 dataset was obtained from an allelic series of R6/2 mice carrying a range of CAG repeat lengths between 109 and 464. This analysis revealed different trajectories for each fragment length. In particular there was a gradient of decreasing pathology with longer CAG repeat lengths, reflecting our previous findings with behavioural and histological studies. There will be no constraints placed on the use of the datasets included here. The original data will be easily and permanently accessible via the University of Cambridge data repository (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361.

  18. In vivo imaging of brain dopaminergic neurotransmission system in small animals with high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Hideo; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Mikako; Kitamura, Youji; Mukai, Takahiro [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Iida, Yasuhiko; Shimazu, Seiichiro; Yoneda, Fumiro [Fujimoto Pharmaceutical Corporation, Matsubara, Osaka (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides a unique capability to image the biodistribution of radiolabeled molecules in small laboratory animals. Thus, we applied the high-resolution SPECT to in vivo imaging of the brain dopaminergic neurotransmission system in common marmosets using two radiolabeled ligands, [{sup 123}I]2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ({beta}-CIT) as a dopamine transporter(DAT) ligand and [{sup 123}I]iodobenzamide (IBZM) as a dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (D{sub 2}R) ligand. Specific images of the striatum, a region with a high density of dopaminergic synapses, were obtained at 240 min and 60 min after injection of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]IBZM, respectively. Furthermore, a significantly low accumulation of [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT in the striatum was observed in MPTP-treated animals compared with results for a control group, and a similar accumulation in the control group was observed with the pretreatment of deprenyl in the MPTP-treated animals. However, the striatal accumulation of [{sup 123}I]IBZM showed no changes among the control, MPTP-treated, and deprenyl-MPTP-treated groups. These SPECT imaging results agreed well with those of DA concentration and motor behavior. Since MPTP destroys nigrostriatal dopamine nerves and produces irreversible neurodegeneration associated with Parkinsonian syndrome, SPECDT imaging data in this study demonstrated that deprenyl shows its neuroprotective effect on Parkinsonism by protecting against the destruction of presynaptic dopamine neutrons. (author)

  19. Interstitial pneumonitis in patients with systemic sclerosis. Analysis by chest x-ray high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kana [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a severe systemic collagen vascular disease of unknown cause characterized by marked vascular and connective tissue abnormalities in the skin and other organs. The lungs are frequently involved in patients with SSc, and pulmonary disease continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a sensitive technique potentially useful in detecting occult interstitial lung disease in patients with SSc. In the present study, chest X-ray HRCT findings were analyzed in 26 SSc patients in order to identify the characteristic morphological changes of interstitial pneumonitis in SSc patients. Interstitial pneumonitis was found in 21 patients (81%) with SSc. Chest X-ray CT findings in SSc patients were quite uniform and were characterized by sharply bordering dense attenuation and the predominance of ring-like lesions. Main lesions were located in the lower and posterior lung fields in a peripheral lobular pattern. There was no correlation between the extent of the interstitial lung disease and the duration from onset of SSc. In conclusion, it was found that, in patients with SSc, interstitial pneumonitis can be identified by characteristic chest X-ray CT findings. Furthermore, analysis of chest X-ray CT findings is useful in assessing the severity, clinical course and prognosis of patients with SSc. (author)

  20. Cost effectiveness of high resolution computed tomography with interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis contact investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowada, Akiko, E-mail: kowadaa@gmail.com [Kojiya Haneda Healthcare Service, Ota City Public Health Office, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Background: Tuberculosis contact investigation is one of the important public health strategies to control tuberculosis worldwide. Recently, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been reported as a more accurate radiological method with higher sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray (CXR) to detect active tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed the cost effectiveness of HRCT compared to CXR in combination with QuantiFERON{sup ®}-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) or the tuberculin skin test (TST) for tuberculosis contact investigation. Methods: We constructed Markov models using a societal perspective on the lifetime horizon. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 20-year-old contacts with smear-positive tuberculosis patients in developed countries. Six strategies; QFT followed by CXR, QFT followed by HRCT, TST followed by CXR, TST followed by HRCT, CXR alone and HRCT alone were modeled. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. Results: In the base-case analysis, QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefit at the lowest cost ($US 6308.65; 27.56045 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs])[year 2012 values]. Cost-effectiveness was sensitive to BCG vaccination rate. Conclusions: The QFT followed by HRCT strategy yielded the greatest benefits at the lowest cost. HRCT chest imaging, instead of CXR, is recommended as a cost effective addition to the evaluation and management of tuberculosis contacts in public health policy.

  1. Changes in bone macro- and microstructure in diabetic obese mice revealed by high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhofs, G.; Durand, M.; Vangoitsenhoven, R.; Marin, C.; van der Schueren, B.; Carmeliet, G.; Luyten, F. P.; Geris, L.; Vandamme, K.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions. At 2 μm scale, no change was observed in the intracortical structure. At 1 μm scale, a decrease in the cortical vascular porosity of the HFD bone was evidenced. The study of a group of 8 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the diet challenge revealed that the decreased vascular porosity was T2DM-dependant and not related to the ageing process. Our results offer an unprecedented ultra-characterization of the T2DM compromised skeletal micro-architecture and highlight an unrevealed T2DM-related decrease in the cortical vascular porosity, potentially affecting the bone health and fragility. Additionally, it provides some insights into the technical challenge facing the assessment of the rodent bone structure using HR-microCT imaging.

  2. High-Resolution, Semi-Automatic Fault Mapping Using Umanned Aerial Vehicles and Computer Vision: Mapping from an Armchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklethwaite, S.; Vasuki, Y.; Turner, D.; Kovesi, P.; Holden, E.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to characterise fractures depends upon the accuracy and precision of field techniques, as well as the quantity of data that can be collected. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; otherwise known as "drones") and photogrammetry, provide exciting new opportunities for the accurate mapping of fracture networks, over large surface areas. We use a highly stable, 8 rotor, UAV platform (Oktokopter) with a digital SLR camera and the Structure-from-Motion computer vision technique, to generate point clouds, wireframes, digital elevation models and orthorectified photo mosaics. Furthermore, new image analysis methods such as phase congruency are applied to the data to semiautomatically map fault networks. A case study is provided of intersecting fault networks and associated damage, from Piccaninny Point in Tasmania, Australia. Outcrops >1 km in length can be surveyed in a single 5-10 minute flight, with pixel resolution ~1 cm. Centimetre scale precision can be achieved when selected ground control points are measured using a total station. These techniques have the potential to provide rapid, ultra-high resolution mapping of fracture networks, from many different lithologies; enabling us to more accurately assess the "fit" of observed data relative to model predictions, over a wide range of boundary conditions.igh resolution DEM of faulted outcrop (Piccaninny Point, Tasmania) generated using the Oktokopter UAV (inset) and photogrammetric techniques.

  3. High-resolution Computed Tomography Findings of H1N1 Influenza-Associated Pneumonia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Chan; Choi, Song; Kim, Jin Woong; Lim, Hyo Soon [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyung Joo; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Hyeon; Park, Kyung Hwa [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate and compare the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with H1N1 influenza-associated pneumonia compared usual community acquired pneumonia (CAP), to determine whether there were any useful common HRCT findings predicting their prognosis. HRCT findings of 31 patients (M:F = 16:15, mean age 42 yrs) with Influenza A (H1N1) infection were retrospectively reviewed for abnormal HRCT findings and compared to HRCT findings of CAP in matched patients. Patients were matched according to age and sex, from 2009 to January 2010. The predominant HRCT findings of pneumonia consisted of areas of consolidation and/or groundglass opacity (GGO) which showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the two groups. However, the abnormalities of H1N1-related pneumonia showed higher bilaterality and multilobar or multisegmental involvement compared with CAP (p < 0.05). Internal low attenuation or air-densities in pulmonary infiltration /or lymphadenopathy was observed only in patients with CAP (p < 0.05). HRCT findings in 8 patients with poor clinical outcome had bilaterality (p=0.015), multilobar, and multisegmental involvement. The predominant HRCT findings of H1N1-related pneumonia were areas of consolidation and/or GGO. In addition, H1N1-related pneumonia showed higher bilaterality or multilobar/multisegmental involvement compared with CAP. The patients who presented bilaterality had a worse clinical outcome.

  4. Development of an autonomic portable single-board computer based high resolution NIRS device for microcirculation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, E R; Safaie, J; Gupta, R; Pattnaik, D; Abrishamimoghaddam, H; Grebe, R; Wallois, F

    2012-01-01

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a wellestablished non-invasive technique for measuring metabolic changes in biological tissue. In this paper we describe the design and development of an autonomic portable single board computer based high resolution NIRS device, which allows quantification of these changes. The sensor-patch consisting of 8LEDs and 2photo-detectorsprovides8 channels for each detector, offering increased depth resolution for monitoring microcirculatory activity..NIRS data is acquired with a sampling rate of about 2Hz per channel using the data acquisition board which consists of a 16 bit ADC, a LED driver and programmable gain amplifiers. The components on the data acquisition board are controlled via the Advantech's PCM-3355L SBC based on Windows XP platform. The software was created using Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0. It offers optionally a real time 'monitoring' and a static data (offline) visualization mode. The most unique feature of the system is its ability to auto-calibrate itself i.e. Adopt the intensity of the LEDs output light to different experimental conditions, e.g. local melanin content, density of the tissue, and emitter-detector distances. To validate the device various experiments have been carried out such as measurements on resting and working gastrocnemius and biceps muscle in ambulatory situations. The achieved results confirmed adequate performance and reliability of the device.

  5. Changes in structural lung disease in cystic fibrosis children over 4 years as evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Prados, Concepcion [University Hospital La Paz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Albi, Gustavo [Nino de Jesus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Rayon-Aledo, Jose Carlos; Caballero, Paloma [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Giron, Rosa [University Hospital La Princesa, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the worsening of structural lung disease on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with changes in spirometry results in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyse factors associated with the worsening of structural lung disease over time. A total of 31 CF subjects (mean age 11.03 ± 3.67 years old) were prospectively evaluated by two HRCT and spirometry tests performed 4 years apart. HRCT abnormalities were scored using the Bhalla scoring system. Comparisons between changes on HRCT and spirometry were made for all patients, and also for groups categorized by age, sex, genotypic alterations and lung obstruction. The mean HRCT Bhalla scoring, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1} %pred.) and forced vital capacity (FVC %pred.) were 7.92 ± 3.59, 87.76 ± 20.52 and 96.54 ± 15.12, respectively. There was a significant deterioration in the Bhalla score (p < 0.01) and in certain categories: severity of bronchiectasis, peribronchial thickening, mucous plugging and bronchial divisions. Females had a more pronounced worsening of the Bhalla score than males (p = 0.048). No change over time was found in FEV{sub 1} and FVC. Only sex was associated with a deterioration in HRCT. HRCT Bhalla scoring changes statistically significantly over 4 years, but spirometry results do not. Worsening on HRCT is more evident in females. (orig.)

  6. Changes in lung parenchyma after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): assessment with high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Eibenberger, K.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Herold, C.J. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Steltzer, H.; Strasser, K.; Fridrich, P. [Dept. of General Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Schlick, W. [Dept. of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the appearance, extent, and distribution of parenchymal changes in the lung after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a function of disease severity and therapeutic procedures. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), clinical examination, and lung function tests were performed in 15 patients, 6-10 months after ARDS. The appearance and extent of parenchymal changes were compared with the severity of ARDS, as well as with clinical and therapeutic data. Lung parenchymal changes resembling those found in the presence of pulmonary fibrosis were observed in 13 of 15 patients (87%). The changes were significantly more frequent and more pronounced in the ventral than in the dorsal portions of the lung (p<0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the extent of lung alterations and the severity of ARDS (p<0.01), and the duration in which patients had received mechanical ventilation either with a peak inspiratory pressure greater than 30 mmHg (p<0.05), or with more than 70% oxygen (p<0.01). Acute respiratory distress syndrome frequently is followed by fibrotic changes in lung parenchyma. The predominantly ventral distribution of these changes indicates that they may be caused by the ventilation regimen and the oxygen therapy rather than by the ARDS. (orig.)

  7. High-resolution computed tomography findings from adult patients with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com; Zanetti, Glaucia [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: glauciazanetti@gmail.com; Hochhegger, Bruno [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D' OR Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: rosana.souzarodrigues@gmail.com; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque Pantaleao [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: cristinasvolinsque@gmail.com; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: luizfelipenobresc@gmail.com; Dias Mancano, Alexandre [Anchieta Hospital, Taguatinga, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: alex.manzano1@gmail.com; Meirelles, Gustavo [Sao Paulo Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: gmeirelles@gmail.com; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS, Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: klaus.irion@btinternet.com

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings at presentation in patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. Materials and methods: We reviewed the HRCT findings from 20 patients diagnosed with Influenza A (H1N1) and compared their HRCT scans with chest radiographs, obtained on the same day. The imaging studies were obtained 4-9 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients included 11 men and 9 women (ages 24-62 years; mean 42.7 years). All patients had a body temperature greater than 100.4 deg. F (>38 deg. C), tachypnea, and cough. Other common symptoms included diarrhea (60%) and sore throat (30%). The radiographs and HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The predominant HRCT findings consisted of bilateral ground-glass opacities (n = 12), bilateral areas of consolidation (n = 2), or a mixed bilateral pattern of ground-glass opacities and areas of consolidation (n = 6). The abnormalities were bilateral in all of the 20 patients, had a predominantly sub-pleural distribution in 13 patients, and had a random distribution in the remaining 7 patients. The predominant radiographic findings were consolidations. Normal radiographs were found in 4 out of the 20 patients. Conclusion: HRCT may reveal parenchymal abnormalities in patients with Influenza A (H1N1) infection who have normal findings on radiographs. The predominant HRCT findings were bilateral, peripheral, ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation. The patients who presented consolidations had more severe clinical course.

  8. Definition for Rheumatoid Arthritis Erosions Imaged with High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography and Interreader Reliability for Detection and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Cheryl; Toepfer, Dominique; Marotte, Hubert; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe; Scharmga, Andrea; Kocijan, Roland; Kraus, Sebastian; Boutroy, Stephanie; Schett, Georg; Keller, Kresten Krarup; de Jong, Joost; Stok, Kathryn S; Finzel, Stephanie

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) sensitively detects erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, nonpathological cortical bone disruptions are potentially misclassified as erosive. Our objectives were to set and test a definition for pathologic cortical bone disruptions in RA and to standardize reference landmarks for measuring erosion size. HR-pQCT images of metacarpophalangeal joints of RA and control subjects were used in an iterative process to achieve consensus on the definition and reference landmarks. Independent readers (n = 11) applied the definition to score 58 joints and measure pathologic erosions in 2 perpendicular multiplanar reformations for their maximum width and depth. Interreader reliability for erosion detection and variability in measurements between readers [root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV), intraclass correlation (ICC)] were calculated. Pathologic erosions were defined as cortical breaks extending over a minimum of 2 consecutive slices in perpendicular planes, with underlying trabecular bone loss and a nonlinear shape. Interreader agreement for classifying pathologic erosions was 90.2%, whereas variability for width and depth erosion assessment was observed (RMSCV perpendicular width 12.3%, axial width 20.6%, perpendicular depth 24.0%, axial depth 22.2%; ICC perpendicular width 0.206, axial width 0.665, axial depth 0.871, perpendicular depth 0.783). Mean erosion width was 1.84 mm (range 0.16-8.90) and mean depth was 1.86 mm (range 0.30-8.00). We propose a new definition for erosions visualized with HR-pQCT imaging. Interreader reliability for erosion detection is good, but further refinement of selection of landmarks for erosion size measurement, or automated volumetric methods, will be pursued.

  9. Bilateral Asymmetry of Radius and Tibia Bone Macroarchitecture and Microarchitecture: A High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Erin M; Manske, Sarah L; Hanley, David A; Boyd, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing bone health often select the dominant or nondominant limb to scan, but not both, for efficiency reasons. New scanning technology allows 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of the microarchitecture in bone, but it is not well understood whether there are differences between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Using 3D high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of limb dominance on bone macroarchitecture and microarchitecture. Healthy male and female participants (N=100; 59 female, 41 male), mean age 30.7±12.1 years, were scanned at both radii and tibiae using HR-pQCT. Hand and foot dominance were determined by the participant's self-report. Most participants were right hand dominant (94.0%) and right foot dominant (91.0%). In the pooled cohort, the dominant radius had significantly greater cortical area (2.11%; p=0.002) and failure load (3.00%; p=0.001). At the tibia, the dominant foot had significantly lower bone mineral density (-0.77%; p=0.042), cortical area (-1.05%; p=0.031), and thickness (-1.51%; p=0.017). For females, there were no differences at the radius, but at the tibia, the dominant side had greater cross-sectional area (1.03%; p=0.044). Our data suggest that dominance has a small yet significant effect on macroarchitecture at both the ultradistal radius and tibia but not microarchitecture. This work emphasizes that it is important to be consistent in the selection of either dominant or nondominant limbs for HR-pQCT cohort studies; however, in the case where the opposite limb needs to be scanned, there would be small differences in macroarchitecture and no significant differences in microarchitecture anticipated.

  10. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Naoko, E-mail: n.miyata@scchr.jp [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Kameya, Toru [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Ohde, Yasuhisa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules.

  11. Lung ultrasound in systemic sclerosis: correlation with high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests and clinical variables of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Lucci, Silvio; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Quarta, Silvia; Barbano, Biagio; Giovannetti, Antonello; Amoroso, Antonio; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the gold standard to diagnose ILD, recently lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged in SSc patients as a new promising technique for the ILD evaluation, noninvasive and radiation-free. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is a correlation between LUS, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests findings and clinical variables of the disease. Thirty-nine patients (33 women and 6 men; mean age 51 ± 15.2 years) underwent clinical examination, HRCT, pulmonary function tests and LUS for detection of B-lines. A positive correlation exists between the number of B-lines and the HRCT score (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001), conversely a negative correlation exists between the number of B-lines and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = -0.63, p < 0.0001). The number of B-lines increases along with the progression of the capillaroscopic damage. A statistically significant difference in the number of B-lines was found between patients with and without digital ulcers [42 (3-84) vs 16 (4-55)]. We found that the number of B-lines increased with the progression of both HRCT score and digital vascular damage. LUS may therefore, be a useful tool to determine the best timing for HRCT execution, thus, preventing for many patients a continuous and useless exposure to ionizing radiation.

  12. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation: the value of high-resolution computed tomography in predicting their etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-sheng; ZHU Hong-xian; FAN Hong-xia; ZHU Ling; WANG Heng-xiang; SONG Yun-long

    2011-01-01

    Background The correct diagnosis of etiology of fungal infection after bone marrow transplantation is very important to the choice of antifungal drugs and a premise for improvement of therapeutic efficacy.This study aimed to compare high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of the pulmonary fungal infections to determine whether the etiology of various fungal infections could be diagnosed with HRCT.Methods Eighty-five cases were enrolled.According to the pathogens responsible for fungal infections,the patients were classified into three groups including invasive aspergillosis (n=52),candidiasis (n=19) and cryptococcosis (n=14)groups.All the patients underwent HRCT scans.Two independent radiologists retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans regarding CT patterns and distribution of lung abnormality.Results Most fungal infections in the three groups occurred in the neutropenic phase.There was no significant difference in the constituent ratio of fungal infections at different phases after bone marrow transplantation among the three groups.Agreement between the two observers for all the CT characteristics of fungal infections was excellent (k>0.75).There was a significant difference in occurrence ratio of mass among the three groups (P=0.02).Occurrence ratio of mass (43.3%,13/30) in the group with invasive aspergillosis was higher than in each of other two groups (20.0%,2/10;14.3%,1/7).There was no significant difference in other CT characteristics of nodules or masses; including number,margin,halo sign,cavitation and air-crescent sign.There was no significant difference in number,margin,air bronchogram and distribution of air-space consolidation.Conclusions The HRCT appearance of various pulmonary fungal infections has a great deal of overlap and is nonspecific.Mass is more common in invasive aspergillosis,which is helpful to the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis after bone marrow transplantation.

  13. Pulmonary function test: its correlation with pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Daza; Lucia, Cervantes; A, Muñiz; Martha-Alicia, Hernández; Blanca, Murillo

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to try to evaluate lung affection and to correlate an easier and cheaper method with the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with RA. Thirty-six RA patients were selected for HRCT lung scan (twelve patients with altered pulmonary function test (PFT) and 24 with normal PFT). The American Thoracic Society criteria were followed for the pulmonary test. Clinical and laboratory variables were recorded. A statistical analysis was done by Kaplan-Meyer survival curve and ROC curve. When HRCT was evaluated in all patients, only sixteen had an HRCT normal and twenty patients showed some radiologic alteration under HRCT such as: pleural thickness, bronchiectasis, interstitial pattern, micro-nodules pattern, ground-glass opacity, and a reticular pattern. A logistic regression showed that methotrexate use, evolution of the disease (beta 0.018), and FEV1 (beta 0.89) were statistically associated with HRCT alterations. A projection of patients, free from event (HRCT lung scan altered), was obtained through a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, using FEV1 as a predictor over time. The curve shows that in the next 240 months (20 years) nearly 40% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis will have FEV1 values less than 80% of the normal values predicted for the same age and sex. The FEV1 values have demonstrated a good correlation between PFT and HRCT lung scan. Therefore, they provide an accessible tool for tracking early pulmonary alterations. Methotrexate use and time evolution of the disease have been associated with altered FEV1.

  14. TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases and high-resolution computed tomography score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Szlubowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs, growth factors, including transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, are responsible for cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis, and also for the production and secretion of some components of the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate correlations in DPLDs between TGF-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT score. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 31 DPLD patients in whom a selection of lung segments with high and low intensity of abnormalities was estimated by HRCT score. All patients underwent BAL with TGF-β1 measured by an enzyme immunoassay in BAL fluid and video-assisted thoracic surgery lung biopsy from both selected segments. RESULTS: All 31 patients were diagnosed, and based on histopathology, they were classified into 2 groups: idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (usual interstitial pneumonia – 12, nonspecific interstitialpneumonia – 2, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia – 2, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia – 1 and granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis – 7, extrinsic allergic alveolitis – 5, and histiocytosis X – 2. The final analysis was performed in 28 patients who showed nonhomogenous distribution on HRCT. TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the areas with high intensity of abnormalities assessed by HRCT score (P = 0.018, analysis of variance. These levels were not different between the groups, but a trend towards higher levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that TGF-β1 may be a good but not specific marker of fibrosis in DPLDs. A significant positive correlation between TGF-β1 levels in BAL fluid and the HRCT score was observed.

  15. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  16. Mapping Sub-Saharan African Agriculture in High-Resolution Satellite Imagery with Computer Vision & Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Stephanie Renee

    Smallholder farms dominate in many parts of the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. These systems are characterized by small, heterogeneous, and often indistinct field patterns, requiring a specialized methodology to map agricultural landcover. In this thesis, we developed a benchmark labeled data set of high-resolution satellite imagery of agricultural fields in South Africa. We presented a new approach to mapping agricultural fields, based on efficient extraction of a vast set of simple, highly correlated, and interdependent features, followed by a random forest classifier. The algorithm achieved similar high performance across agricultural types, including spectrally indistinct smallholder fields, and demonstrated the ability to generalize across large geographic areas. In sensitivity analyses, we determined multi-temporal images provided greater performance gains than the addition of multi-spectral bands. We also demonstrated how active learning can be incorporated in the algorithm to create smaller, more efficient training data sets, which reduced computational resources, minimized the need for humans to hand-label data, and boosted performance. We designed a patch-based uncertainty metric to drive the active learning framework, based on the regular grid of a crowdsourcing platform, and demonstrated how subject matter experts can be replaced with fleets of crowdsourcing workers. Our active learning algorithm achieved similar performance as an algorithm trained with randomly selected data, but with 62% less data samples. This thesis furthers the goal of providing accurate agricultural landcover maps, at a scale that is relevant for the dominant smallholder class. Accurate maps are crucial for monitoring and promoting agricultural production. Furthermore, improved agricultural landcover maps will aid a host of other applications, including landcover change assessments, cadastral surveys to strengthen smallholder land rights, and constraints for crop modeling

  17. Comparison of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography findings in early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savranlar, Ahmet; Altin, Remzi; Mahmutyazicioğlu, Kamran; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Kart, Levent; Ozer, Tülay; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray (CXR) in the depiction of parenchymal abnormalities. We aimed to present and compare CXR and HRCT findings in coal workers with and without early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). 71 coal workers were enrolled in this study. All workers were male. The CXR and HRCT of those workers were obtained and graded by two trained readers. HRCT's were graded according to Hosoda and Shida's Japanese classification. After grading, 67 workers with CXR profusion 0/0-2/2 were included in the study. Four patients with major opacity were excluded. Profusion 0/1 to 1/1 cases were accepted as early and profusion 1/2 and 2/2 cases as low-grade pneumoconiosis. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high. Discordance rate was found higher in the early pneumoconiosis cases with negative CXR than low-grade pneumoconiosis (60, 36 and 8%, respectively). When coal miners with normal CXR were evaluated by HRCT, six out of 10 cases were diagnosed as positive. In low-grade pneumoconiosis group, the number of patients with positive CXR but negative HRCT were low in comparison to patients with CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis findings. Most of the CXR category 0 patients (10/16) were diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Eleven cases diagnosed as CXR category 1 were diagnosed as category 0 (7/11) and category 2 (4/11) by HRCT. In CXR category 2 (eight cases), there were four cases diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high, especially for CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis cases. The role of CXR in screening coal workers to detect early pneumoconiosis findings should be questioned. We suggest using HRCT as a standard screening method instead of CXR to distinguish between normal and early pneumoconiosis.

  18. Computation of high-resolution SAR distributions in a head due to a radiating dipole antenna representing a hand-held mobile phone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kamer, JB; Lagendijk, JJW

    2002-01-01

    SAR distributions in a healthy female adult head as a result of a radiating vertical dipole antenna (frequency 915 MHz) representing a hand-field mobile phone have been computed for three different resolutions: 2 mm, 1 mm and 0.4 mm. The extremely high resolution of 0.4 mm was obtained with our quas

  19. Influence of respiratory gating, image filtering, and animal positioning on high-resolution electrocardiography-gated murine cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chao; Vaissier, Pieter E. B.; Vastenhouw, Brendan; de Jong, Johan R.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Beekman, Freek J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were inject

  20. Airway remodeling assessed by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with asthma:relationship to biological markers in induced sputum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世满

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of assessing asthma control by high-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) and biological markers in induced sputum.Methods Forty-eight patients with asthma(asthma group) and 10 healthy subjects(control group) were retrospectively analyzed.

  1. Parathyroidectomy improves bone geometry and microarchitecture in female patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. A 1-year prospective controlled study using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Hauge, Ellen M; Rasmussen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    controlled study, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was used to evaluate changes in bone geometry, volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture, and estimated strength in female patients with PHPT before and 1 year after PTX, compared to healthy controls. Twenty-seven women...

  2. Clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of solitary ground-glass opacity lung nodules on high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu ZX

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Xin Qiu,1 Yue Cheng,1 Dan Liu,1 Wei-Ya Wang,2 Xia Wu,2 Wei-Lu Wu,2 Wei-Min Li1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Lung nodules are being detected at an increasing rate year by year with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT being widely used. Ground-glass opacity nodule is one of the special types of pulmonary nodules that is confirmed to be closely associated with early stage of lung cancer. Very little is known about solitary ground-glass opacity nodules (SGGNs. In this study, we analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT.Methods: A total of 95 resected SGGNs were evaluated with HRCT scan. The clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of these cases were analyzed.Results: Eighty-one adenocarcinoma and 14 benign nodules were observed. The nodules included 12 (15% adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 14 (17% minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA, and 55 (68% invasive adenocarcinoma (IA. No patients with recurrence till date have been identified. The positive expression rates of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS-1 (proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS were only 2.5% and 8.6%, respectively. The specificity and accuracy of HRCT of invasive lung adenocarcinoma were 85.2% and 87.4%. The standard uptake values of only two patients determined by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT were above 2.5. The size, density, shape, and pleural tag of nodules were significant factors that differentiated IA from AIS and MIA. Moreover, the size, shape, margin, pleural tag, vascular cluster, bubble-like sign, and air bronchogram of nodules were significant determinants for mixed ground-glass opacity nodules (all P<0.05.Conclusion: We analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT and found that the size, density

  3. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  4. Development of a High Resolution Weather Forecast Model for Mesoamerica Using the NASA Ames Code I Private Cloud Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Case, Jonathan; Venner, Jason; Moreno-Madrinan, Max J.; Delgado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Two projects at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have collaborated to develop a high resolution weather forecast model for Mesoamerica: The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, which integrates unique NASA satellite and weather forecast modeling capabilities into the operational weather forecasting community. NASA's SERVIR Program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data, and forecast models to improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas.

  5. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis): high-resolution computed tomography findings; Pneumonite por hipersensibilidade (alveolite alergica extrinseca): achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho. Servico de Radiologia

    2003-12-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)

  6. Pulmonary lymphomas: high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological correlation; Linfomas pulmonares: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Valiant, Paulo Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Gutierrez, Ana Luiza Telles de Miranda; Bodanese, Larissa [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological findings of pulmonary lymphomas. We studied the chest high-resolution computed tomographs and histopathological data of 10 patients with biopsy-proven non-Hodgkin's or Hodgkin's disease. The most common radiologic findings in this series were areas of consolidation with air-bronchogram (n = 8). Others findings included multiple pulmonary nodules (n = 4), thickening of bronchovascular bundles (n =3) and foci of ground-glass attenuation (n =2). The present series results are consistent with the current available literature on radiographic appearance of the disease. The pathological correspondence of the areas of air space consolidation was alveolar filling by neoplastic cells, the thickening of bronchovascular bundles was secondary to lymphomatous cells infiltrates, and the areas of ground-glass attenuation corresponded to alveolar septal infiltration by these cells. (author)

  7. Medical Recapitulate%Application of High Resolution Computed Tomography in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in Preoperative Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) in preop-erative evaluation of in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media ( CSOM) .Methods Total of 210 patients with CSOM in Shangluo Central Hospital from May 2012 to May 2015 were included in the study,including 105 cases of bone ulcer otitis and 105 cases of cholesteatoma otitis.HRCT was used to check the extent of damage of bone ulcer otitis media and cholesteatoma otitis media in incus body ,crus longum incudis,crus breve incudis,lenticular process, stirrup,malleus head and malleus handle,and compare the results with intraoperative observation.Results The extent of damage in patients with bone ulcer otitis media in the pre-operative HRCT examination compared with intraoperative results showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05).The extent of damage in patients with cholesteatoma otitis media in the preoperative HRCT examination compared with intraoperative results showed:there were statistically significant differences in the extent of damage in crus breve incudis, lenticular process and stirrup(P 0.05 ) .Conclusion HRCT plays an important role not only in the diagnosis of CSOM,but also in the preoperative evaluation and the choice of surgical methods.%目的:探讨高分辨率 CT( HRCT)在慢性化脓性中耳炎( CSOM)患者术前评估中的作用。方法选泽2012年5月至2015年5月商洛市中心医院就诊且诊断为CSOM的骨疡型患者105例,胆脂瘤型患者105例,术前通过HRCT来评估两型中耳炎在砧骨体、砧骨长脚、砧骨短脚、豆状突、镫骨、锤骨头和锤骨柄这7个部位的破坏情况,并与术中所观察到的两型中耳炎7个部位的破坏程度进行比较。结果骨疡型中耳炎患者在术前进行的 HRCT检查显示的破坏程度与术中观察到的结果进行比较发现,7个部位部位的听骨破坏程度差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。胆脂瘤型中耳炎患者

  8. Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography; Aspectos da histiocitose X pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao (TCAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. do Coracao

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs.

  9. Paracoccidioidomycosis: high-resolution computed tomography - anatomo-pathological correlation; Paracoccidioidomicose: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Muniz, Maria Angelica Soares; Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Patologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pneumologia

    2000-12-01

    We reviewed the high-resolution computed tomography scans of 13 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and correlated the findings with the anatomo-pathological findings of 5 patients. The most frequent findings observed were thickening of the interlobular septa, emphysema, ground glass areas, thickening of bronchial walls, tracheal dilatation, nodules, cavities and evidence of fibrosing disease such as architectural distortion, parenchymatous bands, spicular pleural thickening, intralobular reticulate and thickening with distortion off the axial interstitium. (author)

  10. Recycling isoelectric focusing with computer controlled data acquisition system. [for high resolution electrophoretic separation and purification of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, N. B.; Twitty, G. E.; Bier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing is a high-resolution technique for separating and purifying large peptides, proteins, and other biomolecules. The apparatus described in the present paper constitutes a new approach to fluid stabilization and increased throughput. Stabilization is achieved by flowing the process fluid uniformly through an array of closely spaced filter elements oriented parallel both to the electrodes and the direction of the flow. This seems to overcome the major difficulties of parabolic flow and electroosmosis at the walls, while limiting the convection to chamber compartments defined by adjacent spacers. Increased throughput is achieved by recirculating the process fluid through external heat exchange reservoirs, where the Joule heat is dissipated.

  11. Recycling isoelectric focusing with computer controlled data acquisition system. [for high resolution electrophoretic separation and purification of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, N. B.; Twitty, G. E.; Bier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing is a high-resolution technique for separating and purifying large peptides, proteins, and other biomolecules. The apparatus described in the present paper constitutes a new approach to fluid stabilization and increased throughput. Stabilization is achieved by flowing the process fluid uniformly through an array of closely spaced filter elements oriented parallel both to the electrodes and the direction of the flow. This seems to overcome the major difficulties of parabolic flow and electroosmosis at the walls, while limiting the convection to chamber compartments defined by adjacent spacers. Increased throughput is achieved by recirculating the process fluid through external heat exchange reservoirs, where the Joule heat is dissipated.

  12. Post-mortem high-resolution computed tomography of the lung: radiologic-morphologic correlation. Postmortale hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge: Radiologisch-morphologische Korrelationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Diederich, X.; Lenzen, H.; Wiesmann, J.; Peters, P.E. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Fahrenkamp, A.; Puskas, Z. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Institut fuer Pathologie); Holst, D. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Operative Intensivmedizin); Lunkenheimer, P.P. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie)

    1993-03-01

    To establish precise correlations between high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and normal pulmonary anatomy and pulmonary pathology, 49 lungs affected by different diseases were analysed. Post-mortem high-resolution CT scans were compared with the corresponding macroscopic and microscopic pathological findings. For scanning, lungs were inflated and fixed, which avoided any decrease in the structural resolution of pulmonary parenchyma and allowed a topographically exact correlation between CT appearances and morphological changes. After demonstration of the structural details relevant for CT in normal pulmonary parenchyma, an attempt is made to establish the morphological basis of the following CT phenomena: thickening of interlobular septae, increase in pulmonary translucency, consolidation of the non-nodular alveolar and of the nodular type, and changes in the pleural region. Although CT findings in pulmonary lesions are mainly non-specific, knowledge of the corresponding morphological basis is helpful in diagnostic evaluation. (orig.).

  13. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C.; Nguyen, Khoa;

    2015-01-01

    datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer...... level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13 mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise...... from the in vivo and ex vivo data were combined into a single computational atlas of the hippocampal formation with a novel atlas building algorithm based on Bayesian inference. The resulting atlas can be used to automatically segment the hippocampal subregions in structural MRI images, using...

  14. Proposed Use of the NASA Ames Nebula Cloud Computing Platform for Numerical Weather Prediction and the Distribution of High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Nebula Cloud Computing Platform at NASA Ames Research Center provides an open-source solution for the deployment of scalable computing and storage capabilities relevant to the execution of real-time weather forecasts and the distribution of high resolution satellite data to the operational weather community. Two projects at Marshall Space Flight Center may benefit from use of the Nebula system. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center facilitates the use of unique NASA satellite data and research capabilities in the operational weather community by providing datasets relevant to numerical weather prediction, and satellite data sets useful in weather analysis. SERVIR provides satellite data products for decision support, emphasizing environmental threats such as wildfires, floods, landslides, and other hazards, with interests in numerical weather prediction in support of disaster response. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS) has been configured for Nebula cloud computing use via the creation of a disk image and deployment of repeated instances. Given the available infrastructure within Nebula and the "infrastructure as a service" concept, the system appears well-suited for the rapid deployment of additional forecast models over different domains, in response to real-time research applications or disaster response. Future investigations into Nebula capabilities will focus on the development of a web mapping server and load balancing configuration to support the distribution of high resolution satellite data sets to users within the National Weather Service and international partners of SERVIR.

  15. Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and galactomannan antigenemia in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: alhidalgop@yahoo.es; Parody, R.; Martino, R. [Department of Hematology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, F. [Department of Microbiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Blancas, C. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Objectives: To analyse the predominant radiological pattern of pulmonary lesions in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) together with the results of serial serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing (GM). Material and methods: In a prospective study for patients at high risk of aspergillus pulmonary infection, serum GM were performed 2-3 times per week during the periods of high risk for IA and high-resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in case of abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and/or persistent fever after 5 days of antibiotic treatment. Changes on HRCT scan were classified as airway IA and angioinvasive IA. IA was classified as proven or probable in accordance with the definitions stated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC-MS). Positive GM testing was not considered as microbiological criterion. Results: 38 hematological patients were diagnosed of probable (n = 28) or proven (n = 10) IA. 55% patients had a neutrophil count less than 500 mm{sup -3} (n = 21), and 37% patients {>=}2 risk factors for IA. All probable IA were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Proven IA was reached by positive histopathologic and culture results of samples obtained by autopsy (n = 4), percutaneous (n = 3) or transbronchial biopsy (n = 3). 18 patients had airway IA, and 60% had a GM level {>=}1.5. 20 patients were diagnosed of angioinvasive IA from which 80% had a GM level {>=}1.5. Conclusion: Serum GM levels may be lower in patients with airway IA than in those with an angioinvasive form. HRCT and serum GM are complementary tests in the diagnosis of IA.

  16. Halo sign nodules in angio invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: correlation of high-resolution computed tomography findings with anatomopathology; Nodulos com sinal do halo na aspergilose pulmonar angioinvasiva: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Valiante, Paulo Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the early findings observed on high-resolution computed tomography with anatomopathology results of patients with angio invasive aspergillosis. The authors studied two patients with leukemia. The nodules seen on high-resolution computed tomography corresponded to areas of hemorrhagic infarction, necrotic coagulation and fungal hyphae infiltration whereas ground glass halo corresponded to intra alveolar hemorrhage. Nodules with halo sign were closely correlated with anatomopathology findings. We concluded that the anatomopathology findings can clearly explain the image features of the lesions observed on high-resolution computed tomography. (author)

  17. High-resolution computed tomography of the lungs in pediatric patients; Hochaufloesende Computertomographie der Lunge im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Oppermann, H.C.; Biederer, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany); Ankermann, T. [Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie, Universitaetsklinikum Kiel (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Since the introduction of the high-resolution technique more than ten years ago, HRCT has become an established modality for diagnosing diseases of the respiratory system. This is especially true for the diagnosis of lung diseases in adults. Experience in HRCT of the lungs is limited in pediatric patients. This review gives an overview of frequent and less frequent HRCT findings in pulmonary diseases in childhood. A purely reticular pattern is rarely observed in infants. Pulmonary diseases associated with overinflation are relatively frequent. Paired inspiratory-expiratory scans combine morphological analysis with functional information and have improved the diagnosis of air trapping, e.g. in post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Especially in children the high radiation exposure is a problem. Even when applying a low-dose protocol the radiation dose of HRCT will still exceed the dose of a chest X-ray by 100 times. The indication for pediatric pulmonary HRCT is limited to selected cases and it should be decided in agreement with the pediatric radiologists and the pediatric pulmonologists. (orig.) [German] Seit Einfuehrung der hochaufloesenden Computertomographie (HRCT) vor gut 10 Jahren hat sich diese Untersuchungstechnik fuer die Diagnostik von Erkrankungen der Atemwege und des Lungenparenchyms etabliert. Dies gilt vor allem fuer Lungenerkrankungen im Erwachsenenalter. Demgegenueber bestehen vergleichsweise wenig Erfahrungen mit der HRCT in der paediatrischen Lungendiagnostik. In der vorliegenden Uebersichtsarbeit werden HRCT-Befunde bei haeufigen und seltener vorkommenden Lungenerkrankungen bei Kindern beschrieben. Ein rein retikulaeres Muster ist im Kindesalter selten. Demgegenueber werden mit einer pulmonalen Obstruktion (Air trapping) einhergehende Erkrankungen gehaeuft beobachtet. Paarige Inspirations-Exspirationsaufnahmen ergaenzen die rein strukturelle Analyse um eine funktionelle Komponente und haben sich bei obstruktiven

  18. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  19. Two semi-automated computational approaches for spectroscopic analysis of stellar photospheres: detailed characterization at high resolution and abundance determination at medium resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Andre; Sansom, Anne; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We report on two distinct computational approaches to self-consistently measure photospheric properties of large samples of stars. Both procedures consist of a set of several semi-integrated tasks based on shell and Python scripts, which efficiently run either our own codes or open source software commonly adopted by the astronomical community. One approach aims to derive the main stellar photospheric parameters and abundances of a few elements by analysing high-resolution spectra from a given public library homogeneously constructed. The other one is applied to recover the abundance of a single element in stars with known photospheric parameters by using mid-resolution spectra from another open homogeneous database and calibrating derived abundances. Both semi-automated computational approaches provide homogeneity and objectivity to every step of the process and represent a fast way to reach partial and final results as well as to estimate measurement errors, making possible to systematically evaluate and im...

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. HyCFS, a high-resolution shock capturing code for numerical simulation on hybrid computational clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shershnev, Anton A.; Kudryavtsev, Alexey N.; Kashkovsky, Alexander V.; Khotyanovsky, Dmitry V.

    2016-10-01

    The present paper describes HyCFS code, developed for numerical simulation of compressible high-speed flows on hybrid CPU/GPU (Central Processing Unit / Graphical Processing Unit) computational clusters on the basis of full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, using modern shock capturing high-order TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) schemes on general curvilinear structured grids. We discuss the specific features of hybrid architecture and details of program implementation and present the results of code verification.

  2. Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, T J; McGuinness, G; Goldring, R; Cohen, H; Parker, J E; Crane, M; Naidich, D P; Rom, W N

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans have been advocated as providing greater sensitivity in detecting parenchymal opacities in asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in the presence of pleural fibrosis, and having excellent inter- and intraobserver reader interpretation. We compared the 1980 International Labor Organization (ILO) International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis with the high-resolution CT scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate normal versus abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. We studied 37 asbestos-exposed individuals using the ILO classification, HRCT grid scores, respiratory symptom questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. We used Pearson correlation coefficients to evaluate the linear relationship between outcome variables and each roentgenographic method. The normal HRCT scan proved to be an excellent predictor of "normality," with pulmonary function values close to 100% for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), total lung capacity (TLC), and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and no increase in BAL inflammatory cells. Concordant HRCT/ILO abnormalities were associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio, reduced diffusing capacity, and alveolitis consistent with a definition of asbestosis. In our study, the ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis, with their combined use providing statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity.

  3. New high-resolution computed tomography data of the Taung partial cranium and endocast and their bearing on metopism and hominin brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ralph L; Broadfield, Douglas C; Carlson, Kristian J

    2014-09-09

    Falk and colleagues [Falk D, Zollikofer CP, Morimoto N, Ponce de León MS (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(22):8467-8470] hypothesized that selective pressures favored late persistence of a metopic suture and open anterior fontanelle early in hominin evolution, and they put an emphasis on the Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus) as evidence for the antiquity of these adaptive features. They suggested three mutually nonexclusive pressures: an "obstetric dilemma," high early postnatal brain growth rates, and neural reorganization in the frontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we obtained the first high-resolution computed tomography (CT) data from the Taung hominin. These high-resolution image data and an examination of the hominin fossil record do not support the metopic and fontanelle features proposed by Falk and colleagues. Although a possible remnant of the metopic suture is observed in the nasion-glabella region of the Taung partial cranium (but not along the frontal crest), this character state is incongruent with the zipper model of metopic closure described by Falk and colleagues. Nor do chimpanzee and bonobo endocast data support the assertion that delayed metopic closure in Taung is necessary because of widening (reorganization) of the prefrontal or frontal cortex. These results call into question the adaptive value of delaying metopic closure, and particularly its antiquity in hominin evolution. Further data from hominoids and hominins are required to support the proposed adaptive arguments, particularly an obstetric dilemma placing constraints on neural and cranial development in Australopithecus.

  4. Influence of Respiratory Gating, Image Filtering, and Animal Positioning on High-Resolution Electrocardiography-Gated Murine Cardiac Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were injected with 99m technetium (99mTc-tetrofosmin, and each was scanned in supine and prone positions in a U-SPECT-II scanner with respiratory and electrocardiographic (ECG gating. ECG-gated SPECT images were created without applying respiratory motion correction or with two different respiratory motion correction strategies. The images were filtered with a range of three-dimensional gaussian kernels, after which end-diastolic volumes (EDVs, end-systolic volumes (ESVs, and left ventricular ejection fractions were calculated. No significant differences in the measured cardiac parameters were detected when any strategy to reduce or correct for respiratory motion was applied, whereas big differences (> 5% in EDV and ESV were found with regard to different positioning of animals. A linear relationship (p < .001 was found between the EDV or ESV and the kernel size of the gaussian filter. In short, respiratory gating did not significantly affect the cardiac parameters of mice obtained with ultra-high-resolution SPECT, whereas the position of the animals and the image filters should be the same in a comparative study with multiple scans to avoid systematic differences in measured cardiac parameters.

  5. Final Technical Report: High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Feist, Christ [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models. Subtask 1.1 Turbine Scale Model: A novel computational framework for simulating the coupled interaction of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulent winds has been developed. This framework is based on a domain decomposition approach coupling a large-scale far-field domain, where realistic wind and wave conditions representative from offshore environments are developed, with a near-field domain, where wind-wave body interactions can be investigated. The method applied in the near-field domain is based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach combining the curvilinear immersed boundary (CURVIB) method with a two-phase flow level set formulation and is capable of solving free surface flows interacting non-linearly with floating wind turbines. For coupling the far-field and near-field domains, a wave generation method for incorporating complex wave fields into Navier-Stokes solvers has been proposed. The wave generation method was validated for a variety of wave cases including a broadband spectrum. The computational framework has been further validated for wave-body interactions by replicating the experiment of floating wind turbine model subject to different sinusoidal wave forces (task 3). Finally, the full capabilities of the framework have been demonstrated by carrying out large eddy simulation (LES) of a floating wind turbine interacting with realistic ocean wind and wave conditions Subtask 1.2 Farm Scale Model: Several actuator

  6. High-resolution computational ghost imaging and ghost diffraction through turbulence via a beam-shaping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun-Ling; Zhuo, Ling-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Imaging through atmospheric turbulence is a topic with a long history and grand challenges still exist in the remote sensing and astro observation fields. In this letter, we try to propose a simple scheme to improve the resolution of imaging through turbulence based on the computational ghost imaging (CGI) and computational ghost diffraction (CGD) setup via the laser beam shaping techniques. A unified theory of CGI and CGD through turbulence with the multi-Gaussian shaped incoherent source is developed, and numerical examples are given to see clearly the effects of the system parameters to CGI and CGD. Our results show that the atmospheric effect to the CGI and CGD system is closely related to the propagation distance between the source and the object. In addition, by properly increasing the beam order of the multi-Gaussian source, we can improve the resolution of CGI and CGD through turbulence relative to the commonly used Gaussian source. Therefore our results may find applications in remote sensing and astro observation.

  7. Paracoccidioidomicose pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Soares Muniz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O comprometimento pulmonar na paracoccidioidomicose é muito freqüente, podendo até ser a única manifestação da doença. Neste trabalho são analisados os aspectos encontrados nas tomografias computadorizadas de alta resolução do tórax de 30 pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose confirmada. Por meio desta análise foram determinados os achados mais comuns e suas formas de apresentação e distribuição nos pulmões. Os aspectos mais freqüentemente observados foram: espessamento esparso de septos interlobulares (96,7%, opacidades em vidro fosco (66,7%, nódulos (60%, aumento irregular do espaço aéreo (enfisema paracicatricial (56,7%, espessamento de paredes brônquicas (46,7%, espessamento pleural (36,7%, cavidades (36,7%, dilatação da traquéia (33,3%, distorção arquitetural (30%, consolidação do espaço aéreo (30%, bandas parenquimatosas (23,3%, reticulado intralobular (13,3% e espessamento irregular do interstício axial peri-hilar (10%. A radiografia do tórax apresenta limitada capacidade de avaliar doenças pulmonares difusas, tornando a tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax essencial para avaliação dos pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose pulmonar.Pulmonary disease in paracoccidioidomycosis is very common and in some cases can be the sole manifestation of the disease. We studied the findings observed in 30 patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis submitted to high-resolution computed tomography in order to determine the most frequent findings, presentation patterns and distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis lesions in the lungs. The most frequent findings observed on high-resolution computed tomography were: interlobular septal thickening (96.7%, ground-glass opacities (66.7%, nodules (60%, irregular air-space enlargement (56.7%, bronchial wall thickening (46.7%, pleural thickening (36.7%, cavitation (36.7%, tracheal dilatation (33.3%, architectural distortion (30%, air-space consolidation (30

  8. Esclerose sistêmica progressiva: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Progressive systemic sclerosis: high-resolution computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson L. Gasparetto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de pacientes com esclerose sistêmica pulmonar, independentemente dos sintomas respiratórios. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 73 exames de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de 44 pacientes com diagnóstico de esclerodermia estabelecido através de critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. Os exames foram revisados por dois radiologistas, que estabeleceram os achados por consenso. RESULTADOS: Em 91,8% (n = 67 dos exames observaram-se alterações. Os principais achados foram lesões de padrão reticular (90,4%, opacidades em vidro-fosco (63%, bronquiectasias e bronquiolectasias de tração (56,2%, dilatação esofagiana (46,6%, faveolamento (28,8% e sinais de hipertensão pulmonar (15,6%. Na maioria dos casos as lesões eram bilaterais (89% e simétricas (58,5%. Quanto à localização, houve predomínio de lesões basais (91,2% e periféricas (92,2%. CONCLUSÃO: A esclerose sistêmica progressiva acarreta fibrose pulmonar na maioria dos pacientes, caracterizada principalmente por lesão reticular basal e periférica.OBJECTIVE: To describe the high-resolution computed tomography findings in the lung of patients with systemic sclerosis, independently of the respiratory symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three high-resolution computed tomography scans of 44 patients with clinical diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were reviewed and defined by the consensus of two radiologists. RESULTS: Abnormalities were seen in 91.8% (n = 67 of the scans. The most frequent findings were reticular pattern (90.4%, ground-glass opacities (63%, traction bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis (56.2%, esophageal dilatation (46.6%, honeycombing pattern (28.8% and signs of pulmonary hypertension (15.6%. In most cases the lesions were bilateral (89% and symmetrical (58.5%. The lesions were predominantly located in the basal (91.2% and peripheral (92.2% regions. CONCLUSION: In

  9. SGOTL: A Computer Program for Modeling High-Resolution, Height-Dependent Gravity Effect of Ocean Tide Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang Jiu-Fu Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SGOTL, a computer package coded in FORTRAN, has been developed to model the gravity effect due to ocean tide loading (OTL, especially for a coastal station with large ocean tides. SGOTL uses a regional and a global tide model to account separately for near (inner and far (outer zone contributions, and optimizes an inner-zone region and grid interval for numerical convolution. Height dependent Green¡¦s functions for Newtonian and elastic effects are developed. The coastline is defined by the full-resolution GMT shoreline, and optionally a digital elevation model (DEM. A case study using gravity observations at the Hsinchu superconducting gravity station and some offshore islands around the Taiwan Strait suggests that SGOTL outperforms some selected global OTL programs and achieves an accuracy of 0.1 μGal for 8 leading tidal constituents.

  10. Imaging and Analysis of Void-defects in Solder Joints Formed in Reduced Gravity using High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.; Rotella, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    As a part of efforts to develop an electronics repair capability for long duration space missions, techniques and materials for soldering components on a circuit board in reduced gravity must be developed. This paper presents results from testing solder joint formation in low gravity on a NASA Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft. The results presented include joints formed using eutectic tin-lead solder and one of the following fluxes: (1) a no-clean flux core, (2) a rosin flux core, and (3) a solid solder wire with external liquid no-clean flux. The solder joints are analyzed with a computed tomography (CT) technique which imaged the interior of the entire solder joint. This replaced an earlier technique that required the solder joint to be destructively ground down revealing a single plane which was subsequently analyzed. The CT analysis technique is described and results presented with implications for future testing as well as implications for the overall electronics repair effort discussed.

  11. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopke Susan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05. In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most

  12. The dental cavities of equine cheek teeth: three-dimensional reconstructions based on high resolution micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported on the very complex morphology of the pulp system in equine cheek teeth. The continuous production of secondary dentine leads to distinct age-related changes of the endodontic cavity. Detailed anatomical knowledge of the dental cavities in all ages is required to explain the aetiopathology of typical equine endodontic diseases. Furthermore, data on mandibular and maxillary pulp systems is in high demand to provide a basis for the development of endodontic therapies. However, until now examination of the pulp cavity has been based on either sectioned teeth or clinical computed tomography. More precise results were expected by using micro-computed tomography with a resolution of about 0.1 mm and three-dimensional reconstructions based on previous greyscale analyses and histological verification. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological configurations of the pulp system within a wide spectrum of tooth ages. Results Maxillary teeth: All morphological constituents of the endodontic cavity were present in teeth between 4 and 16 years: Triadan 06s displayed six pulp horns and five root canals, Triadan 07-10s five pulp horns and four root canals and Triadan 11s seven pulp horns and four to six root canals. A common pulp chamber was most frequent in teeth ≤5 years, but was found even in a tooth of 9 years. A large variety of pulp configurations was observed within 2.5 and 16 years post eruption, but most commonly a separation into mesial and distal pulp compartments was seen. Maxillary cheek teeth showed up to four separate pulp compartments but the frequency of two, three and four pulp compartments was not related to tooth age (P > 0.05). In Triadan 06s, pulp horn 6 was always connected to pulp horns 1 and 3 and root canal I. In Triadan 11s, pulp horns 7 and 8 were present in variable constitutions. Mandibular teeth: A common pulp chamber was present in teeth up to 15 years, but most commonly seen in teeth ≤5

  13. Distributed computing and NMR constraint-based high-resolution structure determination: applied for bioactive Peptide endothelin-1 to determine C-terminal folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Norio; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yoshida, Takuya; Tamaoki, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2004-04-14

    Distributed computing has been implemented to the solution structure determination of endothelin-1 to evaluate efficiency of the method for NMR constraint-based structure calculations. A key target of the investigation was determination of the C-terminal folding of the peptide, which had been dispersed in previous studies of NMR, despite its pharmacological significances. With use of tens of thousands of random initial structures to explore the conformational space comprehensively, we determined high-resolution structures with good convergences of C-terminal as well as previously defined N-terminal structures. The previous studies had missed the C-terminal convergence because of initial structure dependencies trapped in localized folding of the N-terminal region, which are strongly constricted by two disulfide bonds.

  14. Lung involvement in systemic sclerosis: role of high resolution computed tomography and its relationship with other pulmonary and clinico-serological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaci, M; Sebastiani, M; Manfredi, A; Giuggioli, D; Cassone, G; Manzini, C U; Ghizzoni, C; Cerri, S; Ferri, C

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the characteristic of interstitial lung disease in a large series of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients by means of HRCT and the correlations between functional lung parameters, serological features and the extent of lung involvement evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). One hundred and seven SSc patients, consecutively investigated by means of HRCT, standard chest X-ray, and pulmonary function tests, were retrospectively evaluated. Chest radiogram and HRCT scores were strongly associated (Pearson’'s r=0.82, p involvement in SSc evaluated with HRCT is directly proportional to functional lung parameters. HRCT, spirometry and DLco should be considered essential in the core-set of non-invasive diagnostic tools for the first-line assessment of scleroderma lung involvement.

  15. Sarcoidose pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Pulmonary sarcoidosis: high-resolution computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barcelos da Nóbrega

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A sarcoidose é uma doença sistêmica de causa indeterminada, caracterizada por granulomas não-caseosos. Embora possa afetar qualquer órgão, esta doença tem sua morbi-mortalidade relacionada principalmente ao acometimento pulmonar, presente em 80% a 90% dos pacientes. Este artigo ilustra as principais manifestações pulmonares da sarcoidose na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução, incluindo as formas típicas e atípicas.Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating granulomas. Although it may affect any organ, morbidity and mortality are most commonly related to pulmonary involvement, which is found in 80-90% of patients. This study illustrates the principal manifestations of sarcoidosis seen in high-resolution computed tomography scans, including typical as well as atypical forms.

  16. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions. Experimental results. Funktionelle HR-CT der Lunge. Experimentelle Untersuchungen pulmonaler Gefaess- und Atemwegsreaktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, C.J. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria) Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Brown, R.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physiology); Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine); Zeerhouni, E.A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-03-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 [mu]m and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 [mu]m through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.).

  17. Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Bone Microarchitecture in Men Relative to Women Assessed by High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyasee Amin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The trabecular and cortical compartments of bone each contributes to bone strength. Until recently, assessment of trabecular and cortical microstructure has required a bone biopsy. Now, trabecular and cortical microstructure of peripheral bone sites can be determined noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT. Studies that have used HR-pQCT to evaluate cohorts of both men and women have provided novel insights into the changes in bone microarchitecture that occur with age between the sexes, which may help to explain the lower fracture incidence in older men relative to women. This review will highlight observations from these studies on both the sex- and age-related differences in trabecular and cortical microstructure that may underlie the differences in bone strength, and thereby fracture risk, between men and women.

  18. [Synopsis of a standardized, schematic analysis of the ossicles and tympanic walls, visualized with high-resolution computed tomography (using help lines and pictograms)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobovschek, M

    1988-09-01

    As in other radiological examinations there is an essay to show the ossicles and their surrounding tympanic walls of the petrous bone in the high resolution computed tomography. This should be standardized to simplify the interpretation and to allow the comparison. For the axial imaging of the ossicles corresponding to their particular topographic situation the head is tilted to the non-examined side and a little bit dorsally flected to turn especially the stapes in the scanning plane and to image the malleus and incus axially. The standard slices of the tympanon were schematized with the help of pictogramms. This allows a faster orientation and an easier recognition of a changed topographical situation meaning a pathological condition. The coronary view is as the important second part of the HR CT of the petrous bone integrated.

  19. Use of Relative vs Fixed Offset Distance to Define Region of Interest at the Distal Radius and Tibia in High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Halekoh, Ulrich; Brixen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Although the region of interest in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, defined based on the manufacturer's protocol for in vivo scanning, provides consistency and is practically convenient, it does not take into account possible variation in morphology in the regions adjacent to the measurement site. This study aimed at compare the morphologic variation in measurements using the standard fixed offset distance to define the distal starting slice against those obtained by using a relative measurement position scaled to the individual bone length at the distal radius and tibia in normal healthy adult subjects. A total of 40 healthy adult subjects (median height, 175.3 cm; range: 150.0-196.0 cm) were included in the study. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal radius and tibia was performed in all subjects, the region of interest defined by, first, the standard measurement protocol, where the most distal CT slice was 9.5 mm and 22.5 mm from the end plate of the radius and tibia, respectively, and second, the relative measurement method, where the most distal CT slice was at 4% and 7% of the radial and tibial lengths, respectively. Volumetric densities and microarchitectural parameters were compared between the 2 methods. Measurements of the total and cortical volumetric density and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia and cortical porosity, trabecular volumetric density, and trabecular number at the tibia were significantly different between the 2 methods (all p radius (up to 34%) and the tibia (up to 36%). A lack of consideration to height (and in turn the bone lengths) in the standard patient protocol could lead to the introduction of systematic errors in radial and tibial measurements. Although this may not be of particular significance in longitudinal studies in the same individual, it potentially assumes critical importance in cross-sectional studies.

  20. Three-Dimensional Imaging and Numerical Reconstruction of Graphite/Epoxy Composite Microstructure Based on Ultra-High Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, M. W.; Riccio, M. L.; Whitacre, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study aimed at high-resolution 3D imaging, visualization, and numerical reconstruction of fiber-reinforced polymer microstructures at the fiber length scale is presented. To this end, a sample of graphite/epoxy composite was imaged at sub-micron resolution using a 3D X-ray computed tomography microscope. Next, a novel segmentation algorithm was developed, based on concepts adopted from computer vision and multi-target tracking, to detect and estimate, with high accuracy, the position of individual fibers in a volume of the imaged composite. In the current implementation, the segmentation algorithm was based on Global Nearest Neighbor data-association architecture, a Kalman filter estimator, and several novel algorithms for virtualfiber stitching, smoothing, and overlap removal. The segmentation algorithm was used on a sub-volume of the imaged composite, detecting 508 individual fibers. The segmentation data were qualitatively compared to the tomographic data, demonstrating high accuracy of the numerical reconstruction. Moreover, the data were used to quantify a) the relative distribution of individual-fiber cross sections within the imaged sub-volume, and b) the local fiber misorientation relative to the global fiber axis. Finally, the segmentation data were converted using commercially available finite element (FE) software to generate a detailed FE mesh of the composite volume. The methodology described herein demonstrates the feasibility of realizing an FE-based, virtual-testing framework for graphite/fiber composites at the constituent level.

  1. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  2. A Computational Drug Metabolite Detection Using the Stable Isotopic Mass-Shift Filtering with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry in Pioglitazone and Flurbiprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of metabolites in drug discovery is important. At present, radioisotopes and mass spectrometry are both widely used. However, rapid and comprehensive identification is still laborious and difficult. In this study, we developed new analytical software and employed a stable isotope as a tool to identify drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. A deuterium-labeled compound and non-labeled compound were both metabolized in human liver microsomes and analyzed by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS. We computationally aligned two different MS data sets and filtered ions having a specific mass-shift equal to masses of labeled isotopes between those data using our own software. For pioglitazone and flurbiprofen, eight and four metabolites, respectively, were identified with calculations of mass and formulas and chemical structural fragmentation analysis. With high resolution MS, the approach became more accurate. The approach detected two unexpected metabolites in pioglitazone, i.e., the hydroxypropanamide form and the aldehyde hydrolysis form, which other approaches such as metabolite-biotransformation list matching and mass defect filtering could not detect. We demonstrated that the approach using computational alignment and stable isotopic mass-shift filtering has the ability to identify drug metabolites and is useful in drug discovery.

  3. A high-resolution global Vlasov simulation of a small dielectric body with a weak intrinsic magnetic field on the K computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Takayuki; Fukazawa, Keiichiro

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between the solar wind and solar system bodies, such as planets, satellites, and asteroids, is one of the fundamental global-scale phenomena in space plasma physics. In the present study, the electromagnetic environment around a small dielectric body with a weak intrinsic magnetic field is studied by means of a first-principle kinetic plasma simulation, which is a challenging task in space plasma physics as well as high-performance computing. Due to several computational limitations, five-dimensional full electromagnetic Vlasov simulations with two configuration space and three velocity space coordinates are performed with two different spatial resolutions. The Debye-scale charge separation is not solved correctly in the simulation run with a low spatial resolution, while all the physical processes in collisionless plasma are included in the simulation run with a high spatial resolution. The direction comparison of electromagnetic fields between the two runs shows that there is small difference in the structure of magnetic field lines. On the other hand, small-scale fine structures of electrostatic fields are enhanced by the electric charge separation and the charge accumulation on the surface of the body in the high-resolution run, while these structures are absent in the low-resolution runs. These results are consistent with the conventional understanding of plasma physics that the structure and dynamics of global magnetic fields, which are generally described by the magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) equations, are not affected by electron-scale microphysics.

  4. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  5. High Resolution Acoustical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    1028 (September 1982). 26 G. Arfken , Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press, New York, 1971), 2nd printing, pp.662-666. 27 W. R. Hahn...difference in the approach used by the two methods , as noted in the previous paragraph, forming a direct mathematical com- parison may be impossible...examines high resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the fressure waves. Several;- new methods

  6. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology; Pneumocistose na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-12-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  7. Robust phase retrieval for high resolution edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography in non-ideal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Anna; Endrizzi, Marco; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Urbani, Luca; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Edge illumination x-ray phase contrast tomography is a recently developed imaging technique which enables three-dimensional visualisation of low-absorbing materials. Dedicated phase retrieval algorithms can provide separate computed tomography (CT) maps of sample absorption, refraction and scattering properties. In this paper we propose a novel “modified local retrieval” method which is capable of accurately retrieving sample properties in a range of realistic, non-ideal imaging environments. These include system misalignment, defects in the used optical elements and system geometry variations over time due to vibrations or temperature fluctuations. System instabilities were analysed, modelled and incorporated into a simulation study. As a result, an additional modification was introduced to the retrieval procedure to account for changes in the imaging system over time, as well as local variations over the field of view. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in comparison to a previously used “global retrieval” method by applying both approaches to experimental CT data of a rat’s heart acquired in a non-ideal environment. The use of the proposed method resulted in the removal of major artefacts, leading to a significant improvement in image quality. This method will therefore enable acquiring high-resolution, reliable CT data of large samples in realistic settings.

  8. Flat-Panel Computed Tomography (DYNA-CT) in Neuroradiology. From High-Resolution Imaging of Implants to One-Stop-Shopping for Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, A; Gölitz, P; Engelhorn, T; Kloska, S; Struffert, T

    2015-10-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range, flat-panel detector technology has meanwhile got widely accepted in the neuroradiological community. Especially flat-panel detector computed tomography (FD-CT) using rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. By providing CT-like images of the brain within the angio suite, FD-CT is able to rapidly visualize hemorrhage and may thus improve complication management without the need of patient transfer. As "Angiographic CT" FD-CT may be helpful during many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures and for noninvasive monitoring and follow-up. In addition, spinal interventions and high-resolution imaging of the temporal bone might also benefit from FD-CT. Finally, using novel dynamic perfusion and angiographic protocols, FD-CT may provide functional information on brain perfusion and vasculature with the potential to replace standard imaging in selected acute stroke patients.

  9. Systematization of vestibular aqueduct anatomical study by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Eliezia Helena de Lima [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: elimaalvarenga@ibest.com.br; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio Mendonca [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Yamashita, Helio Kiitiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Lima, Eliece Jose de; Alvarenga, Adalberto Martins; Bisinoto, Sirlei Maria Barra

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to systematize the assessment of vestibular aqueduct by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease as compared with a control group. Materials and methods: ee have selected 20 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease, according to the guidelines proposed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. The control group consisted of ten individuals with normal audiometric tests. Overall, we have studied 60 ears, equally divided into three groups: group I - Meniere's disease, affected ear; group II - Meniere's disease, non-affected ear; group III - control. All the individuals have undergone temporal bones HRCT. Images were blindly reviewed, trying to evaluate the visibility of the descendent portion of the ventricular aqueduct. Afterwards data were correlated with their respective groups. Results: we have identified the vestibular aqueduct in 95% of ears in group I, 90% in group II, and 100% in group III. Conclusion: it is possible to perform a systematic evaluation of the vestibular aqueduct by axial HRCT, using the same radiological technique, anatomical knowledge and sequential images of inner ear structures. With this systematic approach we have obtained a high rate of vestibular aqueduct visualization, with no statistically significant difference between the groups.(author)

  10. A computational platform for robotized fluorescence microscopy (II): DNA damage, replication, checkpoint activation, and cell cycle progression by high-content high-resolution multiparameter image-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Laura; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Faretta, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Dissection of complex molecular-networks in rare cell populations is limited by current technologies that do not allow simultaneous quantification, high-resolution localization, and statistically robust analysis of multiple parameters. We have developed a novel computational platform (Automated Microscopy for Image CytOmetry, A.M.I.CO) for quantitative image-analysis of data from confocal or widefield robotized microscopes. We have applied this image-cytometry technology to the study of checkpoint activation in response to spontaneous DNA damage in nontransformed mammary cells. Cell-cycle profile and active DNA-replication were correlated to (i) Ki67, to monitor proliferation; (ii) phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and 53BP1, as markers of DNA-damage response (DDR); and (iii) p53 and p21, as checkpoint-activation markers. Our data suggest the existence of cell-cycle modulated mechanisms involving different functions of γH2AX and 53BP1 in DDR, and of p53 and p21 in checkpoint activation and quiescence regulation during the cell-cycle. Quantitative analysis, event selection, and physical relocalization have been then employed to correlate protein expression at the population level with interactions between molecules, measured with Proximity Ligation Analysis, with unprecedented statistical relevance. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Analysis of the high-resolution computed tomographic diagnosis of small solitary pulmonary nodule using evaluation of edge and internal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Awaya, Hitomi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Miura, Goji; Ariyoshi, Isao; Yoshimizu, Tazuko; Nomura, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-10-01

    To improve the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), we analyzed the results of an observer test in 26 cases with non-calcified SPN less than 3cm in maximal diameter including 13 malignant and 13 benign cases. Using evaluation of the edge and internal characteristics of the nodule, eight observers made differential diagnoses with five levels of confidence for SPN on both high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and conventional tomography (TOMO). The results of HRCT diagnoses were compared with those of TOMO diagnoses. HRCT diagnosis of SPN (Az=0.897) was significantly better than TOMO diagnosis (Az=0.705) in the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, because of the improvement in confidence level for malignant nodules in HRCT diagnosis. On the contrary, the diagnostic accuracy in benign nodules on HRCT was almost equal to that on TOMO. When one or more findings suggestive of malignancy, such as spicula or notching, were recognized, the nodules were diagnosed as possible malignancy. However, interindividual variations in interpretations of such findings were great among observers. In the differential diagnosis of SPN on HRCT, benign findings used were few compared with malignant findings. Our results indicate that (1) a method of handing interindividual variation of interpretations should be devised and (2) the diagnostic characteristics of each HRCT finding suggestive of benignity as well as malignancy, should be established in a larger series. (author).

  12. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire G-SCOP, Grenoble (France); Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Pneumology, Bobigny (France); Brillet, Pierre-Yves [Universite Paris 13, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Avicenne, UPRES EA 2363, Department of Radiology, Bobigny (France); Hopital Avicenne, Service de Radiologie, Bobigny Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity ({>=}64%) and specificity ({>=}78%) and a high negative predictive value ({>=}93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity ({>=}78%) and specificity ({>=}89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  13. Values of high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in managements of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oguzhan Okutan; Zafer Kartaloglu; Ahmet Ilvan; Ali Kutlu; Erkan Bozkanat; Emir Silit

    2004-01-01

    function tests (PFT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METhODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic HCV infection without diagnosis of any pulmonary diseases and 10 healthy cases were enrolled in the study. PFT and HRCT were performed in all cases.RESULTS: A decrease lower than 80% of the predicted value was detected in vital capacity in 9/34 patients, in forced expiatory volume in one second in 8/34 patients, and in forced expiratory flow 25-75 in 15/34 patients, respectively. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was decreased in 26/34 patients. Findings of interstitial pulmonary involvement were detected in the HRCT of 16/34 patients. Significant difference was found between controls and patienls with HCV infection in findings of HRCT (X2=4.7, P =0.003). Knodell histological activity index (KHAI) of 28/34 patients in whom liver biopsy was applied was 9.0±4.7. HRCT findings, PFT values and DLCO were not affected by KHAI in patienIs with HCV infection. In these patiente, all the parameters were related with age.CONCLUSION: We suggest that chronic hepatitis C virus infection may cause pulmonary interstitial involvement without evident respiratory symptoms.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  15. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  16. Controlling the position and the dislocation of the middle ear transducer with high-resolution computed tomography and digital volume tomography: implications for the transducers' design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Giesemann, Anja M; Witt, Thomas; Goetz, Friedrich; Schwab, Burkard

    2012-04-01

    A minimal tip dislocation of the middle ear transducer (MET(®), Otologics Ltd) may result in poor hearing performance. Our objective was to examine if a defined MET dislocation can be diagnosed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) or digital volume tomography (DVT). A human cadaver head was sequentially implanted with different MET tips (incus application) including a ceramic tip (T 1c), a titanium tip (T 1t), a new, thinner titanium tip (T 2), and a spherical titanium tip (Ts). HRCT and DVT studies were performed. Afterward, the tips were pulled back 0.5 mm, so that they were not attached to the incus. HRCT and DVT scans were repeated to identify the dislocation. Using the best plain in HRCT images, the dislocation of the transducer could be measured reliably and reproducibly in half of the cases. In particular, the precise positioning and the dislocation could be identified when T 1t and Ts were implanted, with the Ts showing the best visibility. DVT failed in recognizing the dislocation in all cases. The identification of MET tip's dislocation with HRCT depends on the shape, size, and material of the tip. This knowledge is useful for the design of the implants, as determination of the right position of the middle ear transducer may be proven important for the hearing outcome. In some cases, however, surgical exploration may still be required. Although DVT represents a promising imaging method for the otologists, it can barely help when MET dislocation is suspected.

  17. Dynamic Observation of the Three-Dimensional Distribution of Labeled Liposomes Using the Novel High-Resolution Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wirrwar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show that the multipinhole technique (high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography [HiSPECT] is suitable for dynamic imaging of both biodistribution and temporal uptake behavior of radiolabeled cationic liposomes in Balb/c-mice. HiSPECT uses multipinhole collimators adapted to a clinical SPECT scanner, together with a dedicated iterative reconstruction program. This technique provides both high spatial resolution and an improvement in sensitivity. Six male Balb/c mice received 9.8 ± 4.0 MBq of the In 111-labeled liposomes. The measurements started directly after the injection and tomographic data were acquired in steps of 5 minutes. The regional evaluation displayed a high initial uptake of liposomes in the lungs (45.4%, which decreased to 25.1% after 30 minutes and to below 2% after 48 hours. In contrast, liver uptake increased in the first 30 minutes from 13.1 to 21.2% and remained relatively stable at 24.4% (24 hours and 18.8% (48 hours. The data are interpreted as a slow shift of liposomes from the lungs into the liver and later to other organs such as the spleen and bladder. This study shows that the HiSPECT technique is capable of dynamically visualizing the uptake behavior of radioactively labeled liposomes in vivo with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  18. Use of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography and 3D image analysis to quantify mineral dissemination and pore space in oxide copper ore particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-hua; Wu, Ai-xiang; Narsilio, Guillermo A.; Miao, Xiu-xiu; Wu, Shu-yue

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dissemination and pore space distribution in ore particles are important features that influence heap leaching performance. To quantify the mineral dissemination and pore space distribution of an ore particle, a cylindrical copper oxide ore sample (ϕ4.6 mm × 5.6 mm) was scanned using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), a nondestructive imaging technology, at a spatial resolution of 4.85 μm. Combined with three-dimensional (3D) image analysis techniques, the main mineral phases and pore space were segmented and the volume fraction of each phase was calculated. In addition, the mass fraction of each mineral phase was estimated and the result was validated with that obtained using traditional techniques. Furthermore, the pore phase features, including the pore size distribution, pore surface area, pore fractal dimension, pore centerline, and the pore connectivity, were investigated quantitatively. The pore space analysis results indicate that the pore size distribution closely fits a log-normal distribution and that the pore space morphology is complicated, with a large surface area and low connectivity. This study demonstrates that the combination of HRXCT and 3D image analysis is an effective tool for acquiring 3D mineralogical and pore structural data.

  19. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Togni Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient. The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population.

  20. Conversion factors for determining organ doses received by paediatric patients in high-resolution single slice computed tomography with narrow collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael C.; Schneider, Karl [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Paediatric Radiology; Harder, Dietrich [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Medical Physics and Biophysics; Regulla, Dieter F. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics

    2014-09-01

    Estimations of organ doses D{sub T} received during computed tomographic examinations are usually performed by applying conversion factors to basic dose indicators like the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) or the dose-length-product (DLP). In addition to the existing conversion factors for beam apertures of 5 mm or 10 mm, we present new DLP-D{sub T} conversion factors adapted to high-resolution CT (HRCT) examinations of infants and young children with beam apertures of the order of 1 mm and under consideration of bow tie filtration. Calculations are performed on mathematical MIRD phantoms for an age range from 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 up to (for comparison) 30 years by adapting PCXMC, a Monte Carlo algorithm originally developed by STUK (Helsinki, Finland) for dose reconstructions in projection radiography. For this purpose, each single slice CT examination is approximated by a series of corresponding virtual planar radiographies comprising all focus positions. The transformation of CT exposure parameters into exposure parameters of the series of corresponding planar radiographies is performed by a specially developed algorithm called XCT. The DLP values are evaluated using the EGSRay code. The new method is verified at a beam aperture of 10 mm by comparison with formerly published conversion factors. We show that the higher spatial resolution leads to an enhanced DLP-D{sub T} conversion factor if a small organ (e.g. thyroid gland, mammae, uterus, ovaries, testes) is exactly met by the chosen CT slice, while the conversion factor is drastically reduced if the chosen CT slice is positioned above or below the organ. This effect is utilized for dose-saving examinations with only a few single slices instead a full scan, which technique is applied in about 10% of all paediatric chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  1. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 2.: pathology; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 2.: patologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Selected cases of the temporal bone pathology on high resolution CT were demonstrated. Transverse and coronal sections of the cases were selected from 68 patients with various otological diseases. (author) 14 refs, 5 figs

  2. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  3. Distal radius plate of CFR-PEEK has minimal effect compared to titanium plates on bone parameters in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Joost J A; Lataster, Arno; van Rietbergen, Bert; Arts, Jacobus J; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-02-27

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) has superior radiolucency compared to other orthopedic implant materials, e.g. titanium or stainless steel, thus allowing metal-artifact-free postoperative monitoring by computed tomography (CT). Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) proved to be a promising technique to monitor the recovery of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), micro-architecture and biomechanical parameters in stable conservatively treated distal radius fractures. When using HRpQCT to monitor unstable distal radius fractures that require volar distal radius plating for fixation, radiolucent CFR-PEEK plates may be a better alternative to currently used titanium plates to allow for reliable assessment. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of a volar distal radius plate made from CFR-PEEK on bone parameters obtained from HRpQCT in comparison to two titanium plates. Plates were instrumented in separate cadaveric human fore-arms (n = 3). After instrumentation and after removal of the plates duplicate HRpQCT scans were made of the region covered by the plate. HRpQCT images were visually checked for artifacts. vBMD, micro-architectural and biomechanical parameters were calculated, and compared between the uninstrumented and instrumented radii. No visible image artifacts were observed in the CFR-PEEK plate instrumented radius, and errors in bone parameters ranged from -3.2 to 2.6%. In the radii instrumented with the titanium plates, severe image artifacts were observed and errors in bone parameters ranged between -30.2 and 67.0%. We recommend using CFR-PEEK plates in longitudinal in vivo studies that monitor the healing process of unstable distal radius fractures treated operatively by plating or bone graft ingrowth.

  4. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, PFibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Reader Accuracy and Confidence in Diagnosing Diffuse Lung Disease on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lungs: Impact of Sampling Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, B.; Gross, B.H.; Oh, E.; Mueller, N.; Myles, J.D.; Kazerooni, E.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Michigan Institute for Clinical Health Research, Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States))

    2008-10-15

    Background: The accuracy of the number of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images necessary to diagnose diffuse lung disease (DLD) is not well established. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of HRCT sampling frequency on reader confidence and accuracy for diagnosing DLD. Material and Methods: HRCT images of 100 consecutive patients with proven DLD were reviewed. They were: 48 usual interstitial pneumonia, 22 sarcoidosis, six hypersensitivity pneumonitis, five each of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and nine others. Inspiratory images at 1-cm increments throughout the lungs and three specified levels formed complete and limited examinations. In random order, three experts (readers 1, 2, and 3) ranked their top three diagnoses and rated confidence for their top diagnosis, independently and blinded to clinical information. Results: Using the complete versus limited examinations for correct first-choice diagnosis, accuracy for reader 1 (R1) was 81% versus 80%, respectively, for reader 2 (R2) 70% versus 70%, and for reader 3 (R3) 64% versus 59%. Reader accuracy within their top three choices for complete versus limited examinations was: R1 91% versus 91% of cases, respectively, R2 84% versus 83%, and R3 79% versus 72% of cases. No statistically significant differences were found between the diagnosis methods (P=0.28 for first diagnosis and P=0.17 for top three choices). The confidence intervals for individual raters showed considerable overlap, and the point estimates are almost identical. The mean interreader agreement for complete versus limited HRCT for both top and top three diagnoses were the same (moderate and fair, respectively). The mean intrareader agreement between complete and limited HRCT for top and top three diagnoses were substantial and moderate, respectively. Conclusion: Overall reader accuracy and confidence in diagnosis did not significantly differ when fewer or more HRCT images

  7. New constraints on the origin of the Skaergaard intrusion Cu-Pd-Au mineralization: Insights from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godel, Bélinda; Rudashevsky, Nikolay S.; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Rudashevsky, Vladimir N.

    2014-03-01

    This contribution presents the first detailed three-dimensional (3D) in situ analysis of samples from the Platinova Reef using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) and 3D image processing and quantification coupled with microscopic and mineralogical investigations. Our HRXCT analyses reveal the complex textural relationships between Cu-rich sulfides (bulk composition close to bornite), skaergaardite (PdCu), Au-rich phases, silicates and Fe-Ti oxides and provide unequivocal textural evidences, not observed previously. The association in 3D between Cu-rich sulfide globules, PdCu alloy and ilmenite is inconsistent with a hydrothermal origin of the Cu-Pd mineralization. In contrast, our results combined with phase diagrams strongly support a primary magmatic origin for the Cu-Pd mineralization where Cu and Pd-rich, Fe-poor sulfide liquid represents a cumulus phase that forms by in-situ nucleation. These sulfide droplets and attached skaergaardite grains were trapped during the formation and crystallization of the Fe-Ti oxides. Subsequent, post-cumulus processes led to the partial to total dissolution of the sulfide not entirely enclosed by the Fe-Ti oxides (i.e., not protected from reaction) leading to the observed variability in Cu and Pd composition at the aggregate (sulfide + PdCu) scale and to the occurrence of free PdCu alloys. In contrast to the PdCu alloy, gold-bearing minerals are never observed entirely enclosed within the Fe-Ti oxide. Two hypotheses can be envisaged for the formation of the gold enriched layer in the upper part of the section. Gold may have either precipitated from high-temperature late magmatic Cl-rich fluids. Alternatively, gold may have been enriched during fractional crystallization after sulfide had been suppressed from the liquidus after the Pd layer crystallized and then deposited along redox barriers.

  8. A customized protocol to assess bone quality in the metacarpal head, metacarpal shaft and distal radius: a high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography precision study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Lynne; Buie, Helen; Li, Linda; McKay, Heather

    2013-12-24

    High Resolution-Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT) is an emerging technology for evaluation of bone quality in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). However, there are limitations with standard HR-pQCT imaging protocols for examination of regions of bone commonly affected in RA. We developed a customized protocol for evaluation of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microstructure at the metacarpal head (MH), metacarpal shaft (MS) and ultra-ultra-distal (UUD) radius; three sites commonly affected in RA. The purpose was to evaluate short-term measurement precision for bone density and microstructure at these sites. 12 non-RA participants, individuals likely to have no pre-existing bone damage, consented to participate [8 females, aged 23 to 71 y [median (IQR): 44 (28) y]. The custom protocol includes more comfortable/stable positioning and adapted cortical segmentation and direct transformation analysis methods. Dominant arm MH, MS and UUD radius scans were completed on day one; repeated twice (with repositioning) three to seven days later. Short-term precision for repeated measures was explored using intraclass correlational coefficient (ICC), mean coefficient of variation (CV%), root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%) and least significant change (LSC%95). Bone density and microstructure precision was excellent: ICCs varied from 0.88 (MH2 trabecular number) to .99 (MS3 polar moment of inertia); CV% varied from 3 on 5 point scale. In our facility, this custom protocol extends the potential for in vivo HR-pQCT imaging to assess, with high precision, regional differences in bone quality at three sites commonly affected in RA. Our methods are easy to adopt and we recommend other users of HR-pQCT consider this protocol for further evaluations of its precision and feasibility in their imaging facilities.

  9. Exploring the utility of high resolution "nano-" computed tomography imaging to place quantitative constraints on shell biometric changes in marine pteropods in response to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, R.; Howes, E.; Lischka, S.; Rudolph, R.; Büdenbender, J.; Bijma, J.; Gattuso, J. P.; Riebesell, U.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying the response of marine organisms to present and future ocean acidification remains a major challenge encompassing observations on single species in culture and scaling up to the ecosystem and global scale. Understanding calcification changes in culture experiments designed to simulate present and future ocean conditions under potential CO2 emissions scenarios, and especially detecting the likely more subtle changes that may occur prior to the onset of more extreme ocean acidification, depends on the tools available. Here we explore the utility of high-resolution computed tomography (nano-CT) to provide quantitative biometric data on field collected and cultured marine pteropods, using the General Electric Company Phoenix Nanotom S Instrument. The technique is capable of quantitating the whole shell of the organism, allowing shell dimensions to be determined as well as parameters such as average shell thickness, the variation in thickness across the whole shell and in localized areas, total shell volume and surface area and when combined with weight measurements shell density can be calculated. The potential power of the technique is the ability to derive these parameters even on very small organisms less than 1 millimeter in size. Tuning the X-ray strength of the instrument allows organic material to be excluded from the analysis. Through replicate analysis of standards, we assess the reproducibility of data, and by comparison with dimension measurements derived from light microscopy we assess the accuracy of dimension determinations. We present results from historical and modern pteropod populations from the Mediterranean and cultured polar pteropods, resolving statistically significant differences in shell biometrics in both cases that may represent responses to ocean acidification.

  10. Cluster analysis of bone microarchitecture from high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography demonstrates two separate phenotypes associated with high fracture risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M H; Robinson, D E; Ward, K A; Javaid, M K; Walker-Bone, K; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare problem which is conventionally assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). New technologies such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) also predict fracture risk. HRpQCT measures a number of bone characteristics that may inform specific patterns of bone deficits. We used cluster analysis to define different bone phenotypes and their relationships to fracture prevalence and areal bone mineral density (BMD). 177 men and 159 women, in whom fracture history was determined by self-report and vertebral fracture assessment, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and femoral neck DXA. Five clusters were derived with two clusters associated with elevated fracture risk. "Cluster 1" contained 26 women (50.0% fractured) and 30 men (50.0% fractured) with a lower mean cortical thickness and cortical volumetric BMD, and in men only, a mean total and trabecular area more than the sex-specific cohort mean. "Cluster 2" contained 20 women (50.0% fractured) and 14 men (35.7% fractured) with a lower mean trabecular density and trabecular number than the sex-specific cohort mean. Logistic regression showed fracture rates in these clusters to be significantly higher than the lowest fracture risk cluster [5] (pcluster 5 in women in cluster 1 and 2 (pcluster 2 (pclusters in both men and women which may differ in etiology and response to treatment. As cluster 1 in men does not have low areal BMD, these men may not be identified as high risk by conventional DXA alone. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Feasibility of Automated Quantification of Regional Disease Patterns Depicted on High-Resolution Computed Tomography in Patients with Various Diffuse Lung Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Ok; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Nam Kug; Park, Bum Woo; Sung, Yu Sub; Lee, Young Joo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [East-West Neo Medical Center of Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Suk Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to develop an automated system for quantification of various regional disease patterns of diffuse lung diseases as depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and to compare the performance of the automated system with human readers. A total of 600 circular regions-of-interest (ROIs), 10 pixels in diameter, were utilized. The 600 ROIs comprised 100 ROIs that represented six typical regional patterns (normal, ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). The ROIs were used to train the automated classification system based on the use of a Support Vector Machine classifier and 37 features of texture and shape. The performance of the classification system was tested with a 5-fold cross-validation method. An automated quantification system was developed with a moving ROI in the lung area, which helped classify each pixel into six categories. A total of 92 HRCT images obtained from patients with different diseases were used to validate the quantification system. Two radiologists independently classified lung areas of the same CT images into six patterns using the manual drawing function of dedicated software. Agreement between the automated system and the readers and between the two individual readers was assessed. The overall accuracy of the system to classify each disease pattern based on the typical ROIs was 89%. When the quantification results were examined, the average agreement between the system and each radiologist was 52% and 49%, respectively. The agreement between the two radiologists was 67%. An automated quantification system for various regional patterns of diffuse interstitial lung diseases can be used for objective and reproducible assessment of disease severity.

  12. Comparison of high-resolution and standard zoom imaging modes in cone beam computed tomography for detection of longitudinal root fracture: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taramsari, Mehran; Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Bashizadeh, Parinaz [Faculty of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salamat, Fatemeh [Vice Chancellor of Research and Technology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two imaging modes in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in detecting root fracture in endodontically-treated teeth with fiber posts or screw posts by selecting two fields of view. In this study, 78 endodontically-treated single canal premolars were included. A post space was created in all of them. Then the teeth were randomly set in one of 6 artificial dental arches. In 39 of the 78 teeth set in the 6 dental arches, a root fracture was intentionally created. Next, a fiber post and a screw post were cemented into 26 teeth having equal the root fractures. High resolution (HiRes) and standard zoom images were provided by a CBCT device. Upon considering the reconstructed images, two observers in agreement with each other confirmed the presence or absence of root fracture. A McNemar test was used for comparing the results of the two modes. The frequency of making a correct diagnosis using the HiRes zoom imaging mode was 71.8% and in standard zoom was 59%. The overall sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing root fracture in the HiRes mode were 71.79% and 46.15% and in the standard zoom modes were 58.97% and 33.33%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the diagnostic values of the two imaging modes used in the diagnosis of root fracture or in the presence of root canal restorations. In both modes, the most true-positive results were reported in the post space group.

  13. Lung disease assessment in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a comparison between chest high-field magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacotucci Paola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is associated with pulmonary involvement that requires periodical assessment. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has become the method of choice to evaluate chronic lung disease, but entails exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as a potential radiation-free technique in several chest disorders. Aim of our study is to evaluate whether high-field MRI is as effective as HRCT in identifying PCD pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the relationships between the severity and extension of lung disease, and functional data. Methods Thirteen PCD patients (8 children/5 adults; median age, 15.2 yrs underwent chest HRCT and high-field 3T MRI, spirometry, and deep throat or sputum culture. Images were scored using a modified version of the Helbich system. Results HRCT and MRI total scores were 12 (range, 6–20 and 12 (range, 5–17, respectively. Agreement between HRCT and MRI scores was good or excellent (r > 0.8. HRCT and MRI total scores were significantly related to forced vital capacity (r = -0.5, p = 0.05; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (r = -0.6, p = 0.03; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion Chest high-field 3T MRI appears to be as effective as HRCT in assessing the extent and severity of lung abnormalities in PCD. MRI scores might be used for longitudinal assessment and be an outcome surrogate in future studies.

  14. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.;

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative...

  15. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  16. High-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone. Part 1.: normal anatomy; Kosc skroniowa w tomografii komputerowej wysokiej rozdzielczosci. Czesc 1.: anatomia prawidlowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegorzewski, M.; Boron, Z.; Burzynska-Makuch, M. [Katedra i Zaklad Radiologii i Diagnostyki Narzadowej, Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Normal anatomy of the temporal bone in transverse and coronal sections was presented. CT studies were performed using high-resolution program. The images of an asymptomatic ear of 2 patients were selected from 68 cases examined on account of various otological diseases. All the sections showed as many as 68 anatomic structures. (author) 5 refs, 2 figs

  17. High-resolution computed tomography in chronic diffuse diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma. La tomodensitometrie haute resolution dans les maladies chroniques diffuses du parenchyme pulmonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, M. (Hopital Avicenne, 93 Bobigny (FR))

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution CT is a new method for the study of the pulmonary parenchyma which has several merits. It allows screening subradiographic lesions of the lungs, accurately locating the lesions, quantifying them, suggesting the etiological diagnosis, contributing in the assessment of the activity of the disease and following its evolution. A new semiology is being developed.

  18. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  19. CARCINOMA BRONQUÍOLO-ALVEOLAR: ASPECTOS NA TOMOGRAFIA COMPUTADORIZADA DE ALTA RESOLUÇÃO Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: aspects in high-resolution computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Beatriz Melo Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar é um tipo de carcinoma broncogênico de crescimento insidioso, que surge nas paredes das vias aéreas distais e se dissemina utilizando o septo alveolar como um estroma, preservando a arquitetura pulmonar. Neste trabalho foram analisadas as tomografias computadorizadas de alta resolução de 17 pacientes com carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar. Ao contrário do relatado na literatura, foram observados predomínio no sexo masculino (71% e maior freqüência da associação das formas de consolidação e multinodular (53% em relação à forma nodular solitária (12%, multinodular (12% e de consolidação (23%. Os aspectos mais encontrados foram: áreas de consolidação (76%, broncograma aéreo (71%, áreas de baixa atenuação provavelmente devidas à presença de muco (60%, espessamento de septos interlobulares, opacidades em vidro fosco e nódulos confluentes (54% cada, e pavimentação em mosaico (36%. Os nódulos cavitados, a atelectasia, o sinal do halo e o aspecto de "árvore em brotamento" foram observados em apenas um caso cada.Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a bronchogenic carcinoma that presents an insidious growth, arises from the walls of the distal air spaces and spreads using the alveolar septa as a stroma, preserving the lung architecture. In this work we analyze the high-resolution computed tomography of 17 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Conversely to the data presented in the literature, male preponderance (71% and a higher frequency of association between multinodular and consolidation patterns (53% in comparison to single nodular (12%, multinodular (12% and consolidation (23% patterns were observed. The most common findings were: consolidation areas (76%, air bronchogram (71%, low attenuation areas (60%, thickening of interlobular septa, ground-glass attenuation and confluent nodules (54% each, and crazy paving pattern (36%. Cavitated nodules, atelectasis, halo sign and "tree in bud

  20. Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A proposta deste estudo foi caracterizar por meio de tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax as principais alterações pulmonares do edema pulmonar hidrostático. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, retrospectivamente, as tomografias de quinze pacientes com quadro clínico de edema pulmonar hidrostático, divididos em cinco principais grupos etiológicos: insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, valvulopatia mitral aguda, infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite e mediastinite fibrosante, tendo sido sete pacientes classificados no primeiro grupo e dois em cada um dos demais. RESULTADOS: Os principais achados do edema hidrostático foram opacidades em vidro fosco (100%, espessamento dos septos interlobulares (100%, derrame pleural (87% e espessamento do interstício peribroncovascular (80%. Outros achados menos comuns foram aumento do calibre dos vasos, consolidações e nódulos do espaço aéreo. CONCLUSÃO: O padrão predominante encontrado nos pacientes estudados foi o de opacidades em vidro fosco associadas a espessamento dos septos interlobulares (padrão de pavimentação em mosaico, com derrame pleural bilateral, predominante à direita.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest to characterize the principal alterations occurring in cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of the tomography scans of 15 patients presenting clinical profiles of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. The cases were divided into five groups by etiology: congestive heart failure (n = 7; acute mitral valve disease (n = 2; acute myocardial infarction (n = 2; myocarditis (n = 2; and fibrosing mediastinitis (n = 2. RESULTS: The principal findings in the cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema were ground-glass opacities (in 100%, interlobular septal thickening (in 100%, pleural effusion (in 87% and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (in 80%. Other, less common

  1. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    -sensed imagery and government databases. For the historical period, we build confidence in the model simulations through comparisons with streamflow estimates in the region. We also evaluate the WRF forcing outcomes with respect to meteorological inputs from ground rain gauges and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). We then analyze the high-resolution spatiotemporal predictions of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, runoff generation and recharge under past conditions and for the climate change scenario. A comparison with the historical period will yield a first-of-its-kind assessment at very high spatiotemporal resolution on the impacts of climate change on the hydrologic response of two large semiarid river basins of the southwestern United States.

  2. High-resolution image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, K

    1986-01-01

    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis.

  3. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  4. Moisture balance over the Iberian Peninsula computed using a high resolution regional climate model. The impact of 3DVAR data assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rojí, Santos J.; Sáenz, Jon; Ibarra-Berastegi, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    A numerical downscaling exercise over the Iberian Peninsula has been run nesting the WRF model inside ERA Interim. The Iberian Peninsula has been covered by a 15km x 15 km grid with 51 vertical levels. Two model configurations have been tested in two experiments spanning the period 2010-2014 after a one year spin-up (2009). In both cases, the model uses high resolution daily-varying SST fields and the Noah land surface model. In the first experiment (N), after the model is initialised, boundary conditions drive the model, as usual in numerical downscaling experiments. The second experiment (D) is configured the same way as the N case, but 3DVAR data assimilation is run every six hours (00Z, 06Z, 12Z and 18Z) using observations obtained from the PREPBUFR dataset (NCEP ADP Global Upper Air and Surface Weather Observations) using a 120' window around analysis times. For the data assimilation experiment (D), seasonally (monthly) varying background error covariance matrices have been prepared according to the parameterisations used and the mesoscale model domain. For both N and D runs, the moisture balance of the model runs has been evaluated over the Iberian Peninsula, both internally according to the model results (moisture balance in the model) and also in terms of the observed moisture fields from observational datasets (particularly precipitable water and precipitation from observations). Verification has been performed both at the daily and monthly time scales. The verification has also been performed for ERA Interim, the driving coarse-scale dataset used to drive the regional model too. Results show that the leading terms that must be considered over the area are the tendency in the precipitable water column, the divergence of moisture flux, evaporation (computed from latent heat flux at the surface) and precipitation. In the case of ERA Interim, the divergence of Qc is also relevant, although still a minor player in the moisture balance. Both mesoscale model

  5. The future of high resolution electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Van Dyck

    2000-01-01

    The state of the art and the future in quantitative high resolution electron microscopy are discussed in the framework of parameter estimation. Reconstruction methods are then to be considered as direct methods to yield a starting structure for further refinement. With the increasing flexibility of the instruments, computer aided experimental strategy will become important.

  6. M-TraCE: a new tool for high-resolution computation and statistical elaboration of backward trajectories on the Italian domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Lina; Righini, Gaia; Piersanti, Antonio; Cremona, Giuseppe; Pace, Giandomenico; Ciancarella, Luisella

    2016-11-01

    Air backward trajectory calculations are commonly used in a variety of atmospheric analyses, in particular for source attribution evaluation. The accuracy of backward trajectory analysis is mainly determined by the quality and the spatial and temporal resolution of the underlying meteorological data set, especially in the cases of complex terrain. This work describes a new tool for the calculation and the statistical elaboration of backward trajectories. To take advantage of the high-resolution meteorological database of the Italian national air quality model MINNI, a dedicated set of procedures was implemented under the name of M-TraCE (MINNI module for Trajectories Calculation and statistical Elaboration) to calculate and process the backward trajectories of air masses reaching a site of interest. Some outcomes from the application of the developed methodology to the Italian Network of Special Purpose Monitoring Stations are shown to assess its strengths for the meteorological characterization of air quality monitoring stations. M-TraCE has demonstrated its capabilities to provide a detailed statistical assessment of transport patterns and region of influence of the site under investigation, which is fundamental for correctly interpreting pollutants measurements and ascertaining the official classification of the monitoring site based on meta-data information. Moreover, M-TraCE has shown its usefulness in supporting other assessments, i.e., spatial representativeness of a monitoring site, focussing specifically on the analysis of the effects due to meteorological variables.

  7. Note: design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated x-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, J C E; Williams, J J; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  8. High-resolution computed tomography in diffuse infiltrative diseases of the pulmonary parenchyma: A, B, C and quiz; La tomodensitometrie haute resolution dans les maladies infiltrantes diffuses du parenchyme pulmonaire: A, B, C et quiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.C.; Cordeau, M.P.; Samson, L. [Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chartrand-Lefebvre, C. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides precise imaging of lung parenchyma and is most useful in the investigation of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD). It involves thin collimation and high frequency reconstruction algorithm, and requires knowledge of the secondary pulmonary lobule anatomy. Its interpretation is facilitated by recognition of elementary signs (peri-broncho-vascular thickening, septal thickening, ground glass attenuation, etc.) which can be grouped in a HRCT pictorial glossary. In a quiz format, readers are asked to diagnose twelve cases of classical DILD with clinical correlation. (authors). 29 refs.

  9. Reduction of coil mass artifacts in high resolution flat-detector cone-beam computed tomography of cerebral stent-assisted coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bom, I.M.J.; Hou, S.Y.; Puri, A.S.; Spilberg, G.; Ruijters, D.; van de Haar, P.; Carelsen, B.; Vedantham, S.; Gounis, M.J.; Wakhloo, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Developments in flat-panel angiographic c-arm systems have enabled visualization of both the neurovascular stents and host arteries in great detail, providing complementary spatial information in addition to conventional DSA. However, the visibility of these structures may be impeded by artifacts generated by adjacent radio-attenuating objects. We report on the use of a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm for high resolution contrast-enhanced CBCT (VasoCT) for follow-up imaging of stent-assisted coil embolization. Materials and methods VasoCT data was acquired in 25 patients that underwent stent-assisted coiling. Reconstructions were generated with and without MAR and were reviewed by three experienced neuroradiologists using a 3-point scale. Results With MAR, the observers agreed that the visibility had improved by at least one point on the scoring scale in more than 40% of the cases (κ = 0.6) and that the streak artifact was not obscuring surrounding structures in 64% of all cases (κ = 0.6). MAR improved the image quality which allowed for visibility sufficient for evaluation in 65% of the cases, and was preferred over no MAR in 92% (κ = 0.9). Significantly higher scores were given with MAR (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Although MAR is not capable of fully removing artifacts caused by implants with high x-ray absorption, we have shown that the image quality of VasoCT data is improved drastically. The impact of the artifacts on the visibility varied between cases, and yet the overall visibility of the contrast-enhanced CBCT with MAR improved in the majority of the cases. PMID:23721899

  10. Petrous apex mucocele: high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Memis, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Alper, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Calli, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozer, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozdamar, N. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hospital of Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    1994-11-01

    Mucocele of the petrous apex is very rare, only three cases having been reported. Since this area is inaccessible to direct examination, imaging, preferably high resolution computed tomography (HR CT) is essential. We report a case showing an eroding, non enhancing mass with sharp, lobulated contours, within the petrous apex. The presence of a large air cell on the opposite side suggested a mucocele. (orig.)

  11. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, some...... of the computations we present have never before been carried out by standard desktop computers on data sets of comparable size....

  12. High resolution digital delay timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  13. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    carbon distribution as it relates to the presence of Bainite phase (with small tetragonality) interspersed among the cubic ferrite. An example of the...preferentially segregate. The view offered by these high resolution methods differs from what has been considered before: grains thought to be Bainite

  14. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    30 September 1986 Los Angeles Air Force Station 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Los Angeles, Calif. 90009-2960 36 74. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...TREE PLMUT ",-20 -CUTLIASS DumpER SED AN... TREE TRUNK, -0 - MERC BUMPER f - 40 H!-I -50 iI Fig. 7. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar View of

  15. High resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xuben; Li Zhirong; Li Qiong; Li Zhengwen

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution 3D nonlinear integrated inversion method is based on nonlinear theory. Under layer control, the log data from several wells (or all wells) in the study area and seismic trace data adjacent to the wells are input to a network with multiple inputs and outputs and are integratedly trained to obtain an adaptive weight function of the entire study area. Integrated nonlinear mapping relationships are built and updated by the lateral and vertical geologic variations of the reservoirs. Therefore, the inversion process and its inversion results can be constrained and controlled and a stable seismic inversion section with high resolution with velocity inversion, impedance inversion, and density inversion sections, can be gained. Good geologic effects have been obtained in model computation tests and real data processing, which verified that this method has high precision, good practicality, and can be used for quantitative reservoir analysis.

  16. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) can assess microstructural and biomechanical properties of both human distal radius and tibia: Ex vivo computational and experimental validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Yu, Y Eric; Zhang, Zhendong; Nawathe, Shashank; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Rosete, Fernando Rey; Keaveny, Tony M; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) provides in vivo three-dimensional (3D) imaging at the distal radius and tibia and has been increasingly used to characterize cortical and trabecular bone morphology in clinical studies. In this study, we comprehensively examined the accuracy of HR-pQCT and HR-pQCT based micro finite element (μFE) analysis predicted bone elastic stiffness and strength through comparisons with gold-standard micro computed tomography (μCT) based morphological/μFE measures and direct mechanical testing results. Twenty-six sets of human cadaveric distal radius and tibia segments were imaged by HR-pQCT and μCT. Microstructural analyses were performed for the registered HR-pQCT and μCT images. Bone stiffness and yield strength were determined by both HR-pQCT and μCT based linear and nonlinear μFE predictions and mechanical testing. Our results suggested that strong and significant correlations existed between the HR-pQCT standard, model-independent and corresponding μCT measurements. HR-pQCT based nonlinear μFE overestimated stiffness and yield strength while the linear μFE underestimated yield strength, but both were strongly correlated with those predicted by μCT μFE and measured by mechanical testing at both radius and tibia (R(2)>0.9). The microstructural differences between HR-pQCT and μCT were also examined by the Bland-Altman plots. Our results showed HR-pQCT morphological measurements of BV/TV(d), Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp, can be adjusted by correction values to approach true values measured by gold-standard μCT. In addition, we observed moderate correlations of HR-pQCT biomechanical and microstructural parameters between the distal radius and tibia. We concluded that morphological and mechanical properties of human radius and tibia bone can be assessed by HR-pQCT based measures.

  17. High-speed classification of coherent X-ray diffraction patterns on the K computer for high-resolution single biomolecule imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Arai, Junya [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Joti, Yasumasa [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Kameyama, Toyohisa; Yamamoto, Keiji; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Gerofi, Balazs; Shimada, Akio; Kurokawa, Motoyoshi; Shoji, Fumiyoshi [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Okada, Kensuke [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Sugimoto, Takashi [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yamaga, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Ryotaro [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Hori, Atsushi [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, 7-1-26 Minatojima-minami-machi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Ishikawa, Yutaka, E-mail: ishikawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki, E-mail: ishikawa@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Go, Nobuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A code with an algorithm for high-speed classification of X-ray diffraction patterns has been developed. Results obtained for a set of 1 × 10{sup 6} simulated diffraction patterns are also reported. Single-particle coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using an X-ray free-electron laser has the potential to reveal the three-dimensional structure of a biological supra-molecule at sub-nanometer resolution. In order to realise this method, it is necessary to analyze as many as 1 × 10{sup 6} noisy X-ray diffraction patterns, each for an unknown random target orientation. To cope with the severe quantum noise, patterns need to be classified according to their similarities and average similar patterns to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A high-speed scalable scheme has been developed to carry out classification on the K computer, a 10PFLOPS supercomputer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science. It is designed to work on the real-time basis with the experimental diffraction pattern collection at the X-ray free-electron laser facility SACLA so that the result of classification can be feedback for optimizing experimental parameters during the experiment. The present status of our effort developing the system and also a result of application to a set of simulated diffraction patterns is reported. About 1 × 10{sup 6} diffraction patterns were successfully classificatied by running 255 separate 1 h jobs in 385-node mode.

  18. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução na avaliação da toxicidade pulmonar por amiodarona High-resolution computed tomography of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Peixoto Consídera

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as principais alterações identificadas na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em pacientes com toxicidade pulmonar pela amiodarona. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas dez tomografias computadorizadas de alta resolução de tórax de pacientes com pneumonite pela amiodarona, seis desses pacientes do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino, com idade média de 73,5 anos. RESULTADOS: Os achados tomográficos mais relevantes foram opacidades lineares ou reticulares em seis casos (60%, pequenos nódulos com densidade elevada em seis casos (60%, consolidações densas em três casos (30% e aumento da densidade do parênquima hepático em cinco de oito casos em que havia estudo tomográfico do abdome superior (62,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução é um exame importante na avaliação de pacientes com toxicidade pulmonar pela amiodarona, devendo ser realizada sempre que houver suspeita deste diagnóstico. O achado de espessamento de septos interlobulares associado a lesões com aumento de densidade é altamente sugestivo deste diagnóstico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the main findings of chest high-resolution computed tomography in patients with amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients - six male and four female, average age of 73.5 years - with amiodarone-induced pneumonitis have undergone chest high-resolution computed tomography. RESULTS: The most relevant tomographic findings were linear or reticular opacities in six cases (60%, small high density nodules in six cases (60%, dense consolidations in three cases (30% and increased density in the hepatic parenchyma in five of eight cases in which there was a superior abdomen CT scan (62.5%. CONCLUSION: The high-resolution computed tomography is a valuable non-invasive test for evaluating patients with amiodarone pulmonary toxicity and should always be performed when one suspects of the presence of this

  19. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J; Clarke, Julia A; Colbert, Matthew W; Morhardt, Ashley C; Cerio, Donald; Cost, Ian N; Cox, Philip G; Daza, Juan D; Early, Catherine M; Echols, M Scott; Henkelman, R Mark; Herdina, A Nele; Holliday, Casey M; Li, Zhiheng; Mahlow, Kristin; Merchant, Samer; Müller, Johannes; Orsbon, Courtney P; Paluh, Daniel J; Thies, Monte L; Tsai, Henry P; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-06-01

    Morphologists have historically had to rely on destructive procedures to visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of animals. More recently, however, non-destructive techniques have come to the forefront. These include X-ray computed tomography (CT), which has been used most commonly to examine the mineralized, hard-tissue anatomy of living and fossil metazoans. One relatively new and potentially transformative aspect of current CT-based research is the use of chemical agents to render visible, and differentiate between, soft-tissue structures in X-ray images. Specifically, iodine has emerged as one of the most widely used of these contrast agents among animal morphologists due to its ease of handling, cost effectiveness, and differential affinities for major types of soft tissues. The rapid adoption of iodine-based contrast agents has resulted in a proliferation of distinct specimen preparations and scanning parameter choices, as well as an increasing variety of imaging hardware and software preferences. Here we provide a critical review of the recent contributions to iodine-based, contrast-enhanced CT research to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. We provide a detailed summary of recent case studies, assess factors that govern success at each step of the specimen storage, preparation, and imaging processes, and make recommendations for standardizing both techniques and reporting practices. Finally, we discuss potential cutting-edge applications of diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT) and the issues that must still be overcome to facilitate the broader adoption of diceCT going forward.

  20. High-resolution computed tomography in patients with atypical 'cardiac' chest pain: a study investigating patients at 10-year cardiovascular risks defined by the Framingham and PROCAM scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choon Kiat ANG; Kui Hian SIM; Alan Yean Yip FONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Seyfarth M Tobias; Wei Ling CHAN; Chee Khoon LIEW; Rapaee ANNUAR; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective Atypical 'cardiac' chest pain (ACCP) is not usually caused by myocardial ischaemia. Current noninvasive investigations for these symptoms are not yet as accurate as invasive coronary angiography. The latest 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) technology is non-invasive, has high specificity and negative predictive values for the detection of significant coronary disease. Our aim was to investigate if this modality can provide more information in the assessment of outpatients with ACCP in addition to established cardiovascular risk scores. Methods Seventy consecutive patients presenting to the outpatient clinic with ACCP underwent 64-row MDCT scan of the coronary arteries. They were categorized into low, medium or high risk groups based upon the Framingham and PROCAM scores. We defined a clinically abnormal MDCT scan as coronary stenosis =50% or calcium score >400 Agatston. Results Fifty-three (75.7%) patients did not have clinically abnormal scans. Framingham score classified 43 patients as low-risk while PROCAM classified 59 patients as low-risk. MDCT scans were abnormal for 18.6% and 22.0% of the respective low-risk group of patients. For patients with medium-to-high risk, 33.3% and 36.4% of Framingham and PROCAM patient groups respectively had abnormal MDCT scans. Conclusion MDCT adds valuable information in the assessment of patients with ACCP by identifying a significant proportion of patients categorized as low-risk to have underlying significant coronary stenosis and coronary calcification by established cardiovascular risk scores.

  1. Exploring the Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties in Ultra-high Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy for Isotopic Analysis Using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T., E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hoover, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rabin, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-15

    High purity germanium (HPGe) currently provides the highest readily available resolution gamma detection for a broad range of radiation measurements, but microcalorimetry is a developing option that has considerably higher resolution even than HPGe. Superior microcalorimetry resolution offers the potential to better distinguish closely spaced X-rays and gamma-rays, a common challenge for the low energy spectral region near 100 keV from special nuclear materials, and the higher signal-to-background ratio also confers an advantage in detection limit. As microcalorimetry continues to develop, it is timely to assess the impact of uncertainties in detector and item response functions and in basic nuclear data, such as branching ratios and half-lives, used to interpret spectra in terms of the contributory radioactive isotopes. We illustrate that a new inference option known as approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is effective and convenient both for isotopic inference and for uncertainty quantification for microcalorimetry. The ABC approach opens a pathway to new and more powerful implementations for practical applications than currently available.

  2. High-resolution computed tomography interpretation model for differential diagnosis of chronic interstitial lung diseases; Modelo de interpretacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao do diagnostico diferencial das doencas intersticiais cronicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C. Isabela S.; Mueller, Nestor L. [Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada). Dept. of Radiology]. E-mail: nmuller@vanhosp.bc.ca

    2005-04-01

    The recognition and differential diagnosis of the various patterns of abnormality seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) are important in the evaluation of patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases. Various patterns of abnormality have been described in the literature, which sometimes are overlapped. Distinction between the various patterns can be difficult particularly for residents and radiologists who are not familiarized with these images. The authors illustrate the characteristic patterns of abnormality seen in chronic interstitial lung diseases and propose a simple interpretation algorithm based on the pattern and distribution of the findings. The algorithm includes the six main patterns of abnormality seen on HRCT: septal lines, reticular pattern, cystic pattern, nodular pattern, ground-glass opacities and consolidation. (author)

  3. High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation: iconographic essay; Tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao nas complicacoes pulmonares pos-transplante de medula ossea: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Ono, Sergio E.; Souza, Carolina A. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia Medica e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: gasparetto@hotmail.com; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Radiologia Medica; Rocha, Gabriela de Melo; Inoue, Cezar; Falavigna, Joao M. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2005-12-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases. However, pulmonary complications, which may occur in up to 60% of the patients, are the main cause of treatment failure and may be divided in three phases according to the patient's immunity. In the first phase, up to 30 days after the procedure, there is a predominance of non-infectious complications and fungal pneumonia. Viral infections, mainly by cytomegalovirus, are common in the second phase (up to 100 days after bone marrow transplantation). Finally, in the late phase after bone marrow transplantation, non-infectious complications as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and graft-versus-host disease are most commonly seen. The authors present a pictorial essay of the high-resolution computed tomography findings in patients with pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation. (author)

  4. Assessing the Accuracy of High Resolution Digital Surface Models Computed by PhotoScan® and MicMac® in Sub-Optimal Survey Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jaud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring purposes and in the context of geomorphological research, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV appear to be a promising solution to provide multi-temporal Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthophotographs. There are a variety of photogrammetric software tools available for UAV-based data. The objective of this study is to investigate the level of accuracy that can be achieved using two of these software tools: Agisoft PhotoScan® Pro and an open-source alternative, IGN© MicMac®, in sub-optimal survey conditions (rugged terrain, with a large variety of morphological features covering a range of roughness sizes, poor GPS reception. A set of UAV images has been taken by a hexacopter drone above the Rivière des Remparts, a river on Reunion Island. This site was chosen for its challenging survey conditions: the topography of the study area (i involved constraints on the flight plan; (ii implied errors on some GPS measurements; (iii prevented an optimal distribution of the Ground Control Points (GCPs and; (iv was very complex to reconstruct. Several image processing tests are performed with different scenarios in order to analyze the sensitivity of each software package to different parameters (image quality, numbers of GCPs, etc.. When computing the horizontal and vertical errors within a control region on a set of ground reference targets, both methods provide rather similar results. A precision up to 3–4 cm is achievable with these software packages. The DSM quality is also assessed over the entire study area comparing PhotoScan DSM and MicMac DSM with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS point cloud. PhotoScan and MicMac DSM are also compared at the scale of particular features. Both software packages provide satisfying results: PhotoScan is more straightforward to use but its source code is not open; MicMac is recommended for experimented users as it is more flexible.

  5. A simulation study of high-resolution x-ray computed tomography imaging using irregular sampling with a photon-counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungwan, E-mail: lswan@yonsei.ac.kr; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr

    2013-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to improve the spatial resolution for the x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging with a photon-counting detector using an irregular sampling method. The geometric shift-model of detector was proposed to produce the irregular sampling pattern and increase the number of samplings in the radial direction. The conventional micro-x-ray CT system and the novel system with the geometric shift-model of detector were simulated using analytic and Monte Carlo simulations. The projections were reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP), algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), and total variation (TV) minimization algorithms, and the reconstructed images were compared in terms of normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE), full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), and coefficient-of-variation (COV). The results showed that the image quality improved in the novel system with the geometric shift-model of detector, and the NRMSE, FWHM, and COV were lower for the images reconstructed using the TV minimization technique in the novel system with the geometric shift-model of detector. The irregular sampling method produced by the geometric shift-model of detector can improve the spatial resolution and reduce artifacts and noise for reconstructed images obtained from an x-ray CT system with a photon-counting detector. -- Highlights: • We proposed a novel sampling method based on a spiral pattern to improve the spatial resolution. • The novel sampling method increased the number of samplings in the radial direction. • The spatial resolution was improved by the novel sampling method.

  6. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtouee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT. Patients and Methods Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively and semiquantitatively. Results All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI=0.61-0.69] than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40], (P 0.05. There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05. Conclusion The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation of the clinical status in ILD; however, further studies are recommended.

  7. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patency: Assessment with high-resolution submillimeter 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) versus coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Katharina [Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)]. E-mail: katharina.anders@idr.imed.uni-erlangen.de; Baum, Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Schmid, Michael [Department of Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Ropers, Dieter [Department of Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Schmid, Axel [Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Pohle, Karsten [Department of Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Daniel, Werner G. [Department of Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Bautz, Werner [Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Achenbach, Stephan [Department of Internal Medicine II, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of 16-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to visualize coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patency and to detect bypass stenoses. Materials and methods: Thirty-two patients with 94 grafts (20 mammary artery grafts, 74 venous grafts) were investigated by 16-slice MDCT using a scan protocol with 12 x 0.75 mm slice collimation (pitch 0.3), 420 ms rotation time and simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG)-registration. One hundred milliliters iodinated contrast agent were injected with a delay according to the individually determined contrast agent transit time. Patients with heart rates above 60 bpm received oral beta-blockade. Cross-sectional images with a slice width of 1.0 mm (0.5 mm increment) were reconstructed using an ECG-gated half-scan reconstruction or a multisegment reconstruction algorithm depending on the heart rate. Bypass grafts were evaluated concerning patency and presence of stenoses {>=}50% diameter reduction on cross-sectional images, multiplanar reformations and maximum intensity projections by two independent observers. Results were compared to coronary bypass angiography. Results: Sixteen-slice MDCT results were compared to those of invasive coronary angiography concerning absence or presence of bypass graft occlusion or relevant stenosis {>=}50% lumen reduction. Coronary CT angiography (CTA) permitted detection of bypass occlusion with 100% sensitivity (28/28) and 98% specificity (64/65). Seventy-eight percent (observer 1) and 84% (observer 2) of all patent grafts were found to be evaluable concerning presence or absence of stenosis. In 34 of 40 (observer 1) and 38 of 43 (observer 2) bypass grafts, high-grade stenoses were correctly ruled out (specificity 85% versus 88%, sensitivity 80% and 82%). Yet, if all patients with either unevaluable grafts/graft anastomosis or relevant graft stenosis were excluded, only 8/32 patients (25%) had fully diagnostic 'negative' graft-CTA. According to

  8. Fast Backprojection Techniques for High Resolution Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Koshev, Nikolay; Miqueles, Eduardo X

    2016-01-01

    Fast image reconstruction techniques are becoming important with the increasing number of scientific cases in high resolution micro and nano tomography. The processing of the large scale three-dimensional data demands new mathematical tools for the tomographic reconstruction task because of the big computational complexity of most current algorithms as the sizes of tomographic data grow with the development of more powerful acquisition hardware and more refined scientific needs. In the present paper we propose a new fast back-projection operator for the processing of tomographic data and compare it against other fast reconstruction techniques.

  9. Single shot high resolution digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  10. Assessment of bone microarchitecture in chronic kidney disease: a comparison of 2D bone texture analysis and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Fouque-Aubert, Anne; Delmas, Pierre D; Lespessailles, Eric; Fouque, Denis; Chapurlat, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Bone microarchitecture can be studied noninvasively using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). However, this technique is not widely available, so more simple techniques may be useful. BMA is a new 2D high-resolution digital X-ray device, allowing for bone texture analysis with a fractal parameter (H(mean)). The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reproducibility of BMA at two novel sites (radius and tibia) in addition to the conventional site (calcaneus), (2) to compare the results obtained with BMA at all of those sites, and (3) to study the relationship between H(mean) and trabecular microarchitecture measured with an in vivo 3D device (HR-pQCT) at the distal tibia and radius. BMA measurements were performed at three sites (calcaneus, distal tibia, and radius) in 14 healthy volunteers to measure the short-term reproducibility and in a group of 77 patients with chronic kidney disease to compare BMA results to HR-pQCT results. The coefficient of variation of H(mean) was 1.2, 2.1, and 4.7% at the calcaneus, radius, and tibia, respectively. We found significant associations between trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitectural variables measured by HR-pQCT and H(mean) at the three sites (e.g., Pearson correlation between radial trabecular number and radial H(mean) r = 0.472, P technique with few technical constraints. Thus, it may represent an interesting tool for evaluating bone structure, in association with biological parameters and DXA.

  11. High-resolution land topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  14. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  15. Fibrose maciça progressiva em trabalhadores expostos à sílica: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução Progressive massive fibrosis in silica-exposed workers: high-resolution computed tomography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Santos Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características radiológicas das massas conglomeradas pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de tórax. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 75 pacientes silicóticos, a maioria jateadores de areia, portadores de fibrose maciça progressiva, atendidos no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro entre 1986 e 2004. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, radiografia simples de tórax e tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução. RESULTADOS: Mais da metade dos pacientes com silicose complicada mostrou na radiografia de tórax grandes opacidades dos tipos B e C, denotando a gravidade da doença nesses pacientes. Dos 75 casos, apenas um apresentou massa unilateral simulando câncer de pulmão. Quarenta e quatro pacientes realizaram tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax. As massas predominaram nos terços superiores e posteriores (88,6%. Broncograma aéreo e calcificações no interior das massas foram observados em 70,4% e 63,8% dos casos, respectivamente. História de tuberculose foi relatada em 52% dos pacientes estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Na grande maioria dos casos as massas eram bilaterais, predominando nas regiões póstero-superiores dos pulmões, com broncogramas aéreos e calcificações de permeio. Associação com calcificações linfonodais foi um achado freqüente. A exposição a elevadas concentrações de poeira e a tuberculose foram consideradas fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da fibrose maciça progressiva.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the radiological characteristics of conglomerate masses using high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. METHODS: From among the patients treated between 1986 and 2004 at the Antonio Pedro University Hospital, 75 patients with silicosis and massive fibrosis, most working in the field of sandblasting, were selected for study. These patients were submitted to a clinical evaluation, chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography of

  16. High-resolution computed tomography versus chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis; Avaliacao da tomografia de alta resolucao versus radiografia de torax na doenca intersticial pulmonar na esclerose sistemica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro de; Calderaro, Debora; Moreira, Caio [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Reumatologia; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meirelles [Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Tomografia Computadorizada; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Leao Filho, Hilton Muniz; Andrade, Diego Correa de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: wilsontavaresjrmd@yahho.fr; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Vieira, Jose Nelson Mendes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-04-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with chest radiography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Materials And Methods: HRCT scans and chest radiographs in postero-anterior and lateral views were performed in 34 patients with systemic sclerosis, according to the American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for the diagnosis of SSc. The prevalence of radiological findings suggestive of interstitial lung disease in SSc seen on both imaging methods was compared. Results: Interstitial disease was observed on HRCT images of 31 patients (91%) and in the chest radiographs of 16 patients (47%). The most frequent findings observed on HRCT were septal lines (74%), honeycombing (56%) and parenchymal bands (26%). Chest radiographs showed reticular areas of attenuation in 11 patients (32%) and parenchymal distortion in 12% of the patients. In 18 patients (53%) with normal chest radiographs HRCT showed septal lines in 55%, ground glass in 44%, honeycombing in 38.5% and cysts in 33%. Conclusion: HRCT is more sensitive than chest radiography in the evaluation of incipient interstitial lung involvement in patients with SSc and can provide a justification for immunosuppressive therapy in patients with early disease. (author)

  17. A high-resolution computed tomography-based scoring system to differentiate the most infectious active pulmonary tuberculosis from community-acquired pneumonia in elderly and non-elderly patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun-Jun [Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Department of Chest Medicine and Family Medicine, Chiayi City (China); Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China); Meiho University, Pingtung (China); Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Ren [Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Department of Medical Research, Chiayi City (China); Yeh, Ting-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Kai; Hong, Jia-Bin; Wu, Bing-Tsang [Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Department of Family Medicine, Chiayi City (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Thoracic and Circulation Imaging, Kaohsiung (China); School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2014-10-15

    The objective of this study was to use high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging to predict the presence of smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in elderly (at least 65 years of age) and non-elderly patients (18-65 years of age). Patients with active pulmonary infections seen from November 2010 through December 2011 received HRCT chest imaging, sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli and sputum cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Smear-positive PTB was defined as at least one positive sputum smear and a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the HRCT predictors of smear-positive active PTB, and a prediction score was developed on the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 1,255 patients included, 139 were diagnosed with smear-positive active PTB. According to ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rates and false negative rates were 98.6 %, 95.8 %, 78.5 %, 99.8 %, 4.2 % and 1.4 %, respectively, for diagnosing smear-positive active PTB in elderly patients, and 100.0 %, 96.9 %, 76.5 %, 100.0 %, 3.1 % and 0.0 %, respectively, for non-elderly patients. HRCT can assist in the early diagnosis of the most infectious active PTB, thereby preventing transmission and minimizing unnecessary immediate respiratory isolation. (orig.)

  18. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  19. High-resolution infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  20. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  1. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S.; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Georgiadis, John G.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Rogers, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1μm demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  2. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  3. High-resolution slug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  4. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  5. Lung scintigraphy with nonspecific human immunoglobulin G ({sup 99m}Tc-HIG) in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in connective tissue diseases: correlation with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostopoulos, C.; Toubanakis, C.; Mamoulakis, C.; Gialafos, E.; Mavrikakis, M. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Athens (Greece); Koutsikos, J.; Zerva, C.; Leondi, A. [Alexandra University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Athens (Greece); Moulopoulos, L.A. [Areteion University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Sfikakis, P.P. [Laikon University Hospital, Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    In patients with connective tissue diseases (CTD), the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement is mandatory. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are considered to be valuable noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Radiopharmaceuticals have also been used for this purpose. Our aim was the evaluation of technetium-labeled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (HIG) lung scintigraphy in the early detection and assessment of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD patients. Fifty-two nonsmoking CTD patients were studied by PFTs, HRCT, and HIG. According to PFTs, patients were divided in group A (impaired PFTs - abnormal pulmonary function) and group B (normal pulmonary function). Semiquantitative analysis was done on HIG and HRCT and corresponding scores were obtained. Significant difference was found between HIG scores in the two groups (0.6 {+-} 0.07 vs 0.51 {+-} 0.08, P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between HIG scores and PFTs results and a positive correlation between HIG and HRCT scores. HIG demonstrated similar clinical performance to HRCT. At the best cut-off levels of their score (0.56 and 7, respectively), HIG had a superior sensitivity (77.5 vs 57.5%) with lower specificity (75 vs 91.7%). The combination of the two methods increased the sensitivity of abnormal findings at the expense of specificity. HIG scintigraphy can be used in the early detection and evaluation of the severity of the pulmonary involvement in CTD, whereas, when used in combination with HRCT, the detection of affected patients can be further improved. (orig.)

  6. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters.In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively.All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19-0.31] vs 0.11[0.10-0.15], P 0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29-0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18-0.24], P pulmonary involvement in early views, which were well correlated with HRCT findings. These results also revealed that 99mTc-MIBI lung scans might be used as a complement to other diagnostic and clinical examinations in terms of functional information in ILD; however, further investigations are strongly required.

  7. Correlation of structural abnormalities of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Hee; Srikhum, Waraporn; Burghardt, Andrew J; Virayavanich, Warapat; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) hands, we applied high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are new methods for erosion detection and bone marrow edema (BME) quantification. We compared the erosion measurements between these techniques with conventional radiographs (CR) in order to examine their significance for evaluating structural abnormalities. In 16 RA patients, HR-pQCT of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints, 3 T MRI of wrist joints, as well as CR in both hands and feet were performed. Ten patients had 1-year follow-up CR. CRs were graded according to the modified Sharp score (MSS). Bone erosions were evaluated in HR-pQCT and MRI. BME pattern was quantified from MRI for volume, signal change and total burden. The erosion detection sensitivity of MRI was 85.7% and CR was 60.9% when HR-pQCT was considered as a reference method. The smallest dimensions of erosion detected by HR-pQCT, MRI and CR were 0.09, 0.14 and 0.66 cm, respectively. Baseline total MSS was correlated with HR-pQCT erosion measures, MRI erosion measures and MRI BME volume (P < 0.05). The mean difference between baseline and 1-year follow-up MSS (delta MSS) was 1.2. A trend was observed toward a correlation between delta MSS and MRI BME volume and burden. This study demonstrates that HR-pQCT detects more and smaller bone erosions compared to MRI and CR. In addition, 3 T MRI can provide quantitative measurement of BME. Combination of HR-pQCT and MRI modalities may provide powerful tools to evaluate joint inflammation and bone damage in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Assessment of Acute Antivascular Effects of Vandetanib with High-Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomographic Imaging in a Human Colon Tumor Xenograft Model in the Nude Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Ho Tai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor size is not a reliable marker for the assessment of early antivascular effects of antiangiogenics. In the present study, we used 200-µm in-plane high-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT to noninvasively assess the immediate antivascular effects of vandetanib in a subcutaneous human colon cancer (LoVo xenograft model in nude rats and to investigate correlation between changes in CT perfusion parameters and tumor volume or immunohistochemical end points. At 3 to 4 weeks after LoVo cell implantation, the animal was gavaged with either vandetanib (50 mg/kg or vehicle twice (22 hours apart and scanned with a preclinical DCE-CT scanner before (0 hour and after treatment (24 hours. Quantitative maps of blood flow (BF and volume (BV of the tumor were calculated from the acquired DCE-CT images. The rats were divided into nonhypovascular, hypovascular, and combined (regardless of vascularity groups. In the nonhypovascular group, significant decreases in both tumor BF and BV were observed in the vandetanib-treated rats compared with increases in the vehicle-treated rats. A significant decrease in BV was detected in the vandetanib-treated rats in the combined group as well. No differences in tumor growth, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, microvessel density, or apoptosis were observed between vandetanib- and vehicle-treated rats in all three groups. These results demonstrate that BF and BV imaging biomarkers from DCE-CT imaging can be used for rapid monitoring of immediate (24 hours after antimicrovascular effects of vandetanib on tumors, even in the absence of significant changes of tumor volume or clinically relevant immunohistochemical end points.

  9. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis of bone strength at the distal radius in ovariectomized adult rhesus monkey demonstrate efficacy of odanacatib and differentiation from alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Antonio; Jayakar, Richa Y; Sardesai, Swanand; Phillips, Eual A; Szumiloski, John; Posavec, Diane J; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Scott, Boyd B; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Motzel, Sherri; Cook, Lynn; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; McCracken, Paul J; Duong, Le T; Williams, Donald S

    2013-10-01

    Translational evaluation of disease progression and treatment response is critical to the development of therapies for osteoporosis. In this study, longitudinal in-vivo monitoring of odanacatib (ODN) treatment efficacy was compared to alendronate (ALN) in ovariectomized (OVX) non-human primates (NHPs) using high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Treatment effects were evaluated using several determinants of bone strength, density and quality, including volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), three-dimensional structure, finite element analysis (FEA) estimated peak force and biomechanical properties at the ultradistal (UD) radius at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of dosing in three treatment groups: vehicle (VEH), low ODN (2 mg/kg/day, L-ODN), and ALN (30 μg/kg/week). Biomechanical axial compression tests were performed at the end of the study. Bone strength estimates using FEA were validated by ex-vivo mechanical compression testing experiments. After 18months of dosing, L-ODN demonstrated significant increases from baseline in integral vBMD (13.5%), cortical thickness (24.4%), total bone volume fraction BV/TV (13.5%), FEA-estimated peak force (26.6%) and peak stress (17.1%), respectively. Increases from baseline for L-ODN at 18 months were significantly higher than that for ALN in DXA-based aBMD (7.6%), cortical thickness (22.9%), integral vBMD (12.2%), total BV/TV (10.1%), FEA peak force (17.7%) and FEA peak stress (11.5%), respectively. These results demonstrate a superior efficacy of ODN treatment compared to ALN at the UD radii in ovariectomized NHPs.

  10. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  11. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  12. Towards high resolution data assimilation and ensemble forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due the increase in computational power of supercomputers the grid resolution of high resolution numerical weather prediction models is now reaching the 1 km scale. As a result, mesoscale processes related to high impact weather (such as deep convection) can now explicitly be resolved by the models.

  13. Ultra-high-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, F. van der

    2007-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the development of the first two in a series of dedicated ultra-high resolution Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems (U-SPECT-I and II) for the imaging of distributions of radio-isotope labeled tracers in small laboratory animals such as mice

  14. Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod

  15. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods.

  16. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  17. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesung Yoon

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters.Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1 were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US, 2 were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB 3 underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT, and 4 had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER, maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters.In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites

  18. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters. In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively. All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19–0.31] vs 0.11[0.10–0.15], P  0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29–0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18–0.24], P lung scans might distinguish the severity of pulmonary involvement in early views, which were well correlated with HRCT findings. These results also revealed that 99mTc-MIBI lung scans might be used as a complement to other diagnostic and clinical examinations in terms of functional information in ILD; however, further investigations are strongly required. PMID:26632717

  19. Evaluation of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, finite element analysis and biomechanical testing in a pre-clinical model of osteoporosis: a study with odanacatib treatment in the ovariectomized adult rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Richa Y; Cabal, Antonio; Szumiloski, John; Sardesai, Swanand; Phillips, Eual A; Laib, Andres; Scott, Boyd B; Pickarski, Maureen; Duong, Le T; Winkelmann, Christopher T; McCracken, Paul J; Hargreaves, Richard; Hangartner, Thomas N; Williams, Donald S

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to validate finite element analysis (FEA) estimation of strength, identify high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) measures correlating with strength, and evaluate the precision of HR-pQCT measurements to longitudinally monitor effects of osteoporosis treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) non-human primates (NHPs). HR-pQCT images were acquired in three groups of NHPs: Intact (n=10), OVX-odanacatib treated (OVX-ODN 30 mg/kg, n=10) and OVX-vehicle treated (OVX-Veh, n=10) at the ultradistal (UD) and distal 1/3 radii and tibia at 12, 16 and 20 months. FEA estimates of bone strength using the Pistoia criterion were validated by ex-vivo mechanical compression (r(2)=0.95) of the UD radius. Single linear regressions of FEA-determined ultimate stress showed high correlation with HR-pQCT derived parameters: integral vBMD (r(2)=0.86), bone volume fraction (r(2)=0.84) and cortical thickness (r(2)=0.79). Precision of HR-pQCT measurements, obtained from an excised radius and tibia, showed low variation (CV=0.005%-5.6%) and helped identify possible sources of error. Comparison of OVX-Veh and Intact groups showed decreases in bone parameters demonstrating trends consistent with bone loss. Comparison of OVX-ODN and OVX-Veh groups showed a treatment effect with increases in bone parameters: integral vBMD (477±27 vs. 364±22 mgHA/cm(3)) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) (0.90±0.07 vs. 0.64±0.04 mm) at the UD radius, Ct.Th (2.15±0.28 vs. 1.56±0.08 mm) at the distal 1/3 radius. Axial compression peak stress calculated and obtained experimentally showed the OVX-ODN group was 33% stronger than the OVX-Veh group. We conclude that HR-pQCT and FEA serve as robust techniques to longitudinally monitor bone parameters and strength in NHP's.

  20. DESIR high resolution separator at GANIL, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution separator for the SPIRAL2/DESIR project at GANIL has been designed. The extracted isotopes from SPIRAL2 will be transported to and cooled in a RFQ cooler yielding beams with very low transverse emittance and energy spread. These beams will then be accelerated to 60 keV and sent to a high-resolution mass separator where a specific isotope will be selected. The good beam properties extracted from the RFQ cooler will allow one to obtain a mass resolution of č26000 with the high-resolution mass separator.

  1. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  2. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a plan to build a prototype small stroke, high precision deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution...

  3. High Resolution Silicon Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal we describe a plan to build a deformable mirror suitable for space-based operation in systems for high-resolution imaging. The prototype DM will be...

  4. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  5. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  6. Computing method of mark line number for high resolution single-channel seismic section%高分辨率单道地震剖面上定标号的计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽青; 唐卫; 陈泓君; 高佩兰; 温明明

    2012-01-01

    定标号在野外采集时同步打印在模拟剖面上,它是海洋单道地震勘探剖面对比解释时重要的地理位置依据,但是数字单道地震记录仪记录的地震道中缺失此信息.文章介绍了三种计算和标识定标号(Mark)的方法,根据班报线性内插法、模拟剖面读取法以及坐标对比法,分析了各自的优缺点.其中最可靠和实用的是坐标对比法.通过软件开发实现了坐标对比法自动获取Mark-Shot关系,通过这个关系即可对地震数据和剖面进行定标号的标识.软件模块能够处理导航与地震不同步、航向航速不稳定、导航与地震坐标格式多样化等情况,具有较强的适应性.对实测数据计算发现,当导航、地震不同步时,线性内插法获得的mark值误差很大,而坐标对比法能够精确反映Mark-Shot实际的对应关系.当航向、航速稳定时Mark-Shot关系表现为线性关系,而航向、航速不稳定时Mark-Shot关系为弯曲的非线性关系,由于导航系统过零点时会出现重复定标情况,在Mark-Shot关系图中表现为拐点.为了对计算结果进行质量控制,软件同时提供了Mark-Shot计算误差值列表,在误差散点图中显示所有定标号位置误差都小于1个炮距,说明软件计算获得的Mark位置精度较高,结果可靠.%Mark line and its number is plotted on field analog section at a certain distance such as lkm or 500m. it contains important location information for marine high resolution single-channel seismic section interpretation. According to this common location mark, seismic section could be compared with boring data, logging, sub-bottom profiler, seabed video or some other survey data. However, mark line number is not recorded in seismic data by IXSEA DELPH single-channel seismic recorder. Raw seismic data were polluted by all kinds of noise such as multiples, wave noise and vessel mechanical noise, which bring down the signal-to-noise. Raw data need to be

  7. 支气管扩张症高分辨率CT与肺通气功能的相关性%Correlation between high resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭春婷; 贺正一; 辛小燕; 关春爽

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)and pulmonary function tests.Methods Spirometry and CT score including the number of bronchiectatic segments,bronchial dilatation and bronchial wall thickening were collected in forty patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed by HRCT.Results CT revealed that CT scores for the number of bronchiectatic segments,bronchial dilatation and bronchial wall thickening were(7.098±4.918),(6.540±4.113)and(4.405±2.477)respectively.The FEV1%pred,FVC%pred and FEV1/FVC values were (56.122±26.335)%,(66.857±21.951)% and(64.612±14.890)%respectively.The number of bronchiectatic segments significantly negatively correlated with FEV1%pred,FVC%pred and FEV1/FVC respectively(Γ=-0.451 to-0.571,P

  8. 焊工尘肺病临床及高分辨率CT特征分析%Clinical and high-resolution computed tomography characteristics of the welder's pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉娟; 李慧; 代静泓; 苗立云; 曹敏; 黄妹; 孟凡青; 蔡后荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of the welder's pneumoconiosis.Methods A total of 10 patients diagnosed by bronchoscopy and pathology from January 2010 to January 2015 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital were recruited in this study, and the clinical manifestations, pulmonary function tests, pathology and HRCT data were collected and analyzed retrospectively.Results Ten patients all had welder's occupational history for 5-30 years, with the main clinical manifestations of cough, sputum production, chest tightness and other symptoms.And the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC) of 4 patients was lower than 75.0% in the pulmonary function tests.Transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages within the alveolar space, associated with positive iron staining.In welder's pneumoconiosis, small centrilobular nodules (10 cases) were frequently seen on HRCT in bilateral lung fields, with branching linear structures or the tree buds like shadows in 7 cases;3 patients also showed areas of ground-glass attenuation.And the patients were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (1/10) , interstitial pneumonia (3/10), allergic alveolitis (1/10), diffuse lung disease (2/10), and vasculitis (1/10).Conclusions Clinical manifestations of welder's pneumoconiosis are not specific;small centrilobular nodules are frequently seen on HRCT, with linear opacities or tree bud-like shadows.%目的 分析焊工尘肺病临床及高分辨率CT (HRCT)特征.方法 对南京鼓楼医院2010年1月至2015年1月收治的10例经病理学诊断的焊工尘肺病患者的相关职业史、临床表现及肺功能、病理学、HRCT检查结果进行回顾性分析.结果 10例患者相关从业时间5~30年,临床表现主要为咳嗽、咳痰、胸闷等.4例患者第1秒用力呼气量与用力肺活量的比值(FEV1/FVC)<75.0%.气管镜肺活检病理表现为肺泡腔

  9. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  10. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungenschmid, D. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Buchberger, W. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Schoen, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnostics, University Hospital Innsbruck (Austria); Schoepf, R. [Radiologic Inst., Landeck (Austria); Mihatsch, T. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Birbamer, G. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance and Spectroscopy, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria); Wicke, K. [Inst. of Computed Tomography, University Hospital of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1993-12-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  11. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  12. Real-time underwater object detection based on an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to real time detection and tracking of underwater objects, using image sequences from an electrically scanned high-resolution sonar. The use of a high resolution sonar provides a good estimate of the location of the objects, but strains the computers on board, beca...

  13. An enhanced high-resolution EMCCD-based gamma camera using SiPM side detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, J.W.T.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schaart, D.R.; Goorden, M.C.; Beekman, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve multi-pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) devices we are developing a high-resolution gamma detector consisting of a 3-mm-thick scintillation crystal that converts gamma photons to light, on top of an optically coupled high-resolution, high-sensitivity light sensor

  14. An enhanced high-resolution EMCCD-based gamma camera using SiPM side detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, J.W.T.; Korevaar, M.A.N.; Huizenga, J.; Kreuger, R.; Schaart, D.R.; Goorden, M.C.; Beekman, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve multi-pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) devices we are developing a high-resolution gamma detector consisting of a 3-mm-thick scintillation crystal that converts gamma photons to light, on top of an optically coupled high-resolution, high-sensitivity light sensor

  15. High resolution spectroscopy of planet bearing stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gálvez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first steps of an extended spectroscopic survey in order to characterize the stellar hosts of extra-solar planets. We have selected several known stars with plan- ets and using high resolution spectroscopy, we have studied their properties.

  16. High-resolution seismic profiling on water

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    Herein is presented an overview of high-resolution seismic profiling on water. Included are basic concepts and terminology as well as discussions of types of sources and receivers, field practice, data recording and data processing. Emphasis is on digital single-channel profiling for engineering and environmental purposes.

  17. Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Walle, van der P.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2005-01-01

    The design and operation of a high-resolution spectral phase shaper with a footprint of only 7×10 cm2 is presented. The liquid-crystal modulator has 4096 elements. More than 600 independent degrees of freedom can be positioned with a relative accuracy of 1 pixel. The spectral shaping of pulses fro

  18. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  19. Compressive sensing for high resolution radar imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present some preliminary results on the application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging. CS is a recently developed theory which allows reconstruction of sparse signals with a number of measurements much lower than what is required by the Shannon sampling th

  20. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  1. High resolution, large dynamic range field map estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Joseph; Reese, Timothy; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We present a theory and a corresponding method to compute high resolution field maps over a large dynamic range. Theory and Methods We derive a closed-form expression for the error in the field map value when computed from two echoes. We formulate an optimization problem to choose three echo times which result in a pair of maximally distinct error distributions. We use standard field mapping sequences at the prescribed echo times. We then design a corresponding estimation algorithm which takes advantage of the optimized echo times to disambiguate the field offset value. Results We validate our method using high resolution images of a phantom at 7T. The resulting field maps demonstrate robust mapping over both a large dynamic range, and in low SNR regions. We also present high resolution offset maps in vivo using both, GRE and MEGE sequences. Even though the proposed echo time spacings are larger than the well known phase aliasing cutoff, the resulting field maps exhibit a large dynamic range without the use of phase unwrapping or spatial regularization techniques. Conclusion We demonstrate a novel 3-echo field map estimation method which overcomes the traditional noise-dynamic range trade-off. PMID:23401245

  2. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report an imaging method, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex sample image. By adopting a wavefront correction strategy, the FPM method can also correct for aberrations and digitally extend a microscope's depth-of-focus beyond the physical limitations of its optics. As a demonstration, we built a microscope prototype with a resolution of 0.78 um, a field-of-view of ~120 mm2, and a resolution-invariant depth-of-focus of 0.3 mm (characterized at 632 nm). Gigapixel colour images of histology slides verify FPM's successful operation. The reported imaging procedure transforms the general challenge of high-throughput, high-resolution microscopy from one that is coupled to the physical limitations of the system's optics to one that is solvable through computation.

  3. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Xiangqian; Mugler, Dale H; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the gastrointestinal tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this letter we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 {\\mu}m. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle income countries.

  4. Progress toward high resolution EUV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korendyke, C.; Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H.; Young, P. R.; Chua, D.; Hassler, D. M.; Landi, E.; Davila, J. M.; Klimchuck, J.; Tun, S.; DeForest, C.; Mariska, J. T.; Solar C Spectroscopy Working Group; LEMUR; EUVST Development Team

    2013-07-01

    HIgh resolution EUV spectroscopy is a critical instrumental technique to understand fundamental physical processes in the high temperature solar atmosphere. Spectroscopic observations are used to measure differential emission measure, line of sight and turbulent flows, plasma densities and emission measures. Spatially resolved, spectra of these emission lines with adequate cadence will provide the necessary clues linking small scale structures with large scale, energetic solar phenomena. The necessary observations to determine underlying physical processes and to provide comprehensive temperature coverage of the solar atmosphere above the chromosphere will be obtained by the proposed EUVST instrument for Solar C. This instrument and its design will be discussed in this paper. Progress on the VEry high Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (VERIS) sounding rocket instrument presently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory will also be discussed.

  5. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  6. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  7. 4MOST: the high-resolution spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, W.; Xu, W.; Buschkamp, P.; Feiz, C.; Saviauk, A.; Barden, S.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.

    2016-08-01

    4MOST (4-meter Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a wide-field, fiber-feed, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility to be installed on the 4-meter ESO telescope VISTA in Chile. It consists of two identical low resolution spectrographs and one high resolution spectrograph. The instrument is presently in the preliminary design phase and expected to get operational end of 2022. The high resolution spectrograph will afford simultaneous observations of up to 812 targets - over a hexagonal field of view of 4.1 sq.degrees on sky - with a spectral resolution R>18,000 covering a wavelength range from 393 to 679nm in three channels. In this paper we present the optical and mechanical design of the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) as prepared for the review at ESO, Garching. The expected performance including the highly multiplexed fiber slit concept is simulated and its impact on the optical performance given. We show the thermal and finite element analyses and the resulting stability of the spectrograph under operational conditions.

  8. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  9. High-resolution traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Sergey V; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Waterman, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Texture analysis of high-resolution computed tomograms as a supplementary feature in the diagnosis of osteoporosis: in vitro studies on vertebral specimens; Strukturanalyse hochaufloesender Computertomogramme als ergaenzendes Verfahren in der Osteoporosediagnostik: In-vitro-Untersuchungen an Wirbelsaeulensegmenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, S.; Meier, N.; Renger, B.; Lenzen, H.; Fiebich, M.; Rummeny, E.J.; Link, T.M. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    1999-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform texture analysis of high-resolution CT images obtained from human vertebral specimens and to correlate these parameters with the biomechanical stability of the specimens. In addition, structure data were compared with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by quantitative CT (QCT). Material and Methods: High-resolution CT images and standard QCT sections were obtained in 36 vertebral motion segments, each consisting of two vertebrae with intact ligaments and intervertebral disc. The trabecular structure in the CT images was assessed using three texture analysis techniques: Trabecular threshold area ratio (TTAR), fractal dimension without thresholding (OTS) and fractal dimension with thresholding (ITS). Finally, the maximum compressive strength (MCS) was determined using a biomechanical testing device. Results: A correlation of r=0.76 (p<0.01) was obtained for TTAR versus MCS, of r=0.83 (p<0.01) for ITS versus MCS, and of r=0.35 (p>0.01) for OTS versus MCS, while r=0.76 (p<0.01) was found for BMD versus MCS. Best results were obtained by combining structure measures and BMD (r=0.85, p<0.01). Conclusions: This in vitro study showed a significant correlation between structure measures and biomechanical strength, which was comparable to BMD and strength. However, best correlations were obtained by combining both measures. Using both BMD and structure measures therefore may improve the prediction of biomechanically determined bone strength. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Korrelation von Strukturparametern aus hochaufloesenden Computertomogrammen humaner Wirbelkoerperpraeparate mit der biomechanischen Stabilitaet der Praeparate und Vergleich mit der Knochenmineraldichte (BMD, bone mineral density) als Standardparameter. Material und Methoden: Von 36 Wirbelsaeulenbewegungssegmenten, bestehend aus jeweils zwei Wirbelkoerpern und erhaltenem Bandapparat, wurde durch biomechanische Testung die Bruchlast ermittelt. Vor Frakturierung

  11. Expiratory high-resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a powerful adjunct to inspiratory HRCT in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease (DLD), revealing air-trapping even when the inspiratory scan is normal. Expiratory scans are also useful in the differentiation of inhomogeneous lung opacity, which is not uncommon in various types of DLD. The history and technique of expiratory HRCT are described as well as the basic understanding of lung attenuation and the diagnostic value of expiratory scans DLD. The clinical significance of the presence of expiratory air-trapping in the absence of inspiratory scan abnormality is also presented. (author)

  12. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  13. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  14. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  15. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  16. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  17. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  18. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  19. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  20. 3-D Rat Brain Phantom for High-Resolution Molecular Imaging: Experimental studies aimed at advancing understanding of human brain disease and malfunction, and of behavior problems, may be aided by computer models of small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Wilt, G.; Vervloet, M.; Visscher, R.; Booij, J.; Gerrits, M.; Ji, C.; Ramakers, R.; Van der Have, F.

    2009-01-01

    With the steadily improving resolution of novel small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography devices, highly detailed phantoms are required for testing and optimizing these systems. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) digital and physical phantom

  1. Erosive progression is minimal, but erosion healing rare, in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with adalimumab. A 1 year investigator-initiated follow-up study using high-resolution computed tomography as the primary outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Døhn, Uffe; Boonen, Annelies; Hetland, Merete Lund;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With computed tomography (CT) and radiography to investigate if repair of bone erosions, defined as regression of erosion scores, occurs during adalimumab-treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Fifty-two RA patients, naïve to biologics, with at least two low...

  2. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  3. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  4. Design of wide field and high resolution video lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ze-xin; Zhan, Binzhou; Han, Haimei

    2009-11-01

    Online detecting is increasingly used in industrial process for the requirement of product quality improving. It is a trend that the "machine detecting" with "machine version + computer intelligence" as new method replaces traditional manual "eye observation". The essential of "machine detecting" is that image of object being collected with high resolution video lens on sensor panel of photoelectric (CCD ,CMOS) and detecting result being automatically gained by computer after the image saved and processed. "Machine detecting" is developing rapidly with the universal reception by enterprises because of its fine accurateness, high efficiency and the real time. Video lens is one of the important components of machine version system. Requirements of wide field and high resolution enlarged the complexity of video lens design. In this paper a design case used in visible light with field diameter Φ32mm, β=-0.25× and NA'=0.15. We give design parameters of the video lens which obtained with theoretically calculating and Oslo software optimization: MTF>0.3 in full field and 215lp/mm, distortion <0.05%.This lens has an excellent optic performance to match with 1.3 million pixels 1/2"CCD, and a high performance price ratio for being consist of only 7 single lens in the way of 5 units.

  5. Hilbert-Twin – A Novel Hilbert Transform-Based Method To Compute Envelope Of Free Decaying Oscillations Embedded In Noise, And The Logarithmic Decrement In High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy HRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalas L.B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel Hilbert-twin method to compute an envelope and the logarithmic decrement, δ, from exponentially damped time-invariant harmonic strain signals embedded in noise. The results obtained from five computing methods: (1 the parametric OMI (Optimization in Multiple Intervals method, two interpolated discrete Fourier transform-based (IpDFT methods: (2 the Yoshida-Magalas (YM method and (3 the classic Yoshida (Y method, (4 the novel Hilbert-twin (H-twin method based on the Hilbert transform, and (5 the conventional Hilbert transform (HT method are analyzed and compared. The fundamental feature of the Hilbert-twin method is the efficient elimination of intrinsic asymmetrical oscillations of the envelope, aHT (t, obtained from the discrete Hilbert transform of analyzed signals. Excellent performance in estimation of the logarithmic decrement from the Hilbert-twin method is comparable to that of the OMI and YM for the low- and high-damping levels. The Hilbert-twin method proved to be robust and effective in computing the logarithmic decrement and the resonant frequency of exponentially damped free decaying signals embedded in experimental noise. The Hilbert-twin method is also appropriate to detect nonlinearities in mechanical loss measurements of metals and alloys.

  6. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  8. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoflood archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Luetscher, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, speleothems have become widely utilized records of past environmental variability, typically through their stable isotopic and trace elemental chemistry. Numerous speleothem researchers have identified evidence of flooding recorded by detrital layers trapped within speleothems, but few studies have developed paleoflood reconstructions from such samples. Because they can be precisely dated, are generally immune to post-depositional distortion or erosion, and can be tied to a fixed elevational baseline, speleothems hold enormous potential as high-resolution archives of cave floods, and thus as proxies for extreme rainfall or other hydrologic drivers of cave flooding. Here we review speleothem-based paleoflood reconstruction methods, identify potential biases and pitfalls, and suggest standard practices for future studies.

  9. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  10. High-resolution TOF with RPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, P. E-mail: fonte@lipc.fis.uc.pt; Peskov, V

    2002-01-21

    In this work, we describe some recent results concerning the application of Resistive Plate Chambers operated in avalanche mode at atmospheric pressure for high-resolution time-of-flight measurements. A combination of multiple, mechanically accurate, thin gas gaps and state-of-the-art electronics yielded an overall (detector plus electronics) timing accuracy better than 50 ps {sigma} with a detection efficiency up to 99% for MIPs. Single gap chambers were also tested in order to clarify experimentally several aspects of the mode of operation of these detectors. These results open perspectives of affordable and reliable high granularity large area TOF detectors, with an efficiency and time resolution comparable to the existing scintillator-based TOF technology but with a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel.

  11. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  12. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  13. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  14. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  15. Georadar - high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stern

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Georadar is a high resolution geophysical electromagnetic device that was developed in the first part of the 1980's. In Slovenia it was first tested in 1991 on several objects of economicgeological, geotechnical and hydrogeologic nature.Here its usefulness in karst studied is presented. The first part of the paper deals with description of measurement procedure and methodological bases, and the second part with experience and results of case histories. Shown are radargrams from ornamental stone quarry Hotavlje, calcite mine Stahovica, Golobja jama karstcave near Divača and from highway construction site Razdrto-Čebulovica. All measurements were performed with the georadar instrument Pulse EKKO IV with a lOOMHz antenna according to the method of reflection profiling.

  16. Novel high-resolution VGA QWIP detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, H.; Asplund, C.; Lindberg, A.; Smuk, S.; Alverbro, J.; Evans, D.; Sehlin, S.; Becanovic, S.; Tinghag, P.; Höglund, L.; Sjöström, F.; Costard, E.

    2017-02-01

    Continuing with its legacy of producing high performance infrared detectors, IRnova introduces its high resolution LWIR IDDCA (Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler assembly) based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) has 640×512 pixels, with small (15μm) pixel pitch, and is based on the FLIRIndigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The QWIP epitaxial structures are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at IRnova. Detector stability and response uniformity inherent to III/V based material will be demonstrated in terms of high performing detectors. Results showing low NETD at high frame rate will be presented. This makes it one of the first 15μm pitch QWIP based LWIR IDDCA commercially available on the market. High operability and stability of our other QWIP based products will also be shared.

  17. High-Resolution Movement EEG Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Štastný

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the contribution is to analyze possibilities of high-resolution movement classification using human EEG. For this purpose, a database of the EEG recorded during right-thumb and little-finger fast flexion movements of the experimental subjects was created. The statistical analysis of the EEG was done on the subject's basis instead of the commonly used grand averaging. Statistically significant differences between the EEG accompanying movements of both fingers were found, extending the results of other so far published works. The classifier based on hidden Markov models was able to distinguish between movement and resting states (classification score of 94–100%, but it was unable to recognize the type of the movement. This is caused by the large fraction of other (nonmovement related EEG activities in the recorded signals. A classification method based on advanced EEG signal denoising is being currently developed to overcome this problem.

  18. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  19. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  20. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  1. Role of high resolution multislice CT scan in otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef EL Maraghy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study was carried out to assess the radiological findings in patients with otosclerosis using high resolution multislice CT scan and to correlate these findings with audiological findings in those patients. This study was done at Al Azhar University hospitals during the period from Jan 2012 to Jun 2014. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in this study; 13 (40.63% males and 19 (59.37% females. Their age ranged from 13 to 55 with a mean of 36.21 ± 8.7 years. Written consent was taken from all patients. Multislice CT scan was done to all patients and reports were done by computer assisted analysis with thorough audiological assessment including pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and stapedial reflex. Positive findings were present in 40/58 ears (69% while negative findings were present in 18/58 ears (31%. Otosclerotic foci were more detected when slice thickness was lesser than one millimeter especially at fissula ante fenestrum and round window region. There was a good correlation between air bone gap and CT score (p = 0.002. High resolution multislice CT helps in the diagnosis of otosclerosis with sensitivity (69% and it aids in the diagnosis of doubtful cases. Otosclerosis has a special predilection to affect certain sites mainly the fissula ante fenestrum followed by the round window and the cochlear promontory.

  2. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  3. 3D mapping from high resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, D.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sarakenos, A.; Paraschou, Ch.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years 3D information has become more easily available. Users' needs are constantly increasing, adapting to this reality and 3D maps are in more demand. 3D models of the terrain in CAD or other environments have already been common practice; however one is bound by the computer screen. This is why contemporary digital methods have been developed in order to produce portable and, hence, handier 3D maps of various forms. This paper deals with the implementation of the necessary procedures to produce holographic 3D maps and three dimensionally printed maps. The main objective is the production of three dimensional maps from high resolution aerial and/or satellite imagery with the use of holography and but also 3D printing methods. As study area the island of Antiparos was chosen, as there were readily available suitable data. These data were two stereo pairs of Geoeye-1 and a high resolution DTM of the island. Firstly the theoretical bases of holography and 3D printing are described, and the two methods are analyzed and there implementation is explained. In practice a x-axis parallax holographic map of the Antiparos Island is created and a full parallax (x-axis and y-axis) holographic map is created and printed, using the holographic method. Moreover a three dimensional printed map of the study area has been created using 3dp (3d printing) method. The results are evaluated for their usefulness and efficiency.

  4. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, Ionel Dragos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  5. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  6. Validation of remote dielectric sensing (ReDS™) technology for quantification of lung fluid status: Comparison to high resolution chest computed tomography in patients with and without acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Offer; Azzam, Zaher S; Gaspar, Tamar; Faranesh-Abboud, Suzan; Andria, Nizar; Burkhoff, Daniel; Abbo, Aharon; Abraham, William T

    2016-10-15

    Pulmonary congestion is a common presentation of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The ability to quantify increased pulmonary parenchymal water content in chest computed tomography (CCT) is well known. However, availability and radiation limitations make it unsuitable for serial assessment of lung fluid content. The ReDS™ technology allows quantification of lung fluid content. The objective of this work was to validate the ability of the ReDS™ technology to quantify total lung fluid when compared with CCT in ADHF and non-ADHF patients. Following CCT, ReDS measurements were obtained from consented subjects. ReDS measurements were then compared to the CCT using lung density analysis software. CCT results were converted from Hounsfield Units to percentage units, allowing comparison with the ReDS readings. The analyses, performed on 16 ADHF and 15 non-ADHF patients, were conducted by an independent observer blinded to ReDS outcomes. The fluid content averages and standard deviations for the non-ADHF group were 28.7±5.9% and 27.3±6.6% and for the ADHF patients 40.7±8.8% and 39.8±6.8% (CCT and ReDS respectively). Intraclass correlation was found to be 0.90, 95% CI [0.8-0.95]. Regression analysis yielded a slope of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [0.77-1.12]) and intercept 3.10 (95% confidence interval of [-3.02-9.21]). The absolute mean difference between the quantification of the two methods was 3.75 [%] with SD of 2.22 [%]. Current findings show high correlation between the ReDS noninvasive system and CCT in both ADHF and non-ADHF patients. Remote patient monitoring using ReDS™ based system may help in the management of patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  8. AIRBORNE HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  9. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  10. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  11. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Stolzenberg, U; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the $X$/$X_0$ imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of $X$/$X_0$ imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of ...

  12. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  13. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  14. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  15. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  16. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  17. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  18. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  19. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G

    1976-03-01

    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum.

  20. High-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of hot subdwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, P; Bagnulo, S; Charpinet, S; Wade, G A; Green, E M

    2011-01-01

    We report on high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the hot subdwarf stars HD 76431 and Feige 66, using the ESPaDOnS echelle spectropolarimeter at CFHT. We compute cross-correlation Stokes I and V line profiles to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. We then average all available cross-correlation profiles of each star to further decrease the noise level. Although both targets were previously reported to host kilo-gauss magnetic fields, we do not derive any evidence of large-scale photospheric fields from our sets of observations, in spite of tight error bars on the longitudinal field of the order of 60 gauss for HD 76431 and 200 gauss for Feige 66. A new analysis of FORS1 observations of HD 76431, which provided the basis for the original claim of field detection, confirms the absence of any detectable Zeeman signature, with an error bar of about 100 gauss on the longitudinal magnetic field.

  1. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nanocrystalline objects.

  2. High-resolution imaging methods in array signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods in array signal processing which achieve accurate signal reconstruction from limited observations resulting in high-resolution imaging. The focus is on underwater acoustic applications and sonar signal processing both in active (transmit and receive...... in active sonar signal processing for detection and imaging of submerged oil contamination in sea water from a deep-water oil leak. The submerged oil _eld is modeled as a uid medium exhibiting spatial perturbations in the acoustic parameters from their mean ambient values which cause weak scattering......) and passive (only receive) mode. The study addresses the limitations of existing methods and shows that, in many cases, the proposed methods overcome these limitations and outperform traditional methods for acoustic imaging. The project comprises two parts; The first part deals with computational methods...

  3. An Explicit High Resolution Scheme for Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ke-zhao; ZOU Zhi-li; WANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    The present study develops a numerical model of the two-dimensional fully nonlinear shallow water equations (NSWE) for the wave run-up on a beach. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the equations, and a second-order explicit scheme is developed to improve the computation efficiency. The numerical fluxes are obtained by the two dimensional Roe's flux function to overcome the errors caused by the use of one dimensional fluxes in dimension splitting methods. The high-resolution Godunov-type TVD upwind scheme is employed and a second-order accuracy is achieved based on monotonic upstream schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) variable extrapolation; a nonlinear limiter is applied to prevent unwanted spurious oscillation. A simple but efficient technique is adopted to deal with the moving shoreline boundary. The verification of the solution technique is carried out by comparing the model output with documented results and it shows that the solution technique is robust.

  4. High-resolution workstations for primary and secondary radiology readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Simons, Margaret A.; Razavi, Mahmood; Kangarloo, Hooshang; Boechat, Maria I.; Hall, Theodore R.; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Huang, H. K.; Eldredge, Sandra L.

    1990-08-01

    We have implemented two high resolution workstations within our pediatric radiology PACS module: a two-monitor 2K x 2K station and a six-monitor 1K x 1K station. The 2K x 2K workstation is under evaluation for primary reading of pediatric radiographs from a computed radiography unit. System implementation and evaluation methods are described. Operational efficiency measures of both film and digital systems are reported. This study is our first attempt to integrate a primary viewing station into a busy clinical environment. The 1K x 1K workstation is available 24-hours a day, 7 days a week for fast reviews by referring physicians. Images from a compated radiography system are available at the workstation in about 8 minutes. A digital voice reporting system is being developed to communicate radiology reports from the 2K x 2K workstation to the 1K x 1K secondary review station.

  5. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  6. High Resolution Image Correspondences for Video Post-Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Magnor

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm for estimating dense image correspondences. Our versatile approach lends itself to various tasks typical for video post-processing, including image morphing, optical flow estimation, stereo rectification, disparity/depth reconstruction, and baseline adjustment. We incorporate recent advances in feature matching, energy minimization, stereo vision, and data clustering into our approach. At the core of our correspondence estimation we use Efficient Belief Propagation for energy minimization. While state-of-the-art algorithms only work on thumbnail-sized images, our novel feature downsampling scheme in combination with a simple, yet efficient data term compression, can cope with high-resolution data. The incorporation of SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform features into data term computation further resolves matching ambiguities, making long-range correspondence estimation possible. We detect occluded areas by evaluating the correspondence symmetry, we further apply Geodesic matting to automatically determine plausible values in these regions.

  7. High Resolution Image Correspondences for Video Post-Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Magnor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm for estimating dense image correspondences. Our versatile approach lends itself to various tasks typical for video post-processing, including image morphing, optical flow estimation, stereo rectification, disparity/depth reconstruction, and baseline adjustment. We incorporate recent advances in feature matching, energy minimization, stereo vision, and data clustering into our approach. At the core of our correspondence estimation we use Efficient Belief Propagation for energy minimization. While state-of-the-art algorithms only work on thumbnail-sized images, our novel feature downsampling scheme in combination with a simple, yet efficient data term compression, can cope with high-resolution data. The incorporation of SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform features into data term computation further resolves matching ambiguities, making long-range correspondence estimation possible. We detect occluded areas by evaluating the correspondence symmetry, we further apply Geodesic matting to automatically determine plausible values in these regions.

  8. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  9. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  10. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  11. An advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model on high-resolution DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Ye, A.; Xu, J.; Ma, F.; Deng, X.; Miao, C.; Gong, W.; Di, Z.

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution and high-accuracy drainage network map is a prerequisite for simulating the water cycle in land surface hydrological models. The objective of this study was to develop a new automated extraction of drainage network model, which can get high-precision continuous drainage network on high-resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model). The high-resolution DEM need too much computer resources to extract drainage network. The conventional GIS method often can not complete to calculate on high-resolution DEM of big basins, because the number of grids is too large. In order to decrease the computation time, an advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model (Adam) was proposed in the study. The Adam model has two features: (1) searching upward from outlet of basin instead of sink filling, (2) dividing sub-basins on low-resolution DEM, and then extracting drainage network on sub-basins of high-resolution DEM. The case study used elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution in Zhujiang River basin, China. The results show Adam model can dramatically reduce the computation time. The extracting drainage network was continuous and more accurate than HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales).

  12. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  13. Computing the PSF with high-resolution reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaofeng; Chen, FanSheng; Yang, Xue; Xue, Yulong; Dong, YucCui

    2016-05-01

    Point spread function (PSF) is a very important indicator of the imaging system; it can describe the filtering characteristics of the imaging system. The image is fuzzy when the PSF is not very well and vice versa. In the remote sensing image process, the image could be restored by using the PSF of the image system to get a clearer picture. So, to measure the PSF of the system is very necessary. Usually we can use the knife edge method, line spread function (LSF) method and streak plate method to get the modulation transfer function (MTF), and then use the relationship of the parameters to calculate the PSF of the system. In the knife edge method, the non-uniformity (NU) of the detector would lead an unstable precision of the edge angle; using the streak plate could get a more stable MTF, but it is only at one frequency point in one direction, so it is not very helpful to get a high-precision PSF. In this paper, we used the image of the point target directly and combined with the energy concentration to calculate the PSF. First we make a point matrix target board and make sure the point can image to a sub-pixel position at the detector array; then we use the center of gravity to locate the point targets image to get the energy concentration; then we fusion the targets image together by using the characteristics of sub-pixel and get a stable PSF of the system. Finally we use the simulation results to confirm the accuracy of the method.

  14. Computer Model of a High-Resolution Imaging Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This is a very efficient method of obtaining imagcs in near-real-time. These sonars have found wide use in underwater vehicles and submersibles...perceived by an optical camera at the sonar location is generated by the method of range shading. This image serves as a reference for the subsequent efforts...Bhawan New Delhi, 110003 INDIA 10. Dr. V.P. Kodali Adviser Electronics Commission Lok Nayak Bhawan New Delhi, 110003 INDIA 11. Professor A.K. Jain

  15. 高分辨侧扫及合成孔径声纳图像与回波中类似水雷目标计算机检测与分类%Computer aided detection and classification of mine-like objects in high-resolution side scan and synthetic aperture sonar images and waveforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝申

    2013-01-01

    计算机辅助目标识别与分类技术有可能可靠地在海底发现水雷及其它感兴趣的目标,高效省时,一致性强,不受操作员个体因素影响.自90年代以来,是多个研究部门的热点课题.近年来,合成孔径侧扫声纳技术日趋成熟,能提供更高分辨率的声图,更是促进了自动识别与分类的发展.本文综合评述了高分辨侧扫及合成孔径声纳图像与回波中类似水雷目标(Mine like object,MLO),计算机检测与分类(Computer aided detection/computer aided classification,CAD/CAC),研究的发展,现状及趋向.%Computer aided target detection and classification technique may reliably recognize sea mines and other objects interested.This technique is highly efficient,output consistent and free of influence of operator's personal factor.Since early 1990s,it's been the hot subject of several research institutes.In recent years,the synthetic aperture sonar is ready to provide acoustic images of higher resolution,and inspires the development in automated detection and classification further.the development,current status and trend in computer aided detection/computer aided classification in high resolution side scan and synthetic aperture sonar images and echo waveforms for mine like objects (MLOs) are reviewed and commented in this paper.

  16. A High Resolution Nonhydrostatic Tropical Atmospheric Model and Its Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xueshun; Akimasa SUMI

    2005-01-01

    A high resolution nonhydrostatic tropical atmospheric model is developed by using a ready-made regional atmospheric modeling system. The motivation is to investigate the convective activities associated with the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) through a cloud resolving calculation. Due to limitations in computing resources, a 2000 km×2000 km region covering the forefront of an ISO-related westerly is selected as the model domain, in which a cloud-resolving integration with a 5-km horizontal resolution is conducted. The results indicate the importance of stratus-cumulus interactions in the organization of the cloud clusters embedded in the ISO. In addition, comparative integrations with 2-km and 5-km grid sizes are conducted, which suggest no distinctive differences between the two cases although some finer structures of convections are discernible in the 2-km case. The significance of this study resides in supplying a powerful tool for investigating tropical cloud activities without the controversy of cloud parameterizations. The parallel computing method applied in this model allows sufficient usage of computer memory, which is different from the usual method used when parallelizing regional model. Further simulation for the global tropics with a resolution around 5 km is being prepared.

  17. High resolution urban morphology data for urban wind flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionco, Ronald M.; Ellefsen, Richard

    The application of urban forestry methods and technologies to a number of practical problems can be further enhanced by the use and incorporation of localized, high resolution wind and temperature fields into their analysis methods. The numerical simulation of these micrometeorological fields will represent the interactions and influences of urban structures, vegetation elements, and variable terrain as an integral part of the dynamics of an urban domain. Detailed information of the natural and man-made components that make up the urban area is needed to more realistically model meteorological fields in urban domains. Simulating high resolution wind and temperatures over and through an urban domain utilizing detailed morphology data can also define and quantify local areas where urban forestry applications can contribute to better solutions. Applications such as the benefits of planting trees for shade purposes can be considered, planned, and evaluated for their impact on conserving energy and cooling costs as well as the possible reconfiguration or removal of trees and other barriers for improved airflow ventilation and similar processes. To generate these fields, a wind model must be provided, as a minimum, the location, type, height, structural silhouette, and surface roughness of these components, in order to account for the presence and effects of these land morphology features upon the ambient airflow. The morphology of Sacramento, CA has been characterized and quantified in considerable detail primarily for wind flow modeling, simulation, and analyses, but can also be used for improved meteorological analyses, urban forestry, urban planning, and other urban related activities. Morphology methods previously developed by Ellefsen are applied to the Sacramento scenario with a high resolution grid of 100 m × 100 m. The Urban Morphology Scheme defines Urban Terrain Zones (UTZ) according to how buildings and other urban elements are structured and placed with

  18. High-resolution ophthalmic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Carrano, Carmen J.

    2007-12-04

    A system for providing an improved resolution retina image comprising an imaging camera for capturing a retina image and a computer system operatively connected to the imaging camera, the computer producing short exposures of the retina image and providing speckle processing of the short exposures to provide the improved resolution retina image. The system comprises the steps of capturing a retina image, producing short exposures of the retina image, and speckle processing the short exposures of the retina image to provide the improved resolution retina image.

  19. Persistent asthma in adults: comparison of high resolution computed tomography of the lungs after one year of follow-up Asma persistente em adultos: comparação da tomografia computadorizada de tórax de alta resolução após um ano de seguimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cukier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of high resolution computed tomography of the torax in detecting abnormalities in chronic asthmatic patients and to determine the behavior of these lesions after at least one year. METHOD: Fourteen persistent asthmatic patients with a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second that was 63% of predicted and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1-second /forced vital capacity of 60% had two high resolution computed tomographys separated by an interval of at least one year. RESULTS: All 14 patients had abnormalities on both scans. The most common abnormality was bronchial wall thickening, which was present in all patients on both computed tomographys. Bronchiectasis was suggested on the first computed tomography in 5 of the 14 (36% patients, but on follow-up, the bronchial dilatation had disappeared in 2 and diminished in a third. Only one patient had any emphysematous changes; a minimal persistent area of paraseptal emphysema was present on both scans. In 3 patients, a "mosaic" appearance was observed on the first scan, and this persisted on the follow-up computed tomography. Two patients had persistent areas of mucoid impaction. In a third patient, mucus plugging was detected only on the second computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there are many abnormalities on the high resolution computed tomography of patients with persistent asthma. Changes suggestive of bronchiectasis, namely bronchial dilatation, frequently resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the diagnosis of bronchiectasis by high resolution computed tomography in asthmatic patients must be made with caution, since bronchial dilatation can be reversible or can represent false dilatation. Nonsmoking chronic asthmatic subjects in this study had no evidence of centrilobular or panacinar emphysema.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da tomografia computadorizada de tórax de alta resolução em detectar alterações estruturais

  20. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  1. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  2. A System for High-Resolution Topology Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Dick, Christian; Westermann, Rudiger

    2016-03-01

    A key requirement in 3D fabrication is to generate objects with individual exterior shapes and their interior being optimized to application-specific force constraints and low material consumption. Accomplishing this task is challenging on desktop computers, due to the extreme model resolutions that are required to accurately predict the physical shape properties, requiring memory and computational capacities going beyond what is currently available. Moreover, fabrication-specific constraints need to be considered to enable printability. To address these challenges, we present a scalable system for generating 3D objects using topology optimization, which allows to efficiently evolve the topology of high-resolution solids towards printable and light-weight-high-resistance structures. To achieve this, the system is equipped with a high-performance GPU solver which can efficiently handle models comprising several millions of elements. A minimum thickness constraint is built into the optimization process to automatically enforce printability of the resulting shapes. We further shed light on the question how to incorporate geometric shape constraints, such as symmetry and pattern repetition, in the optimization process. We analyze the performance of the system and demonstrate its potential by a variety of different shapes such as interior structures within closed surfaces, exposed support structures, and surface models.

  3. Optimized generation of high resolution breast anthropomorphic software phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R. [Computer and Information Sciences Department, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware 19901 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The authors present an efficient method for generating anthropomorphic software breast phantoms with high spatial resolution. Employing the same region growing principles as in their previous algorithm for breast anatomy simulation, the present method has been optimized for computational complexity to allow for fast generation of the large number of phantoms required in virtual clinical trials of breast imaging. Methods: The new breast anatomy simulation method performs a direct calculation of the Cooper's ligaments (i.e., the borders between simulated adipose compartments). The calculation corresponds to quadratic decision boundaries of a maximum a posteriori classifier. The method is multiscale due to the use of octree-based recursive partitioning of the phantom volume. The method also provides user-control of the thickness of the simulated Cooper's ligaments and skin. Results: Using the proposed method, the authors have generated phantoms with voxel size in the range of (25-1000 {mu}m){sup 3}/voxel. The power regression of the simulation time as a function of the reciprocal voxel size yielded a log-log slope of 1.95 (compared to a slope of 4.53 of our previous region growing algorithm). Conclusions: A new algorithm for computer simulation of breast anatomy has been proposed that allows for fast generation of high resolution anthropomorphic software phantoms.

  4. Regional fusion for high-resolution palmprint recognition using spectral minutiae representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, R.; Ramos, D.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Fierrez, J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Xu, Haiyun

    2014-01-01

    The spectral minutiae representation (SMC) has been recently proposed as a novel method to minutiae-based fingerprint recognition, which is invariant to minutiae translation and rotation and presents low computational complexity. As high-resolution palmprint recognition is also mainly based on minut

  5. High-resolution tomography of positron emitters with clustered pinhole SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorden, M.C.; Beekman, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) enables sub-half-mm resolution imaging of radio-labelled molecules. Due to severe photon penetration through pinhole edges, current multi-pinhole SPECT is not suitable for high-resolution imaging of photons with high

  6. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  7. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  8. A Novel Method for Detection and Removal of Line Scratch in High Resolution Digital Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With increasing need of high quality movie, more and more standard resolution films are upconverted to the high-resolution films. After this operation, the defects exist in the old movie are more obvious because they are enlarged in size, therefore, an efficient artifacts detection method with more precise result and lower computational complexity is in need. This paper provided a line scratch mathematical model, which derives from the Kokaram model and Bruni model, and then gave a detection method to meet the requirements of the high-resolution video application.

  9. Real-time volumetric visualization of high-resolution array and toroidal volume search sonar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert A.

    1998-09-01

    The Advanced Volume Visualization Display (AVVD) research program is a joint research program between the Fraunhofer Center for Research in Computer Graphics, Inc. and Innovative Research and Development Corp. It is dedicated the application of the human visual system to real-time visualization of high- resolution volumetric sensor data sets. The AVVD program has successfully demonstrated its application to undersea imaging using data from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center -- Division Newport's High Resolution Array (HRA), and from the Naval Surface Warfare Center -- Coastal System Stations's Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS).

  10. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  11. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  12. Complicações pulmonares após uso de crack: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax Pulmonary complications of crack cocaine use: high-resolution computed tomography of the chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mançano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos os achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução de um paciente que, após uso de cocaína fumada (crack, desenvolveu quadro de hemoptise, dispnéia e dor torácica súbitas. As radiografias de tórax mostravam consolidações predominando em lobos superiores. A tomografia de alta resolução evidenciava opacidades em vidro fosco, consolidações e nódulos do espaço aéreo. Nova tomografia de controle, após suspensão da droga e uso de corticóides, mostrou regressão parcial das lesões e aparecimento de escavações. A correlação entre os achados clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem permitiu o diagnóstico de "pulmão de crack".Here, we report high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in a patient who developed sudden hemoptysis, dyspnea and chest pain after smoking crack cocaine. Chest X-rays showed consolidations, primarily in the upper lobes, and HRCT scans showed ground glass attenuation opacities, consolidations and air-space nodules. A follow-up CT, after drug use discontinuation and administration of corticosteroids, showed partial resolution of pulmonary lesions and the appearance of cavitations. Clinical, imaging and laboratory findings led to a diagnosis of 'crack lung'.

  13. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongchun; Cai, Lijie; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme.

  14. Information Extraction of High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Calculation of Optimal Segmentation Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchun Zhu

    Full Text Available Multi-scale image segmentation and the selection of optimal segmentation parameters are the key processes in the object-oriented information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing images. The accuracy of remote sensing special subject information depends on this extraction. On the basis of WorldView-2 high-resolution data, the optimal segmentation parameters methodof object-oriented image segmentation and high-resolution image information extraction, the following processes were conducted in this study. Firstly, the best combination of the bands and weights was determined for the information extraction of high-resolution remote sensing image. An improved weighted mean-variance method was proposed andused to calculatethe optimal segmentation scale. Thereafter, the best shape factor parameter and compact factor parameters were computed with the use of the control variables and the combination of the heterogeneity and homogeneity indexes. Different types of image segmentation parameters were obtained according to the surface features. The high-resolution remote sensing images were multi-scale segmented with the optimal segmentation parameters. Ahierarchical network structure was established by setting the information extraction rules to achieve object-oriented information extraction. This study presents an effective and practical method that can explain expert input judgment by reproducible quantitative measurements. Furthermore the results of this procedure may be incorporated into a classification scheme.

  15. Production of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images for Navigation Information Infrastructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhijun; Djemel Ziou; Costas Armenakis

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the image fusion approach of multi-resolution analysis-based intensity modulation (MRAIM) to produce the high-resolution multi-spectral images from high-resolution panchromatic image and low-resolution multi-spectral images for navigation information infrastructure. The mathematical model of image fusion is derived according to the principle of remote sensing image formation. It shows that the pixel values of a high-resolution multi-spectral images are determined by the pixel values of the approximation of a high-resolution panchromatic image at the resolution level of low-resolution multi-spectral images, and in the pixel valae computation the M-band wavelet theory and the à trous algorithm are then used. In order to evaluate the MRAIM approach, an experiment has been carried out on the basis of the IKONOS 1 m panchromatic image and 4 m multi-spectral images. The result demonstrates that MRAIM image fusion approach gives promising fusion results and it can be used to produce the high-resolution remote sensing images required for navigation information infrastructures.

  16. High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Cupitt, John; Saunders, David R.

    1993-05-01

    With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels/mm resolution, which is sufficient to resolve the surface textures, particularly craquelure. To provide high color accuracy, a set of seven broad-band interference filters are used to cover the visible spectrum. A calibration procedure based upon a least-mean-squares fit to the color of patches from a Macbeth Colorchecker chart yields an average color accuracy of better than 3 units in the CMC uniform color space. This work was mainly carried out as part of the VASARI project funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT program, involving companies and galleries from around Europe. The system is being used to record images for conservation research, for archival purposes and to assist in computer-aided learning in the field of art history. The paper will describe the overall system design, including the selection of the various hardware components and the design of controlling software. The theoretical basis for the color calibration methodology is described as well as the software for its practical implementation. The mosaic assembly procedure and some of the associated image processing routines developed are described. Preliminary results from the research will be presented.

  17. High resolution 3-D wavelength diversity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N. H.

    1981-09-01

    A physical optics, vector formulation of microwave imaging of perfectly conducting objects by wavelength and polarization diversity is presented. The results provide the theoretical basis for optimal data acquisition and three-dimensional tomographic image retrieval procedures. These include: (a) the selection of highly thinned (sparse) receiving array arrangements capable of collecting large amounts of information about remote scattering objects in a cost effective manner and (b) techniques for 3-D tomographic image reconstruction and display in which polarization diversity data is fully accounted for. Data acquisition employing a highly attractive AMTDR (Amplitude Modulated Target Derived Reference) technique is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulation. Equipment configuration for the implementation of the AMTDR technique is also given together with a measurement configuration for the implementation of wavelength diversity imaging in a roof experiment aimed at imaging a passing aircraft. Extension of the theory presented to 3-D tomographic imaging of passive noise emitting objects by spectrally selective far field cross-correlation measurements is also given. Finally several refinements made in our anechoic-chamber measurement system are shown to yield drastic improvement in performance and retrieved image quality.

  18. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  19. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  20. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  1. A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew; Briggs, Kate; Armitage, Thomas W. K.; Hogg, Anna; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; Berg, Willem Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Muir, Alan; Gilbert, Lin

    2016-07-01

    We map recent Greenland Ice Sheet elevation change at high spatial (5 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution using CryoSat-2 altimetry. After correcting for the impact of changing snowpack properties associated with unprecedented surface melting in 2012, we find good agreement (3 cm/yr bias) with airborne measurements. With the aid of regional climate and firn modeling, we compute high spatial and temporal resolution records of Greenland mass evolution, which correlate (R = 0.96) with monthly satellite gravimetry and reveal glacier dynamic imbalance. During 2011-2014, Greenland mass loss averaged 269 ± 51 Gt/yr. Atmospherically driven losses were widespread, with surface melt variability driving large fluctuations in the annual mass deficit. Terminus regions of five dynamically thinning glaciers, which constitute less than 1% of Greenland's area, contributed more than 12% of the net ice loss. This high-resolution record demonstrates that mass deficits extending over small spatial and temporal scales have made a relatively large contribution to recent ice sheet imbalance.

  2. High Resolution Sensing and Control of Urban Water Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Wong, B. P.; Kerkez, B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to enable high-resolution sensing, modeling, and control of urban watersheds using (i) a distributed sensor network based on low-cost cellular-enabled motes, (ii) hydraulic models powered by a cloud computing infrastructure, and (iii) automated actuation valves that allow infrastructure to be controlled in real time. This platform initiates two major advances. First, we achieve a high density of measurements in urban environments, with an anticipated 40+ sensors over each urban area of interest. In addition to new measurements, we also illustrate the design and evaluation of a "smart" control system for real-world hydraulic networks. This control system improves water quality and mitigates flooding by using real-time hydraulic models to adaptively control releases from retention basins. We evaluate the potential of this platform through two ongoing deployments: (i) a flood monitoring network in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area that detects and anticipates floods at the level of individual roadways, and (ii) a real-time hydraulic control system in the city of Ann Arbor, MI—soon to be one of the most densely instrumented urban watersheds in the United States. Through these applications, we demonstrate that distributed sensing and control of water infrastructure can improve flash flood predictions, emergency response, and stormwater contaminant mitigation.

  3. Theoretical analysis of high-resolution digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman; Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2006-06-21

    The performance of a high-resolution charge coupled device-based full-field digital mammography imager was analysed using a mathematical framework based on an adaptation of cascaded linear systems theory described by other investigators. This work has been conducted in order to understand the impact of various design parameters on the physical performance characteristics of the imager. Specifically, the effect of pixel size, scintillator thickness and packing density, x-ray spectra, air kerma, dark current, charge integration time, and pixel fill-factor on the frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency was studied using a charge-coupled device as a reference platform. The imaging system was modelled as a series of physical processes with gain and spatial spreading. For each stage, the signal and noise power spectra were computed and propagated through the imaging chain as inputs to subsequent stages. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical predictions was obtained for various x-ray spectral conditions that were investigated. The modulation transfer function, MTF(f) and detective quantum efficiency DQE(f) characteristics obtained in this study are encouraging and comparable to other digital mammography systems. The results of this study strongly suggest the feasibility of large area scintillator-based digital mammography imagers with pixel sizes below 100 microm.

  4. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  5. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  6. High resolution emission tomography; Tomographie d`emission haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valda Ochoa, A.; Valentin, L. [Groupe I.P.B., Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    We have developed an original high resolution tomograph for in-vivo small animal imaging. A first prototype is under evaluation. Initial results of its characterisation are presented. (authors) 3 figs.

  7. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  8. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  9. High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.

    2007-01-01

    High Resolution Screening of biologically active compounds and metabolites Jeroen Kool Biotransformation enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Usually, the detoxication of these compounds by biotransformation enzymes results in harmless metab

  10. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  11. High Resolution, Range/Range-Rate Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to develop a design for a small, lightweight, high resolution, in x, y, and z Doppler imager to assist in the guidance, navigation and control...

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... to, for example, atmospheric research, combustion and gasification. Some high-temperature, high-resolution IR/UV absorption/transmission measurements gases (e.g. CO2, SO2, SO3 and phenol) are presented....

  13. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  14. Geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hong-you; GU Xing-fa; TAO Yu; QIAO Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the applications of high-resolution remote sensing imagery and the necessity of geometric calibration for remote sensing sensors considering assurance of the geometric accuracy of remote sensing imagery. Then the paper analyzes the general methodology of geometric calibration. Taking the DMC sensor geometric calibration as an example, the paper discusses the whole calibration procedure. Finally, it gave some concluding remarks on geometric calibration of high-resolution remote sensing sensors.

  15. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  16. Wide-Field-of-View, High-Resolution, Stereoscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechtl, Eric F.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    A device combines video feeds from multiple cameras to provide wide-field-of-view, high-resolution, stereoscopic video to the user. The prototype under development consists of two camera assemblies, one for each eye. One of these assemblies incorporates a mounting structure with multiple cameras attached at offset angles. The video signals from the cameras are fed to a central processing platform where each frame is color processed and mapped into a single contiguous wide-field-of-view image. Because the resolution of most display devices is typically smaller than the processed map, a cropped portion of the video feed is output to the display device. The positioning of the cropped window will likely be controlled through the use of a head tracking device, allowing the user to turn his or her head side-to-side or up and down to view different portions of the captured image. There are multiple options for the display of the stereoscopic image. The use of head mounted displays is one likely implementation. However, the use of 3D projection technologies is another potential technology under consideration, The technology can be adapted in a multitude of ways. The computing platform is scalable, such that the number, resolution, and sensitivity of the cameras can be leveraged to improve image resolution and field of view. Miniaturization efforts can be pursued to shrink the package down for better mobility. Power savings studies can be performed to enable unattended, remote sensing packages. Image compression and transmission technologies can be incorporated to enable an improved telepresence experience.

  17. STUDY OF POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS BY HIGH RESOLUTION MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  18. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph Scientific Support Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In 1988, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) was selected as the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) Scientific Support Contractor (SSC). This was to have been a few months before the launch of NASA's first Great Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As one of five scientific instruments on HST, the GHRS was designed to obtain spectra in the 1050-3300 A ultraviolet wavelength region with a resolving power, lambda/Delta(lambda) , of up to 100,000 and relative photometric accuracy to 1%. It was built by Ball AeroSpace Systems Group under the guidance of the GHRS Investigation Definition Team (IDT), comprised of 16 scientists from the US and Canada. After launch, the IDT was to perform the initial instrument calibration and execute a broad scientific program during a five-year Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) period. After a year's delay, the launch of HST occurred in April 1990, and CSC participated in the in-orbit calibration and first four years of GTO observations with the IDT. The HST primary mirror suffered from spherical aberration, which reduced the spatial and spectral resolution of Large Science Aperture (LSA) observations and decreased the throughput of the Small Science Aperture (SSA) by a factor of two. Periodic problems with the Side 1 carrousel electronics and anomalies with the low-voltage power supply finally resulted in a suspension of the use of Side 1 less than two years after launch. At the outset, the GHRS SSC task involved work in four areas: 1) to manage and operate the GHRS Data Analysis Facility (DAF); 2) to support the second Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV) program, as well as perform system engineering analysis of the GHRS as nesessary; 3) to assist the GHRS IDT with their scientific research programs, particularly the GSFC members of the team, and 4) to provide administrative and logistic support for GHRS public information and educational activities.

  19. Human physiome based on the high-resolution dataset of human body structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Physiome Project, as a new concept, is proceeding rapidly with the great advancement of genomics, physiological experiment, biologic modeling and computer simulation technique. The project seeks to provide a quantitative framework for modeling of the human physio- logical system using computational approaches, which is able to integrate the knowledge of molecular biology, biochemical, biophysical and anatomical information on different levels, including cell, tissue, organ, system and organism. This paper reviews the development of the Physiome Project in the past decade. The role of high-resolution datasets of human body structure in Physiome Project is discussed. The future plan and applications of the high-resolution datasets of human body structure to Physiome Project are discussed as well.

  20. Fast blood flow visualization of high-resolution laser speckle imaging data using graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusen; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2008-09-15

    Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a non-invasive, full-field optical technique that produces two-dimensional map of blood flow in biological tissue by analyzing speckle images captured by CCD camera. Due to the heavy computation required for speckle contrast analysis, video frame rate visualization of blood flow which is essentially important for medical usage is hardly achieved for the high-resolution image data by using the CPU (Central Processing Unit) of an ordinary PC (Personal Computer). In this paper, we introduced GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) into our data processing framework of laser speckle contrast imaging to achieve fast and high-resolution blood flow visualization on PCs by exploiting the high floating-point processing power of commodity graphics hardware. By using GPU, a 12-60 fold performance enhancement is obtained in comparison to the optimized CPU implementations.

  1. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  2. Acceleration of high resolution temperature based optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning using element grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; de Greef, M; Bel, A; Crezee, J

    2009-08-01

    In regional hyperthermia, optimization is useful to obtain adequate applicator settings. A speed-up of the previously published method for high resolution temperature based optimization is proposed. Element grouping as described in literature uses selected voxel sets instead of single voxels to reduce computation time. Elements which achieve their maximum heating potential for approximately the same phase/amplitude setting are grouped. To form groups, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of precomputed temperature matrices are used. At high resolution temperature matrices are unknown and temperatures are estimated using low resolution (1 cm) computations and the high resolution (2 mm) temperature distribution computed for low resolution optimized settings using zooming. This technique can be applied to estimate an upper bound for high resolution eigenvalues. The heating potential of elements was estimated using these upper bounds. Correlations between elements were estimated with low resolution eigenvalues and eigenvectors, since high resolution eigenvectors remain unknown. Four different grouping criteria were applied. Constraints were set to the average group temperatures. Element grouping was applied for five patients and optimal settings for the AMC-8 system were determined. Without element grouping the average computation times for five and ten runs were 7.1 and 14.4 h, respectively. Strict grouping criteria were necessary to prevent an unacceptable exceeding of the normal tissue constraints (up to approximately 2 degrees C), caused by constraining average instead of maximum temperatures. When strict criteria were applied, speed-up factors of 1.8-2.1 and 2.6-3.5 were achieved for five and ten runs, respectively, depending on the grouping criteria. When many runs are performed, the speed-up factor will converge to 4.3-8.5, which is the average reduction factor of the constraints and depends on the grouping criteria. Tumor temperatures were comparable. Maximum exceeding

  3. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall,G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-04-03

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopy, augmented by theoretical and computational methods, is used to investigate the structure and collision dynamics of chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry. Applications and methods development are equally important experimental components of this work.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, T.L.

    1988-09-25

    The first high-resolution spectrometer flown to observe gamma-ray bursts was launched on the ISEE-3 spacecraft over nine years ago. It recorded two events before instrument failure, giving results that were suggestive but marginal. Other studies, with coarser energy resolution, also show evidence for spectral features as well as for spectral evolution on short time scales. Absolute source strength calibration will be possible only with source identification, but understanding of the burst emission processes will surely come only from the measurements having the best spectral and temporal precision. The only high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometer now planned, here or abroad, for space flight is an instrument sequel to the ISEE-3 spectrometer, to be flown on the interplanetary 'GGS Wind' mission. Much larger and higher-sensitivity, high-resolution instruments may have their optimum opportunities in conjunction with studies of solar flares in the time frame of the solar maximum of 2002.

  5. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  6. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency.

  7. Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas

    CERN Document Server

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus; Linder, H Peter; Kessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    High resolution information of climatic conditions is essential to many application in environmental sciences. Here we present the CHELSA algorithm to downscale temperature and precipitation estimates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) climatic reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim) to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The algorithm for temperature is based on a statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperature from the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors such as wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, and a bias correction using Global Precipitation Climatology Center (GPCC) gridded and Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) station data. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We present a comparison of data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with two other high resolution gridded products with overlapping temporal resolution (Tropical R...

  8. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  9. eWaterCycle: A high resolution global hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Bierkens, Marc; Drost, Niels; Hut, Rolf; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, the eWaterCycle project was started, which has the ambitious goal to run a high resolution global hydrological model. Starting point was the PCR-GLOBWB built by Utrecht University. The software behind this model will partially be re-engineered in order to enable to run it in a High Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The aim is to have a spatial resolution of 1km x 1km. The idea is also to run the model in real-time and forecasting mode, using data assimilation. An on-demand hydraulic model will be available for detailed flow and flood forecasting in support of navigation and disaster management. The project faces a set of scientific challenges. First, to enable the model to run in a HPC environment, model runs were analyzed to examine on which parts of the program most CPU time was spent. These parts were re-coded in Open MPI to allow for parallel processing. Different parallelization strategies are thinkable. In our case, it was decided to use watershed logic as a first step to distribute the analysis. There is rather limited recent experience with HPC in hydrology and there is much to be learned and adjusted, both on the hydrological modeling side and the computer science side. For example, an interesting early observation was that hydrological models are, due to their localized parameterization, much more memory intensive than models of sister-disciplines such as meteorology and oceanography. Because it would be deadly to have to swap information between CPU and hard drive, memory management becomes crucial. A standard Ensemble Kalman Filter (enKF) would, for example, have excessive memory demands. To circumvent these problems, an alternative to the enKF was developed that produces equivalent results. This presentation shows the most recent results from the model, including a 5km x 5km simulation and a proof of concept for the new data assimilation approach. Finally, some early ideas about financial sustainability of an operational global

  10. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  11. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  12. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ubachs, W; Eikema, K S E; de Oliveira, N; Nahon, L

    2013-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies. While the ns and ps pulsed laser sources, at Fourier-transform limited bandwidths, are used in wavelength scanning spectroscopy, the fs laser source is used in a two-pulse time delayed mode. In addition a Fourier-transform spectrometer for high resolution gas-phase spectroscopic studies in the VUV is described, exhibiting the multiplex advantage to measure many resonances simultaneously.

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  14. Tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução nas complicações pulmonares pós-transplante de medula óssea: ensaio iconográfico High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation: iconographic essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson L. Gasparetto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O transplante de medula óssea (TMO tem sido utilizado como tratamento de escolha para diversas doenças hematológicas. Entretanto, as complicações pulmonares, que podem ocorrer em até 60% dos pacientes, são o principal motivo de falha no tratamento. As complicações pulmonares pós-TMO podem ser divididas em três fases, de acordo com a imunidade do paciente. Na primeira fase, até 30 dias após o procedimento, predominam as complicações não infecciosas e as pneumonias fúngicas. Na fase precoce, que vai até o 100º dia pós-TMO, as infecções virais, principalmente por citomegalovírus, são mais comuns. Finalmente, na fase tardia pós-TMO, complicações não infecciosas como bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização e doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro são mais comumente observadas. Os autores apresentam um ensaio iconográfico, enfatizando os aspectos de tomografia de alta resolução em pacientes com complicações pulmonares pós-TMO.Bone marrow transplantation has been the treatment of choice for many hematologic diseases. However, pulmonary complications, which may occur in up to 60% of the patients, are the main cause of treatment failure and may be divided in three phases according to the patient's immunity. In the first phase, up to 30 days after the procedure, there is a predominance of non-infectious complications and fungal pneumonia. Viral infections, mainly by cytomegalovirus, are common in the second phase (up to 100 days after bone marrow transplantation. Finally, in the late phase after bone marrow transplantation, non-infectious complications as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and graft-versus-host disease are most commonly seen. The authors present a pictorial essay of the high-resolution computed tomography findings in patients with pulmonary complications after bone marrow transplantation.

  15. High-resolution urban flood modelling - a joint probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Michael; Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    The hydrodynamic modelling of rapid flood events due to extreme climatic events in urban environment is both a complex and challenging task. The horizontal resolution necessary to resolve complexity of urban flood dynamics is a critical issue; the presence of obstacles of varying shapes and length scales, gaps between buildings and the complex geometry of the city such as slopes affect flow paths and flood levels magnitudes. These small scale processes require a high resolution grid to be modelled accurately (2m or less, Olbert et al., 2015; Hunter et al., 2008; Brown et al., 2007) and, therefore, altimetry data of at least the same resolution. Along with availability of high-resolution LiDAR data and computational capabilities, as well as state of the art nested modelling approaches, these problems can now be overcome. Flooding and drying, domain definition, frictional resistance and boundary descriptions are all important issues to be addressed when modelling urban flooding. In recent years, the number of urban flood models dramatically increased giving a good insight into various modelling problems and solutions (Mark et al., 2004; Mason et al., 2007; Fewtrell et al., 2008; Shubert et al., 2008). Despite extensive modelling work conducted for fluvial (e.g. Mignot et al., 2006; Hunter et al., 2008; Yu and Lane, 2006) and coastal mechanisms of flooding (e.g. Gallien et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012), the amount of investigations into combined coastal-fluvial flooding is still very limited (e.g. Orton et al., 2012; Lian et al., 2013). This is surprising giving the extent of flood consequences when both mechanisms occur simultaneously, which usually happens when they are driven by one process such as a storm. The reason for that could be the fact that the likelihood of joint event is much smaller than those of any of the two contributors occurring individually, because for fast moving storms the rainfall-driven fluvial flood arrives usually later than the storm surge

  16. A case of pseudoaneurysm due to fungus ball within the progressive massive fibrosis in a patient with pneumoconiosis: Computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Geun; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Choi, Soo Jung; Kang, Chae Hoon; Shin, Dong Rock; Ahn, Jae Hong [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We reported a case of pseudoaneurysm in the upper lobar branch of the right pulmonary artery, which was caused by a fungus ball within the progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in a patient with pneumoconiosis. Coil embolization of the pseudoaneurysm initially stopped the bleeding. After right upper lobe lobectomy to prevent the recurrent hemoptysis, pathology confirmed pseudoaneurysm within the PMF due to aspergilloma.

  17. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  18. High-resolution TFT-LCD for spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JaeWon; Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Oh, Himchan; Kim, GiHeon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2014-06-01

    SLM with very fine pixel pitch is needed for the holographic display system. Among various kinds of SLMs, commercially available high resolution LCoS has been widely used as a spatial light modulator. But the size of commercially available LCoS SLM is limited because the manufacturing technology of LCoS is based on the semiconductor process developed on small size Si wafer. Recently very high resolution flat panel display panel (~500ppi) was developed as a "retina display". Until now, the pixel pitch of flat panel display is several times larger than the pixel pitch of LCoS. But considering the possibility of shrink down the pixel pitch with advanced lithographic tools, the application of flat panel display will make it possible to build a SLM with high spatial bandwidth product. We simulated High resolution TFT-LCD panel on glass substrate using oxide semiconductor TFT with pixel pitch of 20um. And we considered phase modulation behavior of LC(ECB) mode. The TFT-LCD panel is reflective type with 4-metal structure with organic planarization layers. The technical challenge for high resolution large area SLM will be discussed with very fine pixel.

  19. High resolution positron tomography using PCR-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Sandrew, B.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Kizuka, H.

    1984-01-01

    PCR-I is a high resolution positron tomograph developed by the Physics Research Laboratory of the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore resolution limits of positron tomographs. PCR-I currently obtains images with 4.8 mm FWHM resolution at the center. Plane thickness may be varied between 5 and 10 mm. The instrument uses analog coding to obtain high resolution images without mechanical motion. This permits rapid dynamic imaging and gated cardiac imaging as well as conventional high resolution imaging. A series of studies has been carried out to demonstrate the ability of PCR-I to image structures in small animals. F-18 in the rat skeleton is clearly defined and various structures such as the spinal processes can be clearly resolved. A sequence of images at different spacing provides a three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat skeleton. Blood volume and palmitic acid have been imaged in the dog heart. Again, the sequence of images provides a clear delineation of the three dimensional nature of the blood pools and of the surrounding musculature. Blood flow, blood volume and glucose metabolism have been studied in the monkey brain. Structures within the brain of the Resus monkey can be clearly resolved. Increased activity resulting from induced seizures in the squirrel monkey have been observed and delineated. All of these studies indicate areas of future animal and clinical research using the high resolution tomograph, PCR-I.

  20. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    2007). HSCB Models can be employed for simulating mission scenarios, determining optimal strategies for disrupting terrorist networks, or training and...High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model ∑ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − −− = desired 1 move,desired, desired,,desired, desired,, N j ij jmoveij moveiD rp prp

  1. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  2. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  3. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  4. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  5. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  6. Signal Processing for High Resolution FMCW SAR and Moving Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Frequency Modulated ContinuousWave (FMCW) technology and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) leads to lightweight, cost-effective imaging sensors of high resolution. In FMCW SAR applications the conventional stop-and-go approximation used in pulse radar algorithms cannot be considered

  7. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  8. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  10. High resolution ultrasonography in isolated soft tissue and intramuscular cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 42-46

  11. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  12. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  13. High-resolution radio imaging of young supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Ros, E; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Mantovani, F; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W; Diamond, P J; Van Dyk, S D; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Shapiro, I I; Sramek, R

    2004-01-01

    The high resolution obtained through the use of VLBI gives an unique opportunity to directly observe the interaction of an expanding radio supernova with its surrounding medium. We present here results from our VLBI observations of the young supernovae SN 1979C, SN 1986J, and SN 2001gd.

  14. High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Jones, P.D.; Briffa, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Palaeoclimatology • high-resolution • last millennium • tree rings • dendroclimatology • chronology • uncertainty • corals • ice-cores • speleothems • documentary evidence • instrumental records • varves • borehole temperature • marine sediments • composite plus scaling • CPS • climate field...

  15. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    One of the most remarkable and exciting achievements in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the last years is the unprecedented sub-molecular resolution of both atomic and electronic structures of single molecules deposited on solid state surfaces. Despite its youth, the technique has already brought many new possibilities to perform different kinds of measurements, which cannot be accomplished by other techniques. This opens new perspectives in advanced characterization of physical and chemical processes and properties of molecular structures on surfaces. Here, we discuss the history and recent progress of the high resolution imaging with a functionalized probe by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We describe the mechanisms responsible for the high-resolution AFM, STM and IETS-STM contrast. The complexity of this technique requires new theoretical approaches, where a relaxation of the functionalized probe is considered. We emphasise the similarities of the mechanism driving high-resolution SPM with other imaging methods. We also summarise briefly significant achievements and progress in different branches. Finally we provide brief perspectives and remaining challenges of the further refinement of these high-resolution methods.

  16. High-resolution Image Reconstruction by Neural Network and Its Application in Infrared Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nan; JIN Wei-qi; SU Bing-hua

    2005-01-01

    As digital image techniques have been widely used, the requirements for high-resolution images become increasingly stringent. Traditional single-frame interpolation techniques cannot add new high frequency information to the expanded images, and cannot improve resolution in deed. Multiframe-based techniques are effective ways for high-resolution image reconstruction, but their computation complexities and the difficulties in achieving image sequences limit their applications. An original method using an artificial neural network is proposed in this paper. Using the inherent merits in neural network, we can establish the mapping between high frequency components in low-resolution images and high-resolution images. Example applications and their results demonstrated the images reconstructed by our method are aesthetically and quantitatively (using the criteria of MSE and MAE) superior to the images acquired by common methods. Even for infrared images this method can give satisfactory results with high definition. In addition, a single-layer linear neural network is used in this paper, the computational complexity is very low, and this method can be realized in real time.

  17. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  18. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na i D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He i λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca ii K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na i D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  19. High resolution modeling of a small urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouri-Plakali, Ilektra; Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most complex issues that urban environments have to deal with. In France, flooding remains the first natural risk with 72% of decrees state of natural disaster issued between October 1982 and mid-November 2014. Flooding is a result of meteorological extremes that are usually aggravated by the hydrological behavior of urban catchments and human factors. The continuing urbanization process is indeed changing the whole urban water cycle by limiting the infiltration and promoting runoff. Urban environments are very complex systems due to their extreme variability, the interference between human activities and natural processes but also the effect of the ongoing urbanization process that changes the landscape and hardly influences their hydrologic behavior. Moreover, many recent works highlight the need to simulate all urban water processes at their specific temporal and spatial scales. However, considering urban catchments heterogeneity still challenging for urban hydrology, even after advances noticed in term of high-resolution data collection and computational resources. This issue is more to be related to the architecture of urban models being used and how far these models are ready to take into account the extreme variability of urban catchments. In this work, high spatio-temporal resolution modeling is performed for a small and well-equipped urban catchment. The aim of this work is to identify urban modeling needs in terms of spatial and temporal resolution especially for a very small urban area (3.7 ha urban catchment located in the Perreux-sur-Marne city at the southeast of Paris) MultiHydro model was selected to carry out this work, it is a physical based and fully distributed model that interacts four existing modules each of them representing a portion of the water cycle in urban environments. MultiHydro was implemented at 10m, 5m and 2m resolution. Simulations were performed at different spatio-temporal resolutions and analyzed with

  20. Subcutaneous Cysticercosis: Role of High Resolution Ultrasound in Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Lohra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the commonest site of extraintestinal infestation with Taenia solium is brain, Subcutaneous cysticercosis is fairly common in asia. The advent of high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, and a heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated soft tissue cysticerci has probably supplanted the need for surgical intervention and excision biopsy in asymptomatic subcutaneous cysts, as cysts have high rate of spontaneous resolution. OBJECTIVES: - To observe role of high resolution ultrasound in diagnosis and need of surgical intervention in treatment of subcutaneous cysticercosis. MATERIALS and METHODS: retrospective study of seven cases of extraneural cysticercosis, all involving the subcutaneous tissues or muscles over the arms and torso. Either high resolution ultrasound, FNAC, or excision biopsy, or a combination of these were used to arrive at a diagnosis. All patients were followed up with serial ultrasounds. All patients received oral nitazoxanide for autoinfection. Surgical excision was resorted to in two patients, in whom it was possible to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: of the seven cases of subcutaneous cysticercosis all have rural background, most of the patients (6 were vegetarian and one was non vegetarian. Age and gender of patient, size and duration of lesion were insignificant in establishing the diagnosis. High resolution ultrasound was highly significant in establishing the diagnosis over FNAC and histopathology. Five of the cases resolved spontaneously and surgical intervention was required only in two cases. INTERPRETATION and CONCLUSIONS: With heightened clinician awareness of the existence of isolated subcutaneous cysticercosis in patients with close animal contact, and the widespread availability of high resolution ultrasound and FNAC, subcutaneous cysticercosis can be diagnosed readily. Surgery can be avoided in the great majority of these patients, as the cysts mostly resolve on their own

  1. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  2. 3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter; Inati, Souheil;

    Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron...... framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved...

  3. Wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Frolov, Maxim E.; Lebedev, Sergey P.; Reshetov, Igor V.; Spektor, Igor E.; Tolstoguzov, Viktor L.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Khorokhorov, Alexei M.; Koshelev, Kirill I.; Schadko, Aleksander O.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce wide-aperture aspherical lens for high-resolution terahertz (THz) imaging. The lens has been designed and analyzed by numerical methods of geometrical optics and electrodynamics. It has been made of high-density polyethylene by shaping at computer-controlled lathe and characterized using a continuous-wave THz imaging setup based on a backward-wave oscillator and Golay detector. The concept of image contrast has been implemented to estimate image quality. According to the experimental data, the lens allows resolving two points spaced at 0.95λ distance with a contrast of 15%. To highlight high resolution in the THz images, the wide-aperture lens has been employed for studying printed electronic circuit board containing sub-wavelength-scale elements. The observed results justify the high efficiency of the proposed lens design.

  4. High resolution seismic refraction method (development and applications); Koseido kussetsuho jishin tansa no kaihatsu to tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Saito, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Described herein are measurement/analysis procedures of the high-resolution seismic refraction method. Recently, use of explosives has been limited for many explorative activities. The measurement systems and waveform processing procedures described herein can minimize use of explosives and widen applicability of non-explosive seismic sources. The seismic refraction method is now advanced, e.g., to process large quantities of high-quality data, use tomographic algorithm and include analysis of vibration-receiving points in holes, and is applicable to grounds of complicated structures, for which the conventional method is difficult to use. The new method is aided by a personal computer to give the analysis results almost automatically, thereby establishing objectivity of the explorative results and securing data quality. The high-resolution seismic refraction method, aided by the new techniques of measurement/analysis, can now give the results in a much shorter time than the conventional one. 40 refs., 22 figs.

  5. kspectrum: an open-source code for high-resolution molecular absorption spectra production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymet, V.; Coustet, C.; Piaud, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present the kspectrum, scientific code that produces high-resolution synthetic absorption spectra from public molecular transition parameters databases. This code was originally required by the atmospheric and astrophysics communities, and its evolution is now driven by new scientific projects among the user community. Since it was designed without any optimization that would be specific to any particular application field, its use could also be extended to other domains. kspectrum produces spectral data that can subsequently be used either for high-resolution radiative transfer simulations, or for producing statistic spectral model parameters using additional tools. This is a open project that aims at providing an up-to-date tool that takes advantage of modern computational hardware and recent parallelization libraries. It is currently provided by Méso-Star (http://www.meso-star.com) under the CeCILL license, and benefits from regular updates and improvements.

  6. High Resolution Maps of the Moon Surface with AMIE/SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despan, Daniela; Erard, S.; Barucci, A.; Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Chevrel, S.; Pinet, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Grieger, B.; Foing, B.; AMIE Team

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) on board the ESA lunar mission Smart-1 has performed colour imaging of the lunar surface using various filters in the visible and NIR range. This micro-camera provided high resolution images of selected parts of the lunar surface, including the North and South pole areas. Being give that the SMART-1 mission was in a 300km x 300km orbit with perilune over the South pole, the coverage between the North and the South regions is different. The AMIE images were obtained using a tele-objective with 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and a sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. The output images have resolution 45m/pixel at 500km, and are encoded with 10 bits/pixel. The data for the North pole were obtained at a much higher altitude than the South pole data. From the 300 Km pericenter altitude, the same field of view corresponds to a spatial resolution about 27 m/pixel. The high resolution imaging of the Moon surface makes possible detailed analysis of the morphological features and physical characteristics of the lunar surface. In order to construct AMIE data maps, systematic analysis and processing is being carried on using the whole data set. Geometrical analysis of AMIE images relies on the SPICE system: image coordinates are computed to get precise projection at the surface, and illumination angles are computed to analyze the photometric sequences. Using this method, high resolution mosaics were constructed then compared to lower resolution Clementine UV-Vis and NIR images. Maps of both North and South pole were obtained as well as other regions of interest. Eventually, this method will be applied in all areas where AMIE has provided high resolution observations of the surface, typically a factor of 3 higher than the Clementine UV-Vis camera. New results will be presented at the conference.

  7. An Optimized, Grid Independent, Narrow Band Data Structure for High Resolution Level Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Bang; Museth, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Level sets have recently proven successful in many areas of computer graphics including water simulations and geometric modeling. However, current implementations of these level set methods are limited by factors such as computational efficiency, storage requirements and the restriction to a doma...... difference schemes typically used to numerically solve the level set equation on fixed uniform grids.  ......Level sets have recently proven successful in many areas of computer graphics including water simulations and geometric modeling. However, current implementations of these level set methods are limited by factors such as computational efficiency, storage requirements and the restriction to a domain...... enforced by the convex boundaries of an underlying cartesian computational grid. Here we present a novel very memory efficient narrow band data structure, dubbed the Sparse Grid, that enables the representation of grid independent high resolution level sets. The key features our new data structure are...

  8. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be

  9. Performance Optimization of NEMO Oceanic Model at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epicoco, Italo; Mocavero, Silvia; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The NEMO oceanic model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations along with a nonlinear equation of state, which couples the two active tracers (temperature and salinity) to the fluid velocity. The code is written in Fortan 90 and parallelized using MPI. The resolution of the global ocean models used today for climate change studies limits the prediction accuracy. To overcome this limit, a new high-resolution global model, based on NEMO, simulating at 1/16° and 100 vertical levels has been developed at CMCC. The model is computational and memory intensive, so it requires many resources to be run. An optimization activity is needed. The strategy requires a preliminary analysis to highlight scalability bottlenecks. It has been performed on a SandyBridge architecture at CMCC. An efficiency of 48% on 7K cores (the maximum available) has been achieved. The analysis has been also carried out at routine level, so that the improvement actions could be designed for the entire code or for the single kernel. The analysis highlighted for example a loss of performance due to the routine used to implement the north fold algorithm (i.e. handling the points at the north pole of the 3-poles Grids): indeed an optimization of the routine implementation is needed. The folding is achieved considering only the last 4 rows on the top of the global domain and by applying a rotation pivoting on the point in the middle. During the folding, the point on the top left is updated with the value of the point on bottom right and so on. The current version of the parallel algorithm is based on the domain decomposition. Each MPI process takes care of a block of points. Each process can update its points using values belonging to the symmetric process. In the current implementation, each received message is placed in a buffer with a number of elements equal to the total dimension of the global domain. Each process sweeps the entire buffer, but only a part of that computation is really useful for the

  10. The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars - High resolution spectral library

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Jofré, P; Heiter, U

    2014-01-01

    Context. An increasing number of high resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed in order to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized. Aims. We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars) that will allow to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys. Methods. High resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process in order to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library. Results. We built a high quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and e...

  11. Design of UAV high resolution image transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Ji, Ming; Pang, Lan; Jiang, Wen-tao; Fan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xingcheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of the bandwidth limitation of the image transmission system on UAV, a scheme with image compression technology for mini UAV is proposed, based on the requirements of High-definition image transmission system of UAV. The video codec standard H.264 coding module and key technology was analyzed and studied for UAV area video communication. Based on the research of high-resolution image encoding and decoding technique and wireless transmit method, The high-resolution image transmission system was designed on architecture of Android and video codec chip; the constructed system was confirmed by experimentation in laboratory, the bit-rate could be controlled easily, QoS is stable, the low latency could meets most applied requirement not only for military use but also for industrial applications.

  12. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  13. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  14. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  15. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  16. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony;

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit hi...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors......In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...

  17. High-resolution ultrasonographic findings in thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-08-15

    Ultrasonography, it's excellent ability of differentiating cystic from solid lesion and depicting detailed architecture, proved itself useful in the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies. Advanced high resolution equipment made hidden small lesion detected and finer structure clearly seen. They seemed to throw light on the histological diagnosis of thyroid diseases, especially differentiation of benignancy and malignancy. Author reviewed pictures of high-resolution ultrasonography of thyroid disease (24 cases) and correlated them with proven pathological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Multiplicity of lesion favors benignancy (4 cases). 2. Well defined margin favors benignancy (14/17), while ill defined margin favors malignancy (3/4), and lesion of no margin favors thyroiditis (3/3). 3. Surrounding halo favors benignancy (7 cases). 4. Hypoechogenicity were found in most of malignancy and thyroiditis. Cystic components in solid nodule were common findings in benign and malignant lesions. Calcification was not found in malignancy.

  18. High Resolution Optical Spectra of HBC 722 after Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sung, Hwankyung; Green, Joel D; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of our high resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign ($\\lambda$ = 3800 -- 8800 A, R = 30000 -- 45000) of the new FU Orionis-type object HBC 722. We observed HBC 722 with the BOES 1.8-m telescope between 2010 November 26 and 2010 December 29 and FU Orionis itself on 2011 January 26. We detect a number of previously unreported high-resolution K I and Ca II lines beyond 7500 A. We resolve the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II line profiles into three velocity components, which we attribute to both disk and outflow. The increased accretion during outburst can heat the disk to produce the relatively narrow absorption feature and launch outflows appearing as high velocity blue and redshifted broad features.

  19. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  20. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  1. Application Research on High Resolution Radar Target Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhi Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In high resolution radar system, the same target always has original data; so we need to merge multiple data from the same target as one target. Because of the system’s real-time requirement, we usually have to carry out target aggregation as quickly as possible. In this paper, we propose a quick target aggregation method based on clustering algorithm. The proposed method divides original data into subsets by single dimensional distance, and then merges subsets according to single dimensional distance and setdensity. At last we apply the proposed method to carry out target aggregation for airport scene surveillance radar system. Experimental result shows the proposed method has high execution efficiency and is not sensitive to noise data; it is useful for high resolution radar target aggregation.

  2. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Siruguri; P D Babu; M Gupta; A V Pimpale; P S Goyal

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator and open beam geometry, enabling the use of smaller samples. The resolution curve of the instrument was found to have little variation over a wide angular region and a / ∼ 0.3% has been achieved. The instrument provides sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for studying magnetic properties of materials.

  3. Tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução na silicose: correlação com radiografia e testes de função pulmonar High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo José Lopes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar os parâmetros tomográficos com os de função pulmonar em portadores de silicose, bem como comparar os resultados da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução (TCAR com os da radiografia de tórax. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de corte transversal, em que foram avaliados 44 pacientes não-tabagistas e sem história pregressa de tuberculose. As radiografias foram classificadas de acordo com a proposta da Organização Internacional do Trabalho. Utilizando um sistema de escore semiquantitativo, os seguintes achados na TCAR foram quantificados: extensão total do envolvimento pulmonar, opacidades parenquimatosas e enfisema. Foram realizados espirometria, oscilações forçadas, avaliação dos volumes pulmonares pela técnica de diluição com hélio e medida da diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO, capacidade de difusão do monóxido de carbono. RESULTADOS: Dos 44 pacientes estudados, 41 eram homens, com média de idade de 48,4 anos. Na análise comparativa, 4 pacientes classificados na categoria 0 pela radiografia foram reclassificados na categoria 1 pela TCAR e, enquanto a radiografia diagnosticou 23 casos de fibrose maciça progressiva, a TCAR estabeleceu esse diagnóstico em 33 doentes. Para o escore de opacidades, as maiores correlações foram observadas com as medidas de fluxo, DLCO e complacência. Já o enfisema correlacionou-se negativamente com as medidas de volume, DLCO e fluxo. Nesta amostra com predomínio de grandes opacidades (75% dos indivíduos, a deterioração da função pulmonar associou-se com a extensão das alterações estruturais. CONCLUSÕES: Na silicose, a TCAR é superior à radiografia tanto na detecção precoce da doença quanto na identificação de fibrose maciça progressiva.OBJECTIVE: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings, in

  4. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  5. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  6. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; LIANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Chun-Lei; CAO Xue-Lei; JIANG Wei-Chun; ZHANG Jia-Yu; CUI Xing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed.A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer.The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics,a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit.A ground test system is also developed to test SOX.The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved.

  7. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  8. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...

  9. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  10. Fusion Experiments of HSI and High Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    map derived from the unsharpened HSI. The classification is performed with an unsupervised feature extraction using principal component analysis (PCA... Classification of Hyperspectral Data in Urban Area", P. 169-172, SPIE Vol.3502 8. R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, Addison-Wesley...MA 02420-9185 Abstract In this paper, the fusion of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor data and high-resolution panchromatic imagery (HPI) is

  11. Optical alignment of high resolution Fourier transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Ocallaghan, F. G.; Cassie, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing, high resolution FTS instruments often contain three primary optical subsystems: Fore-Optics, Interferometer Optics, and Post, or Detector Optics. We discuss the alignment of a double-pass FTS containing a cat's-eye retro-reflector. Also, the alignment of fore-optics containing confocal paraboloids with a reflecting field stop which relays a field image onto a camera is discussed.

  12. Validation of AIRS high-resolution stratospheric temperature retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Catrin I.; Hoffmann, Lars

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on stratospheric temperature observations by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We validate a nine-year record (2003 - 2011) of data retrieved with a scientific retrieval processor independent from the operational processor operated by NASA. The retrieval discussed here provides stratospheric temperature profiles for each individual AIRS footprint and has nine times better horizontal sampling than the operational data provided by NASA. The high-resolution temperature data are considered optimal for for gravity wave studies. For validation the high-resolution retrieval data are compared with results from the AIRS operational Level-2 data and the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis. Due to the large amount of data we performed statistical comparisons of monthly zonal mean cross-sections and time series. The comparisons show that the high-resolution temperature data are in good agreement with the validation data sets. The bias in the zonal averages is mostly within ±2K. The bias reaches a maximum of 7K to ERA-Interim and 4K to the AIRS operational data at the stratopause, it is related to the different resolutions of the data sets. Variability is nearly the same in all three data sets, having maximum standard deviations around the polar vortex in the mid and upper stratosphere. The validation presented here indicates that the high-resolution temperature retrievals are well-suited for scientific studies. In particular, we expect that they will become a valuable asset for future studies of stratospheric gravity waves.

  13. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N; Soby, L; Lunin, A; Solyak, N; Wendt, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  14. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M. [Radiology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Histopathology Department, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Jaffe, Adam [Portex Respiratory Medicine Unit, The Institute of Child Health, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  15. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...... conditions. Here, we provide background information on proteomics by mass-spectrometry and describe the practice of a comprehensive yeast proteome analysis....

  16. Insights on the Subduction Process from High-Resolution 3D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, Margarete

    2015-04-01

    This is an exciting time in geodynamics as the use of unprecedented high-resolution 3D modeling allows us to ask new questions that were previously unattainable. It is now relatively straightforward to run 3D numerical simulations, with local mesh refinement to ~1 km, input data mapped onto over 100 million finite element nodes, and using tens of thousands of compute hours per model, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2012]. With the additional computational resources, comes a new approach to modeling the tectonic problem. For example, mapping tectonic plates onto a high-resolution 3D geodynamic model grid forces the modeler to ask questions much as a field geologist would ask when constructing a geologic map. In this process of moving from textbook models of subduction to using models based on observation, the modeler is forced to explain the more complicated geometries and features in the Earth, allowing for the new computational approaches to be powerful tools for scientific discovery. Subduction modeling of this kind has expanded the classical view of two-dimensional corner flow, e.g. McKenzie [1969], to a slab driven flow that can be quite complex with predictions for upper mantle flow rates that can be over ten times surface plate motions, e.g. Jadamec et al. [2010] and others. In this talk, I will investigate the role of the third-dimension and non-linearity in plate boundary deformation. I will present high-resolution 3D numerical models that examine the effect of observationally based slab geometry, multiple subducting plates, non-linear rheology, and variations in overriding plate thickness on the subduction related deformation of plate margins. Specific examples include the Alaska and Central America subduction systems. In addition, I will highlight future directions in subduction modeling, and how these can be advanced by the increased incorporation of observational data, high-performance computing, focused numerical algorithms, and 3D interactive data visualization.

  17. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  18. High resolution temperature measurement technique for measuring marine heat flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YangYang; YANG; XiaoQiu; WU; BaoZhen; SUN; ZhaoHua; SHI; XiaoBin

    2013-01-01

    High resolution temperature measurement technique is one of the key techniques for measuring marine heat flow. Basing on Pt1000 platinum resistance which has the characteristics of high accuracy and good stability, we designed a bridge reversal excitation circuit for high resolution temperature measurement. And the deep ocean floor in-situ test results show that: (1) temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the first version circuit board (V1) are 1.960-1.990 mK and 0.980-0.995 m Kat 1.2-2.7°C, respectively; and temperature deviation and peak-to-peak resolution of the second circuit board (V2) are 2.260mK and 1.130 mK at 1.2-1.3°C, respectively; (2) During the 2012NSFC-IndOcean cruise, seafloor geothermal gradient at Ind2012HF03,-07 and-12 stations (water depth ranges from 3841 to 4541 m) were successfully measured, the values are 59.1,75.1 and 71.6°C/km, respectively. And the measurement errors of geothermal gradient at these three stations are less than 3.0% in terms of the peak-to-peak resolution. These indicate that the high resolution temperature measurement technique based on Pt1000 platinum resistance in this paper can be applied to marine heat flow measurement to obtain high precision geothermal parameters.

  19. High resolution surface plasmon microscopy for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoul, F.; Monier, K.; Roland, T.; Elezgaray, J.; Berguiga, L.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a new non-labeling high resolution microscopy method for cellular imaging. This method called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) pushes down the resolution limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) to sub-micronic scales. High resolution SPRi is obtained by the surface plasmon lauching with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The advantages of SPPM compared to other high resolution SPRi's rely on three aspects; (i) the interferometric detection of the back reflected light after plasmon excitation, (ii) the twodimensional scanning of the sample for image reconstruction, (iii) the radial polarization of light, enhancing both resolution and sensitivity. This microscope can afford a lateral resolution of - 150 nm in liquid environment and - 200 nm in air. We present in this paper images of IMR90 fibroblasts obtained with SSPM in dried environment. Internal compartments such as nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, cellular and nuclear membrane can be recognized without labelling. We propose an interpretation of the ability of SSPM to reveal high index contrast zones by a local decomposition of the V (Z) function describing the response of the SSPM.

  20. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  1. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  2. High Resolution CO Observations of Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q; Galván-Madrid, R; Liu, H-Y B

    2011-01-01

    Context. To further understand the processes involved in the formation of massive stars, we have undertaken a study of the gas dynamics surrounding three massive star forming regions. By observing the large scale structures at high resolution, we are able to determine properties such as driving source, and spatially resolve the bulk dynamical properties of the gas such as infall and outflow. Aims. With high resolution observations, we are able to determine which of the cores in a cluster forming massive stars is responsible for the large scale structures. Methods. We present CO observations of three massive star forming regions with known HII regions and show how the CO traces both infall and outflow. By combining data taken in two SMA configurations with JCMT observations, we are able to see large scale structures at high resolution. Results. We find large (0.26-0.40 pc), massive (2-3 M_sun) and energetic (13-17 \\times 10^44 erg) outflows emanating from the edges of two HII regions suggesting they are being ...

  3. High-resolution noise radar using slow ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Konstantin; Vyplavin, Pavlo; Zemlyanyi, Oleg; Lukin, Sergiy; Palamarchuk, Volodymyr

    2011-06-01

    Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has some limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. Those limitations are caused by a tradeoff in performance of currently available ADCs: the faster is ADC the smaller is its depth (number of bits) available. Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing doesn't enable to get both high range resolution and high dynamic range. In the paper we present a way to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs. The design is based upon generation of both probing and reference signals digitally and realization of their cross-correlation in an analog correlator. The output of the correlator is a narrowband signal that requires rather slow ADC to be sampled which nowadays may give up to 130 dB dynamic range.

  4. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping

    2011-07-08

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors have been previously verified with computer simulations and laboratory experiments but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate the high-resolution and the super-stacking properties in locating seismic sources with field seismic data that include multiple scattering. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that a time reversal mirror has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 4 or more. Results also show that a time reversal mirror has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests al