Sample records for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

  1. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  2. Graphite and fiberglass additives for improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycle life of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.; Hollenkamp, A. F.

    In order to accommodate regenerative braking energy input in hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles while maintaining boosting power at high rates of discharge, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries must operate permanently at partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. As a consequence, new failure modes appear, e.g., irreversible sulfation in negative plates, that have to be overcome. In this way, work has been done to apply some solutions like improving charge acceptance in this "sulfated medium". Several batches of 6 V 20 Ah AGM VRLA batteries with spiral cell design have been assembled and tested, each batch containing novel additives in the negative active material (NAM). It has been observed that the addition of a sufficient amount of expanded graphite significantly improves cycle life under PSoC conditions. Moreover, life duration is also extended, although to a lesser extent, by using a novel fiberglass which increases surface area of NAM.

  3. Lead-carbon electrode designed for renewable energy storage with superior performance in partial state of charge operation (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Li; Yin, Jian; Lin, Zhe-Qi; Shi, Jun; Wang, Can; Liu, De-Bo; Wang, Yue; Bao, Jin-Peng; Lin, Hai-Bo


    Renewable energy storage is a key issue in our modern electricity-powered society. Lead acid batteries (LABs) are operated at partial state of charge in renewable energy storage system, which causes the sulfation and capacity fading of Pb electrode. Lead-carbon composite electrode is a good solution to the sulfation problem of LAB. In this paper, a rice-husk-derived hierarchically porous carbon with micrometer-sized large pores (denoted as RHC) has been used as the component of lead-carbon composite electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of lead-carbon composite electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the charge transfer capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Both full charge-discharge method and charge-discharge method operating at harsh partial state of charge condition have been used to prove the superior energy storage capability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Experiment results prove that the micrometer-sized pores of RHC are beneficial to the construction and stability of lead-carbon composite electrode. Microporous carbon material with high surface area is not suitable for the construction of lead-carbon electrode due to the ruin of lead-carbon structure caused by severe electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

  4. Optimization of the cycle life performance of VRLA batteries, working under high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSOC) conditions (United States)

    Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.

    On hybrid vehicle applications, batteries must work in a rather low state of charge (SOC), in order to be able to recover as much of the regenerative braking energy as possible. Usually SOC values around 60% are used, which promotes the development of new unexpected failure modes not previously found, mainly associated with heavy sulphation of the negative plates. In order to try to optimise the cycle life performance to the point of making these batteries a real alternative for the application of hybrid vehicles, a series of tests have been undertaken, aimed to optimise the key parameters that from previous experience are known to determine life duration in high rate low state of charge (HRPSOC) conditions. Previous works have been focused on trying to determine the optimum composition of positive and negative active material, concerning paste density in the positive, and additives in negative. In order to overcome the deleterious effect of heavy sulphation in negative plates on cycle life, the use of conductivity enhancers additives such as graphite has been proposed. The objective of this project is to optimize the performance of the glass microfiber separators, in order to maintain a high degree of compression in the group, as well as to avoid acid stratification and development of short circuits along the battery life. To do this, different glass microfiber separators with inert additives, as well as different fiber composition have been tested. Results obtained up to now, indicate a remarkable good performance of the VRLA batteries with the new separators containing very fine fiberglass and silica fillers as an additive.

  5. Advantages in energy efficiency of flooded lead-acid batteries when using partial state of charge operation (United States)

    Büngeler, Johannes; Cattaneo, Eduardo; Riegel, Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe


    Today lead acid batteries are the most commonly used energy storage technology in material handling systems. Evaluation methods for the energy efficiency of forklifts, traction batteries and chargers have gained in relevance in this field. Generally, representative cycles are used to determine the energy efficiency in order to avoid multiple long lasting cycle live tests. At first glance this seems to be the adequate approach. However, for electrochemical storage systems with significant side reactions - like lead acid batteries - this procedure leads, to significantly lower values for energy efficiencies than in real life applications. While these battery systems need some overcharging to reach fully charged state, an overcharge is not necessary at every charge/discharge cycle. We report on results obtained with flooded lead acid batteries demonstrating that with a management strategy which includes operation in a partial state of charge, energy efficiencies of about 0.87 can be reached with minimal impact on lifetime. The usage of a typical representative cycle leads to an efficiency value of 0.77 with active electrolyte circulation respectively 0.70 without. We were able to identify the so called 'hard sulfation' of the negative plates as the major failure mode of insufficiently charged batteries.

  6. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO{sub 4} on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO{sub 4} on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO{sub 4} exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO{sub 4} has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO{sub 4} lowers the overpotential of PbSO{sub 4} nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO{sub 4} affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO{sub 4} eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling. (author)

  7. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  8. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries (United States)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  9. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A


    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  10. High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder Operations for Optimal Payload and Science Telemetry Management Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Shell, Michael T.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)


    All International Space Station (ISS) Ku-band telemetry transmits through the High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (HCOR). The HCOR provides the recording and playback capability for all payload, science, and International Partner data streams transmitting through NASA's Ku-band antenna system. The HCOR is a solid-state memory recorder that provides recording capability to record all eight ISS high-rate data during ISS Loss-of-Signal periods. NASA payloads in the Destiny module are prime users of the HCOR; however, NASDA and ESA will also utilize the HCOR for data capture and playback of their high data rate links from the Kibo and Columbus modules. Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center manages the HCOR for nominal functions, including system configurations and playback operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the nominal operations plan for the HCOR and the plans for handling contingency operations affecting payload operations. In addition, the paper will address HCOR operation limitations and the expected effects on payload operations. The HCOR is manifested for ISS delivery on flight 9A with the HCOR backup manifested on flight 11A. The HCOR replaces the Medium-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (MCOR), which has supported payloads since flight 5A.1.

  11. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A


    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  12. Bringing High-Rate, CO2-Based Microbial Electrosynthesis Closer to Practical Implementation through Improved Electrode Design and Operating Conditions. (United States)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Freguia, Stefano; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg


    The enhancement of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of acetate from CO2 to performance levels that could potentially support practical implementations of the technology must go through the optimization of key design and operating conditions. We report that higher proton availability drastically increases the acetate production rate, with pH 5.2 found to be optimal, which will likely suppress methanogenic activity without inhibitor addition. Applied cathode potential as low as -1.1 V versus SHE still achieved 99% of electron recovery in the form of acetate at a current density of around -200 A m(-2). These current densities are leading to an exceptional acetate production rate of up to 1330 g m(-2) day(-1) at pH 6.7. Using highly open macroporous reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes with macropore sizes of about 0.6 mm in diameter was found to be optimal for achieving a good balance between total surface area available for biofilm formation and effective mass transfer between the bulk liquid and the electrode and biofilm surface. Furthermore, we also successfully demonstrated the use of a synthetic biogas mixture as carbon dioxide source, yielding similarly high MES performance as pure CO2. This would allow this process to be used effectively for both biogas quality improvement and conversion of the available CO2 to acetate.

  13. Bringing High-Rate, CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Freguia, Stefano; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg


    The enhancement of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) of acetate from CO2 to performance levels that could potentially support practical implementations of the technology must go through the optimization of key design and operating conditions. We report that higher proton availability

  14. High-Rate Receiver Design Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  15. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas (United States)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André


    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  16. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery (United States)


    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  17. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N


    While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond


    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  19. Sustainable Agro-Food Industrial Wastewater Treatment Using High Rate Anaerobic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung


    Full Text Available This review article compiles the various advances made since 2008 in sustainable high-rate anaerobic technologies with emphasis on their performance enhancement when treating agro-food industrial wastewater. The review explores the generation and characteristics of different agro-food industrial wastewaters; the need for and the performance of high rate anaerobic reactors, such as an upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, hybrid systems etc.; operational challenges, mass transfer considerations, energy production estimation, toxicity, modeling, technology assessment and recommendations for successful operation

  20. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R


    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  1. Problems and solutions in high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode design The CMS experience

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P B


    The unique conditions of the CMS experiment (4 T magnetic field, restricted access, high neutron radiation, and 25-ns bunch-crossings) necessitated the development of a new type of high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode for the tile/fiber hadronic calorimeter. New complexities arose in the push toward high-rate operation, necessitating design changes in the diode structure and surface treatment. The product is now capable of high-rate operation with low crosstalk and leakage current. Lifetime studies of high-voltage behavior, total charge, and irradiation have shown that the tubes will survive the ten years of CMS running with only a few percent change in gain and manageable leakage current rise. (13 refs).

  2. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V17.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  3. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V2.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  4. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V12.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  5. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V8.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  6. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V10.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  7. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  8. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V13.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  9. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V9.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  10. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V3.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  11. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V7.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  12. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V4.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  13. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V11.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  14. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V14.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  15. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V5.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...

  16. CASSINI HIGH RATE DETECTOR V6.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and...



    Fernanda eVargas E Silva; Luiz Olinto Monteggia


    This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high-rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP) were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3 mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735 mg/l. The alga...

  18. Integrating GPS with GLONASS for high-rate seismogeodesy (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jingnan


    High-rate GPS is a precious seismogeodetic tool to capture coseismic displacements unambiguously and usually improved by sidereal filtering to mitigate multipath effects dominating the periods of tens of seconds to minutes. We further introduced GLONASS (Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema) data into high-rate GPS to deliver over 2000 24 h displacements at 99 stations in Europe. We find that the major displacement errors induced by orbits and atmosphere on the low-frequency band that are not characterized by sidereal repeatabilities can be amplified markedly by up to 40% after GPS sidereal filtering. In contrast, integration with GLONASS can reduce the noise of high-rate GPS significantly and near uniformly over the entire frequency band, especially for the north components by up to 40%, suggesting that this integration is able to mitigate more errors than only multipath within high-rate GPS. Integrating GPS with GLONASS outperforms GPS sidereal filtering substantially in ameliorating displacement noise by up to 60% over a wide frequency band (e.g., 2 s-0.5 days) except a minor portion between 100 and 1000 s. High-rate multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) can be enhanced further by sidereal filtering, which should however be carefully implemented to avoid adverse complications of the noise spectrum of displacements.

  19. Analog Readout and Analysis Software for the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Evans, Allan T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Wood, Lynn S.


    High-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers are needed for Safeguards applications such as spent fuel assay and uranium hexafluoride cylinder verification. In addition, these spectrometers would be applicable to other high-rate applications such as non-destructive assay of nuclear materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence. Count-rate limitations of today's HPGe technologies, however, lead to concessions in their use and reduction in their efficacy. Large-volume, very high-rate HPGe spectrometers are needed to enable a new generation of nondestructive assay systems. The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project is developing HPGe spectrometer systems capable of operating at unprecedented rates, 10 to 100 times those available today. This report documents current status of developments in the analog electronics and analysis software.

  20. Breakdown Limit Studies in High Rate Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ivaniouchenkov, Yu; Peskov, Vladimir; Ramsey, B D


    We report results from a systematic study of breakdown limits for novel high rate gaseous detectors: MICROMEGAS, CAT and GEM, together with more conventional devices such as thin-gap parallel-mesh chambers and high-rate wire chambers. It was found that for all these detectors, the maximum achievable gain, before breakdown appears, drops dramatically with incident flux, and is sometimes inversely proportional to it. Further, in the presence of alpha particles, typical of the backgrounds in high-energy experiments, additional gain drops of 1-2 orders of magnitude were observed for many detectors. It was found that breakdowns at high rates occur through what we have termed an "accumulative" mechanism, which does not seem to have been previously reported in the literature. Results of these studies may help in choosing the optimum detector for given experimental conditions.

  1. Integrated High-Rate Transition Radiation Detector and Tracking Chamber for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia


    % RD-6 \\\\ \\\\Over the past five years, RD-6 has developed a transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker for high rate operation at LHC. The detector elements are based on C-fibre reinforced kapton straw tubes of 4~mm diameter filled with a Xenon gas mixture. Detailed measurements with and without magnetic field have been performed in test beams, and in particular have demonstrated the possibility of operating straw tubes at very high rate (up to 20~MHz) with accurate drift-time measurement accuracy. A full-scale engineering prototype containing 10~000 straws is presently under assembly and will be accurately measured with a powerful X-ray tube. Integrated front-end electronics with fast readout have been designed and successfully operated in test beam. \\\\ \\\\Finally extensive simulations performed for ATLAS have shown that such a detector will provide powerful pattern recognition, accurate momentum measurements, efficient level-2 triggering and excellent electron identification, even at the highe...

  2. Performance of the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dion, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); VanDevender, Brent A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Lynn S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report describes the final performance achieved with the detector system developed for the Ultra High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project. The system performance has been evaluated at low, moderate and high rates and includes the performance of real-time analysis algorithms running in the FPGA of the data acquisition system. This performance is compared to that of offline analyses of streaming waveform data collected with the same data acquisition system the performance of a commercial Multi-Channel Analyzer designed for high-resolution spectroscopy applications, the Canberra LYNX.

  3. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J


    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  4. Advances in high rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Zee, van der F.P.; Tan, N.C.G.; Rebac, S.; Kleerebezem, R.


    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide

  5. High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over coated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Aug 2, 2017 ... High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over. Ti0.97Pd0.03O2−δ coated cordierite monolith. BHASKAR DEVU MUKRI. ∗ and M S HEGDE. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. E-mail: MS received 9 May 2017; ...

  6. Adapting high-rate anaerobic treatment to Middle East conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.


    High-rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for sewage treatment in the Middle East and Palestine in particular. The sewage characteristics in Palestine are quite different from the values elsewhere and show solids contents of more than 1000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)ss/L

  7. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.


    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens

  8. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison


    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode, a semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a liquid electrolyte, and an ion permeable membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness in the range of about 250 .mu.m-2,500 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least 5 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/2.

  9. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana


    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....

  10. High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography (United States)

    Yuen, Horace P.


    Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.

  11. MIMO-OFDM for High Rate Underwater Acoustic Communications (United States)


    Doppler estimation The channel Doppler effect can be viewed as caused by carrier frequency offsets (CFO) among the transmitters and the receivers [ es in H z 500m 1500m Fig. 4. Doppler estimates for one packet of 64 OFDM blocks at receiver 1; this Doppler shift is due to unintentional...IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING (TO APPEAR) 1 MIMO- OFDM for High Rate Underwater Acoustic Communications Baosheng Li, Student Member, IEEE, Jie

  12. The effect of substrate concentration fluctuation on the performance of high-rate denitrifying reactor. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Jiqiang; Shan, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Meng


    A high-rate denitrifying process is sensitive to the operation conditions and the substrate concentration fluctuation can lead to the deterioration or even collapse of process performance. The results of this study showed that the effect of substrate concentration fluctuation on the high-rate denitrification process was related to the substrate concentration and shock duration. The effect of substrate concentration was greater than that of shock duration and nitrate conversion was more sensitive than methanol conversion. The response of denitrification performance was related to the loading saturation (maximum loading rate/loading capacity ratio). When the loading saturation was lower than 32%, the high-rate denitrification process could stay in pseudo steady state, otherwise it would easily lose stability. The response of denitrification performance could be divided into three periods. The performance deterioration of high-rate denitrifying process could be attributed to the overload trigger and the toxicity of free nitrous acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Charging performance of automotive batteries-An underestimated factor influencing lifetime and reliable battery operation (United States)

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard; Fricke, Birger; Blanke, Holger; Thele, Marc; Bohlen, Oliver; Schiffer, Julia; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Kaiser, Rudi

    Dynamic charge acceptance and charge acceptance under constant voltage charging conditions are for two reasons essential for lead-acid battery operation: energy efficiency in applications with limited charging time (e.g. PV systems or regenerative braking in vehicles) and avoidance of accelerated ageing due to sulphation. Laboratory tests often use charge regimes which are beneficial for the battery life, but which differ significantly from the operating conditions in the field. Lead-acid batteries in applications with limited charging time and partial-state-of-charge operation are rarely fully charged due to their limited charge acceptance. Therefore, they suffer from sulphation and early capacity loss. However, when appropriate charging strategies are applied most of the lost capacity and thus performance for the user may be recovered. The paper presents several aspects of charging regimes and charge acceptance. Theoretical and experimental investigations show that temperature is the most critical parameter. Full charging within short times can be achieved only at elevated temperatures. A strong dependency of the charge acceptance during charging pulses on the pre-treatment of the battery can be observed, which is not yet fully understood. But these effects have a significant impact on the fuel efficiency of micro-hybrid electric vehicles.

  14. High-energy, high-rate materials processing (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.


    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  15. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning


    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8.7 F g-1 at the discharge current of 1 A g-1.

  16. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison


    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode and a semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode includes a suspension of an active material of about 35% to about 75% by volume of an active material and about 0.5% to about 8% by volume of a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. An ion-permeable membrane is disposed between the anode and the semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness of about 250 .mu.m to about 2,000 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least about 7 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/4. In some embodiments, the semi-solid cathode slurry has a mixing index of at least about 0.9.

  17. An MWPC readout chip for high rate environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kano, H; Ikeno, M; Sasaki, O; Sato, K; Matsuura, S


    An ASIC has been fabricated in order to readout data from an MWPC that is installed in high rate environment. 16 channels and an ancillary control circuit are packed in a chip, and a channel consists of LVDS Receiver and 100-stage shift register array for delay. A hit data from the chamber is once input in the shift register array, and is just output from it when the trigger signal is set. If a channel contains a signal during a gate followed by the trigger, the channel is regarded to contain a hit. The primary purpose to construct the chip is for test beam and cosmic ray test of ATLAS thin gap chambers (TGC), which are used for the muon trigger signal generation. The architecture of the ASIC is so simple and uidependent from the specific readout scheme of ATLAS TGC. It will be found that the ASIC is adopted easily for any readout scheme of MWPC like detector. 3 Refs.

  18. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  19. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar


    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Sedimentation is considered as an important process in removing turbidity produced in water and wastewater plants. Gravity sedimentation is usually the first method considered in water treatment system. However, required overflow rates (OFRs to remove turbidity in the conventional clarifiers are too low. Therefore, the shallow depth sedimentation concept was studied remove turbidity in order to increase OFRs of gravity setting equipment. Methods: Using a pilot with parallel plates with effect area 1.5 m2 and 1.5 m depth. The independent parameters such as OFRs, sludge concentration and turbidity were evaluated for turbidity removal. The pilot is located in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant. Results: The efficacy of pilot for turbidity 10-50 NTU is equal to 50 percent (P<0.01. The maximum removal efficiency at sludge concentration 270 ml/lit was obtained (P<0.01. A nonlinear relationship exists between removal efficiency (TR%, sludge concentration (Sc over flowrates (OFR and influent turbidity (Tu in pilot. Discussion: By using high rate sedimentation tank in water treatment plant, detection time reduced from 3 hours to 20-30 minute, turbidity removal increased up to 30 percent in compare with conventional sedimentation. Also, it has economic benefits and high efficiency.

  1. High rate copper and energy recovery in microbial fuel cells (United States)

    Rodenas Motos, Pau; ter Heijne, Annemiek; van der Weijden, Renata; Saakes, Michel; Buisman, Cees J. N.; Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.


    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a novel, promising technology for the recovery of metals. The prerequisite for upscaling from laboratory to industrial size is that high current and high power densities can be produced. In this study we report the recovery of copper from a copper sulfate stream (2 g L-1 Cu2+) using a laboratory scale BES at high rate. To achieve this, we used a novel cell configuration to reduce the internal voltage losses of the system. At the anode, electroactive microorganisms produce electrons at the surface of an electrode, which generates a stable cell voltage of 485 mV when combined with a cathode where copper is reduced. In this system, a maximum current density of 23 A m-2 in combination with a power density of 5.5 W m-2 was produced. XRD analysis confirmed 99% purity in copper of copper deposited onto cathode surface. Analysis of voltage losses showed that at the highest current, most voltage losses occurred at the cathode, and membrane, while anode losses had the lowest contribution to the total voltage loss. These results encourage further development of BESs for bioelectrochemical metal recovery. PMID:26150802

  2. High rate of adaptive evolution in two widespread European pines. (United States)

    Grivet, Delphine; Avia, Komlan; Vaattovaara, Aleksia; Eckert, Andrew J; Neale, David B; Savolainen, Outi; González-Martínez, Santiago C


    Comparing related organisms with differing ecological requirements and evolutionary histories can shed light on the mechanisms and drivers underlying genetic adaptation. Here, by examining a common set of hundreds of loci, we compare patterns of nucleotide diversity and molecular adaptation of two European conifers (Scots pine and maritime pine) living in contrasted environments and characterized by distinct population genetic structure (low and clinal in Scots pine, high and ecotypic in maritime pine) and demographic histories. We found higher nucleotide diversity in Scots pine than in maritime pine, whereas rates of new adaptive substitutions (ωa ), as estimated from the Distribution of Fitness Effects (DFE), were similar across species, and among the highest found in plants. Sample size and population genetic structure did not appear to have resulted in significant bias in estimates of ωa . Moreover, population contraction-expansion dynamics for each species did not differentially affect differentially the rate of adaptive substitution in these two pines. Several methodological and biological factors may underlie the unusually high rate of adaptive evolution of Scots pine and maritime pine. By providing two new case studies with contrasting evolutionary histories, we contribute to disentangling the multiple factors potentially affecting adaptive evolution in natural plant populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Children with Down's syndrome display high rates of hyperuricaemia. (United States)

    Kashima, Ayako; Higashiyama, Yukie; Kubota, Masaru; Kawaguchi, Chiharu; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nishikubo, Toshiya


    Several studies show that hyperuricaemia, abnormally high levels of uric acid in the blood, frequently occurs in adult Down's syndrome patients, but paediatric research is scarce. We aimed to clarify its prevalence in paediatric Down's syndrome patients and its association with lifestyle-related laboratory variables and nutritional intake, to consider possible effects in later life. We compared 52 Down's syndrome patients, from one to 15 years of age, with age-matched controls. Hyperuricaemia was defined using reference values established for children, as uric acid z-scores of more than 2.0. Nutritional intake was estimated using 3-day dietary records. Hyperuricaemia occurred in 17 Down's patients (32.7%) and was significantly higher in Down's patients than the controls. The prevalence was also significantly higher in males. There were no significant differences between hyperuricaemia-positive and hyperuricaemia-negative patients in terms of age, body mass index standard deviation scores, fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and triglyceride, and purine body intake was similar. There were differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found high rates of hyperuricaemia from early childhood in Down's syndrome patients. This suggests careful management of Down's syndrome patients, as hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases in adulthood. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Dynamic mathematical model of high rate algal ponds (HRAP). (United States)

    Jupsin, H; Praet, E; Vasel, J L


    This article presents a mathematical model to describe High-Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). The hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor is described as completely mixed tanks in series with recirculation. The hydrodynamic pattern is combined with a subset of River Water Quality Model 1 (RWQM1), including the main processes in liquid phase. Our aim is to develop models for WSPs and aerated lagoons, too, but we focused on HRAPs first for several reasons: Sediments are usually less abundant in HRAP and can be neglected, Stratification is not observed and state variables are constant in a reactor cross section, Due to the system's geometry, the reactor is quite similar to a plugflow type reactor with recirculation, with a simple advection term. The model is based on mass balances and includes the following processes: *Phytoplankton growth with NO3-, NO2- and death, *Aerobic growth of heterotrophs with NO3-, NH4+ and respiration, *Anoxic growth of heterotrophs with NO3-, NO2- and anoxic respiration, *Growth of nitrifiers (two stages) and respiration. The differences with regard to RWQM1 are that we included a limiting term associated with inorganic carbon on the growth rate of algae and nitrifiers, gas transfers are taken into account by the familiar Adeney equation, and a subroutine calculates light intensity at the water surface. This article presents our first simulations.

  5. Accuracy of High-Rate GPS for Seismology (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Oberlander, D.; Baena, R.; Ekstrom, G.


    We built a device for translating a GPS antenna on a positioning table to simulate the ground motions caused by an earthquake. The earthquake simulator is accurate to better than 0.1 mm in position, and provides the "ground truth" displacements for assessing the technique of high-rate GPS. We found that the root-mean-square error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates over the 15-min duration of the simulated seismic event was 2.5 mm, with approximately 96% of the observations in error by less than 5 mm, and is independent of GPS antenna motion. The error spectrum of the GPS estimates is approximately flicker noise, with a 50% decorrelation time for the position error of approx.1.6 s. We that, for the particular event simulated, the spectrum of dependent error in the GPS measurements. surface deformations exceeds the GPS error spectrum within a finite band. More studies are required to determine whether a generally optimal bandwidth exists for a target group of seismic events.

  6. Fast Timing for High-Rate Environments with Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Papaevangelou, Thomas; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Giomataris, Ioannis; Godinot, Cyprien; Gonzalez Diaz, Diego; Gustavsson, Thomas; Kebbiri, Mariam; Oliveri, Eraldo; Resnati, Filippo; Ropelewski, Leszek; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Veenhof, Rob; White, Sebastian


    The current state of the art in fast timing resolution for existing experiments is of the order of 100 ps on the time of arrival of both charged particles and electromagnetic showers. Current R&D on charged particle timing is approaching the level of 10 ps but is not primarily directed at sustained performance at high rates and under high radiation (as would be needed for HL-LHC pileup mitigation). We demonstrate a Micromegas based solution to reach this level of performance. The Micromegas acts as a photomultiplier coupled to a Cerenkov-radiator front window, which produces sufficient UV photons to convert the ~100 ps single-photoelectron jitter into a timing response of the order of 10-20 ps per incident charged particle. A prototype has been built in order to demonstrate this performance. The first laboratory tests with a pico-second laser have shown a time resolution of the order of 27 ps for ~50 primary photoelectrons, using a bulk Micromegas readout.

  7. The main natural lows of high-rate coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemyavsky Nikola V.


    Full Text Available The importance of coal pyrolysis studies for the development of energy technologies is evident, since pvrolysis is the first stage of any process of coal thermal conversion. In combustion, pyrolysis determines conditions of coal ignition and the rate of char after-burning, in gasification, pyrolysis determines total yield of gasification products. It must be noted that in modern energy technologies pyrolysis occurs at high late of coal particle heating (=10 K/s for different fluidized bed, or FB-technologies or super-high-rate (>10**5 K/s for entrained-flow gasification, and in some of them at high pressure. In CETI during last 12 years the detailed study of pyrolysis in FB laboratory-scale PYROLYSIS-D plant and entramed-flow pilot-scale GSP-01 plant, was carried out. In this paper main results of mentioned investigations are given. Kinetic constants for bituminous coals and anthracite high heating rates in entrained flow for high temperatures (>1500 °C and >1900 °C, and in fluidized bed conditions in temperature range 972-1273 K. In order to describe data obtained in fluidized bed conditions, G--model based method of calculation of devolatization dynamics was suited to FB heating conditions. Calculated and experimental kinetic data are in good agreement. The result proves that at FB-pvrolysis conditions intrinsic mass-transfer limitations are negligible and devolatilization is really kinetic-controlled.

  8. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation: high rates of maternal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Candido

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Women regain fertility a few time after renal transplantation. However, viability of pregnancy and maternal complications are still unclear. Objective: To describe the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients, focusing on maternal complications. Methods: Retrospective study of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients between 2004 and 2014, followed up 12 months after delivery. Each pregnancy was considered an event. Results: There were 53 pregnancies in 36 patients. Mean age was 28 ± 5years. Pregnancy occurred 4.4 ± 3.0 years post-transplant. Immunosuppression before conception was tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisone in 74% of the cases. There were 15% miscarriages in the 1st trimester and 8% in 2nd trimester. In 41% of the cases, it was necessary to induce labor. From all births, 22% were premature and 17% very premature. There were 5% stillbirths and 5% of neonatal deaths. De novo proteinuria occurred in 60%, urinary tract infection in 23%, preeclampsia in 11%, acute rejection in 6%, and graft loss in 2% of the cases. It was observed a significant increase in creatinine at preconception comparing to 3rd trimester and follow-up (1.17 vs. 1.46 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although the sample is limited, the number of miscarriages was higher than in the general population, with high rates of maternal complications. Sustained increase of creatinine suggests increased risk of graft loss in long-term.

  9. Fast Timing for High-Rate Environments with Micromegas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaevangelou Thomas


    Full Text Available The current state of the art in fast timing resolution for existing experiments is of the order of 100 ps on the time of arrival of both charged particles and electromagnetic showers. Current R&D on charged particle timing is approaching the level of 10 ps but is not primarily directed at sustained performance at high rates and under high radiation (as would be needed for HL-LHC pileup mitigation. We demonstrate aMicromegas based solution to reach this level of performance. The Micromegas acts as a photomultiplier coupled to a Cerenkovradiator front window, which produces sufficient UV photons to convert the ∼100 ps single-photoelectron jitter into a timing response of the order of 10-20 ps per incident charged particle. A prototype has been built in order to demonstrate this performance. The first laboratory tests with a pico-second laser have shown a time resolution of the order of 27 ps for ∼50 primary photoelectrons, using a bulk Micromegas readout.

  10. A High Rate Tension Device for Characterizing Brain Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1177/1754337112436900


    The mechanical characterization of brain tissue at high loading velocities is vital for understanding and modeling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The most severe form of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which involves damage to individual nerve cells (neurons). DAI in animals and humans occurs at strains > 10% and strain rates > 10/s. The mechanical properties of brain tissues at these strains and strain rates are of particular significance, as they can be used in finite element human head models to accurately predict brain injuries under different impact conditions. Existing conventional tensile testing machines can only achieve maximum loading velocities of 500 mm/min, whereas the Kolsky bar apparatus is more suitable for strain rates > 100/s. In this study, a custom-designed high rate tension device is developed and calibrated to estimate the mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension at strain rates < 90/s, while maintaining a uniform velocity. The range of strain can also be extended to 100% de...

  11. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    CERN Document Server



    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons and protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5*10^34 1/cm^2s, background hit rates of more than 10 kHz/cm^2 are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drift-tubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit ...

  12. Systematic Uncertainties in High-Rate Germanium Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; Fast, James E.; Fulsom, Bryan G.; Pitts, William K.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.


    For many nuclear material safeguards inspections, spectroscopic gamma detectors are required which can achieve high event rates (in excess of 10^6 s^-1) while maintaining very good energy resolution for discrimination of neighboring gamma signatures in complex backgrounds. Such spectra can be useful for non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel with long cooling times, which contains many potentially useful low-rate gamma lines, e.g., Cs-134, in the presence of a few dominating gamma lines, such as Cs-137. Detectors in use typically sacrifice energy resolution for count rate, e.g., LaBr3, or visa versa, e.g., CdZnTe. In contrast, we anticipate that beginning with a detector with high energy resolution, e.g., high-purity germanium (HPGe), and adapting the data acquisition for high throughput will be able to achieve the goals of the ideal detector. In this work, we present quantification of Cs-134 and Cs-137 activities, useful for fuel burn-up quantification, in fuel that has been cooling for 22.3 years. A segmented, planar HPGe detector is used for this inspection, which has been adapted for a high-rate throughput in excess of 500k counts/s. Using a very-high-statistic spectrum of 2.4*10^11 counts, isotope activities can be determined with very low statistical uncertainty. However, it is determined that systematic uncertainties dominate in such a data set, e.g., the uncertainty in the pulse line shape. This spectrum offers a unique opportunity to quantify this uncertainty and subsequently determine required counting times for given precision on values of interest.

  13. Advanced pond system: performance with high rate ponds of different depths and areas. (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Davies-Colley, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P


    Many domestic Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) or oxidation ponds in New Zealand require upgrading to reduce pollution of receiving waters. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond, High Rate Pond, Algae Settling Pond and Maturation Pond may provide a cost effective upgrade option. This paper presents the results of a 2-year study of the performance of two pilot APS systems with High Rate Ponds of different depths and areas. The HRPs of the APS systems both had the same flow rate (5 m3 d(-1)), volume (37.5 m3) and thus hydraulic retention time (7.5 d). However, the East HRP had an operating depth of 0.30 m and a surface area of 128 m2, and the West HRP had an operating depth of 0.45 m and a surface area of 85 m2. APS system performance was compared in terms of improvement of water quality. For nearly all parameters measured, there was little difference in performance between the two systems suggesting that the system with the smaller area could be used without affecting treatment. Comparison of final effluent with typical effluent of New Zealand WSPs showed that APS effluent was of higher quality and much less variable over time.

  14. Ciprofloxacin removal during secondary domestic wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Hom-Diaz, Andrea; Norvill, Zane N; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Guieysse, Benoit


    This study investigated the removal of antibiotic ciprofloxacin during the treatment of real wastewater using high rate algal ponds (HRAP). When spiked at 2 mg/L into primary domestic wastewater, ciprofloxacin (CPX) was efficiently removed from laboratory scale photobioreactors continuously operated under various durations of artificial illumination and hydraulic residence times. Subsequent batch tests conducted with reactor microcosms showed CPX removal was mainly caused by photodegradation during daytime, and sorption to biomass during night time. These findings were confirmed during an experiment conducted in a 1000 L pilot HRAP operated outdoors, as well as during outdoor batch assays conducted using pilot HRAP microcosms. While these results highlight a potentially interesting treatment capacity in comparison to conventional biological treatment, further research must confirm these findings at relevant pollutant concentration (ng-μg/L) and determine the fate and potential toxicity of degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Gas Micro-Strip Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates

    CERN Multimedia


    % RD28 \\\\ \\\\ Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of preshower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/beauty/charm factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about p...

  16. Development of gas micro-strip chambers for high rate radiation detection and tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Gaudaen, J; Florent, J J; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Groshev, V R; Minakov, G D; Onuchin, A P; Pestov, Yu N; Shekhtman, L I; Sidorov, V A; Dixit, M S; Oakham, G K; Møller, S; Sørensen, G; Uggerhøj, Erik; Brons, S; Brückner, W; Godbersen, M; Heidrich, M; Paul, S; Trombini, A; Werding, R; Armitage, J A; Karlen, D A; Stewart, G; Barasch, E F; McIntyre, P; Pang, Y; Trost, H J; Salomon, M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Pansky, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee


    Gas Micro-Strip Chambers (GMSC) are a promising high-rate, high resolution position detector suited for use in high luminosity hadron collider experiments, as general purpose tracker or to improve the performances of pre-shower counters, transition radiation and inner muon detectors. Large GMSC arrays have been included in proposed LHC and SSC experimental setups. The operating characteristics of GMSC make their use very attractive also for detectors at tau/charm/beauty factories, as well as for synchrotron radiation facilities and for medical applications. At the present state of the art, some problems limiting the usefulness of microstrip chambers are the observed gain changes due to charging up of the support, possible long-term degradation due to ageing, limited sizes imposed by fabrication technologies and unavailability of dedicated high-speed, high-density readout electronics. Limited experience exists of operation of GMSC in real experimental conditions, and little if anything is known about performan...

  17. Status of the ALICE TPC upgrade for high-rate operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , D-85748, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration


    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018/2019, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. This will result in a significant improvement on the sensitivity of rare probes that are considered key observables to characterise the hot and dense QCD matter created in such collisions. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout chambers by Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors to overcome the rate limitations imposed by the present gated readout scheme. An extensive R and D program has been launched to reach the challenging requirements of the upcoming upgrade of the detector. In this presentation the most recent results are discussed concerning ion backflow suppression, gain stability, energy and dE/dx resolution and stability against discharges. The status of the upgrade of the online calibration and data reduction system, which includes advanced techniques for online corrections of space-charge distortions, as well as the development of a new readout electronics are reported.

  18. Quantum Communication with a High-Rate Entangled Photon Source (United States)

    Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Lekki, John D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.


    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  19. Human Factors in Sustaining High Rates of Artillery Fire. (United States)


    needs , goals and problems, and how P these affect mission accomplishment. Our first visits with the battalion suggested that this would be best the men’s muscles give out, but when does the will to continue give out (or when do they perform so badly they must be ordered to stop)? In practice...level by chemical means, a technique so patently disastrous for a quarterback that it is not even considered. Secondly, even "continuous" operations will

  20. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications (United States)

    Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef


    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the

  1. Highly efficient resistive plate chambers for high rate environment

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Górski, M; Królikowski, J


    The full scale prototype of an inverted double gap RPC module for ME-1/1 station of the CMS detector was tested in the gamma irradiation facility at the CERN SPS muon beam. The chamber made of medium resistivity bakelite and filled with "green gas" mixture of C /sub 2/H/sub 2/F/sub 4//iso-butane/SF/sub 6/ has wide efficiency plateau and good timing properties when operated in avalanche mode under continuous irradiation with strong /sup 137/Cs source for rates up to about 5 kHz/cm/sup 2//gap. (10 refs).

  2. Bringing High Rate, Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Gallaher, W.; Smith, S.; Bohnenstiehl, K.; Borsa, A.; Enders, M.; Coyle, B.; Paskievitch, J.; Read, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, completed the installation of a fourteen GPS stations, eight tiltmeters, one webcam, and one digital broadband seismometer on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. PBO collaborated with the USGS, who provided engineering support for this project. Combined with the USGS operated seismic network, the Unimak Island network is a state of the art scientific network. The primary data communications goal of the project was to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and to test the streaming of 1- Hz GPS data at a select set of GPS stations on Unimak Island. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO co-located the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The high-speed radio link deployed allowed the USGS to test the feasibility of broadband seismometer installations on Unimak Island. This collaboration with the USGS was another successful joint operation between PBO and the USGS. The technical and logistical challenges involved in the project as well as some preliminary results of the data communications system will be presented. These challenges include complicated logistics, bad weather, complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  3. High rate nitrogen removal by ANAMMOX internal circulation reactor (IC) for old landfill leachate treatment. (United States)

    Phan, The Nhat; Van Truong, Thi Thanh; Ha, Nhu Biec; Nguyen, Phuoc Dan; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Dang, Bao Trong; Doan, Van Tuan; Park, Joonhong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao


    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a high rate nitrogen removal lab-scale ANAMMOX reactor, namely Internal Circulation (IC) reactor, for old landfill leachate treatment. The reactor was operated with pre-treated leachate from a pilot Partial Nitritation Reactor (PNR) using a high nitrogen loading rate ranging from 2 to 10kgNm-3d-1. High rate removal of nitrogen (9.52±1.11kgNm-3d-1) was observed at an influent nitrogen concentration of 1500mgNL-1. The specific ANAMMOX activity was found to be 0.598±0.026gN2-NgVSS-1d-1. Analysis of ANAMMOX granules suggested that 0.5-1.0mm size granular sludge was the dominant group. The results of DNA analysis revealed that Candidatus Kueneniastuttgartiensis was the dominant species (37.45%) in the IC reactor, whereas other species like uncultured Bacteroidetes bacterium only constituted 5.37% in the system, but they were still responsible for removing recalcitrant organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments. (United States)

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T


    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors.

  5. High-rate particle triggering with triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Poli-Lener, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; Raspino, D; Pinci, D


    We report the results of a systematic study of the time performance of triple-GEM detectors operated with Ar/CO//2/CF//4 and Ar/CF//4 /iso-C//4H//1//0 gas mixtures. This study and the detector development has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost part (region R1) of the first muon station (M1) of the LHCb experiment. The use of fast gas mixtures allows to achieve a time resolution better than 5 ns (r.m.s.) and a single detector efficiency up to similar to 99% in a 20 ns time window. Discharge studies have been performed at the piM1 hadron beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. Local aging properties were investigated exposing the detector to a collimated 5.9 keV X-rays beam. The whole R&D activity with different gas mixtures has been performed with small 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 triple-GEM detector prototypes. A full size prototype (module-0) constituted by two 20 multiplied by 24 cm**2 triple-GEM detectors, equipped with front-end electronics based ...

  6. Evaluation of high-rate clarification for wet-weather-only treatment facilities. (United States)

    Jolis, Domènec; Ahmad, Meei-Lih


    High-rate clarification (HRC) processes are well suited for enhanced primary treatment of wet-weather flows in combined sewer systems. Suspended solids removal in excess of 75% of influent concentrations can be achieved consistently. Chemical oxygen demand and five-day biochemical oxygen demand removal are better than 60%. However, although optimal treatment could be achieved in a matter of minutes when the units were started full, a delay of up to one-half hour was observed when the units were started empty. Operational strategies that minimize this effect need to be developed in full-scale tests before HRC processes can be implemented with confidence in wet-weather-only facilities.

  7. Nutrient removal by the integrated use of high rate algal ponds and macrophyte systems in China. (United States)

    Chen, P; Zhou, Q; Paing, J; Le, H; Picot, B


    High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) were operated at pilot scale to investigate the performance of HRAP under the temperate climate conditions of Shanghai, China. The results indicated that the HRAP gave good efficiency for nutrient removal, especially during summer. With a retention time of 4 or 8d according to the season, the annual average removal efficiencies for COD, NH4-N and PO4-P were 50%, 87% and 40%, respectively. The multi-factor linear models showed the relationships between nutrient removal efficiency and influencing factors. Using a macrophyte pond to separate algae from HRAP can achieve concentrations of COD, TP and TKN in the effluent at around 50 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively.

  8. Effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on high-rate continuous biohydrogen production from galactose. (United States)

    Anburajan, Parthiban; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Park, Jong-Hun; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Kim, Sang-Hyoun


    This study investigated the effect of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on high-rate continuous fermentative H2 production in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor (FBR) inoculated with mixed culture granules and fed with 15g/L galactose at a hydraulic retention time of 6h and at 37°C. During the 83days of operation, 5-HMF up to 2.4g/L was spiked into the feedstock. The maximum hydrogen production performance of 26.6L/L-d and 2.9mol H2/mol galactoseadded were achieved at 5-HMF concentration of 0.6g/L. 5-HMF concentration exceeding 0.9g/L not only inhibited hydrogen production but also affected the biofilm structure and microbial community population. However, when 5-HMF was eliminated from the feedstock, the performance and microbial community population were rapidly recovered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda eVargas E Silva


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41,8 gm-2day-1 in pond A and at 47.1 gm-2day-1 in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solids removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60ml/min. The system was operated at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  10. Simultaneous biogas upgrading and centrate treatment in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond. (United States)

    Posadas, Esther; Marín, David; Blanco, Saúl; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl


    The bioconversion of biogas to biomethane coupled to centrate treatment was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond interconnected to an external CO2-H2S absorption column (AC) via settled broth recirculation. CO2-removal efficiencies ranged from 50 to 95% depending on the alkalinity of the cultivation broth and environmental conditions, while a complete H2S removal was achieved regardless of the operational conditions. A maximum CH4 concentration of 94% with a limited O2 and N2 stripping was recorded in the upgraded biogas at recycling liquid/biogas ratios in the AC of 1 and 2. Process operation at a constant biomass productivity of 15gm-2d-1 and the minimization of effluent generation supported high carbon and nutrient recoveries in the harvested biomass (C=66±8%, N=54±18%, P≈100% and S=16±3%). Finally, a low diversity in the structure of the microalgae population was promoted by the environmental and operational conditions imposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of disability separation. (United States)

    Balazs, George C; Hanley, M G; Pavey, G J; Rue, J-Ph


    Lisfranc injuries are relatively uncommon midfoot injuries disproportionately affecting young, active males. Previous studies in civilian populations have reported relatively good results with operative treatment. However, treatment results have not been specifically examined in military personnel, who may have higher physical demands than the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of return to military duty following surgical treatment of isolated Lisfranc injuries. Surgical records and radiographic images from all active duty US military personnel treated for an isolated Lisfranc injury between January 2005 and July 2014 were examined. Demographic information, injury data, surgical details and subsequent return to duty information were recorded. The primary outcome was ability to return to unrestricted military duty following treatment. The secondary outcome was secondary conversion to a midfoot arthrodesis following initial open reduction internal fixation. Twenty-one patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Median patient age was 23 years, and mean follow-up was 43 months. Within this cohort, 14 patients were able to return to military service, while seven required a disability separation from the armed forces. Of the 18 patients who underwent initial fixation, eight were subsequently revised to midfoot arthrodesis for persistent pain. Military personnel sustaining Lisfranc injuries have high rates of persistent pain and disability, even after optimal initial surgical treatment. Military surgeons should counsel patients on the career-threatening nature of this condition and high rates of secondary procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Recycling algae to improve species control and harvest efficiency from a high rate algal pond. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N


    This paper investigates the influence of recycling gravity harvested algae on species dominance and harvest efficiency in wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP). Two identical pilot-scale HRAPs were operated over one year either with (HRAP(r)) or without (HRAP(c)) harvested algal biomass recycling. Algae were harvested from the HRAP effluent in algal settling cones (ASCs) and harvest efficiency was compared to settlability in Imhoff cones five times a week. A microscopic image analysis technique was developed to determine relative algal dominance based on biovolume and was conducted once a month. Recycling of harvested algal biomass back to the HRAP(r) maintained the dominance of a single readily settleable algal species (Pediastrum sp.) at >90% over one year (compared to the control with only 53%). Increased dominance of Pediastrum sp. greatly improved the efficiency of algal harvest (annual average of >85% harvest for the HRAP(r) compared with ∼60% for the control). Imhoff cone experiments demonstrated that algal settleability was influenced by both the dominance of Pediastrum sp. and the species composition of remaining algae. Algal biomass recycling increased the average size of Pediastrum sp. colonies by 13-30% by increasing mean cell residence time. These results indicate that recycling gravity harvested algae could be a simple and effective operational strategy to maintain the dominance of readily settleable algal species, and enhance algal harvest by gravity sedimentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of distillery vinasse in a high rate anaerobic reactor using low density polyethylene supports. (United States)

    Thanikal, J V; Torrijos, M; Habouzit, F; Moletta, R


    An anaerobic fixed bed reactor, filled with small floating supports of polyethylene material (Bioflow 30) as inert media, was operated for 6 months to treat vinasse (wine residue after distillation). Bioflow 30 has a density of 0.93 and a specific area of 320 m2/m3. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of the reactor in removal of soluble COD was very good with a maximum organic loading rate of more than 30 g of COD/L x d and a COD removal efficiency of more than 80%. Bioflow 30 showed a high capability of biomass retention with 4-6 g of dried solids per support. Thus, at the end of the experiment, the fixed biomass represented 57 g of solids/L of reactor. The visual observation of the supports and the specific activity (0.54 g COD/g solids x d) of the fixed solids, which remained close to the values obtained with suspended biomass, showed that entrapment was playing an important role in the retention of the biomass inside the reactor. It was then possible to operate the reactor with a very high loading rate as the result of the increase of the solids in the reactor and the maintaining of the specific activity. Bioflow 30 is then an excellent support for use in a high rate anaerobic fixed bed.

  14. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)


    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  15. Internal resistance of plastic bonded (pressed type) high rate Ni electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulcsar, S.; Horvath P.; Csath, G.; Smaroglay, M.


    Internal resistance is one of the most important characteristics of Ni-Cd cells. It has a great effect on the discharge voltage, capacity, and high rate behaviour. In this paper we report the results of an investigation in connection with the internal resistance of the plastic bonded Ni electrode and its variation as a function of pressure and high rate cycling.

  16. Understanding the biological activity of high rate algae ponds through the calculation of oxygen balances. (United States)

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos Crespo, Ignacio; Corona, Enrique Lara; Rogalla, Frank


    Microalgae culture in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment. However, for the implementation of these systems, a better understanding of the oxygenation potential and the influence of climate conditions is required. In this work, the rates of oxygen production, consumption, and exchange with the atmosphere were calculated under varying conditions of solar irradiance and dilution rate during six months of operation in a real scale unit. This analysis allowed determining the biological response of these dynamic systems. The rates of oxygen consumption measured were considerably higher than the values calculated based on the organic loading rate. The response to light intensity in terms of oxygen production in the bioreactor was described with one of the models proposed for microalgae culture in dense concentrations. This model is based on the availability of light inside the culture and the specific response of microalgae to this parameter. The specific response to solar radiation intensity showed a reasonable stability in spite of the fluctuations due to meteorological conditions. The methodology developed is a useful tool for optimization and prediction of the performance of these systems.

  17. Nutrient removal and biofuel production in high rate algal pond using real municipal wastewater. (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Kang, Zion; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik


    This study evaluated the growth and nutrient removal ability of an indigenous algal consortium on real untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP). The HRAP was operated semicontinuously under different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, and total nitrogen and phosphate of real municipal wastewater were maintained at 85.44 ± 5.10%, 92.74 ± 5.82%, and 82.85 ± 8.63%, respectively, in 2 day HRT. Algae dominated the consortium and showed high settling efficiency (99%), and biomass and lipid productivity of 0.500 ± 0.03 g/l/day and 0.103 ± 0.0083 g/l/day (2 day HRT), respectively. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed a predominance of palmitate (C16:0), palmitoleate (C16:1), linoleate (C18:2), and linolenate (C18:3). Microalgal diversity analyses determined the presence of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, and Stigeoclonium as the dominant microalgae. The algal consortium provides significant value not only in terms of energy savings and nutrient removal but also because of its bioenergy potential as indicated by the lipid content (20-23%) and FAME profiling.

  18. Wastewater treatment and algal production in high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J


    High rate algal ponds (HRAPs) provide improved wastewater treatment over conventional wastewater stabilisation ponds; however, algal production and recovery of wastewater nutrients as algal biomass is limited by the low carbon:nitrogen ratio of wastewater. This paper investigates the influence of CO(2) addition (to augment daytime carbon availability) on wastewater treatment performance and algal production of two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (4 and 8 days) over a New Zealand Summer (November-March, 07/08). Weekly measurements were made of influent and effluent flow rate and water qualities, algal and bacterial biomass production, and the percentage of algae biomass harvested in gravity settling units. This research shows that the wastewater treatment HRAPs with CO(2) addition achieved a mean algal productivity of 16.7 g/m(2)/d for the HRAP(4d) (4 d HRT, maximum algae productivity of 24.7 g/m(2)/d measured in January 08) and 9.0 g/m(2)/d for the HRAP(8d) (8 d HRT)). Algae biomass produced in the HRAPs was efficiently harvested by simple gravity settling units (mean harvested algal productivity: 11.5 g/m(2)/d for the HRAP(4d) and 7.5 g/m(2)/d for the HRAP(8d) respectively). Higher bacterial composition and the larger size of algal/bacterial flocs of the HRAP(8d) biomass increased harvestability (83%) compared to that of HRAP(4d) biomass (69%).

  19. Design parameters of high rate algal ponds using filamentous algae matrix for treating rural stream water. (United States)

    Kim, T E; Chung, W M; Lim, B S


    High rate algal ponds (HRAP) with a filamentous algae matrix (FAM) as the predominant species, were operated to evaluate the characteristics of FAM and the basic design parameters for treating polluted rural stream water. The porous and gelatinous FAM was formed like a sponge, which functions to prevent excessive loss of the algae in the effluent and can easily be retrieved from the ponds. The organic fraction of harvested FAM was about 88%, which is suitable for use as fertilizer. The HRAP system using FAM was found to be an effective nutrient removal process not requiring any artificial carbon sources for nitrification. At HRT 4 days, the T-N and T-P removal efficiencies were 85.9% and 65.8%, respectively. When the pH and water temperature were maintained above 9 and 15 degrees C, HRT required for achieving a 70% T-N removal efficiency could be reduced by about 3 days. The oxygen production rate by FAM was calculated as 1.45 mgO2/L/m2. The design surface area of HRAP needed per rural inhabitant was about 2.72 m2.

  20. Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J


    The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit.

  1. Investigating why recycling gravity harvested algae increases harvestability and productivity in high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N


    It has previously been shown that recycling gravity harvested algae promotes Pediastrum boryanum dominance and improves harvestability and biomass production in pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating domestic wastewater. In order to confirm the reproducibility of these findings and investigate the mechanisms responsible, this study utilized twelve 20 L outdoor HRAP mesocosms operated with and without algal recycling. It then compared the recycling of separated solid and liquid components of the harvested biomass against un-separated biomass. The work confirmed that algal recycling promoted P. boryanum dominance, improved 1 h-settleability by >20% and increased biomass productivity by >25% compared with controls that had no recycling. With regard to the improved harvestability, of particular interest was that recycling the liquid fraction alone caused a similar improvement in settleability as recycling the solid fraction. This may be due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the liquid fraction. While there are many possible mechanisms that could account for the increased productivity with algal recycling, all but two were systematically eliminated: (i) the mean cell residence time was extended thereby increasing the algal concentration and more fully utilizing the incident sunlight and, (ii) the relative proportions of algal growth stages (which have different specific growth rates) was changed, resulting in a net increase in the overall growth rate of the culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A


    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  3. Use of image analysis to determine algal and bacterial biomass in a high rate algal pond following Percoll fractionation. (United States)

    Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J


    This paper reports the results of work to allow a more accurate enumeration, and gravimetric determination, of the relative proportions of algae and bacteria within the floccular matrix present in a High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP). Methodology involving a combination of physical and chemical treatments was used and the resulting material was separated using density gradient centrifugation. The "fractions" were analysed using microscopical image analysis. Each "fraction" was categorised as containing bacteria only, algae only or an association of bacteria and algae, the relative proportions of which were then determined by image analysis to enable a "true" gravimetric determination of the algal and bacterial components of HRAP biomass for the first time. The biomass from HRAPs operated both outdoors and in a glasshouse was examined over complete operational seasons to investigate environmental effects as well as possible effects of variation in COD loading rate and retention time on cell biovolumes and cell quotients. In this study, the accurate assessment of both algal and bacterial biomass, determined as cell volume or dry matter, in addition to measurement of carbon and nitrogen has enabled the calculation of cell quotients. This allows a direct comparison between these values obtained from a nutrient-rich system and those published values obtained from systems with various nutrient status. Conversion factors obtained may also be of value for deriving inputs for computer models for the design and operation of high rate algal ponds.

  4. High Rate Plastic Deformation and Failure of Tungsten-Sintered Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjerke, Todd


    The competition between plastic deformation and brittle fracture during high rate loading of a tungsten-sintered metal is examined through impact experiments, post-experiment microscopy, and numerical simulation...

  5. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N


    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). Copyright © 2013

  6. Introduction to the High-Rate GPS Network of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (United States)

    Wang, G.; Hillebrandt, C. V.; Martinez, J. M.; Huerfano, V.; Schellekens, J.


    The Puerto Rico Seismic Network at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez is a regional earthquake and tsunami monitoring institute. One of its primary objective is to provide timely and reliable earthquake and tsunami information and warning to the state (Puerto Rico) and local governments, the US and British Virgin Islands, as well as to the general public. In the past five years, it has been expanding its operations for the establishment of a Caribbean Tsunami Warning Center. With funding of the Puerto Rico government and NOAA, it is operated 24 hours per day and 7 days per week. Broadband seismometers are generally unable to capture the full bandwidth of long period ground motions following very large earthquakes. As a result, it is difficult to rapidly estimate the true magnitudes of large earthquakes using only seismic data. High-rate GPS has been justified as a very useful tool in recording long-period and permanent earthquake ground motions. Estimation of the true magnitude (and therefore tsunami potential) of large earthquakes may be determined more accurately in a timely manner (minutes after the quake) using high rate GPS observations. With the major aim of improving the ability of the PRSN in rapidly and precisely monitoring large earthquakes, NSF funded a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) project, Acquisition of 9 High-rate GPS Units for Developing a Broadband Earthquake Observation System in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (EAR-0722540, August 1, 2007-July 31, 2009). The major purpose of this project is to build a high-rate GPS network in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The GPS network includes 3 campaign and 6 permanent GPS stations. These campaign stations were designed to use in emergency response after large earthquakes to get co-seismic and post-seismic displacement. These six permanent stations were designed to complement current seismic observation system of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. We have installed three

  7. High-rate activated sludge system for carbon management--Evaluation of crucial process mechanisms and design parameters. (United States)

    Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark; Bott, Charles; Murthy, Sudhir; De Clippeleir, Haydee; Wett, Bernhard


    The high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process is a technology suitable for the removal and redirection of organics from wastewater to energy generating processes in an efficient manner. A HRAS pilot plant was operated under controlled conditions resulting in concentrating the influent particulate, colloidal, and soluble COD to a waste solids stream with minimal energy input by maximizing sludge production, bacterial storage, and bioflocculation. The impact of important process parameters such as solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the performance of a HRAS system was demonstrated in a pilot study. The results showed that maximum removal efficiencies of soluble COD were reached at a DO > 0.3 mg O2/L, SRT > 0.5 days and HRT > 15 min which indicates that minimizing the oxidation of the soluble COD in the high-rate activated sludge process is difficult. The study of DO, SRT and HRT exhibited high degree of impact on the colloidal and particulate COD removal. Thus, more attention should be focused on controlling the removal of these COD fractions. Colloidal COD removal plateaued at a DO > 0.7 mg O2/L, SRT > 1.5 days and HRT > 30 min, similar to particulate COD removal. Concurrent increase in extracellular polymers (EPS) production in the reactor and the association of particulate and colloidal material into sludge flocs (bioflocculation) indicated carbon capture by biomass. The SRT impacted the overall mass and energy balance of the high-rate process indicating that at low SRT conditions, lower COD mineralization or loss of COD content occurred. In addition, the lower SRT conditions resulted in higher sludge yields and higher COD content in the WAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFePO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrisch, Heike; Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.


    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image particles of a high-rate LiFePO4 sample containing a small amount of in situ carbon. The particle morphology is highly irregular, with a wide size distribution. Nevertheless, coatings, varying from about 5-10 nm in thickness, could readily be detected on surfaces of particles as well as on edges of agglomerates. Elemental mapping using Energy Filtered TEM (EFTEM) indicates that these very thin surface layers are composed of carbon. These observations have important implications for the design of high-rate LiFePO4 materials in which, ideally, a minimal amount of carbon coating is used.

  9. Development of wide-range constitutive equations for calculations of high-rate deformation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston D.


    Full Text Available For development of models of strength and compressibility of metals in wide range of pressures (up to several megabar and strain rates ~ 1÷108 s−1, the method of dynamic tests is used. Since direct measurement of strength is impossible under complicated intensive high-rate loading, a formal model is created at first, and then it is updated basing on comparison with many experiments, which are sensitive to shear strength. Elastic-plastic, viscous-elastic-plastic and relaxation integral models became nowadays most commonly used. The basic unsolved problems in simulation of high-rate deformation of metals are mentioned in the paper.

  10. Ka-Band TWT High-Efficiency Power Combiner for High-Rate Data Transmission (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee; Vaden, Karl R.; Lesny, Gary G.; Glass, Jeffrey L.


    A four-port magic-T hybrid waveguide junction serves as the central component of a high-efficiency two-way power combiner circuit for transmitting a high-rate phase-modulated digital signal at a carrier frequency in the Ka-band (between 27 and 40 GHz). This power combiner was developed to satisfy a specific requirement to efficiently combine the coherent outputs of two traveling-wavetube (TWT) amplifiers that are typically characterized by power levels on the order of 100 W or more. In this application, the use of a waveguide-based power combiner (instead of a coaxial-cable- or microstrip-based power combiner, for example) is dictated by requirements for low loss, high power-handling capability, and broadband response. Combiner efficiencies were typically 90 percent or more over both the linear and saturated output power regions of operation of the TWTs . Figure 1 depicts the basic configuration of the magic-T hybrid junction. The coherent outputs of the two TWTs enter through ports 1 and 4. As a result of the orientations of the electromagnetic fields, which also provides a needed high port-to-port isolation, of these two input signals and the interior design of the magic-T junction, the input powers are divided so as to add in phase at one output port (port 2), and to be opposite in phase and hence cancel each other at the opposite coplanar output port (port 3). The net result is that the output power at port 2 is essentially double that of the output of one TWT, minus the power lost in the magic-T hybrid junction. Optimum performance as a high-efficiency power combiner thus requires a balance of both power and phase at the input ports of the magic-T. Replicas of this two-way combiner can be arranged in a binary configuration to obtain a 2n-way (where n is an integer) combiner. For example, Figure 2 illustrates the use of three two-way combiners to combine the outputs of four TWTs.

  11. GNSS seismometer: Seismic phase recognition of real-time high-rate GNSS deformation waves (United States)

    Nie, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Gang; Jia, Zhige; Wang, Dijin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Mu


    High-rate global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) can potentially be used as seismometers to capture short-period instantaneous dynamic deformation waves from earthquakes. However, the performance and seismic phase recognition of the GNSS seismometer in the real-time mode, which plays an important role in GNSS seismology, are still uncertain. By comparing the results of accuracy and precision of the real-time solution using a shake table test, we found real-time solutions to be consistent with post-processing solutions and independent of sampling rate. In addition, we analyzed the time series of real-time solutions for shake table tests and recent large earthquakes. The results demonstrated that high-rate GNSS have the ability to retrieve most types of seismic waves, including P-, S-, Love, and Rayleigh waves. The main factor limiting its performance in recording seismic phases is the widely used 1-Hz sampling rate. The noise floor also makes recognition of some weak seismic phases difficult. We concluded that the propagation velocities and path of seismic waves, macro characteristics of the high-rate GNSS array, spatial traces of seismic phases, and incorporation of seismographs are all useful in helping to retrieve seismic phases from the high-rate GNSS time series.

  12. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  13. Effect of hard detergents on algae in a high-rate-oxidation pond. (United States)

    Azov, Y; Shelef, G; Narkis, N


    Regular concentrations of hard detergents in domestic wastewater do not affect algal growth in a high-rate-oxidation pond. The addition of nonionic hard detergent at concentrations above 60 mg/liter decreased the algal concentration in the batch culture, and complete lysis of algal cells was observed within a few days at a detergent concentration of 100 mg/liter.

  14. Effect of Hard Detergents on Algae in a High-Rate-Oxidation Pond


    Azov, Y; Shelef, G.; Narkis, N.


    Regular concentrations of hard detergents in domestic wastewater do not affect algal growth in a high-rate-oxidation pond. The addition of nonionic hard detergent at concentrations above 60 mg/liter decreased the algal concentration in the batch culture, and complete lysis of algal cells was observed within a few days at a detergent concentration of 100 mg/liter.

  15. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle (United States)

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.


    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  16. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, T.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Gibson, D.; Badloe, R.; van Beek, L.M.


    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years

  17. A high-rate shape memory alloy actuator for aerodynamic load control on wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lara-Quintanilla, A.; Hulskamp, A.W.; Bersee, H.E.N.


    This paper discusses the development of a high rate shape memory alloy (SMA) driven actuator. The concept of the actuator was developed to act as aerodynamic load control surface on wind turbines. It was designed as a plate or beam-like structure with prestrained SMA wires embedded off its neutral

  18. Low nitrous oxide production through nitrifier-denitrification in intermittent-feed high-rate nitritation reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Qingxian; Ma, Chun; Domingo-Felez, Carlos


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production from autotrophic nitrogen conversion processes, especially nitritation systems, can be significant, requires understanding and calls for mitigation. In this study, the rates and pathways of N2O production were quantified in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors...... operated with intermittent feeding and demonstrating long-term and high-rate nitritation. The resulting reactor biomass was highly enriched in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and converted ∼93 ± 14% of the oxidized ammonium to nitrite. The low DO set-point combined with intermittent feeding was sufficient...... to maintain high nitritation efficiency and high nitritation rates at 20-26 °C over a period of ∼300 days. Even at the high nitritation efficiencies, net N2O production was low (∼2% of the oxidized ammonium). Net N2O production rates transiently increased with a rise in pH after each feeding, suggesting...

  19. In-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for the metallization of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Christoph Paul


    This work focuses on the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for contacting rear sides of silicon solar cells. The substrate temperature during the deposition process, the wafer bow after deposition, and the electrical properties of evaporated contacts are investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates for the first time the formation of aluminum-doped silicon regions by the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum without any further temperature treatment. The temperature of silicon wafers during in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum is investigated in this work. The temperatures are found to depend on the wafer thickness W, the aluminum layer thickness d, and on the wafer emissivity {epsilon}. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations reproduce the measured peak temperatures with an accuracy of 97%. This work also investigates the wafer bow after in-line high-rate evaporation and shows that the elastic theory overestimates the wafer bow of planar Si wafers. The lower bow is explained with plastic deformation in the Al layer. Due to the plastic deformation only the first 79 K in temperature decrease result in a bow formation. Furthermore the electrical properties of evaporated point contacts are examined in this work. Parameterizations for the measured saturation currents of contacted p-type Si wafers and of contacted boron-diffused p{sup +}-type layers are presented. The contact resistivity of the deposited Al layers to silicon for various deposition processes and silicon surface concentrations are presented and the activation energy of the contact formation is determined. The measured saturation current densities and contact resistivities of the evaporated contacts are used in one-dimensional numerical Simulations and the impact on energy conversion efficiency of replacing a screen-printed rear side by an evaporated rear side is presented. For the first time the formation of aluminum-doped p{sup +}-type (Al-p{sup +}) silicon regions by the in

  20. Study of long-term sustained operation of gaseous detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366989; Sharma, Archana

    The muon system of CMS aims to provide an efficient and fast identification of the muons produced in the proton-proton collisions. However, the forward region of the end-caps is only instrumented with Cathode Strip Chambers. This lack of redundancy will be problematic after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), for which the increase of the background rate would degrade the Level-1 trigger performance and thus the selection of interesting physics channels. The goal of the CMS muon upgrade is to maintain the L1 trigger rate with maximum selection efficiency in order to fully exploit the HL-LHC. The CMS GEM Collaboration has proposed to instrument the vacant high-eta region of the muon end-caps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, called GE1/1 chambers. The Ph.D. subject proposed by the CMS GEM Collaboration aims to demonstrate that the GE1/1 technology is the most suitable choice for the upgrade of the muon end-caps. Three main research projects were conducted in this context. The first pro...

  1. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  2. High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition (United States)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.


    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

  3. Time-Efficient High-Rate Data Flooding in One-Dimensional Acoustic Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyun Kwon


    Full Text Available Because underwater communication environments have poor characteristics, such as severe attenuation, large propagation delays and narrow bandwidths, data is normally transmitted at low rates through acoustic waves. On the other hand, as high traffic has recently been required in diverse areas, high rate transmission has become necessary. In this paper, transmission/reception timing schemes that maximize the time axis use efficiency to improve the resource efficiency for high rate transmission are proposed. The excellence of the proposed scheme is identified by examining the power distributions by node, rate bounds, power levels depending on the rates and number of nodes, and network split gains through mathematical analysis and numerical results. In addition, the simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing packet train method.

  4. Turbo Equalization Of Nonlinear ISI-channels Using High Rate FEC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siegrist


    Full Text Available Turbo equalization is a widely known method to cope with low signal to noise ratio (SNR channels corrupted by linear intersymbol interference (ISI (Berrou and Galvieux, 1993; Hagenauer et al., 1997. Recently in this workshop it was reported that also for nonlinear channels a remarkable turbo decoding gain can be achieved (Siegrist et al., 2001. However, the classical turbo equalization relies on code rates at 1/3 up to 1/2 which makes it quite unattractive for high rate data transmission. Considering the potential of iterative equalization and decoding, we obtain a considerable turbo decoding gain also for high rate codes of less than 7% redundancy by using punctured convolutional codes and block codes.

  5. High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over Ti ₀. ₉₇Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High rates of catalytic hydrogen combustion with air over Ti ₀. ... For 50 mL of H ₂, it showed rates of the reaction around 36.45 μmol/g/s at room temperature and 230 μmol/g/s at 60◦C. It was found that the rate of reaction due ... Finally, we propose a mechanism of hydrogen and oxygen recombination reaction over Ti ₀.

  6. Portable meter study of ionizing radiation Teletector in high rates of air kerma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Willian Behling; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A set of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma (teletectors) commonly used in emergencies in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analyst is parameters for the detectors behavior were established. Applied tests were: energy dependence and primarily overload with the new irradiation system. Thus it was possible to determine the most common characteristic found in these equipment (quality control programs) and new calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. (author)

  7. Biogas production from algae biomass grown in high rate ponds for wastewater treatment


    Passos, Fabiana Lopes del Rei; Cordon Casero, Sabina; Solé, Maria; Ferrer Martí, Ivet


    High rate ponds are wastewater treatment systems that combine heterotrophic bacteria and microalgae communities in a symbiosis relation, which triggers a series of reactions that eliminates pollutants from the water. Moreover, during the last decade, there has been a growing interest in investigating the energy potential of biofuels obtained from microalgae cultures. The high lipid content of microalgae makes them an alternative to terrestrial energy crops for biodiesel production. A major...

  8. Influence of solar radiation on nitrogen recovery by the biomass grown in high rate ponds.


    Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar do; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Tango, Mariana Daniel; Santiago, Aníbal da Fonseca


    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different solar radiation intensities on nitrogen assimilation by a consortium of bacteria and microalgae grown in pilot scale high rate ponds (HRP) treating domestic wastewater. The HRPs received effluent from an anaerobic reactor. The experiment was carried out under tropical climate conditions. A total of five HRPs were used; four of them were covered with shading screens that blocked 9%, 18%, 30% and 60% of the incident solar radi...

  9. The Promise and Challenges of High Rate GNSS for Environmental Monitoring and Response (United States)

    LaBrecque, John


    The decadal vision Global Geodetic Observing System recognizes the potential of high rate real time GNSS for environmental monitoring. The GGOS initiated a program to advance GNSS real time high rate measurements to augment seismic and other sensor systems for earthquake and tsunami early warning. High rate multi-GNSS networks can provide ionospheric tomography for the detection and tracking of land, ocean and atmospheric gravity waves that can provide coastal warning of tsunamis induced by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, severe weather and other catastrophic events. NASA has collaborated on a microsatellite constellation of GPS receivers to measure ocean surface roughness to improve severe storm tracking and a equatorial system of GPS occultation receivers to measure ionospheric and atmospheric dynamics. Systems such as these will be significantly enhanced by the availability of a four fold increase in GNSS satellite systems with new and enhanced signal structures and by the densification of regional multi-GNSS networks. These new GNSS capabilities will rely upon improved and cost effective communications infrastructure for a network of coordinated real time analysis centers with input to national warning systems. Most important, the implementation of these new real time GNSS capabilities will rely upon the broad international support for the sharing of real time GNSS much as is done in weather and seismic observing systems and as supported by the Committee of Experts on UN Global Geodetic Information Management (UNGGIM).

  10. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory. (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David


    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Self-accelerating sulfur reduction via polysulfide to realize a high-rate sulfidogenic reactor for wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Sun, Rongrong; Liang, Shuang; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng


    Sulfur reduction is a promising alternative to sulfate reduction as it can generate sulfide at a low cost for the precipitation of heavy metals or autotrophic denitrification in wastewater treatment. However, the extremely low water solubility of elemental sulfur limits its bioavailability and results in a low sulfur-reduction rate. Polysulfide, which is naturally generated through reactions between sulfur and sulfide, can enhance the bioavailability of sulfur and thus contribute to high-rate sulfur reduction. Based on this principle, a laboratory-scale sulfur-reducing bioreactor was designed in this study for wastewater treatment. After 164 days of operation, the sulfide production rate (SPR) in the bioreactor reached 126 mg S/L-h, which is significantly higher than those of other sulfate-reducing systems. Moreover, dissolved zero-valent sulfur (referred to as polysulfide) was detected in the sulfur-reducing reactor when the organics were completely depleted, indicating that polysulfide can form naturally and be readily reduced to sulfide in the bioreactor. We found that the produced sulfide promoted the formation of more polysulfide, which enabled a self-accelerating chain reaction of sulfur reduction via polysulfide. This stimulation effect was further validated by the 7-h batch tests. In the batch test without sulfide addition initially, a continuous increase in the hourly SPR was observed with increasing sulfide concentration. Furthermore, in the batch tests with the addition of 50-200 mg S/L sulfide at the beginning, the average SPR in the first 3 h increased with elevating initial sulfide concentration due to more polysulfide formation and reduction. However, high sulfide concentration (>250 mg S/L) hindered the continuous increase in SPR. Additionally, when polysulfide formation was prevented through the addition of Fe2+, the SPR dropped by 97.6% compared to that in the presence of polysulfide. This validates the key role of polysulfide in the high-rate

  12. Effect of algal recycling rate on the performance of Pediastrum boryanum dominated wastewater treatment high rate algal pond. (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J


    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae promoted the dominance of a rapidly settling colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum (P. boryanum) and improved both biomass productivity and settleability in High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) treating domestic wastewater. The effect of algal recycling rate on HRAP performance was investigated using 12 replicate mesocosms (18 L) that were operated semi-continuously under ambient conditions. Three experiments were conducted during different seasons with each experiment lasting up to 36 days. Recycling 10%, 25%, and 50% of the 'mass' of daily algal production all increased total biomass concentration in the mesocosms. However, recycling >10% reduced the organic content (volatile suspended solids (VSS)) of the mesocosm biomass from 83% to 68% and did not further increase biomass productivity (based on VSS). This indicates that if a HRAP is operated with a low algal concentration and does not utilise all the available sunlight, algal recycling increases the algal concentration up to an optimum level, resulting in higher algal biomass productivity. Recycling 10% of the daily algal production not only increased biomass productivity by ∼40%, but increased biomass settleability by ∼25%, which was probably a consequence of the ∼30% increase in P. boryanum dominance in the mesocosms compared with controls without recycling.

  13. Influence of flue gas sparging on the performance of high rate algae ponds treating agro-industrial wastewaters. (United States)

    de Godos, Ignacio; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro A; Becares, Eloy; Muñoz, Raúl


    The influence of flue gas sparging (7% CO(2)) on the performance of two 465 L High-Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating diluted swine manure at 10 days of hydraulic retention time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions (Castilla y León, Spain). COD, NH(4)(+), and PO(4)(3-) removal efficiencies were not significantly affected by flue gas input (at 2.2 and 5.5 L min(-1)), which suggests that CO(2) sparging does not compromise wastewater treatment in HRAPs. In this particular study, COD and NH(4)(+) removal efficiencies of 56+/-31% (near to maximum swine manure biodegradability) and 98+/-1%, respectively, were consistently maintained, regardless of the environmental and operational conditions. CO(2) sparging resulted however in lower pH values (approximately 2 units lower) and an enhanced NH(4)(+) nitrification (higher NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-) concentrations) compared to the system operated in the absence of flue gas supply. Biomass concentration was only higher (approximately 30% than in the control HRAP) when flue gases were supplied at 5.5 L min(-1), probably due to the fact that the higher irradiances and temperatures prevailing within this experimental period resulted in an inorganic carbon-limited scenario in the control HRAP. Therefore, it can be concluded that CO(2) assimilation would be ultimately dependent on the occurrence of inorganic carbon limitation and will never occur in light, COD or nutrients-limited scenarios. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low nitrous oxide production through nitrifier-denitrification in intermittent-feed high-rate nitritation reactors. (United States)

    Su, Qingxian; Ma, Chun; Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Kiil, Anne Sofie; Thamdrup, Bo; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Smets, Barth F


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production from autotrophic nitrogen conversion processes, especially nitritation systems, can be significant, requires understanding and calls for mitigation. In this study, the rates and pathways of N2O production were quantified in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors operated with intermittent feeding and demonstrating long-term and high-rate nitritation. The resulting reactor biomass was highly enriched in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and converted ∼93 ± 14% of the oxidized ammonium to nitrite. The low DO set-point combined with intermittent feeding was sufficient to maintain high nitritation efficiency and high nitritation rates at 20-26 °C over a period of ∼300 days. Even at the high nitritation efficiencies, net N2O production was low (∼2% of the oxidized ammonium). Net N2O production rates transiently increased with a rise in pH after each feeding, suggesting a potential effect of pH on N2O production. In situ application of 15N labeled substrates revealed nitrifier denitrification as the dominant pathway of N2O production. Our study highlights operational conditions that minimize N2O emission from two-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When a conventional starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) lead acid battery is exposed to a high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling, it would experience a build-up of irreversible PbSO4 on the negative plate, resulting in capacity loss and electrode damage. The addition of certain graphites to the negative paste mix ...

  16. Impact of receiver and constellation on high rate GNSS phase rate measurements to monitor ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza


    High rate (1 Hz) GPS and GLONASS phase rate measurements from the global Real Time International GNSS Service (RT-IGS) network are used to monitor ionospheric irregularities. In this paper, impact of different receiver types and satellite constellations on GNSS-derived indices are studied. Constellation dependent background phase noise is quantified at RT-IGS stations for different receiver categories. Improved sampling of the ionosphere is achieved using multiple constellations. Correlation of hourly mean values of dual constellation GNSS indices with hourly magnetic ranges at a co-located auroral magnetic observatory slightly increased compared to when single constellation is used.

  17. The measurement of primary productivity in a high-rate oxidation pond (HROP)


    Berner, T.; Dubinsky, Z.; Schanz, F; Grobbelaar, J.U.; Rai, H; Uehlinger, U.; Falkowski, P.G.


    A high-rate oxidation pond is studied as a model system for comparing 14C and oxygen evolution methods as tools for measuring primary productivity in hypertrophic aquatic systems. Our results indicate that at very dense algal populations (up to 5 mg chl. a l−1) and high photosynthetic rates, 14C based results may severely underestimate primary productivity, unless a way is found to keep incubation times very short. Results obtained with our oxygen electrode were almost an order of magnitude h...

  18. Phosphasalen indium complexes showing high rates and isoselectivities in rac-lactide polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Dominic; White, Andrew J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Forsyth, Craig M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bown, Mark [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, Charlotte K. [Department of Chemistry, Oxford University (United Kingdom)


    Polylactide (PLA) is the leading bioderived polymer produced commercially by the metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Control over tacticity to produce stereoblock PLA, from rac-lactide improves thermal properties but is an outstanding challenge. Here, phosphasalen indium catalysts feature high rates (30±3 m{sup -1} min{sup -1}, THF, 298 K), high control, low loadings (0.2 mol %), and isoselectivity (P{sub i}=0.92, THF, 258 K). Furthermore, the phosphasalen indium catalysts do not require any chiral additives. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. A high-rate detection system to study parity violation with polarized epithermal neutrons at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, J.N.; Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Crawford, B.E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States)


    We describe an apparatus for studies of parity violation in neutron-nucleus scattering. This experiment requires longitudinally polarized neutrons from the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center over the energy-range from 1 to 1000 eV, the ability to reverse the neutron spin without otherwise affecting the apparatus, the ability to detect neutrons at rates up to 500 MHz, and an appropriate data acquisition system. We will discuss the neutron polarizer, fast neutron spin reverser, detector for transmitted neutrons, and high rate data acquisition system.

  20. Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium Batteries at High Rates and Low Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.


    Overcharge protection for 4 V Li{sub 1.05}Mn{sub 1.95}O{sub 4}/lithium cells at charging rates in excess of 1 mA/cm{sup 2} (3C) and at temperatures as low as -20 C was achieved using a bilayer separator coated with two electroactive polymers. High rate and low temperature overcharge protection and discharge performance were improved by employing a design in which the polymer-coated portion of the separator is in parallel with the cell rather than between the electrodes. The effects of different membrane supports for the electroactive polymers are also examined.

  1. Nanostructured porous RuO2/MnO2 as a highly efficient catalyst for high-rate Li-O2 batteries. (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Huang, Wei; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing


    Despite the recent advancements in Li-O(2) (or Li-air) batteries, great challenges still remain to realize high-rate, long-term cycling. In this work, a binder-free, nanostructured RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalytic cathode was designed to realize the operation of Li-O(2) batteries at high rates. At a current density as high as 3200 mA g(-1) (or ∼1.3 mA cm(-2)), the RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalyzed Li-O(2) batteries with LiI can sustain stable cycling of 170 and 800 times at limited capacities of 1000 and 500 mA h g(-1), respectively, with low charge cutoff potentials of ∼4.0 and electric vehicles.

  2. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J


    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  3. A triple GEM detector with pad readout for high rate charged particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Felici, G; Murtas, F; Valente, P; Cardini, A; Lai, A; Pinci, D; Saitta, B; Bosio, C


    In this paper, results of a time performance study of triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R&D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. However, the results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e. for experiments with high rate charged particle triggering. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM detectors. Only one group measured double GEM detector time resolution with the Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture. Our study aimed at triple GEM detector optimisation for good time performance through a detailed investigation of the role played by detector geometry, electric fields and gas mixture. The results reported here, in particular when using the gas mixture Ar/CO//2/CF //4 (60/20/20), considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper and make the triple GEM detector a promising option for high rate charged particle triggering.

  4. Sulfate Reduction at pH 5 in a High-Rate Membrane Bioreactor: Reactor Performance and Microbial Community Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Dopson, M.; Peeters, T.W.T.; Lens, P.N.L.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    High rate sulfate reduction under acidic conditions opens possibilities for new process flow sheets that allow the selective recovery of metals from mining and metallurgical waste and process water. However, knowledge about high-rate sulfate reduction under acidic conditions is limited. This paper

  5. Front-end electronics for high rate, position sensitive neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, B; Harder, J A; Hrisoho, A; Radeka, V; Smith, G C


    Advanced neutron detectors for experiments at new spallation sources will require greater counting rate capabilities than previously attainable. This necessitates careful design of both detector and readout electronics. As part of a new instrument for protein crystallography at LANSCE, we are constructing a detector whose concept was described previously (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-46 (1999) 1916). Here, we describe the signal processing circuit, which is well suited for sup 3 He detectors with a continuous interpolating readout. The circuit is based on standard charge preamplification, transmission of this signal over 20 meters or so, followed by sample and hold using a second order gated baseline restorer. This latter unit provides high rate capability without requiring pole-zero and tail cancellation circuits. There is also provision for gain-adjustment. The circuits are produced in surface mounted technology.

  6. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey


    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  7. High-rate deformation and fracture of steel 09G2S (United States)

    Balandin, Vl. Vas.; Balandin, Vl. Vl.; Bragov, A. M.; Igumnov, L. A.; Konstantinov, A. Yu.; Lomunov, A. K.


    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of steel 09G2S deformation and fracture laws in a wide range of strain rates and temperature variations are given. The dynamic deformation curves and the ultimate characteristics of plasticity in high-rate strain were determined by the Kolsky method in compression, extension, and shear tests. The elastoplastic properties and spall strength were studied by using the gaseous gun of calibre 57 mm and the interferometer VISAR according to the plane-wave experiment technique. The data obtained by the Kolsky method were used to determine the parameters of the Johnson-Cook model which, in the framework of the theory of flow, describes how the yield surface radius depends on the strain, strain rate, and temperature.

  8. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  9. Scalable multiplexed detector system for high-rate telecom-band single-photon detection. (United States)

    Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Piacentini, F; Schettini, V; Polyakov, S V; Migdall, A


    We present an actively multiplexed photon-counting detection system at telecom wavelengths that overcomes the difficulties of photon-counting at high rates. We find that for gated detectors, the heretofore unconsidered deadtime associated with the detector gate is a critical parameter, that limits the overall scalability of the scheme to just a few detectors. We propose and implement a new scheme that overcomes this problem and restores full scalability that allows an order of magnitude improvement with systems with as few as 4 detectors. When using just two multiplexed detectors, our experimental results show a 5x improvement over a single detector and a greater than 2x improvement over multiplexed schemes that do not consider gate deadtime.

  10. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production. (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J


    With microalgal biofuels currently receiving much attention, there has been renewed interest in the combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This combined use of HRAPs is considered to be an economically feasible option for biofuel production, however, increased microalgal productivity and nutrient removal together with reduced capital costs are needed before it can be commercially viable. Despite HRAPs being an established technology, microalgal photosynthesis and productivity is still limited in these ponds and is well below the theoretical maximum. This paper critically evaluates the parameters that limit microalgal light absorption and photosynthesis in wastewater HRAPs and examines biological, chemical and physical options for improving light absorption and utilisation, with the view of enhancing biomass production and nutrient removal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Algae/Bacteria ratio in high-rate ponds used for waste treatment. (United States)

    Oron, G; Shelef, G; Levi, A; Meydan, A; Azov, Y


    Algae, bacteria, and zooplankton were counted in samples drawn from 120- and 150-m high-rate algae ponds (those used for wastewater treatment). The fraction of nondegraded organic matter was estimated by comparing the ratio of biological and chemical oxygen demands and the bacterial, algal, and zooplankton counts to volatile suspended solids. With pond effluent quality at an acceptable level (around 18 mg of dissolved biological oxygen demand), the algae/bacteria ratio was around 1:100 or even higher, the zooplankton count was negligible, and the bacterial concentration was approximately 10 cells per liter by direct count. The data for bacteria exceeded those of earlier studies by one to three orders of magnitude.

  12. Microalgae from domestic wastewater facility's high rate algal pond: Lipids extraction, characterization and biodiesel production. (United States)

    Drira, Neila; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Porcedda, Silvia; Dhaouadi, Hatem


    In this study, the harvesting of a biomass from a high rate algal pond (HRAP) of a real-scale domestic wastewater treatment facility and its potential as a biomaterial for the production of biodiesel were investigated. Increasing the medium pH to 12 induced high flocculation efficiency of up to 96% of the biomass through both sweep flocculation and charge neutralization. Lipids extracted by ultrasounds from this biomass contained around 70% of fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most abundant. The extract obtained by supercritical CO2 contained 86% of fatty acids. Both conventional solvents extracts contained only around 10% of unsaturated fats, whereas supercritical CO2 extract contained more than 40% of unsaturated fatty acids. This same biomass was also subject to direct extractive-transesterification in a microwave reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters, also known as, raw biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L., E-mail:


    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  14. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials (United States)

    Affinito, J. D.

    A new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films) is highlighted. This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 microns; they have extinction coefficients of k is approximately 10(exp -7). Application of electric field during crosslinking can polarize ('pole') the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. 'Poling' films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications.

  15. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology. (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L


    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage. (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi


    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles.

  17. Live Fast, Die Young: Optimizing Retention Times in High-Rate Contact Stabilization for Maximal Recovery of Organics from Wastewater. (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis A; Boon, Nico; Van Winckel, Tim; Pauwels, Koen T G; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E


    Wastewater is typically treated by the conventional activated sludge process, which suffers from an inefficient overall energy balance. The high-rate contact stabilization (HiCS) has been proposed as a promising primary treatment technology with which to maximize redirection of organics to sludge for subsequent energy recovery. It utilizes a feast-famine cycle to select for bioflocculation, intracellular storage, or both. We optimized the HiCS process for organics recovery and characterized different biological pathways of organics removal and recovery. A total of eight HiCS reactors were operated at 15 °C at short solids retention times (SRT; 0.24-2.8 days), hydraulic contact times (tc; 8 and 15 min), and stabilization times (ts; 15 and 40 min). At an optimal SRT between 0.5 and 1.3 days and tc of 15 min and ts of 40 min, the HiCS system oxidized only 10% of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and recovered up to 55% of incoming organic matter into sludge. Storage played a minor role in the overall COD removal, which was likely dominated by aerobic biomass growth, bioflocculation onto extracellular polymeric substances, and settling. The HiCS process recovers enough organics to potentially produce 28 kWh of electricity per population equivalent per year by anaerobic digestion and electricity generation. This inspires new possibilities for energy-neutral wastewater treatment.

  18. Effect of depth of high-rate ponds on the assimilation of CO2 by microalgae cultivated in domestic sewage. (United States)

    Couto, E A; Calijuri, M L; Assemany, P P; Souza, M H B


    This study evaluated the effect of high-rate ponds (HRPs) of different depths (20, 30 and 40 cm) on the carbon assimilation by microalgae cultivated in domestic sewage. The efficiency of the dissolution provided by the carbonation column and the carbon release to the atmosphere through the movement of the paddle wheels were also investigated. Dissolution efficiencies of 50%, 48% and 46% were obtained in the HRPs of 20, 30 and 40 cm depth, respectively. These differences can be attributed to the time necessary to recirculate the volume of each HRP in the carbonation column. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients regarding the release to the atmosphere were 0.0007, 0.0005 and 0.0004 min-1 for the 20, 30 and 40 cm HRPs, respectively. The carbon assimilation by the biomass was inversely proportional to depth, with values of 90%, 72% and 68% for the 20, 30 and 40 cm HRPs, respectively. Chlorophyll-a concentration was also higher in the 20 cm HRP. The radiation attenuation at the beginning of the operation was similar among the treatments, resulting in a greater fraction of the pond depth with available radiation in the 20 cm HRP.

  19. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro


    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of different types of anaerobic seed sludge for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors. (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis


    Three different types of anaerobic sludge (granular, thickened digestate and anaerobic sewage) were evaluated as seed inoculum sources for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors. Granular sludge performance was optimal, allowing a high efficiency process yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 4.1LCH4L-1d-1 at 1.5days HRT (0.248LCH4g-1COD) at an organic loading rate of 16.4gCODL-1d-1. The thickened digestate sludge experimented flotation problems, thus resulting inappropriate for the UASB process. The anaerobic sewage sludge reactor experimented biomass wash-out, but allowed high process efficiency operation at 3days HRT, yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 1.7LCH4L-1d-1 (0.236LCH4g-1COD) at an organic loading rate of 7.2gCODL-1d-1. To guarantee the success of the UASB process, the settleable solids of the slurry must be previously removed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of high-rate GPS time series at long periods (United States)

    Kelevitz, Krisztina; Houlié, Nicolas; Boschi, Lapo; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Giardini, Domenico; Rothacher, Markus


    High-rate GPS has been proven to be sensitive to ground motions that are induced by surface waves from large earthquakes even hundreds kilometers from the epicenter (Larson et al. (2003a)). Since the broadband seismometers are less sensitive to the long period surface waves (T > 300 seconds), the seismic velocity tomography models start to diverge for depths larger than 400 km (Becker and Boschi (2002); Ritsema et al. (2011)). Because of their good accuracy at long-periods (detecting ground displacements above 2 mm), GPS measurements could be used to support broadband seismometer networks (Houliè et al. (2011); Bilich et al. (2008)) and strong motion networks in near field (Houliè et al. (2014)) by providing high-quality waveforms in displacement for periods T > 3s. We present the comparison of 1Hz high-rate GPS data, very broadband seismograms and super-conductivity gravimeter data for various period bands (T > 30 s) using the observations collected during three mega-thrust events: 2003 Hokkaido, 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku-Oki. We assess the performance of each dataset at the light of comparison with synthetic waveforms that were computed using the AXISEM and SPECFEM algorithms. With this study we aim at filling the gap between the surface wave (T < 60 seconds) and normal mode (T 1200 seconds) period ranges. We find that GPS is well capable on recovering millimeter ground motion oscillations in a wide range of periods, providing valuable information on the lithosphere and mantle heterogeneities on a scale of 300 to 3000 km.

  2. Winter-time CO2 addition in high rate algal mesocosms for enhanced microalgal performance. (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert J


    Carbon limitation in domestic wastewater high rate algal ponds is thought to constrain microalgal photo-physiology and productivity and CO2 augmentation is often used to overcome this limitation in summer. However, the implications of carbon limitation during winter are poorly understood. This paper investigates the effects of 0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10% CO2 addition on the winter-time performance of wastewater microalgae in high rate algal mesocosms. Performance was measured in terms of light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and nutrient removal rates, along with community composition. Varying percentage CO2 addition and associated change in culture pH resulted in 3 distinct microalgal communities. Light absorption by the microalgae increased by up to 144% with CO2 addition, while a reduction in the package effect meant that there was less internal self-shading thereby increasing the efficiency of light absorption. Carbon augmentation increased the maximum rate of photosynthesis by up to 172%, which led to increased microalgal biovolume by up to 181% and an increase in total organic biomass for all treatments except 10% CO2. While 10% CO2 improved light absorption and photosynthesis this did not translate to enhanced microalgal productivity. Increased microalgal productivity with CO2 addition did not result in increased dissolved nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal. This experiment demonstrated that winter-time carbon augmentation up to 5% CO2 improved microalgal light absorption and utilisation, which ultimately increased microalgal biomass and is likely to enhance total annual microalgal areal productivity in HRAPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-rate Plastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Tantalum to Large Strains: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E


    Recent advances in the ability to generate extremes of pressure and temperature in dynamic experiments and to probe the response of materials has motivated the need for special materials optimized for those conditions as well as a need for a much deeper understanding of the behavior of materials subjected to high pressure and/or temperature. Of particular importance is the understanding of rate effects at the extremely high rates encountered in those experiments, especially with the next generation of laser drives such as at the National Ignition Facility. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the high-rate deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum to investigate the processes associated with plastic deformation for strains up to 100%. We use initial atomic configurations that were produced through simulations of solidification in the work of Streitz et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, (2006) 225701]. These 3D polycrystalline systems have typical grain sizes of 10-20 nm. We also study a rapidly quenched liquid (amorphous solid) tantalum. We apply a constant volume (isochoric), constant temperature (isothermal) shear deformation over a range of strain rates, and compute the resulting stress-strain curves to large strains for both uniaxial and biaxial compression. We study the rate dependence and identify plastic deformation mechanisms. The identification of the mechanisms is facilitated through a novel technique that computes the local grain orientation, returning it as a quaternion for each atom. This analysis technique is robust and fast, and has been used to compute the orientations on the fly during our parallel MD simulations on supercomputers. We find both dislocation and twinning processes are important, and they interact in the weak strain hardening in these extremely fine-grained microstructures.

  4. High rate GPS solutions from 2007 Mw7.7 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Genrich, J.; Simons, M.; Minson, S.; Bertiger, W.; Haines, B.; Chowdhury, F.; Galetzka, J.


    The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake occurred within the CANTO (Central ANdean Tectonic Observatory) geodetic network, with ten stations recording at 5Hz. Because of the magnitude and proximity of the event, many of the stations recorded the dynamic as well as the static displacement from the earthquake. In order to provide the best time series for source modeling studies (see Minson et al, Fall AGU 2008), we have tested several high-rate analysis strategies. The high-rate solutions were analyzed in a baseline mode, fixing the position and clocks of a remote reference site, and estimating satellite clocks, tropospheric parameters, as well as the station position and clock of the non-stationary site. The station position was estimated at longer time intervals leading up to the onset of earthquake displacement (e.g., 10 minutes) to allow for a more robust position and troposphere estimate. During the earthquake, station positions were estimated at 5Hz. The station position estimates were reduced to 1 second and then 1 minute with time following the earthquake. We mitigated the effects of multipath by applying a modified sidereal filter correction to the phase observables. The multipath correction was estimated from static solutions based on 15 second data from the days prior to the earthquake. Given the potential for afterslip and aftershocks, we avoided using data from after the earthquake for estimation of the multipath correction. The multipath correction significantly reduced noise in the time series at the several minute to several hour period. We also compare 1Hz, and 5Hz solutions from the CANTO stations. While for some stations these solutions are very similar, there are other stations where the 5Hz solutions captures higher rate motion that were aliased in the 1Hz solutions. This result is a strong argument for increasing GPS data collection rates when looking for dynamic seismic motion.

  5. Carbon-Coated CFx Nanocomposite Cathodes for High Rate Lithium Primary Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require batteries that can operate in deep-space environments, including high radiation and extreme temperatures, and...

  6. Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae with High Rate of Autochthonous Transmission in the Arabian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Sonnevend

    Full Text Available To establish the role of local transmission versus possible pathogen import due to previous foreign exposure in infections caused by carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in the Arabian Peninsula, 200 independent isolates collected in 16 hospitals of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and the United Arab Emirates were studied. All strains were multidrug resistant; 42.5% of them also qualified as extremely drug resistant. The frequency of various carbapenemases varied according to the participating countries, but in the collection, as a whole, blaNDM-1 was the most frequently encountered carbapenemase gene (46.5% followed by blaOXA-48-like gene (32.5%. A comparatively high rate (8.9% of multi-clonal strains carrying both blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes in the United Arab Emirates, representing the most resistant subgroup, was encountered. No KPC-expressing isolates were detected. Three major clones of blaNDM-1 carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae of ST152 (n = 22, Saudi Arabia, ST14 (n = 7, United Arab Emirates and ST147 types (n = 9, Oman were identified, the latter two clones carrying similar, but not identical HI1b incompatibility type plasmids of >170 kb. While from 78.6% of the cases with documented foreign hospitalization blaNDM positive strains were isolated, these strains formed only 25.6% of all the isolates expressing this enzyme. In fact, 56.8% of the NDM, 75.7% of OXA-48-like and 90.9% of VIM positive strains were recovered from patients without documented foreign exposure, neither in the form of travel or prior hospitalization abroad, suggesting a high rate of autochthonous infections. This, considering the extensive links of these countries to the rest of the world, predicts that trends in the local epidemiology of carbapenem resistant strains may increasingly affect the spread of these pathogens on the global scale. These results call for improved surveillance of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the countries of the Arabian

  7. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high $\\eta$ CMS muon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00185093; Lagarde, François; Laktineh, Imad; Buridon, Victor; Chen, Xiushan; Combaret, Christophe; Eynard, Alexis; Germani, Lionel; Grenier, Gerald; Mathez, Hervé; Mirabito, Laurent; Petrukhin, Alexei; Steen, Arnaud; Tromeur, William; Wang, Yi; Gong, A.; Moreau, Nathalie; de la Taille, Christophe; Dulucq, Fréderic


    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to $6 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The region of the forward muon spectrometer ($|\\eta| > 1.6$) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to 2 kHz/cm$^2$ ( including a safety factor 3 ) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The actual RPC technology of CMS cannot sustain the expected background level. A new generation Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low resistivity glass (LR) is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high eta muon stations of CMS. The design of small size prototypes and the studies of their performances under high rate particles flux is presented.

  8. Adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway: high rate of de novo mutations and age-dependent penetrance. (United States)

    Horn, Morten A; Retterstøl, Lars; Abdelnoor, Michael; Skjeldal, Ola H; Tallaksen, Chantal M E


    To investigate X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in an unselected population, we performed a population based, cross-sectional prevalence study, supplemented by a retrospective study of deceased subjects. Sixty-three subjects (34 males, 29 females) belonging to 22 kindreds were included. Thirty-nine subjects (13 males, 26 females) were alive, and 24 (21 males, 3 females) were deceased on the prevalence day. The point prevalence of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in Norway on July 1, 2011, was 0.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence at birth in the period 1956-1995 was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. An age-dependent penetrance was observed among males and females, with more severe phenotypes appearing with rising age. Only 5% of deceased males had not developed cerebral leukodystrophy. No female older than 50 years was neurologically intact. Sixteen mutations in the ABCD1 gene were identified. De novo mutations were found in 19% of probands. The frequency of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy was lower in Norway than reported in the literature. A more severe natural course than previously reported was observed, indicating a need for better follow-up of both male and female patients. Given the high rate of de novo mutations, identification programs such as newborn screening may be required to offer timely treatment to all patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiesel production potential of wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass. (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M


    This study investigates the year-round production potential and quality of biodiesel from wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass and how it is affected by CO2 addition to the culture. The mean monthly pond biomass and lipid productivities varied between 2.0±0.3 and 11.1±2.5gVSS/m(2)/d, and between 0.5±0.1 and 2.6±1.1g/m(2)/d, respectively. The biomass fatty acid methyl esters were highly complex which led to produce low-quality biodiesel so that it cannot be used directly as a transportation fuel. Overall, 0.9±0.1g/m(2)/d (3.2±0.5ton/ha/year) low-quality biodiesel could be produced from WWT HRAP biomass which could be further increased to 1.1±0.1g/m(2)/d (4.0ton/ha/year) by lowering culture pH to 6-7 during warm summer months. CO2 addition, had little effect on both the biomass lipid content and profile and consequently did not change the quality of biodiesel. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high ${\\eta}$ CMS muon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00430500; Gouzevitch, M.; Laktineh, I.; Buridon, V.; Chen, X.; Combaret, C.; Eynard, A.; Germani, L.; Grenier, G.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Wang, Y.; Gong, A.; Moreau, N.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A.A.O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.F.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharmag, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M.I.; Awan, I.M.; Hoorani, R.; Muhammad, S.; Shahzad, H.; Shah, M.A.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lim, J.H.; Park, S.K.; Kim, M.S.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Pedraza, I.; Uribe Estradam, C.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L.M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S.J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J.C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.


    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to $6.10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ . The region of the forward muon spectrometer ($|{\\eta}| > 1.6$) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to $2 kHz/cm^{2}$ (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The actual RPC technology of CMS cannot sustain the expected background level. The new technology that will be chosen should have a high rate capability and provides a good spatial and timing resolution. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity (LR) glass is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high ${\\eta}$ muon stations of CMS. First the design of small size prototypes and studies of their perfor...

  11. Heat dissipation of high rate Li-SOCl sub 2 primary cells (United States)

    Cho, Y. I.; Halpert, G.; Deligiannis, E.


    The heat dissipation problem occurring in the lithium thionyl chloride cells discharged at relatively high rates under normal discharge conditions is examined. Four heat flow paths were identified, and the thermal resistances of the relating cell components along each flow path were accordingly calculated. From the thermal resistance network analysis, it was demonstrated that about 90 percent of the total heat produced within the cell should be dissipated along the radial direction in a spirally wound cell. In addition, the threshold value of the heat generation rate at which cell internal temperature could be maintained below 100 C, was calculated from total thermal resistance and found to be 2.9 W. However, these calculations were made only at the cell components' level, and the transient nature of the heat accumulation and dissipation was not considered. A simple transient model based on the lumped-heat-capacity concept was developed to predict the time-dependent cell temperature at different discharge rates. The overall objective was to examine the influence of cell design variable from the heat removal point of view under normal discharge conditions and to make recommendations to build more efficient lithium cells.

  12. Three-Dimensional Triplet Tracking for LHC and Future High Rate Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schöning, Andre


    The hit combinatorial problem is a main challenge for track reconstruction and triggering at high rate experiments. At hadron colliders the dominant fraction of hits is due to low momentum tracks for which multiple scattering (MS) effects dominate the hit resolution. MS is also the dominating source for hit confusion and track uncertainties in low energy precision experiments. In all such environments, where MS dominates, track reconstruction and fitting can be largely simplified by using three-dimensional (3D) hit-triplets as provided by pixel detectors. This simplification is possible since track uncertainties are solely determined by MS if high precision spatial information is provided. Fitting of hit-triplets is especially simple for tracking detectors in solenoidal magnetic fields. The over-constrained 3D-triplet method provides a complete set of track parameters and is robust against fake hit combinations. The triplet method is ideally suited for pixel detectors where hits can be treated as 3D-space poi...

  13. A Membrane-Free Ferrocene-Based High-Rate Semiliquid Battery. (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua


    We report here a ferrocene-based membrane-free, high-rate semiliquid battery that takes advantage of a highly soluble ferrocene/ferrocenium redox couple in nonaqueous phase. The designed battery exhibits stable capacity retention up to 94% of theoretical capacity of ferrocene (145 mAh g(-1)) at a broad current rate up to 60 C owing to rapid mass transport in a liquid phase and fast redox kinetics. The diffusion coefficient and the standard reaction constant are determined to be in the order of 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) and 10(-1) cm s(-1), respectively, orders of magnitude greater than those in a solid-phase electrode and those in conventional redox flow batteries. Additionally, the battery demonstrates power density and energy density exceeding 1400 W L(-1) and 40 Wh L(-1), respectively, and stable cyclability with capacity retention of ∼80% for 500 cycles. Compared with state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as Li-ion batteries or conventional redox flow batteries, the proposed liquid battery shows the potential to be an efficient energy storage system with exceptionally high power and reasonable energy density.

  14. High rates of Escherichia coli transmission between livestock and humans in rural Uganda. (United States)

    Rwego, Innocent B; Gillespie, Thomas R; Isabirye-Basuta, Gilbert; Goldberg, Tony L


    Escherichia coli is a zoonotic bacterium that is important to both public health and livestock economics. To date, most studies of zoonotic E. coli transmission have been conducted in developed nations with industrialized agricultural economies. In this study, E. coli bacteria were collected from people and livestock in two communities in rural western Uganda in order to investigate patterns of interspecific bacterial transmission in a developing rural economy characterized by very close human-livestock associations. Six hundred seventy-two E. coli isolates were genotyped using repetitive element-PCR (Rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and genetic distances between populations of bacteria from different hosts and locations were calculated. Genetic distances between human and livestock bacteria were generally very low, indicating high rates of bacterial gene flow among host species. Bacteria from humans and livestock in the same communities were virtually indistinguishable genetically. Data from surveys administered at the time of sample collection showed that people who did not regularly wash their hands before eating harbored bacteria approximately twice as similar genetically to bacteria of their livestock as did people who regularly washed their hands before eating. These results suggest that both rates of human-livestock interactions and patterns of human hygiene affect human-livestock bacterial transmission in this setting. This conclusion has implications not only for human and livestock health in subsistence-based agricultural economies but also for the emergence of zoonotic diseases out of such areas as a result of increasing globalization.

  15. [High rates of overweight and obesity in Chilean children with Down syndrome]. (United States)

    Jiménez, Lily; Cerda, Jaime; Alberti, Gigliola; Lizama, Macarena


    Overweight and obesity in Down syndrome (DS) is a common problem. Chile has a high prevalence of DS. To determine overweight and obesity rates in students with DS and evaluate the concordance of three different growth charts. Seventy nine students with DS aged between 6 and 18 years (56% males), from three different schools, were included. Weight and height were measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The nutritional diagnosis was made according to BMI. Myrelid SDM/2002, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/2000, World Health Organization (WHO)/2007 charts for people with DS were used. Thirty percent of participants had hypothyroidism, 22.8% congenital heart disease and 5% asthma. Overweight and obesity rates according to SDM/2002, NCHS/2000 and WHO/2007 were 43, 57 and 66% respectively. The concordance between WHO/2007 and NCHS/2000 was almost perfect, but not with SDM/2002. A high rate of overweight and obesity was found in this group of children with DS, independent of the charts used or their comorbidities.

  16. A fast multi-GEM-based detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bencivenni, G; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Marras, D; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D


    In this paper, results of a time performance study of gas electron multiplier (GEM)-based detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R & D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. Results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e., for experiments in which high-rate charged-particle triggering is needed. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM- based detectors, with the exception of one paper reporting the measurement of a double-GEM detector time resolution with an Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture where the authors quoted a time resolution such that high-efficiency muon triggering at LHCb would be impossible. The results reported here, obtained with the addition of CF//4 and isobutane to the Ar/CO//2 standard mixture, considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper, allowing one to reach a time distribution root mean square of 5 ns with an isobutane-based mixture. In these conditions, a spark probability per incomi...

  17. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro


    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10{sup -4} and 2.3x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates.

  18. Large area/high rate sputtering of materials for electro-chromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    The preparation of any large area system is going to require a deposition system for the thin film elements of the device which not only have the properties required but also can be made in the large areas, and for the low cost, that will be needed for any device which is to have any large-scale applicability. Techniques for the large-scale production of multi-layer optical filters for use in windows for buildings and cars have appeared over the last few years, and it has been demonstrated that planner magnetron sputtering can give the large area uniformity, low cost and high rate required for such a system. Part of this process includes the reactive deposition of an oxide. The properties of this oxide are not critical, but research is proceeding into the techniques that need to be used to manufacture oxides with much better control of their properties while maintaining the advantages of large area availability and low cost. It is the intention of this contribution to consider this process--d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering--and assess the likely use of it to prepare electro-chromic devices for large-scale applications.

  19. Wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass for bio-crude oil production. (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M


    This study investigates the production potential of bio-crude from wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass in terms of yield, elemental/chemical composition and higher heating value (HHV). Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the biomass slurry (2.2wt% solid content, 19.7kJ/g HHV) was conducted at a range of temperatures (150-300°C) for one hour. The bio-crude yield and HHV varied in range of 3.1-24.9wt% and 37.5-38.9kJ/g, respectively. The bio-crudes were comprised of 71-72.4wt% carbon, 0.9-4.8wt% nitrogen, 8.7-9.8wt% hydrogen and 12-15.7wt% oxygen. GC-MS analysis indicated that pyrroles, indoles, amides and fatty acids were the most abundant bio-crude compounds. HTL of WWT HRAP biomass resulted, also, in production of 10.5-26wt% water-soluble compounds (containing up to 293mg/L ammonia), 1.0-9.3wt% gas and 44.8-85.5wt% solid residue (12.2-18.1kJ/g). The aqueous phase has a great potential to be used as an ammonia source for further algal cultivation and the solid residue could be used as a process fuel source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide aerogel with high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes (United States)


    Reduced graphene oxide aerogel (RGOA) is synthesized successfully through a simultaneous self-assembly and reduction process using hypophosphorous acid and I2 as reductant. Nitrogen sorption analysis shows that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of RGOA could reach as high as 830 m2 g−1, which is the largest value ever reported for graphene-based aerogels obtained through the simultaneous self-assembly and reduction strategy. The as-prepared RGOA is characterized by a variety of means such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests show that RGOA exhibits a high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes. The specific capacitance of RGOA is calculated to be 211.8 and 278.6 F g−1 in KOH and H2SO4 electrolytes, respectively. The perfect supercapacitive performance of RGOA is ascribed to its three-dimensional structure and the existence of oxygen-containing groups. PMID:23692674

  1. European freshwater vulnerability under high rates of global warming and plausible socio-economic narratives. (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis


    Recent developments could postpone climate actions in the frame of the global climate deal of the Paris Agreement, making higher-end global warming increasingly plausible. Although not clear in the COP21 water security is fundamental to achieving low-carbon ambitions, thus climate and water policies are closely related. The projection of the relationship between global warming, water availability and water stress through their complex interactions among different sectors, along with the synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation actions, is a rather challenging task under the prism of climate change. Here we try to develop and apply a simple, transparent conceptual framework describing European vulnerability to hydrological drought of current hydro-climatic and socioeconomic status as well as projected vulnerability at specific levels of global warming (1.5oC, 2oC and 4oC) following highly rates of climatic change (RCP8.5) and considering different levels of adaptation associated to specific socioeconomic pathways (SSP2, SSP3 and SSP5).

  2. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAP) for low-cost biofuel production. (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M


    Growing energy demand and water consumption have increased concerns about energy security and efficient wastewater treatment and reuse. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAPs) are a promising technology that could help solve these challenges concurrently where climate is favorable. WWT HRAPs have great potential for biofuel production as a by-product of WWT, since the costs of algal cultivation and harvest for biofuel production are covered by the wastewater treatment function. Generally, 800-1400 GJ/ha/year energy (average biomass energy content: 20 GJ/ton; HRAP biomass productivity: 40-70 tons/ha/year) can be produced in the form of harvestable biomass from WWT HRAP which can be used to provide community-level energy supply. In this paper the benefits of WWT HRAPs are compared with conventional mass algal culture systems. Moreover, parameters to effectively increase algal energy content and overall energy production from WWT HRAP are discussed including selection of appropriate algal biomass biofuel conversion pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potentiostatic activation of as-made graphene electrodes for high-rate performance in supercapacitors (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Krishnan; Jeong, Seok; Lah, Myoung Soo; Sohn, Kee-Sun; Pyo, Myoungho


    A thermally expanded graphene oxide (EGO) electrode is electrochemically activated to simultaneously introduce electrolyte-accessible mesopores and oxygen functional groups. The former is produced via O2 evolution and the latter is incorporated by the intermediate hydroxyl radicals generated during the potentiostatic oxidation of H2O in 1 M H2SO4 at 1.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). When applied as a supercapacitor, the potentiostatically treated EGO (EGO-PS) shows significant enhancement in an electric-double layer (EDL) process with a noticeable Faradaic reaction and delivers high capacitance at fast charge/discharge (C/D) rates (334 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 230 F g-1 at 50 A g-1). In contrast to EGO-PS, EGO that is oxidized potentiodynamically (EGO-PD) shows negligible enhancement in EDL currents. EGO that is subjected to successive potential pulses also shows behaviors similar to EGO-PD, which indicates the importance of hydroxyl radical accumulation via a potentiostatic method for simultaneous functionalization and microstructural control of graphenes. The potentiostatic post-treatment presented here is a convenient post-treatment strategy that could be used to readily increase capacitance and simultaneously improve the high-rate performance of carbon-based electrodes.

  4. High rates of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst school children in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto


    Full Text Available Leprosy in children is correlated with community-level factors, including the recent presence of disease and active foci of transmission in the community. We performed clinical and serological examinations of 1,592 randomly selected school children (SC in a cross-sectional study of eight hyperendemic municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Sixty-three (4% SC, with a mean age of 13.3 years (standard deviation = 2.6, were diagnosed with leprosy and 777 (48.8% were seropositive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I. Additionally, we evaluated 256 house-hold contacts (HHCs of the students diagnosed with leprosy; 24 (9.4% HHC were also diagnosed with leprosy and 107 (41.8% were seropositive. The seroprevalence of anti-PGL-I was significantly higher amongst girls, students from urban areas and students from public schools (p < 0.0001. Forty-five (71.4% new cases detected amongst SC were classified as paucibacillary and 59 (93.6% patients did not demonstrate any degree of physical disability at diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that there is a high rate of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst children in the Amazon Region. The advantages of school surveys in hyperendemic areas include identifying leprosy patients at an early stage when they show no physical disabilities, preventing the spread of the infection in the community and breaking the chain of transmission.

  5. Microbial community structures in high rate algae ponds for bioconversion of agricultural wastes from livestock industry for feed production. (United States)

    Mark Ibekwe, A; Murinda, Shelton E; Murry, Marcia A; Schwartz, Gregory; Lundquist, Trygve


    Dynamics of seasonal microbial community compositions in algae cultivation ponds are complex. However, there is very limited knowledge on bacterial communities that may play significant roles with algae in the bioconversion of manure nutrients to animal feed. In this study, water samples were collected during winter, spring, summer, and fall from the dairy lagoon effluent (DLE), high rate algae ponds (HRAP) that were fed with diluted DLE, and municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluent which was included as a comparison system for the analysis of total bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and microalgae communities using MiSeq Illumina sequencing targeting the 16S V4 rDNA region. The main objective was to examine dynamics in microbial community composition in the HRAP used for the production of algal biomass. DNA was extracted from the different sample types using three commercially available DNA extraction kits; MoBio Power water extraction kit, Zymo fungi/bacterial extraction kit, and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) using distance matrices on each variable showed significant differences (P=0.001) in beta-diversity based on sample source. Environmental variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT; P<0.031), total N (P<0.002), total inorganic N (P<0.002), total P (P<0.002), alkalinity (P<0.002), pH (P<0.022), total suspended solid (TSS; P<0.003), and volatile suspended solids (VSS; P<0.002) significantly affected microbial communities in DLE, HRAP, and WWTP. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified to phyla level, the dominant classes of bacteria identified were: Cyanobacteria, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Epsilon-, and Delta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. Our data suggest that microbial communities were significantly affected in HRAP by different environmental variables, and care must be taken in extraction procedures when evaluating specific groups of microbial communities for

  6. Nanostructured TiO2/carbon nanosheet hybrid electrode for high-rate thin-film lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Moitzheim, S; Nimisha, C S; Deng, Shaoren; Cott, Daire J; Detavernier, C; Vereecken, P M


    Heterogeneous nanostructured electrodes using carbon nanosheets (CNS) and TiO2 exhibit high electronic and ionic conductivity. In order to realize the chip level power sources, it is necessary to employ microelectronic compatible techniques for the fabrication and characterization of TiO2-CNS thin-film electrodes. To achieve this, vertically standing CNS grown through a catalytic free approach on a TiN/SiO2/Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) was used. The substrate-attached CNS is responsible for the sufficient electronic conduction and increased surface-to-volume ratio due to its unique morphology. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nanostructured amorphous TiO2 on CNS provides enhanced Li storage capacity, high rate performance and stable cycling. The amount of deposited TiO2 masks the underlying CNS, thereby controlling the accessibility of CNS, which gets reflected in the total electrochemical performance, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge measurements. TiO2 thin-films deposited with 300, 400 and 500 ALD cycles on CNS have been studied to understand the kinetics of Li insertion/extraction. A large potential window of operation (3-0.01 V); the excellent cyclic stability, with a capacity retention of 98% of the initial value; and the remarkable rate capability (up to 100 C) are the highlights of TiO2/CNS thin-film anode structures. CNS with an optimum amount of TiO2 coating is proposed as a promising approach for the fabrication of electrodes for chip compatible thin-film Li-ion batteries.

  7. A winter dinoflagellate bloom drives high rates of primary production in a Patagonian fjord ecosystem (United States)

    Montero, P.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Daneri, G.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Igor, G.; Seguel, R.; Purdie, D.; Crawford, D. W.


    A dense winter bloom of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra was observed at a fixed station (44°35.3‧S; 72°43.6‧W) in the Puyuhuapi Fjord in Chilean Patagonia during July 2015. H. triquetra dominated the phytoplankton community in the surface waters between 2 and 15 m (13-58 × 109 cell m-2), with abundances some 3 to 15 times higher than the total abundance of the diatom assemblage, which was dominated by Skeletonema spp. The high abundance of dinoflagellates was reflected in high rates of gross primary production (GPP; 0.6-1.6 g C m-2 d-1) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a; 70-199.2 mg m-2) that are comparable to levels reported in spring diatom blooms in similar Patagonian fjords. We identify the main forcing factors behind a pulse of organic matter production during the non-productive winter season, and test the hypothesis that low irradiance levels are a key factor limiting phytoplankton blooms and subsequent productivity during winter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that GPP rates were significantly correlated (r = -0.8, p temperature and the presence of the Heterocapsa bloom. The bloom occurred under low surface irradiance levels characteristic of austral winter and was accompanied by strong northern winds, associated with the passage of a low-pressure system, and a water column dominated by double diffusive layering. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dense dinoflagellate bloom during deep austral winter in a Patagonian fjord, and our data challenge the paradigm of light limitation as a factor controlling phytoplankton blooms in this region in winter.

  8. Tetracycline removal during wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godos, Ignacio de [School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011, Valladolid (Spain); Department of Biodiversity and Environmental Management, University of Leon, Campus Vegazana, 24071 Leon (Spain); Munoz, Raul [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011, Valladolid (Spain); Guieysse, Benoit, E-mail: [School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North (New Zealand)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetracycline removal was most likely caused by photodegradation and biosorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetracycline presence was linked to biomass deflocculation and poor settleability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deflocculation did not impact treatment efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deflocculation may hamper biomass recover during full-scale treatment. - Abstract: With the hypothesis that light supply can impact the removal of veterinary antibiotics during livestock wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), this study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of tetracycline removal in these systems. For this purpose, two HRAPs were fed with synthetic wastewater for 46 days before tetracycline was added at 2 mg L{sup -1} to the influent of one of the reactors (Te-HRAP). From day 62, dissolved tetracycline removal stabilized around 69 {+-} 1% in the Te-HRAP and evidence from batch assays suggests that this removal was mainly caused by photodegradation and biosorption. Tetracycline addition was followed by the deflocculation of the Te-HRAP biomass but had otherwise no apparent impact on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass productivity. The results from the batch assays also suggested that the light-shading and/or pollutant-sequestrating effects of the biomass limited tetracycline removal in the pond. For the first time, these results demonstrate that the shallow geometry of HRAPs is advantageous to support the photodegradation of antibiotics during wastewater biological treatment but that the presence of these pollutants could hamper biomass recovery. These findings have significant implications for algal-based environmental biotechnologies and must be confirmed under field conditions.

  9. High-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis for biogas upgrading: the role of anaerobic granules. (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Gong, Shufen; Sun, Yuanzi; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun


    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis has been proved to be a feasible biological method for biogas upgrading. To improve its performance, the feasibility of typical anaerobic granules as the inoculum was investigated in both batch and continuous experiments. The results from batch experiments showed that glucose-acclimated granules seemed to perform better than granules acclimated to acidified products (AP, i.e. acetate, propionate and ethanol) in in situ biogas upgrading systems and a slightly higher H2 consumption rate (1.5 mmol H2 g VSS(-1) h(-1)) was obtained for glucose-acclimated granules. For AP-acclimated granules, the inhibition on anaerobic digestion and pH increase (up to 9.55±0.16) took place, and the upgrading performance was adversely affected. In contrast, better performance for AP-acclimated granules was observed in ex situ systems, possibly due to their higher hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activities (HMA). Moreover, when gas-liquid mass transfer limitations were alleviated, the upgrading performance was significantly improved (three-fold) for both glucose-acclimated and AP-acclimated granules. The HMA of anaerobic granules could be further enhanced to improve biogas upgrading performance via continuous cultivation with H2/CO2 as the sole substrate. During the three months' cultivation, secondary granulation and microbial population shift were observed, but anaerobic granules still remained intact and their HMA increased from 0.2 to 0.6 g COD g VSS(-1) d(-1). It indicated that the formation of hydrogenotrophic methanogenic granules, a new type of anaerobic granules specialized for high-rate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and biogas upgrading, might be possible. Conclusively, anaerobic granules showed great potential for biogas upgrading.

  10. High rates of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in seawater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Gregório, S F; Gaetano, P; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J


    Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO3(-) movements i.e. slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and v-type H-ATPase sub C in the intestine of tilapia acclimated to both seawater and freshwater. Our results show an anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in tilapia in terms of expression patterns, which is affected by environmental salinity mostly in the anterior and mid intestine. Analysis of bicarbonate secretion using pH-Stat in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers reveals high rates of bicarbonate secretion in tilapia acclimated to seawater from anterior intestine to rectum ranging between ~900 and ~1700nmolHCO3(-)cm(-2)h(-1). However, a relationship between the expression of slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and the rate of bicarbonate secretion seems to be compromised in the rectum. In this region, the low expression of the bicarbonate transporters could not explain the high bicarbonate secretion rates here described. However, we postulate that the elevated v-type H-ATPase mRNA expression in the rectum could be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-dimensional triplet tracking for LHC and future high rate experiments (United States)

    Schöning, A.


    The hit combinatorial problem is a main challenge for track reconstruction and triggering at high rate experiments. At hadron colliders the dominant fraction of hits is due to low momentum tracks for which multiple scattering (MS) effects dominate the hit resolution. MS is also the dominating source for hit confusion and track uncertainties in low energy precision experiments. In all such environments, where MS dominates, track reconstruction and fitting can be largely simplified by using three-dimensional (3D) hit-triplets as provided by pixel detectors. This simplification is possible since track uncertainties are solely determined by MS if high precision spatial information is provided. Fitting of hit-triplets is especially simple for tracking detectors in solenoidal magnetic fields. The over-constrained 3D-triplet method provides a complete set of track parameters and is robust against fake hit combinations. Full tracks can be reconstructed step-wise by connecting hit triplet combinations from different layers, thus heavily reducing the combinatorial problem and accelerating track linking. The triplet method is ideally suited for pixel detectors where hits can be treated as 3D-space points. With the advent of relatively cheap and industrially available CMOS-sensors the construction of highly granular full scale pixel tracking detectors seems to be possible also for experiments at LHC or future high energy (hadron) colliders. In this paper tracking performance studies for full-scale pixel detectors, including their optimisation for 3D-triplet tracking, are presented. The results obtained for different types of tracker geometries and different reconstruction methods are compared. The potential of reducing the number of tracking layers and - along with that - the material budget using this new tracking concept is discussed. The possibility of using 3D-triplet tracking for triggering and fast online reconstruction is highlighted.

  12. Performance of an experimental wastewater treatment high-rate algal pond in subarctic climate. (United States)

    Grönlund, Erik; Hanaeus, Jörgen; Johansson, Erica; Falk, Stefan


    A pilot-scale experimental high-rate algal pond (HRAP) was investigated in the subarctic mid-Sweden region, at latitude 63 degrees N. During autumn 2002, conditions included temperatures below 10 degrees C and photosynthetic active radiation below 200 microE/m2 x s. Biochemical oxygen demand was reduced by approximately 90% (approximately 40 g/m3), chemical oxygen demand by 65% (approximately 80 g/m3), total phosphorus by 20% (approximately 1 g/m3), and total nitrogen by 46% (approximately 15 g/m3), at a retention time of approximately 2.5 days. During autumn 2003, the performance of the HRAP appeared better with a more dense microalgae culture; however, as a result of poor settling of the microalgae, the reduction was considerably lower. A major difference between the years was the microalgae composition. In 2002, the large green algae Coelastrum dominated with Chlamydomonas, Scenedesmus, Lagerheimia, and the Cryptophyte Rhodomonas. In 2003, there was a total dominance of the very small green algae Chlorella, known to be difficult to settle. In batch growth experiments during spring 2002, doubling times of 4 to 6 days were achieved. The period of temperatures above 10 degrees C and an insolation of more than approximately 270 uE/m2 x s (125 Langleys), which is well-documented as appropriate for HRAP function (Oswald, 1988a, 1988c), were measured to last for 4 to 4.5 months from early May to late September. However, the growth and treatment performance experiments indicated that a longer season may be possible-6.5 to 7 months, at best-from early April to late October.

  13. High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Gerber

    Full Text Available Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423, mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51 from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23. Seedlings ([65,387], 178 were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5-8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21-88%. Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20-66%. Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands.

  14. High Rates of Bleeding Complications among Hospitalized Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia in the United States. (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Wood, Christopher P; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Cloft, Harry J; Misra, Sanjay; Kallmes, David F; Kamath, Patrick; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Krowka, Michael J; Swanson, Karen L; Iyer, Vivek N


    There is sparse published literature on the causes and outcomes of hospitalization of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). To evaluate rates of various complications, comorbidities, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with HHT using a large, multihospital inpatient database. We identified patients with HHT in the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2000 and 2012. Rates of hemorrhagic, neurological, hepatic, and cardiopulmonary complications among hospitalized patients with HHT were evaluated. We also studied procedure use rates for blood transfusion, endoscopy, and epistaxis treatment. Hospitalization outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, discharge status, charges, and length of stay, were evaluated. We identified 10,293 patients with HHT. The mean age of the HHT population was 60.7 years. Sixty percent of patients were female. More than 75% of HHT hospitalizations occurred in those older than 50 years of age. Patients with HHT had high rates of bleeding-related complications, including anemia (53.3%), epistaxis (16.2%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (10.8%). Overall, bleeding complications accounted for 62.7% of HHT-related complications. Thirty-eight percent of hospitalized patients with HHT received one or more transfusions of a blood product. Cardiopulmonary complications were present in 41.0% of the cases. Congestive heart failure was the second most common individual complication among patients with HHT, affecting 19.9% of patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.9%. In this large, nationwide study, we found that nearly two-thirds of patients hospitalized with HHT experienced a bleeding-related complication. Nearly 40% of hospitalized patients with HHT required transfusion of blood products. Cardiopulmonary complications, including congestive heart failure, were the second most common complication. The high burden of bleeding-related complications points to a significant unmet clinical need for these patients.

  15. Paediatric cancer survivors demonstrate a high rate of subclinical renal dysfunction. (United States)

    Mudi, Abdullahi; Levy, Cecil Steven; Geel, Jennifer Ann; Poole, Janet Elizabeth


    Clinical manifestations of renal dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors include hypertension, proteinuria, tubulopathy (and its biochemical consequences) and renal insufficiency. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with renal dysfunction in paediatric cancer survivors at a single centre in Johannesburg. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 130 cancer survivors between 2 and 18 years of age. Physical examination and screening urine dipstick were performed on all patients. Blood results of samples routinely drawn were analysed. After a median follow-up period of 2 years, the various manifestations of renal dysfunction included decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, proteinuria, haematuria and hypertension. In total, 34 survivors (26.15%) had at least one manifestation of renal dysfunction after completing treatment. The most prevalent manifestation of renal dysfunction was decreased eGFR (17.7%) followed by hypomagnesaemia (6.2%) and hypophosphataemia (4.6%). Patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction were three times more likely to have renal dysfunction post-treatment (P = 0.020). Ifosfamide (P = 0.010) and nephrectomy (P = 0.003) had independent significant impact on reduction in eGFR. High cumulative ifosfamide doses were identified as a possible cause for hypophosphataemia (P = 0.021). While not clinically evident in the early follow-up period, the high rate of renal dysfunction is concerning. We suggest that patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction should be assessed by a nephrologist prior to initiation of cancer therapy, and nephro-protective measures should be employed stringently in all children with cancer. Patients with decreased eGFR should be followed up closely in a multidisciplinary late effects clinic. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High Rate of Recurrence Following Proximal Medial Opening Wedge Osteotomy for Correction of Moderate Hallux Valgus. (United States)

    Iyer, Sravisht; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Sofka, Carolyn M; Ellis, Scott J


    The proximal medial opening wedge (PMOW) osteotomy has become more popular to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus with the recent development of specifically designed, low-profile modular plates. Despite the promising results previously reported in the literature, we have noted a high incidence of recurrence in patients treated with a PMOW. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of an initial cohort of patients treated with a PMOW osteotomy for moderate hallux valgus. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively gathered data on a cohort of 17 consecutive patients who were treated by the senior author using a PMOW osteotomy for moderate hallux valgus deformity. Average time to follow-up was 2.4 years (range, 1.0-3.5 years). The intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the hallux valgus angle (HVA), and the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) were assessed on standard weightbearing radiographs of the foot preoperatively and at all follow-up visits. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) was collected on all patients preoperatively and at final follow-up. Despite demonstrating good correction of their deformity initially, 11 of the 17 patients (64.7%) had evidence of recurrence of their hallux valgus deformity at final follow-up. Patients who recurred had a greater preoperative HVA (P = .023) and DMAA (P = .049) than patients who maintained their correction. Improvement in the quality-of-life subscale of the FAOS was noted at final follow-up for all patients (P = .05). There was no significant improvement in any of the other FAOS subscales. There was a high rate of recurrence of the hallux valgus deformity in this cohort of patients. Recurrence was associated with greater preoperative deformity and an increased preoperative DMAA. The PMOW without a concomitant distal metatarsal osteotomy may be best reserved for patients with mild hallux valgus deformity without an increased DMAA. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author

  17. Environmental drivers that influence microalgal species in fullscale wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Craggs, Rupert J


    In the last decade, studies have focused on identifying the most suitable microalgal species for coupled high rate algal pond (HRAP) wastewater treatment and resource recovery. However, one of the challenges facing outdoor HRAP systems is maintaining microalgal species dominance. By increasing our understanding of the environmental drivers of microalgal community composition within the HRAP environment, it may be possible to manipulate the system in such a way to favour the growth of desirable species. In this paper, we investigate the microalgal community composition in two full-scale HRAPs over a 23-month period. We compare wastewater treatment performance between dominant species and identify the environmental drivers that trigger change in community composition. A total of 33 microalgal species were identified over the 23-month period but species richness (the number of species present at any given time) was low and was not related to either productivity or nutrient removal efficiency. Species turnover of the dominant microalgae happened rapidly, typically species turnover, accounting for 80% of the changes in dominant species throughout the 23-month study period. Both nutrient removal and biomass production did not differ between the two HRAPs when the dominant species was the same or differed in the two ponds. These results suggest that microalgal functional groups are more important than individual species for full-scale HRAP performance. This study has increased our understanding of some of the environmental drivers of the microalgae within the HRAP environment, which may assist with improving wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High rates of unsuccessful transfer to adult care among young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Ciarán M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to describe the proportion of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA who had experienced an unsuccessful transfer from a pediatric rheumatology team to an adult rheumatologist and to compare the characteristics of those who achieved successful transfer to those who did not. Methods We conducted a systematic chart review of all patients with JIA who attended their final Montreal Children's Hospital JIA clinic appointment between 1992 and 2005. We tracked these patients for the two years after transfer to an adult rheumatologist. We then compared characteristics of patients with successful and unsuccessful transfers of care. Variables pertaining to disease characteristics, disease severity and psychosocial factors were examined. Univariate analyses were performed to determine if any single factor was associated with the outcome of unsuccessful transfer of care. Results 52% of patients fulfilled our criteria for unsuccessful transfer. Of the variables tested, an active joint count (AJC of zero at last visit was associated with the outcome of unsuccessful transfer (OR = 2.67 (CI 1.16-6.16; p = 0.0199. Conclusions Despite the presence of a coordinated process of transfer from pediatric to adult health care for the majority of the patients in this study, there was a high rate of unsuccessful transfer and/or sustained follow up which is disheartening. We found that patients with less active disease at the time of transfer, as indicated by a lower AJC, were more likely to be lost to follow up. Recent literature suggests that even in the least severe categories of JIA, 50% of patients persist with active disease into adulthood. Thus educating all JIA patients about the possibility of disease flare in adulthood may improve their adherence to recommendations for sustained follow-up in the adult milieu. This may lead to improvement of longitudinal outcomes for all JIA patients.

  19. LHCb: A fast triple-GEM detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Multimedia


    - GEM: Principle of Operation - Time Performances - Detector Prototypes and Test Setup - Gas Mixtures - Fields Optimisation - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2 (70/30) - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2/CF4 (60/20/20) - Time Distributions - Future Tests and Developments

  20. Thermophilic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis with methanol in a high rate anaerobic reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.


    Sulfate reduction outcompeted methanogenesis at 65°C and pH 7.5 in methanol and sulfate-fed expanded granular sludge bed reactors operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 14 and 3.5 h, both under methanol-limiting and methanol-overloading conditions. After 100 and 50 days for the reactors

  1. Metallic Muscles at Work : High Rate Actuation in Nanoporous Gold/Polyaniline Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, Eric; Onck, Patrick; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.

    Metallic muscles made of nanoporous metals suffer from serious drawbacks caused by the usage of an aqueous electrolyte for actuation. An aqueous electrolyte prohibits metallic muscles from operating in dry environments and hampers a high actuation rate due to the low ionic conductivity of

  2. Role of nickel in high rate methanol degradation in anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; O'Flaherty, V.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH

  3. Biological phosphorus removal during high-rate, low-temperature, anaerobic digestion of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara eKeating


    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, extensive biologically-mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD. A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (~2% within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4-1.5 kg COD m-3 d-1 and hydraulic retention times of 8-24 hours, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28-78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12˚C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina Miseq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterised polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter and Acinetobacter was

  4. Digestion of high rate activated sludge coupled to biochar formation for soil improvement in the tropics. (United States)

    Nansubuga, Irene; Banadda, Noble; Ronsse, Frederik; Verstraete, Willy; Rabaey, Korneel


    High rate activated sludge (HRAS) is well-biodegradable sludge enabling energy neutrality of wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion. However, even through successful digestion a notable residue still remains. Here we investigated whether this residue can be converted to biochar, for its use as a fertilizer or as a solid fuel, and assessed its characteristics and overall process efficiency. In a first phase, HRAS was anaerobicaly digested under mesophilic conditions at a sludge retention time of 20 days. HRAS digested well (57.9 ± 6.2% VS degradation) producing on average 0.23 ± 0.04 L CH4 per gram VS fed. The digestate particulates were partially air-dried to mimic conditions used in developing countries, and subsequently converted to biochar by fixed-bed slow pyrolysis at a residence time of 15 min and at highest heating temperatures (HHT) of 300 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C. Subsequently, the produced chars were characterized by proximate analysis, CHN-elemental analysis, pH in solution and bomb calorimetry for higher heating value. The yield and volatile matter decreased with increasing HHT while ash content and fixed carbon increased with increasing HHT. The produced biochar showed properties optimal towards soil amendment when produced at a temperature of 600 °C with values of 5.91 wt%, 23.75 wt%, 70.35% on dry basis (db) and 0.44 for volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content and H/C ratio, respectively. With regard to its use for energy purposes, the biochar represented a lower calorific value than the dried HRAS digestate likely due to high ash content. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion of HRAS and its subsequent biochar formation at HHT of 600 °C represents an attractive route for sludge management in tropic settings like in Uganda, coupling carbon capture to energy generation, carbon sequestration and nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Phosphorus Removal During High-Rate, Low-Temperature, Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater. (United States)

    Keating, Ciara; Chin, Jason P; Hughes, Dermot; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Cysneiros, Denise; Mahony, Therese; Smith, Cindy J; McGrath, John W; O'Flaherty, Vincent


    We report, for the first time, extensive biologically mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD). A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone) reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C) anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate) was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (∼2%) within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4 and 1.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention times of 8-24 h, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28 to 78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12°C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina MiSeq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterized polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter, and Acinetobacter was recorded

  6. Microalgae recycling improves biomass recovery from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Raquel; Ferrer, Ivet; González-Molina, Andrés; Salvadó, Humbert; García, Joan; Uggetti, Enrica


    Microalgal biomass harvesting by inducing spontaneous flocculation (bioflocculation) sets an attractive approach, since neither chemicals nor energy are needed. Indeed, bioflocculation may be promoted by recycling part of the harvested microalgal biomass to the photobioreactor in order to increase the predominance of rapidly settling microalgae species. The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of microalgal biomass produced in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) by recycling part of the harvested microalgal biomass. The recirculation of 2% and 10% (dry weight) of the HRAPs microalgal biomass was tested over one year in an experimental HRAP treating real urban wastewater. Results indicated that biomass recycling had a positive effect on the harvesting efficiency, obtaining higher biomass recovery in the HRAP with recycling (R-HRAP) (92-94%) than in the control HRAP without recycling (C-HRAP) (75-89%). Microalgal biomass production was similar in both systems, ranging between 3.3 and 25.8 g TSS/m2d, depending on the weather conditions. Concerning the microalgae species, Chlorella sp. was dominant overall the experimental period in both HRAPs (abundance >60%). However, when the recycling rate was increased to 10%, Chlorella sp. dominance decreased from 97.6 to 88.1%; while increasing the abundance of rapidly settling species such as Stigeoclonium sp. (16.8%, only present in the HRAP with biomass recycling) and diatoms (from 0.7 to 7.3%). Concerning the secondary treatment of the HRAPs, high removals of COD (80%) and N-NH4+ (97%) were found in both HRAPs. Moreover, by increasing the biomass recovery in the R-HRAP the effluent total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was decreased to less than 35 mg/L, meeting effluent quality requirements for discharge. This study shows that microalgal biomass recycling (10% dry weight) increases biomass recovery up to 94% by selecting the most rapidly settling microalgae species without compromising

  7. High rates of nitrogen cycling in volcanic soils from Chilean grasslands. (United States)

    Dixon, E R; Cardenas, L; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Hatch, D J


    There are over one million hectares of pasture in Chile, and 80% and 50% of the country's milk and meat comes from 72% of this area, situated in the lake region of southern Chile. The soils are volcanic and a major characteristic is that they have very high organic matter (OM) contents with the potential to support plant growth with only moderate levels of added nitrogen (N). To understand better the potential fertility of these soils in order to maximise production and minimise losses of N, we undertook studies using the stable isotope of N ((15)N) to resolve the rates of the main internal N cycling processes in three soils representing the two main volcanic soil types: Osorno and Chiloé (Andisol) and Cudico (Ultisol). We also assessed the longer-term potential of these soils to sustain N release using anaerobic incubation. Gross rates (µg N g(-1) day(-1)) of mineralisation were 27.9, 27.1 and 15.5 and rates of immobilisation were 5.9, 12.0 and 6.3 for Osorno, Chiloé and Cudico, respectively, implying high rates of net mineralisation in these soils. This was confirmed by anaerobic incubation which gave potential seasonal net mineralisation indices of 1225, 1059 and 450 kg N ha(-1) in the top 10 cm soil layers of the three soils. However, plant production may still benefit from added N, as the release of N from organic sources may not be closely synchronised with crop demand. The low rates of nitrification that we found with these acidic soils suggest that the more mobile N (viz. nitrate-N) would be in limited supply and plants would have to compete for the less mobile ammonium-N with the soil microbial biomass. Nitrogen was mineralised in appreciable amounts even down to 60 cm depth, so that leaching could become significant, particularly if the soils were limed, which could enhance nitrification and N mobility through the soil profile. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. High Rate of Return to Cycling After Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome. (United States)

    Frank, Rachel M; Ukwuani, Gift; Clapp, Ian; Chahla, Jorge; Nho, Shane J


    Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is most commonly diagnosed in athletes who sustain repetitive flexion and rotational loading to their hip. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a patient's ability to return to cycling after hip arthroscopy for FAIS. There is a high rate of return to cycling after hip arthroscopy. Retrospective analysis. Level 4. Consecutive patients who had identified themselves as cyclists and had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS were reviewed. Pre- and postoperative physical examinations, imaging, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) scores, including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales, and visual analog scale for pain, as well as a cycling-specific questionnaire, were assessed for all patients. A total of 58 patients (62% female; mean age, 30.0 ± 7.1 years; mean body mass index, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 ) were included. Prior to surgery, patients averaged 30 ± 42 miles per week (range, 2-300 miles). Fifty-five patients (95%) were forced to discontinue cycling at an average of 7.5 ± 6.2 months prior to surgery due to hip pain. Fifty-six patients (97%) returned to cycling at an average of 4.5 ± 2.5 months after surgery, with 33 (59%) returning to a better level of cycling and 23 (41%) to the same cycling level. Postoperatively, there was no difference in the average number of miles patients completed per week compared with preoperative values ( P = 0.08). At a mean follow-up of 31.14 ± 0.71 months (range, 24-48 months), all patients experienced significant improvements in mHHS, HOS-ADL, and HOS-SS PROs (all P cycling 97% of the time after hip arthroscopy for FAIS, with most of these patients returning at an average of 4.5 months after surgery. This information is helpful in counseling patients on their expectations with regard to returning to cycling after hip arthroscopy for FAIS. Cyclists return to sport 97% of the

  9. New electronic control equipment for doubly fed induction motors of high rating

    CERN Document Server

    Dirr, R; Schluter, W; Waldmann, H


    Modern data processing systems and power electronics have made it possible to replace the auxiliary machine used hitherto for controlling doubly fed induction machines by static electronic circuits. A brief outline of the mode of operation of the doubly fed induction machine is followed by a description of the automatic control system chosen and of the direct static frequency convertor used as the final control element in solving the special problem involved by way of example of the motor of the impulsing m.g. set for the new power supply of the CERN magnetics. (6 refs).

  10. A novel tubular microbial electrolysis cell for high rate hydrogen production (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel


    Practical application of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for hydrogen production requires scalable reactors with low internal resistance, high current density, and high hydrogen recovery. This work reports a liter scale tubular MEC approaching these requirements. The tubular cell components (a platinum-coated titanium mesh cathode, an anion exchange membrane, and a pleated stainless steel felt anode) were arranged in a concentric configuration. The reactor had a low internal resistance (0.325 Ω, 19.5 mΩ m2) due to the high conductivity of the electrodes, a compact reactor configuration, and proper mixing. With acetate as electron donor, the MEC achieved a volumetric current density of 654 ± 22 mA L-1 (projected current density, 1.09 ± 0.04 mA cm-2) and a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 7.10 ± 0.01 L L-1 d-1 at an applied voltage of 1 V. The reactor also showed high hydrogen recovery (∼100%), high hydrogen purity (>98%), and excellent operational stability during the 3 weeks of operation. These results demonstrated that high hydrogen production rate could be achieved on larger scale MEC and this tubular MEC holds great potential for scaling up.

  11. High rate GPS positioning , JASON altimetry and marine gravimetry : monitoring the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) through the DRAKE campaigns. (United States)

    Melachroinos, S. A.; Biancale, R.; Menard, Y.; Sarrailh, M.


    geodetic data set. The high rate GPS SSH solutions are derived using two different GPS kinematic software, GINS (CNES) and TRACK (MIT).

  12. High-rate (1 Hz to 20 Hz GPS coseismic dynamic displacements carried out during the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Avallone


    Full Text Available In May-July 2012, Emilia Romagna (northern Italy was struck by a significant seismic sequence, which was characterized by two moderate-magnitude earthquakes: a Ml 5.9 event on May 20, 2012, at 02:03:53 UTC, and a Ml 5.8 event on May 29, 2012, at 07:00:03 UTC, about 12 km to the west of the first mainshock. The earthquake sequence produced a total of 20 casualties and severe and widespread damage, mainly to historical and commercial buildings. A detailed description of the seismic sequence can be found in Sco-gnamiglio et al. [2012, this volume]. The largest of the earthquake static displacements were recorded by tens of continuous global positioning system (cGPS stations, as described in Serpelloni et al. [2012, this volume]. Most of these stations were operating with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, and they belonged to scientific or commercial networks: RING (; ITALPOS (; GeoTop (; Fondazione Geometri Emilia Romagna (; Lombardia [; and Veneto ( Some hours after the first mainshock, the sampling frequency of the near-field RING stations (SBPO and MODE were switched to 20 Hz, thus recording the coseismic displacements produced by the May 29, 2012, earthquake at higher frequency. This sampling frequency was previously used for the detection of coseismic dynamic displacements only for the Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki 2011 event [Colosimo et al. 2011b]. Thus, the 20-Hz-sampling displacements for the Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake and the May 29, 2012, Emilia event might represent important recordings to investigate coseismic contributions at frequencies higher than 1 Hz with GPS. In the present study, after the description of the high-rate GPS (HRGPS data analysis, we will show and compare the preliminary results. Then, for the two mainshocks, we will compare the displacements recorded by the HRGPS (1 Hz up to 20 Hz

  13. The high-rate data challenge: computing for the CBM experiment (United States)

    Friese, V.; CBM Collaboration


    The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) is a next-generation heavy-ion experiment to be operated at the FAIR facility, currently under construction in Darmstadt, Germany. A key feature of CBM is very high interaction rate, exceeding those of contemporary nuclear collision experiments by several orders of magnitude. Such interaction rates forbid a conventional, hardware-triggered readout; instead, experiment data will be freely streaming from self-triggered front-end electronics. In order to reduce the huge raw data volume to a recordable rate, data will be selected exclusively on CPU, which necessitates partial event reconstruction in real-time. Consequently, the traditional segregation of online and offline software vanishes; an integrated on- and offline data processing concept is called for. In this paper, we will report on concepts and developments for computing for CBM as well as on the status of preparations for its first physics run.

  14. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M


    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  15. Features of copper coatings growth at high-rate deposition using magnetron sputtering systems with a liquid metal target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bleykher, G.A.; Borduleva, A.O.; Yuryeva, A.V.; Krivobokov, V.P.; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří; Drahokoupil, Jan; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan


    Roč. 324, Sep (2017), s. 111-120 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * evaporation * high-rate coating deposition * coating properties * Cu coatings Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  16. The use of Spark Plasma Sintering method for high-rate diffusion welding of high-strength UFG titanium alloys (United States)

    Nokhrin, A. V.; Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Boldin, M. S.; Piskunov, A. V.; Kozlova, N. A.; Chegurov, M. K.; Popov, A. A.; Lantcev, E. A.; Kopylov, V. I.; Tabachkova, N. Yu


    The article provides an example of applying the technology of spark plasma sintering (SPS) to ensure high-rate diffusion welding of high-strength ultra-fine-grained UFG titanium alloys. Weld seams produced from Ti-5Al-2V UFG titanium alloy and obtained through SPS are characterized by high density, hardness and corrosion resistance.

  17. Biologically Induced Hydrogen Production Drives High Rate/High Efficiency Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Lu, Yang; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano


    Electron-transfer pathways occurring in biocathodes are still unknown. We demonstrate here that high rates of acetate production by microbial electrosynthesis are mainly driven by an electron flux from the electrode to carbon dioxide, occurring via biologically induced hydrogen, with (99±1)%

  18. Medium term follow-up of the AES ankle prosthesis: High rate of asymptomatic osteolysis. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Dante; Bevernage, Bernhard Devos; Maldague, Pierre; Deleu, Paul-André; Tribak, Karim; Leemrijse, Thibaut


    The AES (Ankle Evolutive System) is a cobalt-chromium three-component ankle prosthesis with a hydroxyapatite coating, similar to the Buechel-Pappas ankle prosthesis, but with some modifications. Our objective was to assess its medium term follow-up results as well as its complications. 21 patients (mean age of 57.6 years) were operated by a total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), using the AES implant, according to the standard technique. Only 18 patients were included. The other three patients were excluded from the study: two had been revised for avascular talar necrosis and one patient was happy with her outcome but could not present for logistic reasons at the last follow-up. Indications for surgery included posttraumatic osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, hemochromatosis, rheumatic arthritis and osteoarthritis as a sequel of ankle instability. All patients were analyzed clinically and radiologically. Special attention was given to the presence or not of areas of osteolysis around the implants as well on conventional radiography as on CT-scan imaging, according to a specific protocol. The mean follow-up was 39.4 months. Average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score improved from 52.2 preoperatively to 86.6 postoperatively. No intra-operative complications or early complications have been noted. Delayed complications were the following: one valgus malalignment, one recurrent painful anterior heterotrophic bone formation. Above all, we noted on conventional X-ray the presence of osteolysis in 77% (14) of our patients, with a size of 0.5-1cm or greater on conventional X-ray. The most vulnerable area seemed to be the posterior tibial plafond. The four remaining patients did not show any cyst formation on X-ray but did also, just as the other 14 patients, on the CT-scan. CT-scan, on the contrary, found more osteolysis in the body of the talus, underneath the implant, an area masked on conventional X-ray. Only one patient was revised

  19. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tube Gaseous Detectors at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The ATLAS detector is located at LHC/CERN. We report on how these gaseous detectors (“straw tubes”) are performing during the ATLAS 2011 and 2012 runs where the TRT experiences higher rates than previously encountered. The TRT contains ~300000 thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with ~130 µm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η|  0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, the TRT provides electron identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons. During the ATLAS 2012 proton-proton data runs, the TRT is operating successfully while being subjected to the highest rates of incident particles ever experienced by a large scale gaseous tracking system. As of the submission date of this abstract, the TRT has collected data in an environment with instantaneous proton-proton luminosi...

  20. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tube Gaseous Detectors at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The ATLAS detector is located at LHC/CERN. We report on how these gaseous detectors (“straw tubes”) are performing during the ATLAS 2011 and 2012 runs where the TRT experiences higher rates than previously encountered. The TRT contains ~300000 thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with ~130 µm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, the TRT provides electron identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons. During the ATLAS 2012 proton-proton data runs, the TRT is operating successfully while being subjected to the highest rates of incident particles ever experienced by a large scale gaseous tracking system. In the second half of 2012, the TRT has collected data in an environment with instantaneous proton-proton luminosity of ~0.8 × 10³�...

  1. A novel VLSI processor for high-rate, high resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, Antonio; Gatti, E; Longoni, A; Buttler, W


    A novel time-variant VLSI shaper amplifier, suitable for multi-anode Silicon Drift Detectors or other multi-element solid-state X-ray detection systems, is proposed. The new read-out scheme has been conceived for demanding applications with synchrotron light sources, such as X-ray holography or EXAFS, where both high count-rates and high-energy resolutions are required. The circuit is of the linear time-variant class, accepts randomly distributed events and features: a finite-width (1-10 mu s) quasi-optimal weight function, an ultra-low-level energy discrimination (approx 150 eV), and a full compatibility for monolithic integration in CMOS technology. Its impulse response has a staircase-like shape, but the weight function (which is in general different from the impulse response in time-variant systems) is quasi trapezoidal. The operation principles of the new scheme as well as the first experimental results obtained with a prototype of the circuit are presented and discussed in the work.

  2. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela


    .86 ± 0.04 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1 and an empty bed residence time of 14 s. After 45 days of operation a stable nitrogen removal rate of 0.67 ± 0.06 kg N m–3 biofilter d–1, an ammonia removal efficiency of 99%, a removal of 75–80% of the total nitrogen, and negligible NO/N2O productions were obtained......Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  3. Direct Numerical Simulations of Microstructure Effects During High-Rate Loading of Additively Manufactured Metals (United States)

    Battaile, Corbett; Owen, Steven; Moore, Nathan


    The properties of most engineering materials depend on the characteristics of internal microstructures and defects. In additively manufactured (AM) metals, these can include polycrystalline grains, impurities, phases, and significant porosity that qualitatively differ from conventional engineering materials. The microscopic details of the interactions between these internal defects, and the propagation of applied loads through the body, act in concert to dictate macro-observable properties like strength and compressibility. In this work, we used Sandia's ALEGRA finite element software to simulate the high-strain-rate loading of AM metals from laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and thermal spraying. The microstructural details of the material were represented explicitly, such that internal features like second phases and pores are captured and meshed as individual entities in the computational domain. We will discuss the dependence of the high-strain-rate mechanical properties on microstructural characteristics such as the shapes, sizes, and volume fractions of second phases and pores. In addition, we will examine how the details of the microstructural representation affect the microscopic material response to dynamic loads, and the effects of using ``stair-step'' versus conformal interfaces smoothed via the SCULPT tool in Sandia's CUBIT software. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Force and vortical flow development on pitching wings at high rates (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Yu, Huai-Te; Ol, Michael; Granlund, Kenneth


    Recent experimental results of pitching flat plate wings are presented. High pitch-rate perching maneuvers are frequently used by birds for feeding and landing. Insects use very fast rotation rates at the end of each flapping stroke, which results in high thrust and precise flight. These wing motions are also of interest for engineered micro air vehicles to achieve semi-autonomous landing by unskilled operators. The wing motion considered is a constant rotation rate pitch motion from 0 to 45 degrees of an aspect-ratio-4 flat-plate wing. The goal is to gain a better understanding of force generation mechanisms and their relationship to two- and three-dimensional vortical flow structures. Leading edge, trailing edge, and tip vortices form with large separated flow regions over the wing, however comparison with linear potential flow theory gives good agreement. The evolution of the leading edge vortex is delayed for pivot axes locations downstream of the leading edge. Large forces at the end of the motion slowly return to the steady state value over more than 30 convective times. The flow in the near wake shows a brief period of vortex shedding and strong three dimensional effects. Two different three-dimensional flow features are observed: A rapid development of three-dimensionality in the core of the leading and trailing edge vortices and a swirl motion in the near wake. However the impact of these three-dimensional flow features on force development is small.

  5. Fast triggering of high-rate charged particles with a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D


    A 3 year long R&D activity on triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors is reported. This activity was made in the framework of the LHCb experiment in order to find the technology to instrument the central region of the first muon station (M1R1) where a high particle rate is expected. Detector geometry, gas mixture and electric field configuration have been optimized in order to achieve the performance required by the experiment. The use of a very fast, CF//4 based, gas mixture provides a time resolution of about 4.5 ns (r.m.s.) with a single chamber with gain less than 10**4. In addition, an optimized gain sharing between the three GEMs allows to keep the discharge probability per incident hadron below $10^{-12}$. The average number of firing pads per crossing particle have been found to be lower than 1.2. In a global aging test two detectors were exposed to a dose rate of 16 Gy/h. Each detector integrated about 2 C/cm**2 equivalent to more than 10 years of operation at LHCb. Good aging properties w...

  6. Ultra-high-rate pseudocapacitive energy storage in two-dimensional transition metal carbides (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Kota, Sankalp; Lin, Zifeng; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Shpigel, Netanel; Levi, Mikhael D.; Halim, Joseph; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Barsoum, Michel W.; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury


    The use of fast surface redox storage (pseudocapacitive) mechanisms can enable devices that store much more energy than electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and, unlike batteries, can do so quite rapidly. Yet, few pseudocapacitive transition metal oxides can provide a high power capability due to their low intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity. Here we demonstrate that two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) can operate at rates exceeding those of conventional EDLCs, but still provide higher volumetric and areal capacitance than carbon, electrically conducting polymers or transition metal oxides. We applied two distinct designs for MXene electrode architectures with improved ion accessibility to redox-active sites. A macroporous Ti3C2Tx MXene film delivered up to 210 F g-1 at scan rates of 10 V s-1, surpassing the best carbon supercapacitors known. In contrast, we show that MXene hydrogels are able to deliver volumetric capacitance of ˜1,500 F cm-3 reaching the previously unmatched volumetric performance of RuO2.

  7. Evaluation of High Rate Algae Ponds for treatment of anaerobically digested wastewater: Effect of CO2 addition and modification of dilution rate. (United States)

    de Godos, I; Arbib, Z; Lara, E; Rogalla, F


    High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAP) are the simplest way to grow microalgae biomass and an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of these systems was evaluated using anaerobically digested wastewater as culture medium. Two variables were studied in long-term mode: the carbon dioxide supply and the modification of the dilution rates. The results showed that CO2 supply increases the productivity but less than expected considering the potential biomass generation calculated based on the ratios of carbon to nitrogen of microalgae and wastewater. The assimilation into biomass only accounted for 57% of the inlet nitrogen under the best conditions because nitrification and volatilization reduced the availability of this element. The operation under short hydraulic retention times presented a more interesting performance with higher biomass productivities. The biomass produced was efficiently harvested with in a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Requirements for a high rate of potassium excretion in rats consuming a low electrolyte diet. (United States)

    Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Lin, Shih-Hua; Keong-Chong, Chee; Kamel, Kamel S; Halperin, Mitchell L


    Control mechanisms for potassium (K(+)) excretion in humans developed in Palaeolithic times when diets were sodium poor and episodically K(+) rich. Nevertheless, our understanding of the regulation of K(+) excretion comes from experiments in rats with large sodium and K(+) intakes. Our objective was to identify how K(+) excretion was regulated when rats consumed a low NaCl diet to reflect Palaeolithic conditions. Rats that were given mineralocorticoids plus either NaCl, mannitol, or NaHCO(3) had a small kaliuresis. In contrast, KCl load induced a large kaliuresis and a near-maximal luminal [K(+)] in the terminal cortical collecting duct ([K(+)](CCD)). The time course of events was important. The rise in the [K(+)](CCD) was prompt, but the initial kaliuresis was only modest. Over the next 4 h, kaliuresis increased markedly due solely to a higher calculated distal flow rate, which appeared to be due to diminished reabsorption of NaCl in the loop of Henle; of note, the measured papillary [K(+)] rose. In summary, the increase in the [K(+)](CCD) in rats given KCl is likely to be due to an increase in the number of luminal K(+) channels rather than to mechanisms that are known to induce a lumen-negative voltage in cortical distal nephron segments. The higher distal flow rate might be due to a higher interstitial [K(+)], which inhibited NaCl reabsorption in the loop of Henle. Thus, to understand which of the potential control mechanisms are operating, one must look very closely at the conditions imposed by the experimental setting.

  9. A study of photosynthetic biogas upgrading based on a high rate algal pond under alkaline conditions: Influence of the illumination regime. (United States)

    Franco-Morgado, Mariana; Alcántara, Cynthia; Noyola, Adalberto; Muñoz, Raúl; González-Sánchez, Armando


    Microalgal-bacterial processes have emerged as environmental friendly systems for the cost-effective treatment of anaerobic effluents such as biogas and nutrients-laden digestates. Environmental parameters such as temperature, irradiation, nutrient concentration and pH effect the performance of the systems. In this paper, the potential of a microalgal-bacterial photobioreactor operated under high pH (≈9.5) and high alkalinity to convert biogas into biomethane was evaluated. The influence of the illumination regime (continuous light supply vs 12h/12h light/dark cycles) on the synthetic biogas upgrading efficiency, biomass productivity and nutrient removal efficiency was assessed in a High-Rate Algal Pond interconnected to a biogas absorption bubble column. No significant differences in the removal efficiency of CO2 and H2S (91.5±2% and 99.5%±0.5, respectively) were recorded regardless of the illumination regime. The high fluctuations of the dissolved oxygen concentration during operation under light/dark cycles allowed to evaluate the specific growth rate and the specific partial degradation rate of the microalgae biomass by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. The respiration reduced the net microalgae biomass productivity under light/dark cycles compared with process operation under the continuous light supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-Dimensional Interconnected Vanadium Pentoxide Nanonetwork Cathode for High-Rate Long-Life Lithium Batteries. (United States)

    An, Qinyou; Wei, Qiulong; Zhang, Pengfei; Sheng, Jinzhi; Hercule, Kalele Mulonda; Lv, Fan; Wang, Qinqin; Wei, Xiujuan; Mai, Liqiang


    Three-dimensional interconnected vanadium pentoxide nanonetworks as cathodes for rechargable lithium batteries are successfully synthesized via a quick gelation followed by annealing. The interconnected structure ensures the electron transport of each unit. And their inner porous structure buffer the volume change over long-term repeated lithium ion insertion/extraction cycles, leading to the high-rate long-life cycling performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intercalation Pseudocapacitance in Ultrathin VOPO4 Nanosheets: Toward High-Rate Alkali-Ion-Based Electrochemical Energy Storage. (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Peng, Lele; Chen, Dahong; Yu, Guihua


    There is a growing need for energy storage devices in numerous applications where a large amount of energy needs to be either stored or delivered quickly. The present paper details the study of alkali-ion intercalation pseudocapacitance in ultrathin VOPO4 nanosheets, which hold promise in high-rate alkali-ion based electrochemical energy storage. Starting from bulk VOPO4·2H2O chunks, VOPO4 nanosheets were obtained through simple ultrasonication in 2-propanol. These nanosheets as the cathode exhibit a specific capacity of 154 and 136 mAh/g (close to theoretical value 166 mAh/g) for lithium and sodium storage devices at 0.1 C and 100 and ∼70 mAh/g at 5 C, demonstrating their high rate capability. Moreover, the capacity retention is maintained at 90% for lithium ion storage and 73% for sodium ion storage after 500 cycles, showing their reasonable stability. The demonstrated alkali-ion intercalation pseudocapacitance represents a promising direction for developing battery materials with promising high rate capability.

  12. High-rate RTK and PPP multi-GNSS positioning for small-scale dynamic displacements monitoring (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Baryła, Radosław; Wielgosz, Pawel


    The monitoring of dynamic displacements and deformations of engineering structures such as buildings, towers and bridges is of great interest due to several practical and theoretical reasons. The most important is to provide information required for safe maintenance of the constructions. High temporal resolution and precision of GNSS observations predestine this technology to be applied to most demanding application in terms of accuracy, availability and reliability. GNSS technique supported by appropriate processing methodology may meet the specific demands and requirements of ground and structures monitoring. Thus, high-rate multi-GNSS signals may be used as reliable source of information on dynamic displacements of ground and engineering structures, also in real time applications. In this study we present initial results of application of precise relative GNSS positioning for detection of small scale (cm level) high temporal resolution dynamic displacements. Methodology and algorithms applied in self-developed software allowing for relative positioning using high-rate dual-frequency phase and pseudorange GPS+Galileo observations are also given. Additionally, an approach was also made to use the Precise Point Positioning technique to such application. In the experiment were used the observations obtained from high-rate (20 Hz) geodetic receivers. The dynamic displacements were simulated using specially constructed device moving GNSS antenna with dedicated amplitude and frequency. The obtained results indicate on possibility of detection of dynamic displacements of the GNSS antenna even at the level of few millimetres using both relative and Precise Point Positioning techniques after suitable signals processing.

  13. Facile Solution Route to Synthesize Nanostructure Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tran


    Full Text Available High rate Li-ion batteries have been given great attention during the last decade as a power source for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, EVs, etc. due to the highest energy and power density. These lithium batteries required a new design of material structure as well as innovative electrode materials. Among the promising candidates, spinel Li4Ti5O12 has been proposed as a high rate anode to replace graphite anode because of high capacity and a negligible structure change during intercalation of lithium. In this work, we synthesized a spinel Li4Ti5O12 in nanosize by a solution route using LiOH and Ti(OBu4 as precursor. An evaluation of structure and morphology by XRD and SEM exhibited pure spinel phase Li4Ti5O12 and homogenous nanoparticles around 100 nm. In the charge-discharge test, nanospinel Li4Ti5O12 presents excellent discharge capacity 160 mAh/g at rate C/10, as well as good specific capacities of 120, 110, and 100 mAh/g at high rates C, 5C and 10C, respectively.

  14. Biomass granulation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating 500 m3/day low-strength sewage and post treatment in high-rate algal pond. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M


    A pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-moving bed biofilm (UASB-MBB) reactor followed by a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) was designed and operated to remove organic matter, nutrients and pathogens from sewage and to facilitate reuse. For an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 233 ± 20 mg/L, final effluent COD was 50 ± 6 mg/L. Successful biomass granulation was observed in the sludge bed of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor after 5 months of operation. Ammonia removal in HRAP was 85.1 ± 2.4% with average influent and effluent ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 20 ± 3 mg/L and 3 ± 1 mg/L, respectively. Phosphate removal after treatment in the HRAP was 91 ± 1%. There was a 2-3 log scale pathogen removal after treatment in HRAP with most probable number (MPN) of the final effluent being 600-800 per 100 mL, which is within acceptable standards for surface irrigation. The blackwater after treatment in UASB-MBBR-HRAP is being reused for gardening and landscaping. This proper hydro-dynamically designed UASB reactor demonstrated successful granulation and moving bed media improved sludge retention in UASB reactor. This combination of UASB-MBB reactor followed by HRAP demonstrated successful sewage treatment for a year covering all seasons.

  15. Real-time inversions for finite fault slip models and rupture geometry based on high-rate GPS data (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Gomberg, Joan S.


    We present an inversion strategy capable of using real-time high-rate GPS data to simultaneously solve for a distributed slip model and fault geometry in real time as a rupture unfolds. We employ Bayesian inference to find the optimal fault geometry and the distribution of possible slip models for that geometry using a simple analytical solution. By adopting an analytical Bayesian approach, we can solve this complex inversion problem (including calculating the uncertainties on our results) in real time. Furthermore, since the joint inversion for distributed slip and fault geometry can be computed in real time, the time required to obtain a source model of the earthquake does not depend on the computational cost. Instead, the time required is controlled by the duration of the rupture and the time required for information to propagate from the source to the receivers. We apply our modeling approach, called Bayesian Evidence-based Fault Orientation and Real-time Earthquake Slip, to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, and a simulated Hayward fault earthquake. In all three cases, the inversion recovers the magnitude, spatial distribution of slip, and fault geometry in real time. Since our inversion relies on static offsets estimated from real-time high-rate GPS data, we also present performance tests of various approaches to estimating quasi-static offsets in real time. We find that the raw high-rate time series are the best data to use for determining the moment magnitude of the event, but slightly smoothing the raw time series helps stabilize the inversion for fault geometry.

  16. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting. (United States)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio


    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O(2) consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O(2) concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O(2)>140 ml l(-1), v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O(2) consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O(2) solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 degrees C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R(2)=0.991; R(2)(CV)=0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass.

  17. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system. (United States)

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P


    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Screening the dystrophin gene suggests a high rate of polymorphism in general but no exonic deletions in schizophrenics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindor, N.M.; Sobell, J.L.; Thibodeau, S.N. [Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others


    The dystrophin gene, located at chromosome Xp21, was evaluated as a candidate gene in chronic schizophrenia in response to the report of a large family in which schizophrenia cosegregated with Becker muscular dystrophy. Genomic DNA from 94 men with chronic schizophrenia was evaluated by Southern blot analysis using cDNA probes that span exons 1-59. No exonic deletions were identified. An unexpectedly high rate of polymorphism was calculated in this study and two novel polymorphisms were found, demonstrating the usefulness of the candidate gene approach even when results of the original study are negative. 41 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Membrane-aerated biofilms for high rate biotreatment: performance appraisal, engineering principles, scale-up, and development requirements. (United States)

    Syron, Eoin; Casey, Eoin


    Diffusion of the electron acceptor is the rate controlling step in virtually all biofilm reactors employed for aerobic wastewater treatment. The membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a technology that can deliver oxygen at high rates and transfer efficiencies, thereby enhancing the biofilm activity. This paper provides a comparative performance rate analysis of the MABR in terms of its application for carbonaceous pollutant removal, nitrification/denitrification and xenobiotic biotreatment. We also describe the mechanisms influencing process performance in the MABR and the inter-relationships between these factors. The challenges involved in scaling-up the process are discussed with recommendations for prioritization of research needs.

  20. Toward energy-neutral wastewater treatment: a high-rate contact stabilization process to maximally recover sewage organics. (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis A; Boon, Nico; Van Winckel, Tim; Vercamer, Jensen A R; Nopens, Ingmar; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E


    The conventional activated sludge process is widely used for wastewater treatment, but to progress toward energy self-sufficiency, the wastewater treatment scheme needs to radically improve energy balances. We developed a high-rate contact stabilization (HiCS) reactor system at high sludge-specific loading rates (>2 kg bCOD kg(-1)TSS d(-1)) and low sludge retention times (energy from wastewater organics than high-rate conventional activated sludge (HiCAS) and the low-rate variants of HiCS and HiCAS. The best HiCS system recovered 36% of the influent chemical energy as methane, due to the combined effects of low production of CO2, high sludge yield, and high methane yield of the produced sludge. The HiCS system imposed a feast-famine cycle and a putative selection pressure on the sludge micro-organisms toward substrate adsorption and storage. Given further optimization, it is a promising process for energy recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the effects of a highly rated science curriculum unit on diverse students: Results from a planning grant (United States)

    Lynch, Sharon; Kuipers, Joel; Pyke, Curtis; Szesze, Michael


    This article reports on the results of a planning grant studying the effects of a highly rated curriculum unit on a diverse student population. The treatment was introduced to 1500 eighth grade students in five middle schools selected for their ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic diversity. Students were given pre-, post-, and delayed posttests on a Conservation of Matter Assessment and measures of motivation and engagement. This quasi-experiment found statistically significant posttest results for achievement, basic learning engagement, and goal orientation. Analyses of disaggregated data showed that subgroups of students in the treatment condition outscored their comparison group peers (n = 1500) in achievement in all cases, except for students currently enrolled in ESOL. Analysis of video data of a diverse group of four students as the unit was enacted suggests that students entered a learning environment that permitted them to function in different, but consistent ways over time; that is, the frequency of students' manipulation of objects showed a different pattern of engagement for each of the four students compared with patterns of verbal responses such as the use of scientific terms. The results of this planning grant paved the way for a large study of the scale-up of highly rated curriculum units.

  2. Double carbon decorated lithium titanate as anode material with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifang Ni


    Full Text Available Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 has the advantages of structural stability, however it suffers the disadvantages of low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient as well as low conductivity. In order to solve issues, we reported a simple method to prepare carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12/CNTs (C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs using stearic acid as surfactant and carbon source to prepare carbon coated nanosized particles. The obtained Li4Ti5O12 particles of 100 nm in size are coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from stearic acid and dispersed in CNTs matrix homogeneously. These results show that the synthesized C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs material used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, presenting a better high-rate performance (147 mA h g−1 at 20 C. The key factors affecting the high-rate properties of the C@Li4Ti5O12/CNTs composite may be related to the synergistic effects of the CNTs matrix and the carbon- coating layers with conductivity enhancement. Additionally, the amorphous carbon coating is an effective route to ameliorate the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/CNTs.

  3. Measuring ground deformations caused by 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal earthquake using high-rate GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang


    Full Text Available The April 25, 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal earthquake was successfully recorded by Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and Nepal Geodetic Array (NGA. We processed the high-rate GPS data (1 Hz and 5 Hz by using relative kinematic positioning and derived dynamic ground motions caused by this large earthquake. The dynamic displacements time series clearly indicated the displacement amplitude of each station was related to the rupture directivity. The stations which located in the direction of rupture propagation had larger displacement amplitudes than others. Also dynamic ground displacement exceeding 5 cm was detected by the GPS station that was 2000 km away from the epicenter. Permanent coseismic displacements were resolved from the near-field high-rate GPS stations with wavelet decomposition-reconstruction method and P-wave arrivals were also detected with S transform method. The results of this study can be used for earthquake rupture process and Earthquake Early Warning studies.

  4. A new strategy to improve the high-rate performance of hydrogen storage alloys with MoS2 nanosheets (United States)

    Chen, L. X.; Zhu, Y. F.; Yang, C. C.; Chen, Z. W.; Zhang, D. M.; Jiang, Q.


    The poor high-rate dischargeability of negative electrode materials (hydrogen storage alloys) has hindered applications of nickel metal hydride batteries in high-power fields, new-energy vehicles, power tools, military devices, etc. In this work, a new strategy is developed to improve the high-rate performance of hydrogen storage alloys by coating MoS2 nanosheets on alloy surfaces. The capacity retention rate of the composite electrode reaches 50.5% at a discharge current density of 3000 mA g-1, which is 2.7 times that of bare alloy (18.4%). The density functional theory simulations indicate that such an outstanding performance is derived from adjustments of ion concentrations at the electrode/electrolyte interface by MoS2 nanosheets: (1) the higher OH- concentration facilitates the electrochemical reaction of MHads + OH- - e- → M + H2O; and (2) the lower H+ concentration leads to a large gradient between the electrode/electrolyte interface and interior of alloys, which is beneficial for the diffusion of atomic hydrogen during the discharging process.

  5. Installation and operation of a large scale RAPS system in Peru (United States)

    Cole, J. F.

    In 1997, International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc. (ILZRO), Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Peru signed a Memorandum of Understanding to facilitate the installation of hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) systems in the Amazon region of Peru. Many remote villages in this vast region have either no or limited electricity supplied by diesel generators running a few hours per day. Subsequently, ILZRO sponsored the engineering design of the hybrid RAPS system and SEIA supported a socio-economic study to determine the sustainability of such systems and the locations for pilot installations. In mid-1998, the Peruvian government approved the design of the system. ILZRO then began efforts to obtain governmental and inter-governmental funding to supplement its own funds to underwrite the cost of manufacture and installation of the systems in two villages in the Amazon region. Additional major funding has been received from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) administered by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). Funds have also been received from the US Department of Energy, the International Greenhouse Partnership (Australia) and the Peruvian government. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kW h per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA GEL batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an ac/dc inverter. The batteries and electrical components are housed in modified shipping containers. The modules can be installed with a new generator or retrofitted to an existing generator. The charging and discharging regime of the batteries has been recommended by a study carried out by CSIRO, which has simulated the RAPS operation. The system will employ a partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) regime in order to optimize the life of the

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Behaviors of Principals in Highly Rated Louisiana Schools Serving Elementary through High School Grades (United States)

    Juneau, Cassidy


    The purpose of this phenomenological narrative was to examine the experiences of principals in highly rated schools serving elementary through high school grades in central and southwest Louisiana in regards to transformational and transactional leadership. Highly rated schools are defined as schools achieving an A or B rating under the Louisiana…

  7. A Class of High-Rate N/(N+1 Low-Complexity Error-Detecting RLL Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Bessios


    Full Text Available We present a new methodology for the construction of high-rate channel modulation run-length-limited RLL (0,k codes. Simple modulation encoders and decoders are constructed, with low error propagation during decoding. They combine partial error detection capability (PED to boost the performance of a concatenated outer Error Correction Code (ECC [1]. Moreover, current systems are using low redundancy ECC, and the overall rate is mainly determined by the inner modulation code rate, which critically is to be maintained high. Code rates R c=N/(N+1, for example, 16/17, 24/25 and higher are achievable, with efficiency exceeding 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The proposed fixed length block decodable codes, are generalized schemes of the type N/(N+1(d=0,k=[N/2] for N≥5.

  8. A High-Rate Virtual Instrument of Marine Vehicle Motions for Underwater Navigation and Ocean Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Gelin, Chrystel


    Dead-Reckoning aided with Doppler velocity measurement has been the most common method for underwater navigation for small vehicles. Unfortunately DR requires frequent position recalibrations and underwater vehicle navigation systems are limited to periodic position update when they surface. Finally standard Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are unable to provide the rate or precision required when used on a small vessel. To overcome this, a low cost high rate motion measurement system for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with underwater and oceanographic purposes is proposed. The proposed onboard system for the USV consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with accelerometers and rate gyros, a GPS receiver, a flux-gate compass, a roll and tilt sensor and an ADCP. Interfacing all the sensors proved rather challenging because of their different characteristics. The proposed data fusion technique integrates the sensors and develops an embeddable software package, using real time data fusion method...

  9. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Geng


    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO and medium Earth orbits (MEO are about 0.2–0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions.

  10. BDS Precise Point Positioning for Seismic Displacements Monitoring: Benefit from the High-Rate Satellite Clock Corrections. (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Su, Xing; Fang, Rongxin; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan


    In order to satisfy the requirement of high-rate high-precision applications, 1 Hz BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) satellite clock corrections are generated based on precise orbit products, and the quality of the generated clock products is assessed by comparing with those from the other analysis centers. The comparisons show that the root mean square (RMS) of clock errors of geostationary Earth orbits (GEO) is about 0.63 ns, whereas those of inclined geosynchronous orbits (IGSO) and medium Earth orbits (MEO) are about 0.2-0.3 ns and 0.1 ns, respectively. Then, the 1 Hz clock products are used for BDS precise point positioning (PPP) to retrieve seismic displacements of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake. The derived seismic displacements from BDS PPP are consistent with those from the Global Positioning System (GPS) PPP, with RMS of 0.29, 0.38, and 1.08 cm in east, north, and vertical components, respectively. In addition, the BDS PPP solutions with different clock intervals of 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, and 300 s are processed and compared with each other. The results demonstrate that PPP with 300 s clock intervals is the worst and that with 1 s clock interval is the best. For the scenario of 5 s clock intervals, the precision of PPP solutions is almost the same to 1 s results. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates, we suggest that 5 s clock interval is competent for high-rate BDS solutions.

  11. The Multimedia-Based Learning System Improved Cognitive Skills and Motivation of Disabled Children with a Very High Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawsan Saad; Amal Dandashi; Jihad M Aljaam; Moataz Saleh


    ...) the basic living and science concepts is proposed. The tutorials' development is pedagogically based on Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning combined with Skinner's Operant Conditioning Model...

  12. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George


    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has

  13. Truncating mutations in SPAST patients are associated with a high rate of psychiatric comorbidities in hereditary spastic paraplegia. (United States)

    Chelban, Viorica; Tucci, Arianna; Lynch, David S; Polke, James M; Santos, Liana; Jonvik, Hallgeir; Groppa, Stanislav; Wood, Nicholas W; Houlden, Henry


    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are clinically characterised by progressive lower limb spasticity. They are classified as either 'pure' or 'complex' where spastic paraplegia is complicated with additional neurological features. Mutations in the spastin gene (SPAST) are the most common cause of HSP and typically present with a pure form. We assessed in detail the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of SPAST-related HSP focused on 118 patients carrying SPAST mutations. This study, one of the largest cohorts of genetically confirmed spastin patients to date, contributes with the discovery of a significant number of novel SPAST mutations. Our data reveal a high rate of complex cases (25%), with psychiatric disorders among the most common comorbidity (10% of all SPASTpatients). Further, we identify a genotype-phenotype correlation between patients carrying loss-of-function mutations in SPAST and the presence of psychiatric disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil


    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  15. High rate of extra-haematological toxicity compromises dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (United States)

    Brain, E; Levy, C; Serin, D; Roché, H; Spielmann, M; Delva, R; Veyret, C; Mauriac, L; Rios, M; Martin, A L; Jimenez, M; Asselain, B; Gauthier, M; Bonnetain, F; Fumoleau, P


    Background: A dose-dense strategy has been considered to improve results of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. This randomised phase II trial investigated the feasibility of this approach with sequential anthracyclines and taxanes-based chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with high-risk node-positive breast cancer were treated with three cycles of fluorouracil 500 mg m−2, epirubicin 100 mg m−2, cyclophosphamide 500 mg m−2 (FEC 100) followed by three cycles of docetaxel 100 mg m−2 delivered at 2-weekly intervals supported by primary prophylaxis with filgrastim. All patients were randomised to either uninterrupted treatment (arm A) or to have a 2-week additional period of rest between the FEC and docetaxel (arm B). The primary endpoint was the rate of success of chemotherapy delivery. Using a two-stage Fleming design, 120 patients were required with one interim analysis. Results: In March 2005, enrolment was stopped into arm A after the observation of severe skin toxicities. Following the planned interim analysis, the study was closed because of the high rate of grade 3/4 skin toxicities in both arms (arm A: 32.4% and arm B: 18.9%). Conclusion: Sequential dose-dense FEC 100 followed by docetaxel 100 mg m−2 is not feasible. Feasibility still depends largely on several factors including the choice of drugs, dosage and sequence of administration. PMID:22009030

  16. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea (United States)

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.


    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  17. Energetic potential of algal biomass from high-rate algal ponds for the production of solid biofuels. (United States)

    Costa, Taynan de Oliveira; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Avelar, Nayara Vilela; Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira; de Assis, Letícia Rodrigues


    In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN). The biomass IN was the best alternative for thermal power generation. Subsequently, a mixture of the algal biomasses and Jatropha epicarp was used to produce briquettes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of algal biomass, and their properties were evaluated. In general, the addition of algal biomass to briquettes decreased both the hygroscopicity and fixed carbon content and increased the bulk density, ash content, and energy density. A 50% proportion of biomass IN was found to be the best raw material for producing briquettes. Therefore, the production of briquettes consisting of algal biomass and Jatropha epicarp at a laboratory scale was shown to be technically feasible.

  18. Effect of solar radiation on the lipid characterization of biomass cultivated in high-rate algal ponds using domestic sewage. (United States)

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Santiago, Anibal da Fonseca; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Leite, Mauricio de Oliveira; Sierra, Jose Jovanny Bermudez


    The objective of this paper is to compare the lipid content and composition ofbiomass produced by a consortium of microalgae and bacteria, cultivated under different solar radiation intensities and tropical conditions in pilot-scale high-rate ponds (HRPs) using domestic sewage as culture medium. The treatment system consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by UV disinfection and six HRPs covered with shading screens that blocked 9%, 18%, 30%, 60% and 80% of the solar radiation. The total lipid content does not vary significantly among the units, showing a medium value of 9.5%. The results show that blocking over 30% of the solar radiation has a negative effect on the lipid productivity. The units with no shading and with 30% and 60% of solar radiation blocking have statistically significant lipid productivities, varying from 0.92 to 0.96 gm(-2) day(-1). Besides radiation, other variables such as volatile suspended solids and chlorophyll-a are able to explain the lipid accumulation. The lipid profile has a predominance of C16, C18:1 and C18:3 acids. The unsaturation of fatty acids increases with the reduction in solar radiation. On the other hand, the effect of polyunsaturation is not observed, which is probably due to the presence of a complex and diverse biomass.

  19. An efficient system for carbonation of high-rate algae pond water to enhance CO2 mass transfer. (United States)

    Putt, Ron; Singh, Manjinder; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, K C


    High-rate algal ponds have the potential to produce 59 T of dry biomass ha(-1)year(-1) based on the specific productivity of 20 g m(-2) day(-1). Atmospheric air provides only 5% of the CO(2) to the pond surface required for photosynthesis. Hence, CO(2) is usually provided via bubbling of concentrated CO(2)-air mixture into the algae ponds. This process is, however, not significantly effective in terms of mass transfer. Use of bubble column to increase the interfacial area of contact available for gas exchange is proposed as an efficient alternative. A carbonation column (CC) was modeled and designed to measure CO(2) absorptivity in-pond water at various pH regimes. The CC performed at 83% CO(2) transfer efficiency. An air-to-pond mass transport coefficient of 0.0037 m min(-1) was derived. The proposed device can be used with any exhaust gas stream with higher concentrations of CO(2) in conjunction with raceways for optimizing algae production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Term and postterm low-risk pregnancies: management schemes for the reduction of high rates of cesarean section. (United States)

    Mancuso, S; Ferrazzani, S; De Carolis, S; Carducci, B; De Santis, L; Caruso, A


    We compare trends and current levels of cesarean section delivery by indication in some industrialized countries to help us understand factors underlying national differences in obstetric delivery practice and identify pathways to lower cesarean rates. In this report we describe the schemes employed at our Department for the management of low-risk at term and postterm pregnancies and list the most important motivations for increased cesarean section rate and remedies suggested to reduce high cesarean section rate. Moreover a randomized trial to assess the role of labor induction with PGE2 gel vs i.v. Oxytocin+Amniotomy in the management of prolonged pregnancy is being evaluated presently at our center. To date, 75 postterm pregnancies have been followed. Patients are enrolled at > or = 287 days (41 weeks). Intracervical PGE2 gel (0.5 mg) is used for cervical ripening. Induction of labor is randomly performed using intravaginal PGE2 gel (2 mg) or i.v. Oxytocin+Amniotomy. Overall rates of 75% for spontaneous delivery, and 25% for cesarean section have been observed in our study group of prolonged pregnancies. The accurate labelling of low- and high-risk pregnancy and the appropriate management of term and postterm pregnancy are two important steps for the reduction of a high rate of cesarean section.

  1. Two-stage high-rate biogas (H2 and CH4) production from food waste using anaerobic mixed microflora (United States)

    Xu, K.; Lee, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Ebie, Y.; Li, Y.; Inamori, Y.


    To achieve the high-rate H2 and CH4 production from food waste using fermentative anaerobic microflora, the effects of carbonate-alkalinity in the recirculated digestion sludge on continuous two-stage fermentation were investigated. Higher H2 production rate of 2.9 L-H2/L/day was achieved at the recycle ratio of 1.0 in an alkalinity range of 9000 to 10000 mg-CaCO3/L. The maximum CH4 production rate was stably maintained at the range of 1.85 to 1.88 L-CH4/L/day without alkalinity change. Carbonate alkalinity in digestion sludge could reduce the H2 partial pressure in the headspace of the fermentation reactors, and improve a biogas production capacity in the two-stage fermentation process. The average volatile solids degradation rate in the overall process increased as the digestion sludge recycle increased from 0.5 to 1.0. These results show that the alkalinity in recycle of the digestion sludge is crucial factor in determining biogas (H2 and CH4) production capacity and reducing the total solids.

  2. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance. (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra


    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  3. Women In The United States Experience High Rates Of Coverage 'Churn' In Months Before And After Childbirth. (United States)

    Daw, Jamie R; Hatfield, Laura A; Swartz, Katherine; Sommers, Benjamin D


    Insurance transitions-sometimes referred to as "churn"-before and after childbirth can adversely affect the continuity and quality of care. Yet little is known about coverage patterns and changes for women giving birth in the United States. Using nationally representative survey data for the period 2005-13, we found high rates of insurance transitions before and after delivery. Half of women who were uninsured nine months before delivery had acquired Medicaid or CHIP coverage by the month of delivery, but 55 percent of women with that coverage at delivery experienced a coverage gap in the ensuing six months. Risk factors associated with insurance loss after delivery include not speaking English at home, being unmarried, having Medicaid or CHIP coverage at delivery, living in the South, and having a family income of 100-185 percent of the poverty level. To minimize the adverse effects of coverage disruptions, states should consider policies that promote the continuity of coverage for childbearing women, particularly those with pregnancy-related Medicaid eligibility. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer achieves a high rate of R0 resection. (United States)

    Huguet, Florence; Hajj, Carla; Winston, Corrine B; Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Abraham J; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Reidy, Diane L; Allen, Peter; Goodman, Karyn A


    To assess local control, survival and conversion to resectability among locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by chemoradiotherapy treatment using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Between 2007 and 2012, 134 LAPC patients were treated with ICT followed by IMRT. After chemoradiotherapy, 40 patients received maintenance chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 20 months, median overall survival (OS) was 23 months. One- and two-year OS was 85% and 47%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, progression of disease after IMRT was associated with worse OS. Cumulative incidence of local failure was 10% at one year and 36% at two years. Twenty-six patients (19%) underwent resection after chemoradiotherapy including 22 patients (85%) with negative margins. On multivariate analysis, response to IMRT was associated with surgery (p = .01). Acute grade 3-4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity rates were 26% and 4.5%, respectively. IMRT is safe in patients with LAPC. Patients with non-progressive LAPC after ICT and who received IMRT had high rates of local control and prolonged survival.

  5. High rates of multidrug resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in children and analyses of ESBL producers from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods A total of 5,484 urinary tract specimens from children suspected with UTI attending a teaching hospital of Nepal over a period of one year were processed for the isolation of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Escherichia coli (n = 739, the predominant isolate in pediatric UTI, was further selected for the detection of ESBL-production by phenotypic combination disk diffusion test. Results Incidence of urinary tract infection among pediatric patients was found to be 19.68% and E coli (68.4% was leading pathogen involved. Out of 739 E coli isolates, 64.9% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 5% were extensively drug resistant (XDR. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL was detected in 288 (38.9% of the E coli isolates. Conclusion Alarming rate of drug resistance among pediatric uropathogens and high rate of ESBL-producing E. coli was observed. It is extremely necessary to routinely investigate the drug resistance among all isolates and formulate strict antibiotics prescription policy in our country.

  6. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu


    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel “core-shell” porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities. PMID:23963328

  7. The Ferrocyanide/Stabilized Carbon System, a New Class of High Rate, Long Cycle Life, Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huggins, R. A.


    Transient energy sources, such as wind and solar systems are getting increased attention. Their integration with the energy distribution grid requires methods for energy storage. The required characteristics of this type of storage are quite different from those for energy storage in portable devices. Size and weight are not so important. Instead, matters such as power, cost, calendar life, cycle life, and safety become paramount. A new family of hexacyanoferrate materials with the same open framework crystal structure as Prussian Blue has been recently developed with characteristics ideally suited for this type of application. Several monovalent cations can be rapidly and reversibly inserted into these materials, with very little crystallographic distortion, leading to high rates and long cycle lives. In addition, a new type of composite negative electrode material has been developed that has the rapid kinetics typical of carbon electrodes, but with a potential that varies little with the state of charge. The result is the development of a new battery system, the ferrocyanide/stabilized carbon, MHCF-SC, system. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.

  8. Synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide spheres with high rate capability for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Huang, Yudai; Cai, Yanjun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Dianzeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Pang, Weikong; Guo, Zaiping; Zong, Jun


    Hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres have been synthesized by urea-assisted solvothermal method with adding Triton X-100. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscope. The results show that the as-prepared samples can be indexed as hexagonal layered structure with hierarchical architecture, and the possible formation mechanism is speculated. When evaluated as cathode material, the hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres show good electrochemical properties with high initial discharge capacity of 129.9 mAh g-1, and remain the discharge capacity of 95.5 mAh g-1 after 160 cycles at 10C. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared sample can be attributed to its stable hierarchical mesoporous framework in conjunction with large specific surface, low cation mixing and small particle size. They not only provide a large number of reaction sites for surface or interface reaction, but also shorten the diffusion length of Li+ ions. Meanwhile, the mesoporous spheres composed of nanoparticles can contribute to high rate ability and buffer volume changes during charge/discharge process.

  9. High-rate Space-Time-Frequency Codes Achieving Full-Diversity with Partial Interference Cancellation Group Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Moon Ho


    The partial interference cancellation (PIC) group decoding has recently been proposed to deal with the decoding complexity and code rate trade-off on the basis of space-time block code (STBC) design criterion when full diversity is achieved. It provides a framework to arrange the rate-complexity-performance tradeoff by choosing a suitable size of information symbol groups. In this paper, a simple design of a linear dispersive space-time-frequency (STF) code is proposed with a design criterion to achieve high rate for frequency-selective channels in terms of multipath when the PIC group decoding is applied at receiver. With an appropriate grouping scheme as well as the PIC group decoding, the proposed STF code is shown to obtain the similar diversity gain as the maximum likelihood (ML) decoding, namely full-dimensional sphere decoding, but have a low decoding complexity. It seems as an intermediate decoding between the ML receiver and zero-forcing (ZF) receiver. The proposed grouping design criterion for the P...

  10. Low-Noise Free-Running High-Rate Photon-Counting for Space Communication and Ranging (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Krainak, Michael A.; Yang, Guan; Sun, Xiaoli; Merritt, Scott


    We present performance data for low-noise free-running high-rate photon counting method for space optical communication and ranging. NASA GSFC is testing the performance of two types of novel photon-counting detectors 1) a 2x8 mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) avalanche array made by DRS Inc., and a 2) a commercial 2880-element silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) array. We successfully measured real-time communication performance using both the 2 detected-photon threshold and logic AND-gate coincidence methods. Use of these methods allows mitigation of dark count, after-pulsing and background noise effects without using other method of Time Gating The HgCdTe APD array routinely demonstrated very high photon detection efficiencies (50) at near infrared wavelength. The commercial silicon APD array exhibited a fast output with rise times of 300 ps and pulse widths of 600 ps. On-chip individually filtered signals from the entire array were multiplexed onto a single fast output. NASA GSFC has tested both detectors for their potential application for space communications and ranging. We developed and compare their performances using both the 2 detected photon threshold and coincidence methods.

  11. Pilot Plant Demonstration of Stable and Efficient High Rate Biological Nutrient Removal with Low Dissolved Oxygen Conditions (United States)

    Aeration in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes accounts for nearly half of the total electricity costs at many wastewater treatment plants. Even though conventional BNR processes are usually operated to have aerated zones with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, r...

  12. Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the ‘‘Desert-Rose’’ form of LiCoO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Chen; C Grey


    The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO{sub 2}, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO{sub 2} nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: 'desert rose' gypsum. A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties.

  13. Pilot plant demonstration of stable and efficient high rate biological nutrient removal with low dissolved oxygen conditions. (United States)

    Keene, Natalie A; Reusser, Steve R; Scarborough, Matthew J; Grooms, Alan L; Seib, Matt; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Noguera, Daniel R


    Aeration in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes accounts for nearly half of the total electricity costs at many wastewater treatment plants. Even though conventional BNR processes are usually operated to have aerated zones with high dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, recent research has shown that nitrification can be maintained using very low-DO concentrations (e.g., below 0.2 mg O2/L), and therefore, it may be possible to reduce energy use and costs in BNR facilities by decreasing aeration. However, the effect of reduced aeration on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is not understood. In this study, we investigated, at the pilot-scale level, the effect of using minimal aeration on the performance of an EBPR process. Over a 16-month operational period, we performed stepwise decreases in aeration, reaching an average DO concentration of 0.33 mg O2/L with stable operation and nearly 90% phosphorus removal. Under these low-DO conditions, nitrification efficiency was maintained, and nearly 70% of the nitrogen was denitrified, without the need for internal recycling of high nitrate aeration basin effluent to the anoxic zone. At the lowest DO conditions used, we estimate a 25% reduction in energy use for aeration compared to conventional BNR operation. Our improved understanding of the efficiency of low-DO BNR contributes to the global goal of reducing energy consumption during wastewater treatment operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients with single distal MCA perfusion lesions have a high rate of good outcome with or without reperfusion. (United States)

    Lemmens, Robin; Christensen, Søren; Straka, Matus; De Silva, Deidre A; Mlynash, Michael; Campbell, Bruce C V; Bammer, Roland; Olivot, Jean-Marc; Desmond, Patricia; Marks, Michael P; Davis, Stephen M; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Albers, Gregory W; Lansberg, Maarten G


    Reperfusion is associated with good functional outcome after stroke. However, minimal data are available regarding the effect of reperfusion on clinical outcome and infarct growth in patients with distal MCA branch occlusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association and to determine the impact of the perfusion-diffusion mismatch. Individual patient data from three stroke studies (EPITHET, DEFUSE and DEFUSE 2) with baseline MRI profiles and reperfusion status were pooled. Patients were included if they had a single cortical perfusion lesion on their baseline MRI that was consistent with a distal MCA branch occlusion. Good functional outcome was defined as a score of 0-2 on the modified Rankin Scale at day 90 and infarct growth was defined as change in lesion volume between the baseline DWI and the final T2/FLAIR. Thirty patients met inclusion criteria. Eighteen (60%) had a good functional outcome and twenty (67%) had reperfusion. Reperfusion was not associated with good functional outcome in the overall cohort (OR: 1·0, 95% CI 0·2-4·7) and also not in the subset of patients with a PWI-DWI mismatch (n = 17; OR: 0·7, 95% CI 0·1-5·5). Median infarct growth was modest and not significantly different between patients with (0 ml) and without reperfusion (6 ml); P = 0·2. The overall high rate of good outcomes in patients with distal MCA perfusion lesions might obscure a potential benefit from reperfusion in this population. A larger pooled analysis evaluating the effect of reperfusion in patients with distal MCA branch occlusions is warranted as confirmation of our results could have implications for the design of future stroke trials. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Reliance of Wolbachia on High Rates of Host Proteolysis Revealed by a Genome-Wide RNAi Screen of Drosophila Cells. (United States)

    White, Pamela M; Serbus, Laura R; Debec, Alain; Codina, Adan; Bray, Walter; Guichet, Antoine; Lokey, R Scott; Sullivan, William


    Wolbachia are gram-negative, obligate, intracellular bacteria carried by a majority of insect species worldwide. Here we use a Wolbachia-infected Drosophila cell line and genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening to identify host factors that influence Wolbachia titer. By screening an RNAi library targeting 15,699 transcribed host genes, we identified 36 candidate genes that dramatically reduced Wolbachia titer and 41 that increased Wolbachia titer. Host gene knockdowns that reduced Wolbachia titer spanned a broad array of biological pathways including genes that influenced mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism. In addition, knockdown of seven genes in the host ubiquitin and proteolysis pathways significantly reduced Wolbachia titer. To test the in vivo relevance of these results, we found that drug and mutant inhibition of proteolysis reduced levels of Wolbachia in the Drosophila oocyte. The presence of Wolbachia in either cell lines or oocytes dramatically alters the distribution and abundance of ubiquitinated proteins. Functional studies revealed that maintenance of Wolbachia titer relies on an intact host Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation pathway (ERAD). Accordingly, electron microscopy studies demonstrated that Wolbachia is intimately associated with the host ER and dramatically alters the morphology of this organelle. Given Wolbachia lack essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways, the reliance of Wolbachia on high rates of host proteolysis via ubiquitination and the ERAD pathways may be a key mechanism for provisioning Wolbachia with amino acids. In addition, the reliance of Wolbachia on the ERAD pathway and disruption of ER morphology suggests a previously unsuspected mechanism for Wolbachia's potent ability to prevent RNA virus replication. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Sun leaves up-regulate the photorespiratory pathway to maintain a high rate of CO2 assimilation in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHuang


    Full Text Available The greater rate of CO2 assimilation in sun-grown tobacco leaves leads to lower intercellular and chloroplast CO2 concentrations and, thus, a higher rate of oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP than in shade-grown leaves. Impairment of the photorespiratory pathway suppresses photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Here, we hypothesized that sun leaves can up-regulate photorespiratory pathway to enhance the rate of CO2 assimilation in tobacco. To test this hypothesis, we examined the responses of photosynthetic electron flow and CO2 assimilation to incident light intensity and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci in leaves of ‘k326’ tobacco plants grown at 95% sunlight (sun plants or 28% sunlight (shade plants. The sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacity and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation (JC than the shade leaves. When exposed to high light, the higher Rubisco content and lower Ci in the sun leaves led to greater electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation (JO. The JO/JC ratio was significantly higher in the sun leaves than in the shade leaves under strong illumination. As estimated from CO2-response curves, the maximum JO was linearly correlated with the estimated Rubisco content. Based on light-response curves, the light-saturated JO was linearly correlated with light-saturated photosynthetic electron flow and light-saturated photosynthesis. These findings indicate that enhancement of the photorespiratory pathway is an important strategy by which sun plants maintain a high rate of CO2 assimilation.

  17. Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition Towards High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal


    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in Lithium (Li) ion batteries at high rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g, on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li–ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex–situ HRTEM, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and X–ray diffraction was carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

  18. High rate of transplacental infection and transmission of Neospora caninum following experimental challenge of cattle at day 210 of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Julio


    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the pathogenesis of neosporosis following a primary infection in late pregnancy, cattle were subcutaneously challenged with 5 × 108Neospora caninum (NC1 isolate tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation and serial necropsies were then carried out at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-infection (dpi. No abortions occurred and all the foetuses were viable at the time of euthanasia. There was a high rate of vertical transmission, as parasites were detected by immunohistochemical labelling and PCR in all the foetuses from 28 dpi. Focal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentomes of the placenta from 28 dpi and showed resolution during later time points, denoted by infiltration of inflammatory cells at 42 dpi and fibrosis at 56 dpi. Foetuses at 28 and 42 dpi showed scarce and isolated lesions which are unlikely to represent a threat to foetal viability. No lesions were observed in the foetuses at 14 or 56 dpi suggesting control of the infection and resolution of the lesions by maternal and foetal immune responses. Once infection was established, it could not be cleared from the host and vertical transmission of the parasite occurred in all infected hosts. Parasite was detected in the placenta at 28 dpi, while in previous experimental infections of cattle at day 70 and 140 of gestation using the same challenge model, it was already present at day 14 post infection. This suggests that a change in the maternal immune response plays a crucial role in limiting the initial infection during the last term of pregnancy.

  19. Methanosarcinaceae and Acetate-Oxidizing Pathways Dominate in High-Rate Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Waste-Activated Sludge (United States)

    Ho, Dang P.; Jensen, Paul D.


    This study investigated the process of high-rate, high-temperature methanogenesis to enable very-high-volume loading during anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. Reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 15 to 20 days in mesophilic digestion down to 3 days was achievable at a thermophilic temperature (55°C) with stable digester performance and methanogenic activity. A volatile solids (VS) destruction efficiency of 33 to 35% was achieved on waste-activated sludge, comparable to that obtained via mesophilic processes with low organic acid levels (<200 mg/liter chemical oxygen demand [COD]). Methane yield (VS basis) was 150 to 180 liters of CH4/kg of VSadded. According to 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the methanogenic community was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinaceae, which have a high level of metabolic capability, including acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Loss of function at an HRT of 2 days was accompanied by a loss of the methanogens, according to pyrotag sequencing. The two acetate conversion pathways, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation, were quantified by stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The results showed that the majority of methane was generated by nonacetoclastic pathways, both in the reactors and in off-line batch tests, confirming that syntrophic acetate oxidation is a key pathway at elevated temperatures. The proportion of methane due to acetate cleavage increased later in the batch, and it is likely that stable oxidation in the continuous reactor was maintained by application of the consistently low retention time. PMID:23956388

  20. Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis of VS2/Graphene Nanocomposites with Superior High-Rate Capability as Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes. (United States)

    Fang, Wenying; Zhao, Hongbin; Xie, Yanping; Fang, Jianhui; Xu, Jiaqiang; Chen, Zhongwei


    In this study, a facile one-pot process for the synthesis of hierarchical VS2/graphene nanosheets (VS2/GNS) composites based on the coincident interaction of VS2 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is developed for the first time. The nanocomposites possess a hierarchical structure of 50 nm VS2 sheets in thickness homogeneously anchored on graphene. The VS2/GNS nanocomposites exhibit an impressive high-rate capability and good cyclic stability as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries, which retain 89.3% of the initial capacity 180.1 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at 20 C, the composites still deliver a high capacity of 114.2 mAh g(-1) corresponding to 62% of the low-rate capacity. Expanded studies show that VS2/GNS, as an anode material, also has a good reversible performance with 528 mAh g(-1) capacity after 100 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance of the composites for reversible Li+ storage should be attributed to the exceptional interaction between VS2 and GNS that enabled fast electron transport between graphene and VS2, facile Li-ion diffusion within the electrode. Moreover, GNS provides a topological and structural template for the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional VS2 nanosheets and acted as buffer matrix to relieve the volume expansion/contraction of VS2 during the electrochemical charge/discharge, facilitating improved cycling stability. The VS2/GNS composites may be promising electrode materials for the next generation of rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  1. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur


    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  2. The Multimedia-Based Learning System Improved Cognitive Skills and Motivation of Disabled Children with a Very High Rate (United States)

    Saad, Sawsan; Dandashi, Amal; Aljaam, Jihad M.; Saleh, Moataz


    A multimedia-based learning system to teach children with intellectual disabilities (ID) the basic living and science concepts is proposed. The tutorials' development is pedagogically based on Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning combined with Skinner's Operant Conditioning Model. Two types of tutorials are proposed. In the first type;…

  3. High-rate continuous hydrogen production by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 immobilized on heat-pretreated methanogenic granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov


    Biohydrogen production from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum strain PSU-2 was examined in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and carrier-free upflow anaerobic reactor (UA), both fed with sucrose and operating at 60 degrees C. Heat-pretreated methanogenic granules were used...

  4. High rate of unnecessary thymectomy and its cause. Can computed tomography distinguish thymoma, lymphoma, thymic hyperplasia, and thymic cysts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackman, Jeanne B., E-mail: [MGH Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Imaging and Intervention, Founders House 202, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Verzosa, Stacey, E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Kovach, Alexandra E., E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Louissaint, Abner, E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Lanuti, Michael, E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Wright, Cameron D., E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Shepard, Jo-Anne O., E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States); Halpern, Elkan F., E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States)


    Highlights: •The unnecessary thymectomy rate of 44% was due to concern for thymoma, based on CT findings. •It was comprised of lymphoma, thymic cysts, thymic hyperplasia, and reactive or atrophic tissue. •There are significant differentiating features of these lesions on CT. •Knowledge of these CT features may help avert unnecessary thymectomy. •Shortcomings of CT in the evaluation of these lesions remain; in such cases, MRI or biopsy can help. -- Abstract: Purpose: To determine the non-therapeutic thymectomy rate in a recent six-year consecutive thymectomy cohort, the etiology of these unnecessary thymectomies, and the differentiating CT features of thymoma, lymphoma, thymic hyperplasia, and thymic cysts. Materials and methods: Electronic data base query of all thymectomies performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2012 yielded 160 thymectomy cases, 124 of which had available imaging. The non-therapeutic thymectomy rate (includes thymectomy for lymphoma and benign disease) was calculated. Preoperative clinical and CT imaging features were assessed by review of the in-house electronic medical record by 2 thoracic surgeons and 2 pathology-blinded radiologists, respectively. Results: The non-therapeutic thymectomy rate of 43.8% (70/160) was largely secondary to concern for thymoma and was comprised of lymphoma (54.3%, 38/70), thymic bed cysts (24.3%, 17/70), thymic hyperplasia (17.1%, 12/70), and reactive or atrophic tissue (4.3%, 3/70). Among these four lesions, there were significant differences in location with respect to midline, morphology, circumscription, homogeneity of attenuation, fatty intercalation, coexistent lymphadenopathy, overt pericardial invasion, and mass effect (p < 0.001). True thymic cysts ranged in attenuation from −20 to 58 Hounsfield units (HU), with a mean attenuation of 23 HU. Conclusion: The high rate of unnecessary thymectomy was due to misinterpretation of thymic cysts, thymic hyperplasia, and lymphoma as

  5. The crystal zero degree detector at BESIII as a realistic high rate environment for evaluating PANDA data acquisition modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Marcel


    The BESIII experiment located in Beijing, China, is investigating physics in the energy region of the charm-quark via electron positron annihilation reactions. A small detector to be placed in the very forward/backward region around θ=0 at BESIII is foreseen to measure photons from the initial state. This is especially interesting, because it opens the door for various physics measurements over a wide range of energies, even below the experiment's designated energy threshold, which is fixed by the accelerator. This thesis is investigating the capabilities of a crystal zero degree detector (cZDD) consisting of PbWO{sub 4} crystals placed in that region of BESIII. Detailed Geant4-based simulations have been performed, and the energy resolution of the detector has been determined to be σ/μ=0.06+0.025/√(E[GeV]). The determination of the center-of-mass energy √(s){sub isr} after the emission of the photon is of great importance for the study of such events. Preliminary simulations estimated the resolution of the reconstructed √(s){sub isr} using the cZDD information to be significantly better than 10 % for appropriate photon impacts on the detector. Such events can only be investigated, when data from the cZDD and other detectors of BESIII can be correlated. A fast and powerful Data Acquisition (DAQ) capable of performing event correlation in real time is needed. DAQ modules capable of performing real time event correlation are being developed for the PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Investigating these modules in a realistic high-rate environment such as provided at BESIII, offers a great opportunity to gain experience in real time event correlation before the start of PANDA. Developments for the cZDD's DAQ using prototype PANDA DAQ modules have been done and successfully tested in experiments with radioactive sources and a beamtest with 210 MeV electrons at the Mainz Microtron.

  6. Amateur and Recreational Athletes Return to Sport at a High Rate Following Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement. (United States)

    Weber, Alexander E; Kuhns, Benjamin D; Cvetanovich, Greg L; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S; Salata, Michael J; Nho, Shane J


    To compare the return-to-play rates, patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, and satisfaction between high-level amateur athletes and recreational athletes and to evaluate for differences in ability to return to sport in these groups based on patient-related and sport-related characteristics. Clinical data were retrieved for 66 (26 male/40 female) consecutive athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement. Athletes were classified as high-level amateur or recreational. Athletes were also divided into 6 distinct sporting categories based on the physical demands on the hip. Preoperative and 2-year PROs including a sport-specific questionnaire, modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), and Hip Outcome Scores with Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sports-Specific (HOS-SS) subscales were collected. Of the 66 patients, 49 were recreational and 17 were high-level amateur athletes (10 high school and 7 collegiate). High-level athletes were significantly younger than recreational athletes (18.4 ± 2.3 years vs 29.7 ± 6.8 years; P amateur athletes (94% vs 88%; P = .60). Increasing preoperative withdrawal time from sport prior to surgery was associated with decreased HOS-SS (r = 0.33; P = .04) and MHHS scores (r = 0.02; P = .02). Overall, athletes who had withdrawn from sport for greater than 8 months before surgery returned to sport significantly more slowly (P = .01). Increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower improvements in HOS (r = 0.26; P = .04) and MHHS scores (r = 0.38; P < .01). Recreational athletes, despite being significantly older than their high-level counterparts, return to play at a similar high rate and with comparable PROs. Increasing preoperative cessation time from sport significantly prolongs return to sport. Additionally, increasing preoperative cessation from sport and higher preoperative BMI were associated with decreased improvements in PROs. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016

  7. Source parameter inversion for earthquakes in the Bardarbunga caldera (August 2014-February 2015) based on high-rate GPS data (United States)

    Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Geirsson, Halldor; Iglesias, Arturo


    In August 2014 a sequence of earthquakes took place in the Bardarbunga caldera (7x11 km) and a laterally propagating dike that connected the caldera with the Holuhraun lava field. The caldera earthquakes were coincident in time with the caldera subsidence ( 70 m) and the propagation of a dike, which ended in a fissural eruption in Holuhraun (Guðmundsson et al., 2016). The volcanic seismic sources represented by the moment tensor, commonly have a large non-double couple component, which implies that the source can not be described as a slip on a planar fault. However, encountering an apropiate physical mechanism that explain the non double couple component is a challenging task since there are several phenomena that could explain it, such as intrusive processes like dikes or sills (Kanamori et al 1993, Riel et al 2014) as well as geometric effects due slip on a curved fault (Nettles & Ekström, 1998). The earthquakes in the Bardarbunga caldera are quite interesting not only due to the magnitudes (around seventy events between 5.0non double couple components; for some of them, the seismic waves were registered by a GPS high-rate station and for one (18th september 2014 Mw. 5.3), a ring fault model was built based on interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) also (Guðmundsson et al., 2016). Taking into account that the Bardarbunga caldera is covered by glacier (which makes difficult detecting changes in the surface using InSAR) and detecting waveforms in GPS stations is common only for large tectonics earthquakes (above Mw.7); observing a volcanic earthquakes simultaneously by InSAR and GPS is a rare and outstanding opportunity for constrain the volcanic seismic source . Likewise, if we assume that all the subsidence earthquakes in Bardarbunga have a common seismic source, we can use the same fault plane costrained for the 18th september earthquake, for inverting the seismic source of all the events in the caldera, only variying some parameters such as half

  8. Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.


    We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS

  9. Sensitivity of Detecting Shallow Slip in Tsunami Earthquakes Using High-Rate Seismogeodetic Displacement and Velocity Waveforms (United States)

    Saunders, J. K.; Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.


    The shallowest portion of the subduction zone, from the trench to 15 km depth, can facilitate long-duration, moderately sized earthquakes that have anomalously low seismic moment and short-period energy release accompanying large coseismic offsets. Such events have been dubbed `tsunami earthquakes' due to their disproportionately large tsunamis compared to their magnitude. The central portion of the subduction zone ( 15-50 km depth) is associated with generally higher rigidity and is where the majority of great subduction earthquakes nucleate. With increasing earthquake magnitude, the long-period and permanent deformations dominate motions in the near field, making displacement observations ideal for near-field earthquake characterization. In this study, we determine the sensitivity of seismogeodetic (combined high-rate GPS and accelerations) waveforms to slip location (shallow versus deeper slip) for the Cascadia subduction zone in order to assess their usefulness in rapidly determining the potential hazard of tsunami earthquakes with relatively small moment. We generate simple kinematic slip models that exhibit source properties according to the different subduction zone domains: a shallow Mw8 earthquake rupture, representing a tsunami earthquake, and a deeper earthquake of the same magnitude and slip distribution that does not rupture into the shallow portion. We choose rupture speed and slip duration for each simulation based on compilations of kinematic rupture models from past earthquakes. Specifically, the rupture speed is lowered and the slip duration is extended in the shallow earthquake to represent slip in the weaker, sediment-rich region near the trench. We generate synthetic waveforms and compare these displacements and velocities among scenarios to determine where there are differences that constrain the region and amount of slip. We then assess how well the current collocated seismogeodetic network samples the ground motions in critical areas for

  10. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  11. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto


    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  12. High-rate production of micro- and nanostructured surfaces: Injection molding and novel process for metal tooling manufacturing (United States)

    De Jesus Vega, Marisely

    rapidly processed via liquid injection molding. LSR with its excellent mechanical properties, transparency, non-toxicity and rapid molding capabilities can bring the production of micro and nanostructured surfaces from laboratory research facilities to high-rate manufacturing. However, previous research on microstructured surfaces made off LSR does not focus on the processing aspect of this material. Therefore, there is a lack of understanding of how different processing conditions affect the replication of microstructures. Additionally, there are no reports molding nanostructures of LSR. Features between 115 microm and 0.250 microm were molded in this work and the effect of different processing conditions and features sizes were studied. For the last part of this work, a novel metal additive manufacturing technique was used for the production of microstructured surfaces to be used as tooling for injection molding. The printing method consists of metal pastes printed through a tip onto a steel substrate. Prior work has shown spreading and swelling of features when metal pastes extrude out of the printing tip. PDMS was studied as a binder material to minimize spreading and swelling of the features by curing right after printing. In addition, prior work has shown durability of this metal printed tool up to 5000 injection molding cycles. This work compares this durability to durability of commercially available selective laser sintering metal tools. Furthermore, surface roughness was studied as this is one of the most important things to consider when molding microchannels for certain applications.

  13. Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors. (United States)

    Si, Bu-Chun; Li, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Zhang-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Hui; Lu, Jian-Wen; Shen, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui; Liu, Zhidan


    Biohythane production via two-stage fermentation is a promising direction for sustainable energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass suffers from specific natural recalcitrance. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for the liquefaction of biomass, but there are still several challenges for the coupling of HTL and two-stage fermentation. One particular challenge is the limited efficiency of fermentation reactors at a high solid content of the treated feedstock. Another is the conversion of potential inhibitors during fermentation. Here, we report a novel strategy for the continuous production of biohythane from cornstalk through the integration of HTL and two-stage fermentation. Cornstalk was converted to solid and liquid via HTL, and the resulting liquid could be subsequently fed into the two-stage fermentation systems. The systems consisted of two typical high-rate reactors: an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a packed bed reactor (PBR). The liquid could be efficiently converted into biohythane via the UASB and PBR with a high density of microbes at a high organic loading rate. Biohydrogen production decreased from 2.34 L/L/day in UASB (1.01 L/L/day in PBR) to 0 L/L/day as the organic loading rate (OLR) of the HTL liquid products increased to 16 g/L/day. The methane production rate achieved a value of 2.53 (UASB) and 2.54 L/L/day (PBR), respectively. The energy and carbon recovery of the integrated HTL and biohythane fermentation system reached up to 79.0 and 67.7%, respectively. The fermentation inhibitors, i.e., 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (41.4-41.9% of the initial quantity detected) and furfural (74.7-85.0% of the initial quantity detected), were degraded during hydrogen fermentation. Compared with single-stage fermentation, the methane process during two-stage fermentation had a more efficient methane production rate, acetogenesis, and COD removal. The microbial distribution

  14. Self-supporting hierarchical rGO@Ni nanosheet@Co3O4 nanowire array and its application in high-rate batteries (United States)

    Shi, F.; Xie, D.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, D. H.; Xia, X. H.; Gu, C. D.; Wang, X. L.; Tu, J. P.


    To meet the design requirements for high-rate battery electrodes, self-supporting hierarchical rGO@Ni nanosheet@Co3O4 nanowire array film with light weight is synthesized via a series of controllable fabrication processes. Due to modifying the highly conductive nickel nanosheets onto the surface of rGO film, the energy storage performance of this hybrid film is enhanced, especially in rate capability. The whole high-rate battery, which is fabricated by using this film as the positive electrode, manifests the maximum energy density of 20.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 326 W kg-1 along with excellent capacity retention of 81.4% after 5000 cycles. Therefore, the rGO-Ni-Co3O4 hybrid film is a promising electrode material for flexible long-life cycling high-rate batteries.

  15. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wu


    Full Text Available Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V. It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s−1 and a long cyclability (∼60000 cycles even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  16. Molten salt synthesis and high rate performance of the ''desert-rose'' form of LiCoO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hailong; Grey, Clare P. [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)


    The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO{sub 2}, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO{sub 2} nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: ''desert rose'' gypsum. A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R


    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  18. Graphene Oxide Wrapped Amorphous Copper Vanadium Oxide with Enhanced Capacitive Behavior for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes. (United States)

    Zhao, Kangning; Liu, Fengning; Niu, Chaojiang; Xu, Wangwang; Dong, Yifan; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Shaomei; Yan, Mengyu; Wei, Qiulong; Zhao, Dongyuan; Mai, Liqiang


    Graphene oxide-wrapped amorphous copper vanadium oxide is fabricated through a template-engaged redox reaction followed by vacuum dehydration. This material exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and out standing high-rate cyclability. The outstanding performance is attributed to the fast capacitive charge storage and the in situ formed copper with enhanced electrical conductivity.

  19. Evolution of humic acid-like and core-humic acid-like during high-rate composting of pig faeces amended with wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genevini, P.; Adani, F.; Veeken, A.H.M.


    The changes in the absolute amounts and in the composition of humic acid-like (RA-like) and core-humic acid-like (core-RA-like) were monitored for the high-rate composting process (4 weeks) of wheat straw-amended pig faeces. Absolute amounts of HA-like and core-HA-like were obtained by extraction of

  20. Qualitative modifications of humic acid-like and core-humic acid-like during high-rate composting of pig faces amended with wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genevini, P.; Adani, F.; Veeken, A.H.M.


    Humic acid-like (RA-like) and core-humic acid-like (core-RA-like) were characterized during the high-rate composting process by CP-MAS C-13 NMR, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC) / mass spectrometry (MS), and elemental analysis. Results obtained indicated that humification proceeded through a

  1. T2 (Teaching & Thinking)-in-Action Skills of Highly Rated Medical Teachers: How Do We Help Faculty Attain That Expertise? (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert G.; Blondeau, Whitney; Dreher, George K.; Irby, David M.


    Prior to developing faculty development programmes to improve reflection-in-action abilities while teaching, we sought to elaborate how T2 (teaching & thinking)-in-action is perceived by teachers using the theoretical framework of metacognition. We interviewed seven highly rated clinical teachers. Qualitative analysis techniques were used to…

  2. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  3. Continuous liquid fermentation of pretreated waste activated sludge for high rate volatile fatty acids production and online nutrients recovery. (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Liu, He; Zheng, Zhiyong; Ma, Huijun; Yang, Meng; Liu, Hongbo


    Raw sludge was pretreated, and the separated sludge liquid was used as substrate in a continuous operated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The highest VFA productivity of continuous fermentation with sludge liquid at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.0 kg COD/m3/d was about 5.0-fold and 4.0-fold higher than batch and semi-continuous fermentation with pretreated sludge slurry, respectively. Moreover, the liquid fermentation with an OLR of 10.0 kg COD/m3/d consumed the least energy, which was about 10.57% and 12.12% of batch and semi-continuous sludge fermentation, respectively. When combined with online nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, VFA production further increased by 20.67% and struvite recovery efficiency reached 1.98  ±  0.28 g/g PO43-. The process showed high VFA production, low energy consumption and good nutrients recovery by continuous liquid anaerobic fermentation, significantly increasing the economic potential of VFA production from waste activated sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiences with a pre-series of Micro Strip Gas Counters with Gas Electron Multipliers for high rate applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Anette


    Micro strip gas chambers (MSGCs) are promising candidates for large scale applications. They combine a good spatial resolution with high granularity and low cost. As a possible extension of the plain MSGC, a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil may be implemented into the detector in order to increase the safety of operation. It was planned to equip the outer part of the tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Centre de Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) with MSGCs. In the barrel part of the tracker, plain MSGCs were to be used. For the forward part, the MSGC+GEM technology was envisaged. This thesis describes the assembly and test of a pre-series of 18 fully functional MSGC+GEM forward detector modules to determine their radiation hardness and their readiness for mass production. Five of the modules were built at Aachen, thirteen more at the 'Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik' in Karlsruhe. For the pre-series, two different types of GEM foils...

  5. Free Space Optical Interconnect (FSOI) modules for short range data transfer applied to board to board high rate communication (United States)

    Kaba, Myriam; Mallet, Maxime; Pujol, Laurence; Claudepierre, Christian; Veyron, Johannès.; Giroud, Romain; Mousseaux, Daniel; Quentel, Francois; Foucal, Vincent; Pez, Mathias


    To provide more flexibility in inter-board communication in blade chassis, we developed a Free Space Optical Interconnect (FSOI) system for short range high speed data transfer. We designed robust and low footprint components compliant with both a use in milaero environment and an operation up to 5 and 10 Gbps. The 5Gpbs configuration demonstrated large tolerance to misalignment between emitter and receiver modules: +1.5/-1 mm along optical axis, lateral tolerance of +/-1 mm and angular tolerances of +/-1.5°. Reliable performances have been demonstrated over a temperature range from -30°C to 80°C and constraint environment as thermal and damp heat cycles and vibrations. Increase the data rate of the FSO device one step beyond up to 10 Gbps requires dealing with mode partitioning troubles generated by the use of VCSEL lasers. We designed and evaluated an improved opto-mechanical combination to overcome this drawback. The resulting device shows error free 10 Gbps data transfer while keeping large tolerance to Tx/Rx misalignments.

  6. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  7. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments. (United States)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D; Zhang, Yong; Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian; Weihs, Timothy P


    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10 3 /s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  9. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri


    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  10. Very high rate programming in primary prevention patients with reduced ejection fraction implanted with a defibrillator: Results from a large multicenter controlled study. (United States)

    Clementy, Nicolas; Challal, Farid; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Defaye, Pascal; Leclercq, Christophe; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sadoul, Nicolas; Klug, Didier; Piot, Olivier; Gras, Daniel; Bordachar, Pierre; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique


    Programming implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) with a high-rate therapy strategy has proven to be effective in reducing shocks and is associated with a reduced mortality. We sought to determine the impact of a very high rate cutoff programming strategy on outcomes in patients with a primary indication for an ICD due to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Using data from the multicenter French DAI-PP registry, this cohort-controlled study compared outcomes in 500 patients programmed with a very high rate cutoff (VH-RATE group: monitor zone 170-219 beats/min; ventricular fibrillation zone ≥220 beats/min with 13 ± 4 detection intervals) with 1500 matched control patients programmed with 1 or 2 therapy zone. All ICDs were implanted for primary prevention in patients with systolic dysfunction. Risks of events were compared after propensity score matching of sex, age, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and type of device. After a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 2.3 years, VH-RATE programming was associated with a reduction of appropriate therapy risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.51; P programmed with 2 therapy zones. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the groups. In patients implanted with an ICD in primary prevention with left ventricular dysfunction, very high rate cutoff programming (single therapy zone ≥220 beats/min) was associated with a 60% reduction of appropriate therapies as well as inappropriate shocks, without affecting mortality. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dendrite-Free, High-Rate, Long-Life Lithium Metal Batteries with a 3D Cross-Linked Network Polymer Electrolyte. (United States)

    Lu, Qingwen; He, Yan-Bing; Yu, Qipeng; Li, Baohua; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Yao, Youwei; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong


    A 3D network gel polymer electrolyte (3D-GPE) is designed for lithium metal batteries and prepared by an initiator-free one-pot ring-opening polymerization technique. This 3D-GPE exhibits an unprecedented combination of mechanical strength, ionic conductivity, and more importantly, effective suppression of Li dendrite growth. The produced lithium-based battery presents long life, high rate, and excellent safety. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Assessment of 50%-Propagation-Delay for Cascaded PCB Non-Linear Interconnect Lines for the High-Rate Signal Integrity Analysis


    T. Eudes; B. Ravelo; R. Al-Hayek


    This paper presents an enlarged study about the 50-% propagation-time assessment of cascaded transmission lines (TLs). First and foremost, the accurate modeling and measurement technique of signal integrity (SI) for high-rate microelectronic interconnection is recalled. This model is based on the reduced transfer function extracted from the electromagnetic (EM) behavior of the interconnect line RLCG-parameters. So, the transfer function established takes into account both the frequency disper...

  13. Advanced valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for hybrid vehicle applications (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Trinidad, F.; Lacadena, J. M.; Sánchez, A.; Valenciano, J.

    Future vehicle applications require the development of reliable and long life batteries operating under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) working conditions. Work presented in this paper deals with the study of different design parameters, manufacturing process and charging conditions of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, in order to improve their reliability and cycle life for hybrid vehicle applications. Test results show that both electrolyte saturation and charge conditions have a strong effect on cycle life at HRPSoC performance, presumably because water loss finally accelerates battery failure, which is linked to irreversible sulphation in the upper part of the negative electrodes. By adding expanded graphite to the negative active mass formulation, increasing the electrolyte saturation degree (>95%) and controlling overcharge during regenerative braking periods (voltage limitation and occasional boosting) it is possible to achieve up to 220,000 cycles at 2.5% DOD, equivalent to 5500 capacity throughput. These results could make lead acid batteries a strong competitor for HEV applications versus other advanced systems such as Ni-MH or Li-ion batteries.

  14. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang


    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  15. Pseudocapacitive Na-Ion Storage Boosts High Rate and Areal Capacity of Self-Branched 2D Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoarrays. (United States)

    Chao, Dongliang; Liang, Pei; Chen, Zhen; Bai, Linyi; Shen, He; Liu, Xiaoxu; Xia, Xinhui; Zhao, Yanli; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang


    The abundant reserve and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances are still limited by either the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursue high rate ability with maintained high capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarray electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca. 3.7 mAh cm(-2) (900 mAh g(-1)) and rate capability of 1.6 mAh cm(-2) (400 mAh g(-1)) at 40 mA cm(-2) (10 A g(-1)). Improved extrinsic pseudocapacitive contribution is demonstrated as the origin of fast kinetics of an alloying-based SnS2 electrode. Sodiation dynamics analysis based on first-principles calculations, ex-situ HRTEM, in situ impedance, and in situ Raman technologies verify the S-edge effect on the fast Na(+) migration and reversible and sensitive structure evolution during high-rate charge/discharge. The excellent alloying-based pseudocapacitance and unsaturated edge effect enabled by self-branched surface nanoengineering could be a promising strategy for promoting development of SIBs with both high capacity and high rate response.

  16. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu


    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material with Excellent High-Rate and Cycling Properties (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Wang, Xingyao; Zhang, Han


    The spinel LiMn2O4 was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method using acetone as the reductant under different hydrothermal temperatures. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that optimal LiMn2O4 particles (LMO-120) were synthesized at the temperature of 120°C and the particles were well distributed and about 410 nm in size. Electrochemical performance showed that the as-prepared LiMn2O4 particles exhibited a higher initial discharge capacity than commercial LiMn2O4 (131.5 mAh g-1 versus 115.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C). An excellent discharge capacity retention rate of 94.07% was observed after 60 charge-discharge cycles. On the other hand, when cycled at the high rate of 1 C, the optimal LiMn2O4 in this work showed a high discharge capacity of 107.5 mAh g-1 in contrast to only 92.3 mAh g-1 of the commercial LiMn2O4. These results indicate that LMO-120 showed excellent electrochemical performance, especially the prolonged cycling life and high-rate performance, which suggested that this spinel LiMn2O4 has promise for practical application as a high-rate cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Temperature- and time-tuned morphological evolution of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals and their facet-dependent high-rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chuan; Zeng, Yanwei, E-mail:; Li, Rongjie; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Longfei


    Monodisperse Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons enclosed by {100}/{111} facets with different area ratios were synthesized through the thermolysis of Fe(acac){sub 3} by effectively tuning reaction temperature and time to mediate the adsorption of oleic acid (OA) on the crystallite surfaces, and utilized as high rate (≥1 A g{sup −1}) anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The electrochemical results show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons with highly reactive {111} facets possess the best high rate cycling performance compared to that of cuboctahedrons and cubes, characterized by a high 300th discharge capacity of 785.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and the best rate capability of 657.7 mAh g{sup −1} when cycled at 4 A g{sup −1}. These results prove that the surface structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons significantly influence the property of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystal materials and hence their electrochemical performance though the morphology may be destroyed during cycling. These insights are helpful for the further understanding of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode materials and provide a simple and practical route to design high rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons enclosed by different area proportions of {100}/{111} facets were synthesized by effectively tuning reaction temperature and time length thanks to the characteristic absorption of oleic acid molecules on their crystal facets, which then exhibited intriguing plane-dependent electrochemical performance as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Temperature and time directed growth of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons with different facets. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons were studied as high-rate and Long-Life anode materials for LIBs. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons exhibited better cycle performance than cuboctahedrons and cubes. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} octahedrons showed 300th discharge

  19. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    computer networks and also in Internet security concepts. Keywords. Operating systems, file sys- tems, time-shared systems. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Operating Systems. 1. Objectives and Evolution. M Suresh Babu. In this article we examine the objectives and fun.ctions of operating systems, and then we trace the evolution ...

  20. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner


    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  1. Schwartz operators (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.


    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  2. High-rate algal pond treatment for water reuse in an integrated marine fish recirculating system: effect on water quality and sea bass growth


    Deviller, Genevieve; Aliaume, Catherine; Franco, Miguel; Casellas, Claude; Blancheton, Jean-paul


    A high-rate algae pond (HRAP) was tested as a second loop of water treatment in a recirculating fish rearing system to reduce water requirements and nutrient discharge levels. Three duplicated groups of sea bass (mean initial body weight 3 5 I I g) were reared under different system conditions (flow-through system, recirculating system and recirculating system with HRAP) for I year. Fish survival rate was higher in the system with HRAP, and their mean body weight was statistically higher (p

  3. Flockning och förtjockning i High-Rate-förtjockare – en jämförelse med konventionell förtjockarteknik och lamellsedimentering.


    Östlind, Per


    In the process laboratory of Metso minerals (Sala) AB, continuous tests have been made with a laboratory unit High-Rate thickener. The tests are made in order to compare three methods of thickening techniques of suspended solids. The three techniques are High-Rate thickening, conventional thickening and lamella thickening. The High-Rate and the conventional trials are based on a continuous method, while the lamella thickener is based on batch trials. Because the lamella thickener is based on ...

  4. High Rates of Tramadol Use among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A Study of Hair Analysis of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Olsson


    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU is a growing problem and tramadol has been suggested as an emerging problem in young treatment-seeking individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through hair analysis, NMPOU in this group and, specifically, tramadol use. Methods. In a study including 73 treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults at an outpatient facility for young substance users, hair specimens could be obtained from 59 subjects. Data were extracted on sociodemographic background variables and psychiatric diagnoses through MINI interviews. Results. In hair analysis, tramadol was by far the most prevalent opioid detected. Thirty-two percent screened positive for opioids, and of those, all but one were positive for tramadol. Ninety-eight percent reported problematic cannabis use. Significantly more opioid-positive patients also screened positive for other (noncannabis drugs, compared to nonopioid users. Sixty-four percent fulfilled criteria of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, other than substance use disorders according to MINI. Fifty-three percent met the symptom criteria count of ADHD above cut-off level. Conclusion. In the present setting, tramadol, along with high rates of cannabis use, may represent a novel pattern of substance use among young treatment-seeking subjects with problematic substance use and high rates of concurrent psychiatric problems.

  5. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua


    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  6. High rate capability and cyclic stability of hierarchically porous Tin oxide (IV)-carbon nanofibers as anode in lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Dhakate, Sanjay R.; Gurunathan, P.; Ramesha, K.


    Tin oxide-carbon composite porous nanofibres exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode have been prepared using electrospinning technique. Surface morphology and structural characterizations of the composite material is carried out by techniques such as XRD, FESEM, HR-TEM, XPS, TGA and Raman spectroscopy. FESEM and TEM studies reveal that nanofibers have a uniform diameter of 150-180 nm and contain highly porous outer wall. The carbon content is limited to 10% in the nanofibers as shown by the TGA and EDAX which does not fade the high capacity of SnO2. These nanofibers delivered a higher discharge capacity of 722 mAh/g even after 100 cycles at high rate of 1C. The excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the synergy effect of small amount of carbon in the composite and the hierarchically porous structure which accommodate large volume changes associated with Li-ion insertion-desertion. The porous nano-architecture would also provide a short diffusion path for Li+ ions in addition to facilitating high flux of electrolyte percolation through micropores. The electrochemical performance of composite material has also been tested at 60 °C at a higher rate of 2C and 5C. Post cycling FESEM analysis shows no volumetric and morphology changes in porous nanofibers after completing rate capability at high rate of 10C.

  7. Achieving rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics in TiO2 mesoporous nanotube arrays for bifunctional high-rate energy storage smart windows. (United States)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Mai, Liqiang; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao


    Smart electrochromic windows integrated with electrochemical energy storage capacity are receiving increasing interest for green buildings. However, the fabrication of bifunctional devices that demonstrate high-rate capability with stable and desirable optical modulation still remains a great challenge. Herein, a facile sacrificial template-accelerated hydrolysis approach is presented to prepare a designed lithium-ion insertion-type material layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate, with TiO2 mesoporous nanotube array (MNTA) film as an example, with rapid Li-ion insertion kinetics and without sacrificing window transparency, to meet requirements. A bifunctional device is assembled to exhibit the optical-electrochemical superiority of MNTA nanostructures. The as-assembled bifunctional smart window exhibits strong electrochromic contrast and high-rate capability in the fast galvanostatic charge/discharge process. For instance, at 1 A g-1, it completes the charge or discharge process within only 232 s and delivers a high, reversible and stable specific capacity of 60 mA h g-1, accompanying obvious transmittance modulation in the visible spectrum, with a typical value of ca. 30.4% at 700 nm, and strong color changes between deep blue and transparency.

  8. Warehousing Operations. (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on warehousing operations is designed to provide instruction in the procedures used in warehousing operations. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete the course). The 22-hour…

  9. Operational Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal; Hustvedt, Kjersti


    by Bakhtinian theory, Brian Edmiston developed a solution to this in the 1990s: the principle of ‘dialogic sequencing’. Aiming to escape the conflict between relativism and absolutism, we present an alternative to Edmiston’s approach, based on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of ‘operational closure’: operational...

  10. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J


    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  11. Microstructure/processing relationships in high-energy high-rate consolidated powder composites of Nb-stabilized Ti3Al+TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, B.; Hou, C.; Eliezer, Z.; Marcus, H.L.


    A new approach to powder processing is employed in forming titanium aluminide composites. The processing consists of internal heating of a customized powder blend by a fast electrical discharge of a homopolar generator. The high-energy high-rate '1MJ in 1s' pulse permits rapid heating of an electrically conducting powder mixture in a cold wall die. This short time at temperature approach offers the opportunity to control phase transformations and the degree of microstructural coarsening not readily possible with standard powder-processing approaches. This paper describes the consolidation results of titanium aluminide-based powder-composite materials. The focus of this study was the definition of microstructure/processing relationships for each of the composite constituents, first as monoliths and then in composite forms. Non-equilibrium phases present in rapidly solidified TiAl powders are transformed to metastable intermediates en route to the equilibrium gamma phase.

  12. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J


    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services......BACKGROUND: The aims were: (i). to identify gender differences in evaluation of medical and patient-centred (psychosocial) care in fertility clinics and (ii). to identify predictors of satisfaction. METHODS: An epidemiological prospective study based on questionnaire responses among all new couples......-centred (psychosocial) services. There were no sex differences in the evaluation of treatment except that women were more satisfied than men with how the staff had performed their medical examinations. Satisfaction with medical and patient-centred services was positively associated with a treatment-related pregnancy...

  13. Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional porous nitrogen-doped graphene for high-rate lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Naiqing; Fan, Lishuang; Sun, Kening


    A composite consisting of Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated by three-dimensional (3D) porous nitrogen-doped graphene is reported. Due to the 3D porous structure, the composite has large specific surface area of 112 m2 g-1, which can increase the contact area between active material and electrolyte. In addition, the 3D porous conductive framework can not only facilitate the fast electron transport and Li+ diffusion but also enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite. As expected, the composite shows an outstanding rate capability of 273 mAh g-1 at 10000 mA g-1 and a capacity of 417 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Therefore, the composite is a promising candidate as an anode material for high-rate lithium ion batteries.

  14. Ultrathin and lightweight 3D free-standing Ni@NiO nanowire membrane electrode for a supercapacitor with excellent capacitance retention at high rates. (United States)

    Liu, Nishuang; Li, Jian; Ma, Wenzhen; Liu, Weijie; Shi, Yuling; Tao, Jiayou; Zhang, Xianghui; Su, Jun; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua


    A free-standing binder-free 3D Ni@NiO nanowire membrane is fabricated by a simple filtration method followed by thermal annealing. With an appropriate annealing temperature, the functional nanowires can keep their rough and echinate surface, and the conductive network composed of welded nickel nanowire cores is well-preserved without isolation (0.53 Ω/sq). The unique 3D multigrade mesporous structure not only accelerates the intercalation and deintercalation velocity of electrolyte ions but also provides numerous electroactive sites for the Faraday reaction. As a result, the supercapacitor electrode can preserve a capacitance retention of 96.1% (36.9 F/cm(3)) with a high discharge current density, indicating its wonderful rate capability. The fabricated membrane electrode exhibits high volumetric capacitance, stable cycling life, and remarkable retention of the capacitance at high rate, energy, and power density, making it a promising candidate for application in portable electronic products.

  15. Lack of nasal carriage of novel corona virus (HCoV-EMC) in French Hajj pilgrims returning from the Hajj 2012, despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms. (United States)

    Gautret, P; Charrel, R; Belhouchat, K; Drali, T; Benkouiten, S; Nougairede, A; Zandotti, C; Memish, Z A; al Masri, M; Gaillard, C; Brouqui, P; Parola, P


    A cohort of 154 French Hajj pilgrims participating in the 2012 Hajj were systematically sampled with nasal swabs prior to returning to France, and screened for the novel HCoV-EMC coronavirus by two real-time RT-PCR assays. Despite a high rate of respiratory symptoms (83.4%), including 41.0% influenza-like illness, no case of HCoV-EMC infection was detected. Despite the fact that zoonotic transmission was suspected in the first few cases, a recent family cluster in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia suggests that the virus might show at least limited spread from person to person, which justifies continuing epidemiological surveillance. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite as a superior high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Feng, Haibo; Jiang, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Qian, Dong, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Youcai, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Highlights: • Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite was prepared by a facile and scalable hydrolysis route. • The composite exhibits super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for LIBs. • The nanocomposite shows great potential as a superior anode material for LIBs. - Abstract: Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with robust nanostructure is fabricated via a facile two-step synthesis by ammonia water assisted hydrolysis and subsequent calcination. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized employing X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, Raman spectrophotometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction, and its electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic discharge/charge test and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The results show that the pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with diameters of about 10 nm are uniformly distributed on/among the CNTs conducting network. The as-synthesized nanocomposite exhibits remarkably improved performances in LIBs, especially super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Specifically, a reversible capacity as high as 92 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved even at a current density of 10 A g{sup −1} (60 C). After 100 cycles at 0.1 A g{sup −1}, it shows good capacity retention of 185 mA h g{sup −1} with an outstanding coulombic efficiency up to 99%. Such superior Li{sup +} storage properties demonstrate the reinforced synergistic effects between the nano-sized TiO{sub 2} and the interweaved CNTs network, endowing the nanocomposite with great application potential in high-power LIBs.

  17. Mesoporous layered hexagonal platelets of Co3O4nanoparticles with (111) facets for battery applications: high performance and ultra-high rate capability. (United States)

    Bhojane, Prateek; Sinha, Lichchhavi; Devan, Rupesh S; Shirage, Parasharam M


    The thermally stable and crystalline 2D layered mesoporous hexagonal platelets of cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) with (111) facets were prepared by using the template-free wet chemical synthesis approach. The high surface energy (111) facets known for a highly electroactive surface are expected to enhance the electrochemical properties, especially the rate capability. The highly crystalline Co 3 O 4 with an average particle size of 25 nm formed a 2D mesoporous layered structure, with an average thickness of ∼40 nm, a pore size of 8-10 nm, and a specific surface area of 45.68 m 2 g -1 promoting large surface confined electrochemical reaction. The 2D layered mesoporous Co 3 O 4 exhibits a maximum specific capacity of 305 mA h g -1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 and 137.6 mA h g -1 at a current density of 434.8 mA g -1 . The maximum energy and power densities of 32.03 W h kg -1 and 9.36 kW kg -1 , respectively, are achieved from the 2D hexagonal platelets of mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with (111) facets. An excellent ultra-high rate capability of ∼62% capacity retention was observed after increasing the discharge current density from ∼434.8 mA g -1 to 43 480 mA g -1 . Furthermore, a cycling stability of 81.25% was achieved even after 2020 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 12 170 mA g -1 . This high performance and ultra-high rate capability could be attributed to the (111) facets 'crystal plane' effect of Co 3 O 4 . Our results presented here confirm that the 2D mesoporous layered hexagonal platelets of Co 3 O 4 exhibit "battery-mimic" behaviour in an aqueous electrolyte of KOH.

  18. Investigation of the high rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia reveals no single driving factor and minimal evidence for zoonotic transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection. (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Schelling, Esther; Hailu, Elena; Firdessa, Rebuma; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Mengistu, Araya; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Derese, Yohannes; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ameni, Gobena; Gagneux, Sebastien; Robertson, Brian D; Tschopp, Rea; Hewinson, Glyn; Yamuah, Lawrence; Gordon, Stephen V; Aseffa, Abraham


    Ethiopia, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, reports one of the highest incidence rates of extra-pulmonary TB dominated by cervical lymphadenitis (TBLN). Infection with Mycobacterium bovis has previously been excluded as the main reason for the high rate of extrapulmonary TB in Ethiopia. Here we examined demographic and clinical characteristics of 953 pulmonary (PTB) and 1198 TBLN patients visiting 11 health facilities in distinct geographic areas of Ethiopia. Clinical characteristics were also correlated with genotypes of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No major patient or bacterial strain factor could be identified as being responsible for the high rate of TBLN, and there was no association with HIV infection. However, analysis of the demographic data of involved patients showed that having regular and direct contact with live animals was more associated with TBLN than with PTB, although no M. bovis was isolated from patients with TBLN. Among PTB patients, those infected with Lineage 4 reported "contact with other TB patient" more often than patients infected with Lineage 3 did (OR = 1.6, CI 95% 1.0-2.7; p = 0.064). High fever, in contrast to low and moderate fever, was significantly associated with Lineage 4 (OR = 2.3; p = 0.024). On the other hand, TBLN cases infected with Lineage 4 tended to get milder symptoms overall for the constitutional symptoms than those infected with Lineage 3. The study suggests a complex role for multiple interacting factors in the epidemiology of extrapulmonary TB in Ethiopia, including factors that can only be derived from population-based studies, which may prove to be significant for TB control in Ethiopia.

  19. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server


    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  20. Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proks, Josef


    Peace operations are more and more important in the contemporary world. The end of the Cold War increased not only possibilities of solving disputes by the international community but also by the number and diversity of threats and issues...

  1. Operational Resilience (United States)


    the so-called Threat Image Pro 51 April 2014 Operational Stress on Internet and eCommerce THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. TECH TECHNOLOGY Massive OpenSSL...8217!;:;a.L~ and · ...... -n ... ,.,. ... ,. 53 September 24, 2014 Operational Stress on Internet and eCommerce ::;:\\\\ t?nQCldQt?~ . REVIEWS... Benefits of Convergence and Integration  Similar activities are bound by same risk drivers  Allows for better alignment between risk-based activities

  2. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger


    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  3. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.


    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  4. High-rate GPS results for the April 2012 Sumatra earthquake sequence, an unusual, complex, and very large intraplate strike-slip event (United States)

    Hill, E. M.; Hermawan, I.; Lay, T.; Yue, H.; Banerjee, P.; Qiu, Q.; Macpherson, K. A.; Feng, L.; Tsang, L. L.; Lubis, A.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K. E.


    The 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake was one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded, and also one of the largest intraplate earthquakes. It was followed 2 hours later by another great earthquake, of Mw 8.2, in a similar location. The events occurred ~400 km from northern Sumatra, on the oceanic side of the Sunda megathrust. The event was recorded by high-rate GPS stations from our 50-station Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr). We will present the coseismic displacements and constraints on slip obtained from this network. The location of the events is very interesting. Scientists have long been puzzled by the nature and location of the boundary between the Indian and Australian plates in the depths of the Indian Ocean. Because of the resistance provided by the collision of India with Tibet far to the north, the Indian plate is moving relatively northwards at about 1 cm/yr slower than the Australian plate; this difference in velocity causes strain between the Indian and Australian plates. These earthquakes provide important new evidence that this strain is reactivating a system of faults on the seafloor that were inherited from an older geological epoch, and bring up questions about why this deformation appears to be diffuse, rather than behaving as a proper plate boundary. The events also highlight a back-and-forth interaction between the intraplate faults and the Sunda megathrust; the 2004 megathrust event brought these earthquakes ahead in time, but these earthquakes will in turn have stressed the megathrust. Published seismological results have indicated great complexity in the rupture patterns for these events, with a cascading failure of multiple conjugate faults. Surprisingly, the majority of slip seems to have occurred on the WNW-trending, right-lateral faults, rather than the NNE-trending left-lateral faults that are prominent features of the seafloor. The seismological results also show that the ruptures are likely to have extended from the

  5. Operational real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Grapenthin; I A Johanson; R M Allen


    .... Recently, a range of high-rate GPS strategies have been demonstrated on off-line data. Here we present the first operational system for real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning as implemented at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL...

  6. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne


    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  7. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The process concept and concurrency are at the heart of modern operating systems (OS). A process is the unit of work in a computer system. A process must be in main memory during execution. To improve the utilization of central processing unit. (CPU) as well as the speed of its response to its users, the computer must ...

  8. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia


    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  9. Operation REDWING (United States)


    of all camp messing and housing ed after several surgical operations for a ruptur- facilities, consulting with Departments concern- ed appendix...of pillow slips existed for short periods. LAUNDRY. Laundry service for decontaminating radio- A completely outfitted laundry was opera- active

  10. Molecular analysis of pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Vietnam highlights the high rate of pyrazinamide resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates. (United States)

    Huy, Nguyen Quang; Lucie, Contamin; Hoa, Tran Thi Thanh; Hung, Nguyen Van; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Son, Nguyen Thai; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Anh, Dang Duc; Anne-Laure, Bañuls; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi


    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antibiotic in current anti-tuberculosis regimens. Although the WHO has stressed the urgent need to obtain data on PZA resistance, in high tuberculosis burden countries, little is known about the level of PZA resistance, the genetic basis of such resistance or its link with Mycobacterium tuberculosis families. In this context, this study assessed PZA resistance through the molecular analysis of 260 Vietnamese M. tuberculosis isolates. First-line drug susceptibility testing, pncA gene sequencing, spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing were performed. Overall, the pncA mutation frequency was 38.1% (99 out of 260 isolates) but was higher than 72% (89 out of 123 isolates) in multidrug and quadruple-drug resistant isolates. Many different pncA mutations (71 types) were detected, of which 55 have been previously described and 50 were linked to PZA resistance. Among the 16 novel mutations, 14 are likely to be linked to PZA resistance because of their mutation types or codon positions. Genotype analysis revealed that PZA resistance can emerge in any M. tuberculosis cluster or family, although the mutation frequency was the highest in Beijing family isolates (47.7%, 62 out of 130 isolates). These data highlight the high rate of PZA resistance-associated mutations in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates in Vietnam and bring into question the use of PZA for current and future treatment regimens of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis without PZA resistance testing.

  11. Clinical Application of Screening for GJB2 Mutations before Cochlear Implantation in a Heterogeneous Population with High Rate of Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy


    Full Text Available Clinical application of mutation screening and its effect on the outcome of cochlear implantation is widely debated. We investigated the effect of mutations in GJB2 gene on the outcome of cochlear implantation in a population with a high rate of consanguineous marriage and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Two hundred and one children with profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss were included. Forty-six patients had 35delG in GJB2. Speech awareness thresholds (SATs and speech recognition thresholds (SRTs improved following implantation, but there was no difference in performance between patients with GJB2-related deafness versus control (all >0.10. Both groups had produced their first comprehensible words within the same period of time following implantation (2.27 months in GJB2-related deaf versus 2.62 months in controls, =0.22. Although our findings demonstrate the need to uncover unidentified genetic causes of hereditary deafness, they do not support the current policy for genetic screening before cochlear implantation, nor prove a prognostic value.

  12. Efficient Activation of High-Loading Sulfur by Small CNTs Confined Inside a Large CNT for High-Capacity and High-Rate Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. (United States)

    Jin, Feiying; Xiao, Suo; Lu, Lijie; Wang, Yong


    Sulfur with a high specific capacity of 1673 mAh g(-1) is yet to be used as commercial cathode for lithium batteries because of its low utilization rate and poor cycle stability. In this work, a tube-in-tube carbon structure is demonstrated to relieve the critical problems with sulfur cathode: poor electrical conductivity, dissolution of lithium polysulfides, and large volume change during cycling. A number of small carbon nanotubes (∼20 nm in diameter) and a high loading amount of 85.2 wt % sulfur are both filled completely inside a large amorphous carbon nanotube (∼200 nm in diameter). Owing to the presence of these electrically conductive, highly flexible and structurally robust small CNTs and a large CNT overlayer, sulfur material exhibits a high utilization rate and delivers a large discharge capacity of 1633 mAh g(-1) (based on the mass of sulfur) at 0.1 C, approaching its theoretical capacity (1673 mAh g(-1)). The obtained S-CNTs@CNT electrode demonstrates superior high-rate cycling performances. Large discharge capacities of ∼1146, 1121, and 954 mAh g(-1) are observed after 150 cycles at large current rates of 1, 2, and 5 C, respectively.

  13. Modification, calibration and verification of the IWA River Water Quality Model to simulate a pilot-scale high rate algal pond. (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Niall; Park, Jason B K; McBride, Graham B; Craggs, Rupert J


    We implemented the IWA River Water Quality Model No. 1 (Reichert et al., 2001. River Water Quality Model No. 1, IWA Scientific & Technical Report No. 12) to simulate water-quality characteristics in two pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds. Simulation results were compared with two years' of data from the ponds. The first year's data from one pond were used for model calibration; the remaining data were used for validation. As originally formulated and parameterized, the model consistently yielded summer-time algal biomass concentrations which were too low - with consequent failures in its reproduction of dissolved oxygen, pH and nutrient dynamics. We experimented with various structural/parametric changes to improve the model's performance. The most effective strategy was to greatly increase the respiratory losses suffered by the heterotrophic osmotrophs (thereby giving the algae access to a larger fraction of the incoming dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen). This suggests that CO(2)-bubbling alone cannot entirely preclude resource-limitation of algal production. We doubt that our parameterization of heterotrophic osmotrophs is correct and infer that the algae derive a large fraction of their nutrition by direct osmotrophic uptake of dissolved organic matter. This inference is supported by the literature concerning the physiology of the dominant algal species in our ponds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A defined medium supports changes consistent with capacitation in stallion sperm, as evidenced by increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation and high rates of acrosomal exocytosis. (United States)

    McPartlin, L A; Littell, J; Mark, E; Nelson, J L; Travis, A J; Bedford-Guaus, S J


    Efficient in vitro capacitation of stallion sperm has not yet been achieved, as suggested by low sperm penetration rates reported in in vitro fertilization (IVF) studies. Our objectives were to evaluate defined incubation conditions that would support changes consistent with capacitation in stallion sperm. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation events and the ability of sperm to undergo acrosomal exocytosis under various incubation conditions were used as end points for capacitation. Sperm incubated 4-6h in modified Whitten's (MW) with the addition of 25 mM NaHCO3 and 7 mg/mL BSA (capacitating medium) yielded high rates of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Either HCO3(-) or BSA was required to support these changes, with the combination of both providing the most intense results. When a membrane-permeable form of cAMP and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (IBMX) were added to MW in the absence of HCO3(-) and BSA, the tyrosine phosphorylation results obtained in our capacitating conditions could not be replicated, suggesting either effects apart from cAMP were responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation, or that stallion sperm might respond differently to these reagents as compared to sperm from other mammals. Sperm incubation in capacitating conditions was also associated with high percentages (Phorse.

  15. Coseismic displacement waveforms for the 2016 August 24 Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy carried out from High-Rate GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Avallone


    Full Text Available We used High-Rate sampling Global Positioning System (HRGPS data from 52 permanent stations to retrieve the coseismic dynamic displacements related to the 2016 August 24 Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake. The HRGPS position time series (named hereinafter "GPSgrams" were obtained with two different analysis strategies of the raw GPS measurements (Precise Point Positioning [PPP] and Double-Difference [DD] positioning approaches using the Gipsy-Oasis II and the TRACK (GAMIT/GLOBK software, respectively. These GPSgrams show RMS accuracies mostly within 0.3 cm and, for each site, an agreement within 0.5 cm between the two solutions. By using cross-correlation technique, the GPSgrams are also compared to the doubly-integrated strong motion data at sites where the different instrumentations are co-located in order to recognize in the GPSgrams the seismic waves movements. The high values (mostly greater than 0.6 of the cross-correlation functions between these differently-generated waveforms (GPSgrams and the SM displacement time-histories at the co-located sites confirm the ability of GPS in providing reliable waveforms for seismological applications.

  16. Exploitation of rapid acidification phenomena of food waste in reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of high rate anaerobic digester without conceding on biogas yield. (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Begum, Sameena; Ahuja, Shruti; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Gandu, Bharath; Ahuja, Devender Kumar


    The aim of the present work was to study and infer a full scale experience on co-digestion of 1000kg of FW (400kg cooked food waste and 600kg uncooked food waste) and 2000L of rice gruel (RG) on daily basis based on a high rate biomethanation technology called "Anaerobic gas lift reactor" (AGR). The pH of raw substrate was low (5.2-5.5) that resulted in rapid acidification phenomena with in 12h in the feed preparation tank that facilitated to obtain a lower hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 10days. At full load, AGR was fed with 245kg of total solids, 205kg of volatile solids (167kg of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand) which resulted in the generation of biogas and bio manure of 140m3/day and 110kg/day respectively. The produced biogas replaced 60-70kg of LPG per day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decentralized application of anaerobic digesters in small poultry farms: performance analysis of high rate self mixed anaerobic digester and conventional fixed dome anaerobic digester. (United States)

    Rao, A Gangagni; Gandu, Bharath; Sandhya, K; Kranti, K; Ahuja, Shruti; Swamy, Y V


    Biomethanation of poultry litter was studied in conventional fixed dome anaerobic digester (CFDAD) and high rate self mixed anaerobic digester (SMAD) for possible decentralized application in poultry farms generating litter in the range of 500 kg/day. The performance of CFDAD and SMAD was compared. The study revealed that optimized hydraulic residence time (HRT), volatile solids (VS) loading rate, VS reduction, methane yield was 24 days, 4.0 kg VS/m(3)/day, 64%, 0.15 m(3)/(kg VS fed) and 40 days, 2.15 kg/m(3)/day, 42%, 0.083 m(3)/(kg VS fed) for SMAD and CFDAD, respectively. Better results with SMAD could be attributed to specific design features and intermittent mixing of the digester contents due to self-mixing mechanism. Preliminary cost estimates revealed that installation of SMAD would be remunerative for the farmer in terms of biogas and bio-manure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in performance and bacterial communities in response to various process disturbances in a high-rate biohydrogen reactor fed with galactose. (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Park, Jong-Hun; Park, Hee-Deung; Kim, Sang-Hyoun


    High-rate biohydrogen production was achieved via hybrid immobilized cells fed with galactose in a continuous reactor system. The hybrid immobilized cells were broken down after 20 days and began to form granules by self-aggregation. The peak hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 11.8 ± 0.6 LH2/L-d and 2.1 ± 0.1 mol H2/molgalactose(added), respectively, were achieved at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8h with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 45 g/L-d. This is the highest yet reported for the employment of galactose in a continuous system. Various process disturbances including shock loading, acidification, alkalization and starvation were examined through bacterial community analysis via pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The proportion of Clostridia increased during the stable biohydrogen production periods, while that of Bacilli increased when the reactor was disturbed. However, due to the stability of the self-aggregated granules, the process performance was regained within 4-7 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel strategy to prepare Ge@C/rGO hybrids as high-rate anode materials for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Wang, Bangrun; Wen, Zhaoyin; Jin, Jun; Hong, Xiaoheng; Zhang, Sanpei; Rui, Kun


    Germanium is considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high-capacity. However, owing to the huge volume variation during cycling, the batteries based on germanium anodes usually show poor cyclability and inferior rate capability. Herein, we demonstrated a novel strategy to uniformly anchor the core-shell structured germanium@carbon (Ge@C) on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets by the strong adhesion of dopamine. In the resulting Ge@C/rGO hybrid, the amorphous carbon layer and rGO nanosheets can effectively reduce the agglomeration of germanium and provide buffer matrix for the volume change in electrochemical lithium reactions. When used as anode materials for LIBs, Ge@C/rGO hybrids deliver a reversible capacity of 1074.4 mA h g-1 at 2C after 600 cycles (with capacity retention of 96.5%) and high rate capability of 436 mA h g-1 at 20C after 200 cycles. The encouraging electrochemical performance clearly demonstrates that Ge@C/rGO hybrids could be a potential anode material with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability for LIBs.

  20. Fluorescent Molecules as Transceiver Nanoantennas: The First Practical and High-Rate Information Transfer over a Nanoscale Communication Channel based on FRET (United States)

    Kuscu, Murat; Kiraz, Alper; Akan, Ozgur B.


    Nanocommunications via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a promising means of realising collaboration between photoactive nanomachines to implement advanced nanotechnology applications. The method is based on exchange of energy levels between fluorescent molecules by the FRET phenomenon which intrinsically provides a virtual nanocommunication link. In this work, further to the extensive theoretical studies, we demonstrate the first information transfer through a FRET-based nanocommunication channel. We implement a digital communication system combining macroscale transceiver instruments and a bulk solution of fluorophore nanoantennas. The performance of the FRET-based Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) nanocommunication channel between closely located mobile nanoantennas in the sample solution is evaluated in terms of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) obtained for the transmission rates of 50 kbps, 150 kbps and 250 kbps. The results of the performance evaluation are very promising for the development of high-rate and reliable molecular communication networks at nanoscale.

  1. You have no Choice but to go on: How Physicians and Midwives in Ghana Cope with High Rates of Perinatal Death. (United States)

    Petrites, Alissa D; Mullan, Patricia; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Gold, Katherine J


    Objectives Healthcare providers in low-resource settings confront high rates of perinatal mortality. How providers cope with such challenges can affect their well-being and patient care; we therefore sought to understand how physicians and midwives make sense of and cope with these deaths. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with midwives, obstetrician-gynecologists, pediatricians and trainee physicians at a large teaching hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Interviews focused on participants' coping strategies surrounding perinatal death. We identified themes from interview transcripts using qualitative content analysis. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study. Themes from the transcripts revealed a continuum of control/self-efficacy and engagement with the deaths. Providers demonstrated a commitment to push on with their work and provide the best care possible. In select cases, they described the transformative power of attitude and sought to be agents of change. Conclusions Physicians and midwives in a low-resource country in sub-Saharan Africa showed remarkable resiliency in coping with perinatal death. Still, future work should focus on training clinicians in coping and strengthening their self-efficacy and engagement.

  2. Surfactant based sol-gel approach to nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4} for high rate Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon; Kumta, Prashant N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    Porous nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4} powder with a narrow particle size distribution (100-300nm) for high rate lithium-ion battery cathode application was obtained using an ethanol based sol-gel route employing lauric acid as a surfactant. The synthesized LiFePO{sub 4} powders comprised of agglomerates of crystallites <65nm in diameter exhibiting a specific surface area ranging from 8m{sup 2}g{sup -1} to 36m{sup 2}g{sup -1} depending on the absence or presence of the surfactant. The LiFePO{sub 4} obtained using lauric acid resulted in a specific capacity of 123mAhg{sup -1} and 157mAhg{sup -1} at discharge rates of 10C and 1C with less than 0.08% fade per cycle, respectively. Structural and microstructural characterization were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis while electronic conductivity and specific surface area were determined using four-point probe and N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. (author)

  3. High-rate irradiation of 15mm muon drift tubes and development of an ATLAS compatible readout driver for micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zibell, Andre

    The upcoming luminosity upgrades of the LHC accelerator at CERN demand several upgrades to the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, mainly due to the proportionally increasing rate of uncorrelated background irradiation. This concerns also the "Small Wheel" tracking stations of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, where precise muon track reconstruction will no longer be assured when around 2020 the LHC luminosity is expected to reach values 2 to 5 times the design luminosity of $1 \\times 10^{34} \\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$, and when background hit rates will exceed 10 kHz/cm$^2$. This, together with the need of an additional triggering station in this area with an angular resolution of 1 mrad, requires the construction of "New Small Wheel" detectors for a complete replacement during the long maintenance period in 2018 and 2019. As possible technology for these New Small Wheels, high-rate capable sMDT drift tubes have been investigated, based on the ATLAS 30 mm Monitored Drift Tube technology, but with a smalle...

  4. High rate of awarding compensation for claims of injuries related to clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieko Kurihara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. METHOD: Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs on patient volunteers in Japan. RESULTS: With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. CONCLUSION: Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.

  5. Sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes for high-rate and cycling-stable li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng


    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li(1.2)Ni(0.13)Mn(0.54)Co(0.13)O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAh g(-1)) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  6. Development of C14 laves phase alloy for battery with good high-rate dischargeability; Koritsu hoden tokusei no sugureta denchiyo C14gata laves sogokin no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H.; Wakao, S. [Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mori, K. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)


    Authors have studied to develop Zr-Ti-V-Ni-Mn-Co(Fe,Mo) laves phase alloys for Ni-MH secondary batteries. The object of this study was to develop C14 laves phase alloys with good high-rate dischargeability. Alloys with enthalpy -triangleH for hydride formation in the range of 35 to 37 kJ/molH2 were designed using relations among the enthalpy, cell volume, and average atomic radius. The agreement between designed values and experimental results, and the differences of the enthalpy, cell volume and electrochemical characteristics, alloys with and without heat treatment, were studied. This paper describes first the principle of designing the alloys. Then the method of the experiment was explained The results and considerations were stated under the headings, i.e. Percentage of phase and cell volume, Enthalpy for hydride formation, Electrochemical characteristics of heat treated alloys and the same of as-cast alloys. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation Back to Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD Welcome Your Lung ...

  8. Operation Poorman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.


    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  9. Veterans health administration vocational services for operation iraqi freedom/operation enduring freedom veterans with mental health conditions


    Elizabeth W. Twamley, PhD; Dewleen G. Baker, MD; Sonya B. Norman, PhD; James O. E. Pittman, MSW; James B. Lohr, MD; Sandra G. Resnick, PhD


    High rates of mental health conditions and unemployment are significant problems facing Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). We examined two national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) databases from fiscal years 2008–2009: a larger database (n = 75,607) of OIF/OEF Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance use disorder, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a smaller subset (n = 1,010) of those Veterans whose employment was tracked...

  10. Emergency Contraception Pill Awareness and Knowledge in Uninsured Adolescents: High Rates of Misconceptions Concerning Indications for Use, Side Effects, and Access. (United States)

    Yen, Sophia; Parmar, Deepika D; Lin, Emily L; Ammerman, Seth


    To determine the awareness of, access to, and knowledge of the proper use of emergency contraception pills (ECPs) among uninsured adolescents. Anonymous surveys were used to assess awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. From 2010 to 2012 at mobile primary care clinic in the San Francisco Bay Area. Patients were uninsured adolescents aged 13 to 25; 40% of the participants were currently or had been homeless in the past year. Ethnicity was 50% Asian, 22% Hispanic, 17% Pacific Islanders, 5.5% white, and 5.5% other/mixed ethnicity. Post survey completion, patients received one-on-one 15-minute dedicated ECP education. Awareness of, knowledge of, and access to ECPs. Of the study population of 439, 30% of the participants were 13-16 years old and 70% were 17-25 years old (mean age 17.8 years); 66% were women. Young women (86%) reported higher rates of "hearing about emergency contraception" than did young men (70%) (P pill (40%) or could be used as regular birth control (40%) or to prevent sexually transmitted infections (19%). Only 40% of women and 43% of men aged 17 and older correctly answered that they could obtain EC over the counter; 72% did not know that males could receive EC for use by their partner; 12% incorrectly selected that infertility was a side effect; 44% were under the false impression that EC had to be taken within 1 day of unprotected sex. Uninsured adolescents have high rates of ECP awareness but low ECP knowledge. These adolescents need more ECP education to alleviate misconceptions and increase practical knowledge, specifically, education about male access, side effects, over-the-counter availability for young men and women, and the 120-hour window of use. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate on the auto-flocculation of the microalgae in a high-rate algal pond. (United States)

    Baya, D T; Effebi, K R; Tangou, T T; Keffala, C; Vasel, J L


    Recovering microalgae is one of the main technological and economic concerns in a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) because of their small size and their low density. This paper emphasizes the characterization (identification and assessment of potential flocculation) of chemical compounds involved in microalgae auto-flocculation in a HRAP. First, thermodynamic simulations were performed, using two models (i.e. Visual Minteq and a simplified thermodynamic model) in order to determine the chemical compounds of interest. Experimental tests were then carried out with these compounds for assessing their flocculation ability. Both models revealed that precipitates of calcium phosphates and their substituted forms were the compounds involved in the auto-flocculation. Moreover, experimental tests showed that the stoichiometric neutralization of algal charges by calcium phosphates (i.e. hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), octacalcium phosphate (Ca4H(PO4)3) and amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2)), at a pH within the range 7-10 yields 70-82% recovered algal biomass. The optimum ratio required for algae auto-flocculation was 0.33 Ca5(PO4)3OH/g DM(algae) at pH 10, 0.11 Ca4H(PO4)3/g DM(algae) at pH 7 and 0.23 g Ca3(PO4)2/g DM(algae) at pH 9. Auto-flocculation appears as a simple, sustainable and promising method for efficient harvesting of microalgae in a HRAP.

  12. Identification of nano-sized holes by TEM in the graphene layer of graphite and the high rate discharge capability of Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Tsutomu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Endo, Koji [Department of Chemistry, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Fu, Lijun; Wu, Yuping [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lee, Kyeong Jik [SODIFF Advanced Material Co. Ltd., Yeongju, Geongbuk 750-080 (Korea); Matsumoto, Takatoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    SEM images of round-shaped natural graphite, currently widely used as the anode active material of Li-ion batteries, show that the surface mainly consists of the basal plane, which suggests that the Li insertion/extraction reaction rate is quite limited. In contrast to this suggestion, however, the anode of commercial Li-ion batteries is capable of high rate charging/discharging. In order to explain this inconsistency, we propose that there are nano-holes in the graphene layers of the graphite allowing Li to be very easily inserted and extracted via the holes. Prior to the measurements a quantum chemical investigation was performed on the energy required for Li to pass through the hole in a graphene layer (E{sub act}). The results showed that the E{sub act} value is too high when the size is smaller than pyrene, but is fairly low for holes of the size of coronene, implying that Li can pass through the basal plane layer if there is a hole larger than coronene. Characterization of the rounded graphite sample and flaky natural graphite was conducted by constant-current charge/discharge cycle tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD revealed no appreciable difference between the rounded graphite and flaky natural graphite, in agreement with Raman data. A detailed analysis of the HRTEM results revealed the presence of a number of variously sized circular images. We believe that these are holes in the graphene layer through which Li can pass. The mechanism of formation of the holes is discussed. (author)

  13. Community-Based Control of the Brown Dog Tick in a Region with High Rates of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, 2012–2013 (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H.


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003–2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives. PMID:25479289

  14. Investigating the life-cycle and growth rate of Pediastrum boryanum and the implications for wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N


    The colonial alga Pediastrum boryanum has beneficial characteristics for wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) including high biomass productivity and settleability. Our previous work has shown that these characteristics are enhanced when a portion of gravity harvested algae is recycled back to the pond. To help understand the mechanisms behind the improved performance of P. boryanum dominated HRAP with algal recycling, this study investigated the life-cycle of P. boryanum. Experiments determined the exact timing and growth rate of P. boryanum life-cycle stages ('juvenile', 'growth' and 'reproductive') under four combinations of light and temperature (250 or 120 μMol/m(2)/s; 20 or 10 °C). Single juvenile 16-celled colonies were grown in microcosms on an inverted microscope and photographed every 15 min until reproduction ceased. Two asexual life-cycles and a rarely occurring sexual life-cycle were observed. The time required to achieve asexual reproductive maturity increased from 52 h (high light and temperature) to 307 h (low light and temperature), indicating that the minimum hydraulic retention time or mean cell residence time (MCRT) must be higher than these values to sustain a P. boryanum HRAP culture under ambient conditions. The net growth rate of a P. boryanum colony varied between life-cycle stages (growth > juvenile > reproductive). This suggests that the higher biomass productivity measured in HRAP with algal recycling could be due to both the increased MCRT and an increase in the net growth rate of the HRAP culture by 'seeding' with faster growing colonies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasi-static and high-rate mechanical behavior of aluminum-based MMC reinforced with boron carbide of various length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behm, Nathan, E-mail: [Nanoscale PhD Program, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Yang, Hanry [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Shen, Jianghua [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Ma, Kaka [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [WMRD US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Wei, Qiuming [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)


    We report on an investigation of the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behavior of an ultrafine-grained (UFG) aluminum composite reinforced with nanoscale boron carbide under uniaxial compression. Aluminum composites reinforced with either nanometric or half-micron sized B{sub 4}C exhibit high strength ~900 MPa and considerable strain-to-failure under compression (>15 pct.) at quasi-static (10{sup −3} s{sup −1}) and dynamic (10{sup 3} s{sup −1}) strain rates. Microstructural analyses of the composites and unreinforced aluminum alloy were performed to determine the strengthening mechanisms and plastic behavior that govern the structure–property relationships for this class of materials. Our results reveal that the flow stress of the composites does not depend strongly on strain rate if high rate data are included, while strain rate jump tests via instrumented nanoindentation indicate that the strain rate sensitivity exhibits similar behavior as the unreinforced matrix. The unreinforced alloy undergoes strain hardening at both quasi-static and dynamic strain rates, while the composites show strain softening at dynamic strain rates and elastic nearly-perfectly plastic behavior at quasi-static rates. Adiabatic shear band formation was evident in the composite samples during dynamic loading, whereas no shear banding was observed in the unreinforced alloy for the strain rates studied herein. The notion of adiabatic shear band toughness was adopted to identify the increased propensity to shear localization in the composites vis-a-vis the unreinforced material. An attempt is made to account for the effect of the boron carbide reinforcement size on the strengthening mechanism and overall plastic response for these metal matrix composites.

  16. Modelling response patterns of physico-chemical indicators during high-rate composting of green waste for suppression of Pythium ultimum. (United States)

    St Martin, Chaney C G; Bekele, Isaac; Eudoxie, Gaius D; Bristol, Dexter; Brathwaite, Richard A I; Campo, Kenia-Rosa


    High-rate composting studies on green waste, i.e. banana leaves (BL) and lawn clippings (LC), were conducted in 0.25-m3 rotary barrel composters to evaluate and model changes in key physico-chemical parameters during composting. Time to compost maturity and antagonistic effects and relationships of composts against Pythium ultimum were also investigated. Higher temperatures were achieved in LC compost (LCC), which did not translate to higher total organic carbon (TOC) loss but resulted in lower carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and a more mature compost. With the exception of electrical conductivity (EC), net decreases were observed in pH, TOC and C:N across compost types. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) showed a net increase in LCC and a net decrease in BLC. With the exception of TOC and pH, the results showed that compost type and time had a significant effect on the respective TKN, EC and C:N models. Compost temperature and TOC were best described by the critical exponential and rectangular hyperbola functions, respectively. Whereas TKN, C:N and pH were described using double Fourier functions and EC using Fourier functions. Composts achieved maturity within 19 days and significantly inhibited the growth of P. ultimum. Bacterial population was positively related to growth inhibition (GI) across compost types, whereas total microbial population had a positive relationship with GI in LCC. Evidence suggests that multiple groups of microorganisms contributed to GI through antibiosis and competition for resources. Composts were determined to be suitable for use as components of plant growth substrates based on compost maturity indices.

  17. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is related to high rates of obesity. (United States)

    Coviello, Andrea D; Sam, Susan; Legro, Richard S; Dunaif, Andrea


    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have twice the risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared to women from the general population. Mothers and sisters of affected women also have an increased prevalence of MetS. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of MetS in fathers and brothers of women with PCOS compared to men from the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study at academic medical centers. A total of 211 fathers and 58 brothers of women with PCOS were studied and compared to 1153 and 582 Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) men of similar age and race/ethnicity, respectively. We measured MetS prevalence. The prevalence of MetS was increased in fathers (42 vs. 32%; P = 0.006) and brothers (22 vs. 9%; P = 0.001) compared to NHANES III men. Fathers and brothers had higher body mass index (BMI) than NHANES III men (P fathers and brothers compared to NHANES III groups after adjusting for BMI. Total testosterone was inversely related to MetS in both fathers and brothers, but this relationship was also accounted for by the higher BMI in male relatives. Male relatives of women with PCOS had increased prevalence rates of MetS and obesity compared to the general U.S. male population from NHANES III. In contrast to women with PCOS and their female relatives, the higher prevalence of MetS in male relatives was accounted for by elevated BMI. These findings suggest that the high rates of MetS in male relatives of women with PCOS are related to higher rates of obesity than the general population.

  18. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Drexler

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  19. Community-based control of the brown dog tick in a region with high rates of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 2012-2013. (United States)

    Drexler, Naomi; Miller, Mark; Gerding, Justin; Todd, Suzanne; Adams, Laura; Dahlgren, F Scott; Bryant, Nelva; Weis, Erica; Herrick, Kristen; Francies, Jessica; Komatsu, Kenneth; Piontkowski, Stephen; Velascosoltero, Jose; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hamilton, Brian; Eribes, Carmen; Brock, Anita; Sneezy, Patsy; Goseyun, Cye; Bendle, Harty; Hovet, Regina; Williams, Velda; Massung, Robert; McQuiston, Jennifer H


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a significant public health risk on American Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. During 2003-2012, more than 250 RMSF cases and 19 deaths were documented among Arizona's American Indian population. The high case fatality rate makes community-level interventions aimed at rapid and sustained reduction of ticks urgent. Beginning in 2012, a two year pilot integrated tick prevention campaign called the RMSF Rodeo was launched in a ∼ 600-home tribal community with high rates of RMSF. During year one, long-acting tick collars were placed on all dogs in the community, environmental acaricides were applied to yards monthly, and animal care practices such as spay and neuter and proper tethering procedures were encouraged. Tick levels, indicated by visible inspection of dogs, tick traps and homeowner reports were used to monitor tick presence and evaluate the efficacy of interventions throughout the project. By the end of year one, <1% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community had visible tick infestations five months after the project was started, compared to 64% of dogs in Non-Rodeo communities, and environmental tick levels were reduced below detectable levels. The second year of the project focused on use of the long-acting collar alone and achieved sustained tick control with fewer than 3% of dogs in the RMSF Rodeo community with visible tick infestations by the end of the second year. Homeowner reports of tick activity in the domestic and peridomestic setting showed similar decreases in tick activity compared to the non-project communities. Expansion of this successful project to other areas with Rhipicephalus-transmitted RMSF has the potential to reduce brown dog tick infestations and save human lives.

  20. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy? - An epidemiological study based on consecutive patch test results. (United States)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D


    Contact allergy to linalool hydroperoxides (Lin-OOHs) and limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs) is common. Similarly to what occurs with the terpene hydroperoxides, reactive intermediates formed from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) can cause oxidative modifications of tryptophan residues on proteins in mechanistic studies. To test the hypothesis that patients sensitized to PPD are at increased risk of concomitant reactivity to either of the terpene hydroperoxides, owing to a 'common pathway' of skin protein oxidation. A database study of consecutively patch tested eczema patients (n = 3843) from 2012 to 2015, tested concomitantly with PPD, Lim-OOHs and Lin-OOHs, was performed. Associations were examined by level of concordance and odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, and contact allergy to fragrance mix I and fragrance mix II. Concomitant reactions to PPD were seen in 2.2% of Lim-OOH-positive patients and in 4.9% of Lin-OOH-positive patients. Neither proportion was higher than expected by chance. No association existed between PPD and Lim-OOH patch test reactivity. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, PPD allergy was associated with an insignificantly increased risk (OR 2.11, 95%CI:0.92-4.80) of a positive patch test reaction to Lin-OOHs. PPD sensitization cannot explain the high rates of sensitization to Lin-OOHs and/or Lim-OOHs. Contact allergy to oxidized linalool is more strongly associated with fragrance allergy than with PPD allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High rates of diabetes reversal in newly diagnosed Asian Indian young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus with intensive lifestyle therapy. (United States)

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Kolly, Anish; Chaithanya, H B; Dwarakanath, C S


    There are variable reports on the reversibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) with higher rates among younger patients with short duration of diabetes. Hence, we studied the reversibility of diabetes among young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. This prospective study included 32 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. All type 2 DM patients were initially treated with intensive lifestyle therapy (ILT) (low-calorie diet [1500 kcal/day] and brisk walking for 1 h/day]). Four patients who with HbA1C <9.0% were treated with ILT alone. Except for three patients with concomitant infections who were treated with insulin, remaining 25 patients with HbA1C ≥9.0% were treated with metformin (1000-2000 g) in addition to ILT. When fasting plasma glucose was <126 mg/dl or HbA1C was <6.5% antidiabetic drug dose was reduced or stopped. The patients were followed for a minimum period of 2 years. Reversal/remission rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 24 (75%), 24 (75%), and 22 (68.75%), respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) patients achieved complete reversal and seven (21.9%) patients achieved partial reversal at 3 months. Rates of complete and partial remission at 1 year were 50% and 25% and at 2 years were 46.9% and 21.9%, respectively. Young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM have high rates of diabetes reversal and should receive ILT to achieve reversal of diabetes.

  2. Biomimetic layer-by-layer Co-mineralization approach towards TiO2/Au nanosheets with high rate performance for lithium ion batteries. (United States)

    Hao, Bo; Yan, Yong; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge


    We fabricated a sandwich-like branched-polyethyleneimine (b-PEI)/TiO2/Au/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite through a biomimetic layer-by-layer co-mineralization approach, and the polymer b-PEI was believed to act as both an inducing agent for the hydrolysis of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) and a reducing agent for the reduction of HAuCl4 in the synthetic procedure. Upon organic pyrolysis in air at 500 °C, a TiO2/Au nanosheet was formed; and gold nanocrystals were observed uniformly dispersed on TiO2 nanosheet. Moreover, the obtained TiO2/Au nanosheets demonstrated an enhanced lithium storage performance when they are used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), particularly, a high capacity of 205 mA h g(-1) and 189 mA h g(-1) was obtained at 5 C and 10 C rate, respectively, indicating the high rate capability of the material. The greatly improved rate performance might be attributed from both the sheet-like nanostructure and the existence of uniformly dispersed gold nanocrystals, which facilitate electron transfer and lithium ions diffusion in the material. The result suggests that the TiO2 electrode performance can be improved through a design of sheet-like nanocomposites using a bio-inspired route, which is desirable for both "green synthesis" and application for high power LIBs, moreover, such a benign bio-inspired route can be developed into a general pathway to synthesize many other TiO2 based nanocomposites for broad applications in the fields of batteries, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Assessment of 50%-Propagation-Delay for Cascaded PCB Non-Linear Interconnect Lines for the High-Rate Signal Integrity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eudes


    Full Text Available This paper presents an enlarged study about the 50-% propagation-time assessment of cascaded transmission lines (TLs. First and foremost, the accurate modeling and measurement technique of signal integrity (SI for high-rate microelectronic interconnection is recalled. This model is based on the reduced transfer function extracted from the electromagnetic (EM behavior of the interconnect line RLCG-parameters. So, the transfer function established takes into account both the frequency dispersion effects and the different propagation modes. In addition, the transfer function includes also the load and source impedance effects. Then, the SI analysis is proposed for high-speed digital signals through the developed model. To validate the model understudy, a prototype of microstrip interconnection with w = 500 µm and length d = 33 mm was designed, simulated, fabricated and tested. Then, comparisons between the frequency and time domain results from the model and from measurements are performed. As expected, good agreement between the S-parameters form measurements and the model proposed is obtained from DC to 8 GHz. Furthermore, a de-embedding method enabling to cancel out the connectors and the probe effects are also presented. In addition, an innovative time-domain characterization is proposed in order to validate the concept with a 2.38 Gbit/s-input data signal. Afterwards, the 50-% propagation-time assessment problem is clearly exposed. Consequently an extracting theory of this propagation-time with first order RC-circuits is presented. Finally, to show the relevance of this calculation, propagation-time simulations and an application to signal integrity issues are offered.

  4. High Rate of Treatment Failures in Nonimmune Travelers Treated With Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sweden: Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Effectiveness and Case Series. (United States)

    Sondén, Klara; Wyss, Katja; Jovel, Irina; Vieira da Silva, Antero; Pohanka, Anton; Asghar, Muhammad; Homann, Manijeh Vafa; Gustafsson, Lars L; Hellgren, Urban; Färnert, Anna


    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Since the introduction of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Sweden, treatment failures have been reported in adults. A retrospective comparative analysis of treatment regimen for P. falciparum malaria in adults in Stockholm during 2000-2015 was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of AL. Parasite genotyping and drug concentrations were investigated in the AL treatment failures. Among the total 397 P. falciparum episodes, 310 were treated with oral regimen only (95 AL, 162 mefloquine, 36 atovaquone-proguanil [AP], and 17 others), and 87 were administered initial intravenous therapy (38 artesunate and 49 quinine) followed by oral treatments. Five late treatment failures were detected after AL and one slow response to AP. The effectiveness of AL alone was 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.1%-98.3%), compared with 99.5% for other oral regimens (P = .003). All AL failures occurred in European men and the effectiveness in this group was only 73.7% (95% CI, 48.8%-90.0%). Genotyping confirmed recrudescence of the initial parasite populations and drug resistance markers revealed no clinically significant resistance patterns. Lumefantrine concentrations suggested subtherapeutic concentrations in at least 2 cases. Our findings indicate a high rate of symptomatic late treatment failures after 6-dose AL regime in nonimmune adults, especially in men. Our report warrants the need to establish optimal dosing of AL in adults and to alert clinicians about the importance of informing patients regarding the risk of parasites reappearing weeks after AL treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

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  7. First measurement of the cross section for the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS, and developments for particle tracking in high-rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, Christian C.


    In this dissertation, the first measurement of the luminosity for data from the COMPASS experiment is presented. The result is obtained by the direct measurement of the beam flux and the correction of all inefficiencies and dead times of the measurement. The normalized data set consists of about 30% of the COMPASS data recorded in 2004 and the effective integrated luminosity is 142.4 pb{sup -1} {+-} 10%, which is verified by the determination of the structure function F{sub 2} of the nucleon and its comparison to literature. Based on this result, the cross section for the quasi-real photoproduction of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in muon-deuteron scattering at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=17.4 GeV is determined. The measurement of a hadron-production cross section in a thick solid-state target is quite challenging in comparison to collider measurements of such processes. The issue of secondary hadronic interactions in the target material is carefully studied and taken into account. The cross section is presented in bins of the pseudo-rapidity of the hadrons and separated by hadron charge. The results are discussed and compared to recent calculations of next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. This comparison serves as a test of the applicability of such calculations to the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS energies. The second part of this dissertation describes new developments for charged-particle tracking in high-rate experiments. The design of a new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which employs GEM foils instead of proportional wires for gas amplification, is discussed. This technology opens up the possibility of using TPCs in experiments with trigger rates beyond about 1 kHz. Several important contributions to the GEM-TPC project are presented. Furthermore, a generic framework for track fitting in high-energy physics, called GENFIT, is introduced. This novel software is being used

  8. A frogspawn-inspired hierarchical porous NaTi2(PO4)3-C array for high-rate and long-life aqueous rechargeable sodium batteries (United States)

    Zhao, Baidan; Lin, Bo; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao


    Hollow micro/nano-arrays have attracted tremendous attention in the field of energy conversion and storage, but such structures usually compromise the volumetric energy density of the electrode materials. Frogspawn consists of a spawn core and a transparent jelly shell organized in a hierarchical porous array, which exhibits superior mechanical strength and high-efficiency oxygen permeability. It can be used as a model for designing a new high-performance electrode material, which has advantages such as a high surface area, fast mass transport and superior durability. Herein, we report a frogspawn-like NaTi2(PO4)3/C array prepared by a facile preform impregnation strategy. The framework is formed by a hollow carbon sphere connected by the NaTi2(PO4)3/C skeleton, and its hollow is filled with the NaTi2(PO4)3 nanospheres. The whole hierarchical porous three-dimensional array copies the structure of a frogspawn. This unique structure not only enables easy electrolyte percolation and fast electron/ion transport, but also enhances the reversible capacity and cycling durability. When it is applied as an anode of the aqueous sodium ion battery, it exhibits favorable high rate capability and superior cycling stability, and retains 89% of the initial capacity after two thousand cycles at 20 C. Moreover, the full cell using the frogspawn-inspired NaTi2(PO4)3-C as the anode and Na0.44MnO2 as the cathode is capable of ultralong cycling up to one thousand cycles at alternate 10 and 60 C, which is among the best of state-of-the-art aqueous sodium ion systems. Therefore, the frogspawn-inspired architecture provides a new strategy to the tailored design of polyanion materials for high-power applications.Hollow micro/nano-arrays have attracted tremendous attention in the field of energy conversion and storage, but such structures usually compromise the volumetric energy density of the electrode materials. Frogspawn consists of a spawn core and a transparent jelly shell organized in

  9. PVDF Alumina Nanocomposite Electrolyte as a Host Matrix for High Rate Li ion Batteries from Room Temperature to 120 C (Preprint) (United States)


    environments (80-300 °C) for applications in the automotive, aviation, aerospace, and oil industries .[1] For example, power sources are needed for...operate in high temperature environments (80-300 °C) for applications in the automotive, aviation, aerospace, and oil industries .[1] For example... industry of for oil and gas exploration. 4. Experimental Section Electrode, electrolyte, and cell fabrication: Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) and

  10. Operator theory, operator algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebre, Amarino; Samko, Stefan; Spitkovsky, Ilya


    This book consists of research papers that cover the scientific areas of the International Workshop on Operator Theory, Operator Algebras and Applications, held in Lisbon in September 2012. The volume particularly focuses on (i) operator theory and harmonic analysis (singular integral operators with shifts; pseudodifferential operators, factorization of almost periodic matrix functions; inequalities; Cauchy type integrals; maximal and singular operators on generalized Orlicz-Morrey spaces; the Riesz potential operator; modification of Hadamard fractional integro-differentiation), (ii) operator algebras (invertibility in groupoid C*-algebras; inner endomorphisms of some semi group, crossed products; C*-algebras generated by mappings which have finite orbits; Folner sequences in operator algebras; arithmetic aspect of C*_r SL(2); C*-algebras of singular integral operators; algebras of operator sequences) and (iii) mathematical physics (operator approach to diffraction from polygonal-conical screens; Poisson geo...

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  13. High rate of mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, and BLM genes in Russian ovarian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Bateneva


    C>T in the BLM gene was 0.5–1.0 % in the group of OC patients and 0–0.3 % in the control group of healthy women. The majority of these patients (5/6 were diagnosed with OC at age less than 50 years. The CHEK2 mutation, 470T>C, was more frequently encountered in the control group (6.6 % than in the OC patient group (5.0 %. High rate of the CHEK2 mutation, IVS2+1G>A, was first shown for OC patients in the Russian Federation, the odds ratio was 11.9 (95 % confidence interval, 9.5–14.3; p = 0.056. It was preliminarily concluded that it played an important role in the development of OC in the Russian population; our findings should be verified in further investigations. The difference in the rate of mutations, such as 1100delC, IVS2+1G>A and 470T>C in the CHEK2 gene, 657del5 in the NBN gene, 1642C>T in the BLM gene, were insignificant in the patient and control groups, which may be related to the low population rate of these genetic markers and, in case of the CHEK2 mutation, 470T>C, may be linked to its low penetrance. By taking into account the fact that numerous studies have proven the clinical significance of all examined moderate-penetrance mutations whose prevalence in the Russian population has been confirmed by the authors of this paper, the inclusion of the mutations in a diagnostic panel to detect hereditary predisposition to OC is substantiated. The associated risks are higher for the rare mutations leading to the formation of truncated nonfunctional proteins, which are 1100delC and IVS2+1G>A in the CHEK2 gene, 657del5 in the NBN gene, and 1642C>T in the BLM gene. The penetrance of the CHEK2 mutation, 470T>C, is lower, which should be kept in mind during medical genetic counselling.Conclusion. The total rate of mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, and BLM genes in patients with OC was 30.7 %, which determines the expediency of molecular genetic screening in this category of patients. 

  14. A Simple Prelithiation Strategy To Build a High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery with Improved Low-Temperature Performance. (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Yang, Bingchang; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao


    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being used to power the commercial electric vehicles (EVs). However, the charge/discharge rate and life of current LIBs still cannot satisfy the further development of EVs. Furthermore, the poor low-temperature performance of LIBs limits their application in cold climates and high altitude areas. Herein, a simple prelithiation method is developed to fabricate a new LIB. In this strategy, a Li3 V2 (PO4 )3 cathode and a pristine hard carbon anode are used to form a primary cell, and the initial Li+ extraction from Li3 V2 (PO4 )3 is used to prelithiate the hard carbon. Then, the self-formed Li2 V2 (PO4 )3 cathode and prelithiated hard carbon anode are used to form a 4 V LIB. The LIB exhibits a maximum energy density of 208.3 Wh kg-1 , a maximum power density of 8291 W kg-1 and a long life of 2000 cycles. When operated at -40 °C, the LIB can keep 67 % capacity of room temperature, which is much better than conventional LIBs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, R. (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA); Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.


    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  16. The triceps-sparing posterior approach to plating humeral shaft fractures results in a high rate of union and low incidence of complications. (United States)

    Gausden, Elizabeth B; Christ, Alexander B; Warner, Stephen J; Levack, Ashley; Nellestein, Andrew; Lorich, Dean G


    The optimal treatment of humeral shaft fractures continues to be debated. In the current investigation, we sought to determine the clinical and radiographic outcomes following the plate fixation of humeral shaft fractures utilizing the triceps-sparing posterior approach. A retrospective review identified a consecutive series of 66 humeral shaft fractures (OTA 12-A, 12-B, or 12-C) treated with dual plate fixation via a posterior, triceps-sparing approach between 2005 and 2014 by a single surgeon. Demographics, operative reports, clinical follow-up, and preoperative radiographs were reviewed. Postoperative radiographs were assessed for angular deformity and time to union. Range of motion and strength testing were also reviewed. A total of 66 humeral shaft fractures were reviewed with a mean clinical follow-up of 8.0 months. The mean time to union was 15.6 ± 11.1 weeks, and there was one case of delayed union. Seventeen of 66 (25.8 %) patients presented with a primary radial nerve palsy following injury, and 14 of the 17 (82 %) of the preoperative radial nerve palsies fully resolved at an average of 31 weeks following injury. Two additional patients developed radial nerve palsies postoperatively (3.0 %). This is a large consecutive series of humeral shaft fractures treated with plating through a posterior approach by a single surgeon. The triceps-sparing posterior approach to the humerus results in high union rates and a low incidence of secondary radial nerve palsy. Level IV, Case Series.

  17. Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M. [Bavaria B.V., Lieshout (Netherlands)


    Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

  18. Testing of sealed lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.M.; Sealey, J.D.; Miller, D.W.


    In early January 1981, Sandia National Laboratories began testing sealed lead-acid batteries which were being developed under Sandia contracts. The goal was to develop a totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery capable of deep-discharge operation in a photovoltaic power system. Sealed lead-acid batteries and a group of conventional, flooded lead-acid batteries were exposed to a matrix test plan, with some approaching 1000 cycles. This performance was achieved with the standard National Electrical Manufacturers' Association cycle test, as well as the partial-state-of-charge cycle test. Modes of failure are being investigated.

  19. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

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  1. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

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  2. High-energy high-rate pulsed-power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition. Technical report (Final), 10 April 1985-10 February 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Weldon, W.F.


    This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other high-energy high-rate processing. The characteristics of the high-energy-high-rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a homopolar generator, were defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, a nickel-based metallic glass, copper/graphite composites, and P/M aluminum alloy X7091 were investigated. The powder-consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with subsecond high-temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time temperature transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Inherent control of energy input, and time-to-peak processing temperature developed to be held to short times. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding-foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid, or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate. Deposits of a wide variety of single- and multi-specie materials were produced on several types of substrates. In a series of ancillary experiments, pulsed-skin-effect heating and self quenching of metallic conductors was discovered to be a new means of surface modification by high-energy high-rate-processing.

  3. Space station operations management (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.


    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  4. Foreign Operation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Lawrence S.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    Introduction and theory -- Introduction -- Theoretical approaches -- Modes of operation -- Franchising -- Licensing -- Management contracts -- International subcontracting -- Project operations -- Exports -- Alliances -- Foreign direct investment -- Strategies -- Mode switching and stretching...

  5. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  6. A readout unit for high rate applications

    CERN Document Server

    Toledo, J; Domínguez, D; Guirao-Elias, A; Müller, H


    The LHCb readout unit (RU) is a custom entry stage to the readout network of a data-acquisition or trigger system. It performs subevent building from multiple link inputs toward a readout network via a PCI network interface or alternatively toward a high-speed link, via an S-link interface. Incoming event fragments are derandomized, buffered and assembled into single subevents. This process is based on a low- overhead framing convention and matching of equal event numbers. Programmable logic is used both in the input and output stages of the RU module, which may be configured either as a data-link multiplexer or as entry stage to a readout or trigger network. All FPGAs are interconnected via the PCI bus, which is hosted by a networked microprocessor card. Its main tasks are remote FPGA configuration and initialization of the PCI cards. The RU hardware architecture has been optimized for a throughput of up to 200 MB/s at a 1 MHz trigger rate, as required by the most demanding application, the LHCb level-1 trig...

  7. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L


    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

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  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes@C@SnO2 quantum dots and SnO2 quantum dots@C as high rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Jin, Rencheng; Meng, Yanfeng; Li, Guihua


    The SnO2 quantum dots anchored on amorphous carbon coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs@C@SnO2) and SnO2 quantum dots embedded in amorphous carbon network (SnO2@C) have been designed and fabricated by a solvothermal process accompanied by a high temperature calcination treatment. Such unique structured electrodes exhibit excellent cycle stability and high rate capability. At the current density of 5 A g-1, the capacities of 515 and 364 mAh g-1 are achieved after 300 cycles for CNTs@C@SnO2 and SnO2@C, respectively.

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  11. ROV, Remote Operated Vehicle


    Patiris, Ioannis


    The purpose of this thesis is to show the basic principles of a Remote Operated Vehicle. The aim is also to document in detail how a small scale remote operated vehicle is constructed from the start. This thesis provides theoretical information about remote operated vehicles, as well as ex-plains the construction of hobbyist Remote Operated Vehicle as I carried it out. In the theoretical part information about the history, classification and the cables used in modern Re-mote Operated Vehi...

  12. Co-modification of nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon on Li3V2(PO4)3 particles with excellent long-term and high-rate performance for lithium storage (United States)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Wu, Xianbin; Wang, Yuanhao


    In this work, N-doped graphene and carbon co-modified Li3V2(PO4)3 composites (LVP/NGC) are successfully fabricated through a xerogel method for the first time. The obtained architecture combines two types of electronic contact with Li3V2(PO4)3 particles: the point-to-face contact of N-doped graphene and the face-to-face contact of N-doped carbon coating layers. Profiting from the favorable complex structure, graphene and carbon coating layers offer an extraordinary network for electron transfer and hence an excellent long-term and high-rate performance. Even tested at the rate of 40 C, the reversible capacity still maintains 86.9 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles without any fading. This work provides a promising route to improve the long-term and high-rate performance of cathodes for LIBs and enlightens us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced electrode materials for other energy storage devices.

  13. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent


    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  14. Space Station operations (United States)

    Gray, R. H.


    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  15. Computer algebra and operators (United States)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert


    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  16. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

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    Full Text Available ... Mentoring for Excellence in Trauma Surgery Advanced Trauma Life Support Verification, Review, and Consultation Program for Hospitals ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...

  20. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation ...

  1. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations (United States)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed

  2. Boiler operator's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Heselton, Ken


    Containing key information for operators and managers of large and small plants, this is an indispensable guide for those at advanced and early stages of their careers, as well as for managers interested in reducing operating expenses.

  3. Crew Transportation Operations Standards (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)


    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. Vessel Operator System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operator cards are required for any operator of a charter/party boat and or a commercial vessel (including carrier and processor vessels) issued a vessel permit from...

  5. Successful reefer container operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Explains the different types of reefer container operation, including Cold Treatment, Controlled Atmosphere, and Super Freezer, and the procedures that should be followed in order to ensure correct operation...

  6. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  7. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U


    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  8. Star operations and Pullbacks


    Fontana, Marco; Park, Mi Hee


    In this paper we study the star operations on a pullback of integral domains. In particular, we characterize the star operations of a domain arising from a pullback of ``a general type'' by introducing new techniques for ``projecting'' and ``lifting'' star operations under surjective homomorphisms of integral domains. We study the transfer in a pullback (or with respect to a surjective homomorphism) of some relevant classes or distinguished properties of star operations such as $v-, t-, w-, b...

  9. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating; Avaliacao da potencialidade de argilas do Rio Grande do Norte quando submetidas a elevadas taxas de aquecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEMat/CT/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  10. Organizing for Operational Deception (United States)


    capability to apply operational art on a large scale during the Battle of Kursk . Previous success had been demonstrated by individual tactical...tasks require different organizational designs. FM 3-0 does not recognize any unique Battle Command requirements for MILDEC, by placing it under the...staff, operations, organization, complexity, doctrine, network centric, group tasks, information, operations, battle command 16. SECURITY

  11. Blowout recovery operations : the capping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.; Badick, M. [Safety BOSS, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Capping is generally the final work done at a wellhead. A properly planned capping operation is one of the easiest aspects of a recovery process that should be completed in one or two days. The objective is to establish a safe and reliable casing attachment and seal that is designed to suit the activities that follow. The movement of equipment on and off the wellhead is among the higher risk objectives of a recovery operation, so it is crucial that the job be done right the first time. This paper focused on blowout recovery operations and covered the operations from the point where a sound pipe or a reliable casing flange has been established to the point of installing a conventional wellhead, a diverter system blowout preventer (BOP) stack suitable for shutting in the well, continuing to flow the well, or proceeding with a killing operation. The advantages and disadvantages of many capping options were discussed along with the procedures for installing a wellhead or BOP. The choices for wellheads, diverter systems and BOP stack configurations depend on whether the well can be shut-in, killed or if it must be flowed while an offset well is drilled. The choices presented in this paper included, slip rams, casing bowls, and snubbing.

  12. Stochastic phase transition operator. (United States)

    Yamanobe, Takanobu


    In this study a Markov operator is introduced that represents the density evolution of an impulse-driven stochastic biological oscillator. The operator's stochastic kernel is constructed using the asymptotic expansion of stochastic processes instead of solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The Markov operator is shown to successfully approximate the density evolution of the biological oscillator considered. The response of the oscillator to both periodic and time-varying impulses can be analyzed using the operator's transient and stationary properties. Furthermore, an unreported stochastic dynamic bifurcation for the biological oscillator is obtained by using the eigenvalues of the product of the Markov operators.

  13. Operational symmetries basic operations in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saller, Heinrich


    This book describes the endeavour to relate the particle spectrum with representations of operational electroweak spacetime, in analogy to the atomic spectrum as characterizing representations of hyperbolic space. The spectrum of hyperbolic position space explains the properties of the nonrelativistic atoms; the spectrum of electroweak spacetime is hoped to explain those of the basic interactions and elementary particles. In this book, the theory of operational symmetries is developed from the numbers, from Plato’s and Kepler’s symmetries over the simple Lie groups to their applications in nonrelativistic, special relativistic and general relativistic quantum theories with the atomic spectrum for hyperbolic position and, in first attempts, the particle spectrum for electroweak spacetime. The standard model of elementary particles and interactions is characterized by a symmetry group. In general, as initiated by Weyl and stressed by Heisenberg, quantum theory can be built as a theory of operation groups an...

  14. Risk-sensitive events during laparoscopic cholecystectomy : The influence of the integrated operating room and a preoperative checklist tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Van Lier, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.


    Background - Awareness of the relative high rate of adverse events in laparoscopic surgery created a need to safeguard quality and safety of performance better. Technological innovations, such as integrated operating room (OR) systems and checklists, have the potential to improve patient safety, OR

  15. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency Preparedness Rural Trauma Team Development ... 202-5001 (E) Copyright © 1996-2018 by the American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL ...

  16. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... for after the operation including review of attached equipment and ways for you to actively participate to prevent high-risk complications such as pneumonia and deep vein thrombosis. ... and Associates Medical Students International Surgeons Media ACS Links About ACS ...

  17. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Resources Clinical Congress App Clinical Congress 2018 Future Clinical Congresses MyCME About MyCME About MyCME Claim ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...

  18. Surveillance of bacterial colonization in operating rooms. (United States)

    Alexander, J Wesley; Van Sweringen, Heather; Vanoss, Katherine; Hooker, Edmond A; Edwards, Michael J


    Surgical site infections (SSIs) continue to occur at an unacceptably high rate, incurring direct costs of up to $10 billion per year in the United States and far more than that in total economic costs. There is a continued need to identify potential sources of microbial contamination that lead to surgical infections. Using contact culture plates, we randomly took a total of 517 samples of various surfaces in 33 operating rooms (ORs) over a 6-mo period. Flat surfaces treated with decontamination techniques (floors, anesthesia carts, operating tables, and other flat surfaces) grew small numbers of bacterial colonies, as did other surfaces that were decontaminated less often. Personal items, especially the tops of shoes and personal hats, had much higher contamination than the surfaces just described, which in the case of these two items averaged 50-60 CFU/20 cm(2). The outsides of face masks contained slightly more organisms than did floors, but the insides had almost 100 times more organisms, which was of concern because of high leakage rates at the mask-face interface. The culture system used in our study can be used as a simplified and cost-effective method of identifying the comparative densities of organisms on different surfaces for surveillance of microbial contamination in the OR. To reduce bacterial contamination, shoe covers and disposable hair coverings should be worn at every operation in which there are substantial risks of SSI. Masks that reduce leakage at the mask-face interface should be worn and discarded after each operation.

  19. Cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  20. Operations management system (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.


    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  1. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial


    Brincker, Rune; ANDERSEN, Palle


    In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of modal parameters of practical interest - including the mode shape scaling factor - with a high degree of accuracy. It is also argued that the operational technology offers the user a number of advanta...

  2. Network operating system (United States)


    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  3. Purge ventilation operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marella, J.R.


    A determination of minimum requirements for purge exhaust ventilation system operability has been performed. HLWE and HLW Regulatory Program personnel have evaluated the various scenarios of equipment conditions and HLWE has developed the requirements for purge exhaust systems. This report is provided to document operability requirements to assist Tank Farm personnel to determine whether a system is operable/inoperable and to define required compensatory actions.

  4. Operator interface for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E


    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  5. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  6. Implications for Operations (United States)

    Arduini, G.; Lamont, M.; Pieloni, T.; Rumolo, G.

    The HL-LHC will introduce a number of novel operational features and challenges including luminosity leveling. After a brief recap of the possible leveling techniques, the potential impact of the operational regime on overall efficiency is discussed. A breakdown of the operational cycle and the standard operational year, together with a discussion of fault time is presented. The potential performance is then explored and estimates of the required machine availability and efficiency for 250 fb-1 per year are given. Finally the e-cloud challenges, scrubbing runs requirements, and machine development potential are outlined.

  7. PLATO administers operator training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehner, R.E.


    Baltimore Gas and Electric Co. is committed to an in-depth training program for substation operators. For the past two years, one important part of the training program has been a computer-based educational system with a CRT touch-response graphic display that is interactive with the trainee. This system, known as PLATO, reproduces a training situation so realistic that the operator becomes completely involved with the lesson. When used for pretraining prior to substation operating experience, it provides a hands-on insight into operating practices without jeopardizing personnel or equipment, or degrading customer service.

  8. RTX Correction Accuracy and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data (United States)

    Zimakov, L. G.; Raczka, J.; Barrientos, S. E.


    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chile (Chilean National Network), Italy (University of Naples Network), and California. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized case. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording includes an ANSS Class A, force balance accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, producing high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in three seismic stations in different geographic locations with different Trimble global reference stations coverage The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, both radio and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the centralized Data Acquisition Centers for real-time data processing. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot platform. Data from the SG160-09 system was used for seismic event characterization along with data from traditional seismic and geodetic stations

  9. The influence of birthweight, past poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and current body mass index on levels of albuminuria in young adults: the multideterminant model of renal disease in a remote Australian Aboriginal population with high rates of renal disease and renal failure. (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; White, Andrew V; Tipiloura, Bernard; Singh, Gurmeet R; Sharma, Suresh; Bloomfield, Hilary; Swanson, Cheryl E; Dowling, Alison; McCredie, David A


    Australian Aborigines in remote areas have very high rates of kidney disease, which is marked by albuminuria. We describe a 'multihit' model of albuminuria in young adults in one remote Aboriginal community. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) were measured in 655 subjects aged 15-39 years and evaluated in the context of birthweights, a history of 'remote' poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN; ≥5 years earlier) and current body mass index (BMI). Birthweight had been <2.5 kg (low birthweight, LBW) in 25.4% of subjects and 22.8% had a remote history of PSGN. ACR levels rose with age. It exceeded the microalbuminuria threshold in 33.6% of subjects overall (25% of males and 45% of females). In multivariate models, birthweight (inversely), remote PSGN and current BMI were all independent predictors of ACR levels. The effects of birthweight and PSGN and their combination were expressed through amplification of ACR levels in relation to age and around the group median BMI of 20.8 kg/m(2). In people with BMI <20.8 (57.8% of all males and 40.3% of the females), LBW and PSGN alone had minimal effects on ACR, but in combination they strikingly amplified ACR in relation to age. Those with BMI ≥20.8 (which included 42.2% of the males and 59.7% of the females) had higher ACR levels, and both LBW and a PSGN history, separately and in combination, were associated with striking further amplification of ACR in the context of age. Much of the great excess of disease in this population is explained by high rates of the early life risk factors, LBW and PSGN. Their effects are expressed through amplification of ACR in the context of increasing age and are further moderated by levels of current body size. Both early life risk factors are potentially modifiable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyberspace Operations in Support of Counterinsurgency Operations (United States)


    5% GSM – Global System for Mobile Communication CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access Table 1 4 their operations. as access to technology and the...discussions by insurgent organizations. the proliferation of cellular-based technologies, particularly 3G (the third generation of mobile ...Growth GSM Providers (Licensed) 4 4 0 GSM Subscribers 14,855,235 17,558,265 15% Internet Service Providers 7 7 0 CDMA Subscribers 96,947 134,092 27

  11. Operational Transformation In Co-Operative Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur


    Full Text Available Cooperative Editing Systems in real-time allows a virtual team to view and edit a shared document at the same time. The document shared must be synchronized in order to ensure consistency for all the participants. This paper describes the Operational Transformation the evolution of its techniques its various applications major issues and achievements. In addition this paper will present working of a platform where two users can edit a code programming file at the same time.

  12. Controlling fundamentals in high-energy high-rate pulsed power materials processing of powdered tungsten, titanium aluminides, and copper-graphite composites. Final technical report, 1 Jun 87-31 Aug 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Bourell, D.L.; Eliezer, Z.; Weldon, W.F.


    This study was conducted to determine the controlling fundamentals in the high-energy high-rate (1 MJ in 1s) processing of metal powders. This processing utilizes a large electrical current pulse to heat a pressurized powder mass. The current pulse was provided by a homopolar generator. Simple short cylindrical shapes were consolidated so as to minimize tooling costs. Powders were subjected to current densities of 5 kA/cm2 to 25 kA/cm2 under applied pressures ranging from 70 MPa to 500 MPa. Disks with diameters of 25 mm to 70 mm, and thicknesses of 1 mm to 10 mm were consolidated. Densities of 75% to 99% of theoretical values were obtained in powder consolidates of tungsten, titanium aluminides, copper-graphite, and other metal-ceramic composites. Extensive microstructural characterization was performed to follow the changes occuring in the shape and microstructure of the various powders. The processing science has at its foundation the control of the duration of elevated temperature exposure during powder consolidation.

  13. Evaporation-induced self-assembled silica colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structural evolution of poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwoven composite separators for high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ran; Won, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Sang-Young


    A facile approach to the fabrication of nanoporous structure-tuned nonwoven composite separators is demonstrated for application in high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries. This strategy is based on the construction of silica (SiO2) colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structure in a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven substrate. The nanoparticle arrangement arising from evaporation-induced self-assembly of SiO2 colloidal particles allows the evolution of the unusual nanoporous structure, i.e. well-connected interstitial voids formed between close-packed SiO2 particles adhered by styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) binders. Meanwhile, the PET nonwoven serves as a mechanical support that contributes to suppressing thermal shrinkage of the nonwoven composite separator. The aforementioned structural novelty of the nonwoven composite separator plays a key role in providing the separator with advantageous characteristics (specifically, good electrolyte wettability, high ionic conductivity, and benign compatibility with electrodes), which leads to the better cell performance than a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator.

  14. Ni foam supported quasi-core-shell structure of ultrathin Ti3C2 nanosheets through electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly as high rate-performance electrodes of supercapacitors (United States)

    Tian, Yapeng; Yang, Chenhui; Que, Wenxiu; He, Yucheng; Liu, Xiaobin; Luo, Yangyang; Yin, Xingtian; Kong, Ling Bing


    Supercapacitor, as an important energy storage device, is a critical component for next generation electric power system, due to its high power density and long cycle life. In this study, a novel electrode material with quasi-core-shell structure, consisting of negatively charged few layer Ti3C2 nanosheets (FL-Ti3C2) and positively charged polyethyleneimine as building blocks, has been prepared by using an electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly method, with highly conductive Ni foam to be used as the skeleton. The unique quasi-core-shell structured ultrathin Ti3C2 nanosheets provide an excellent electron channel, ion transport channel and large effective contact area, thus leading to a great improvement in electrochemical performance of the material. The specific capacitance of the binder-free FL-Ti3C2@Ni foam electrodes reaches 370 F g-1 at the scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a specific capacitance of 117 F g-1 is obtained even at the scan rate of 1000 mV s-1 in the electrolyte of Li2SO4, indicating a high rate performance. In addition, this electrode shows a long-term cyclic stability with a loss of only 13.7% after 10,000 circles. Furthermore, quantitative analysis has been conducted to ensure the relationship between the capacitive contribution and the rate performance of the as-fabricated electrode.

  15. In-situ carbon-coated Na2FeP2O7 anchored in three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide framework as a durable and high-rate sodium-ion battery cathode (United States)

    Chen, Xiaobin; Du, Ke; Lai, Yanqing; Shang, Guozhi; Li, Huangxu; Xiao, Zhiwei; Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Junming; Zhang, Zhian


    Na2FeP2O7, which is considered as a promising cathode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) on account of its economical efficiency and outstanding thermal stability, has been widely studied for the purpose of enhancing its electronic conductivity and interface ion transportation. In this paper, a double-carbon synergistically modified strategy was firstly introduced to facilitate the electrochemical performance of Na2FeP2O7. Na2FeP2O7 particles are enwrapped in situ by a carbon layer and further anchored in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) framework through a facile urea-nitrate combustion method. Consequently, the excellent rate performance and durable cycle stability of this compound are identified, which exhibits a reversible sodium storage capacity of 65 mAh g-1 at a current density of 10 C and no obvious decay in capacity after circling for 300 cycles at 1 C. What's more, no drastic degradation in capacity is observed when the cycling current density is brought back to high rates after cycling for more than 360 cycles at various rates.

  16. Operations Program Executive (United States)

    Fague, M. A.


    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  17. Orthogonality and Hecke operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Permanent link: Keywords. Hecke operator; eigenvalue; orthogonality; Atkin–Lehner theory. Abstract. In this article we analyze orthogonality relations between old forms and the connection to the theory of Hecke operators. Author Affiliations.

  18. Health care operations management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, M.W.; Hans, Elias W.; Kolisch, R.


    Health care operations management has become a major topic for health care service providers and society. Operations research already has and further will make considerable contributions for the effective and efficient delivery of health care services. This special issue collects seven carefully

  19. Elliptic Quadratic Operator Equations


    Ganikhodjaev, Rasul; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Saburov, Mansoor


    In the present paper is devoted to the study of elliptic quadratic operator equations over the finite dimensional Euclidean space. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions of elliptic quadratic operator equations. The iterative Newton-Kantorovich method is also presented for stable solutions.

  20. Operation plan : Alviso System (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the operation plan for ponds A2W, A3W, A7, A14, and A16 in the Alviso System at San Francisco Bay NWR Complex. Operating instructions for both winter and...

  1. Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Renesse, R.


    Distributed operating systems have many aspects in common with centralized ones, but they also differ in certain ways. This paper is intended as an introduction to distributed operating systems, and especially to current university research about them. After a discussion of what constitutes a

  2. UN Peacebuilding Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rary UN peace operations are mandated to manage post-conflict peacebuilding transitions that ... UN military units? And can it remain relevant during all the phases of a UN peacebuilding operation? This paper will analyse this question by first defining and developing .... achievement of the overall peacebuilding objective.

  3. Orthogonality and Hecke operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail:; MS received 16 January 2006; revised 21 April 2009. Abstract. In this article we analyze orthogonality relations between old forms and the connection to the theory of Hecke operators. Keywords. Hecke operator; eigenvalue; orthogonality; Atkin–Lehner ...

  4. Operating room manager game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Nieberg, T.


    The operating room (OR) department of a hospital forms the heart of the organization, where the single largest cost is incurred. This document presents and reports on the “Operating Room Manager Game,” developed to give insight into managing a large hospital's OR department at various levels of

  5. Subgradient Projection Operators


    Pauwels, Benoit


    Several algebraic and topological properties of subgradient projection operators are investigated and various examples are provided. Connections with Moreau's proximity operator are also made and acceleration schemes for subgradient projection algorihms are discussed. Finally continuity, nonexpansiveness, monotonicity, differentiability, and epi-convergence properties are investigated.

  6. with unary operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Celani


    Full Text Available We characterize the simple and subdirectly irreducible distributive algebras in some varieties of distributive lattices with unary operators, including topological and monadic positive modal algebras. Finally, for some varieties of Heyting algebras with operators we apply these results to determine the simple and subdirectly irreducible algebras.

  7. UN Peacebuilding Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published a Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Task Framework in 2002, in which they identify three stages, namely: the ..... building operation. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has participated in the development of the guidelines on the use of military and civil defence assets to support United Nations ...

  8. operation zitadelle (kursk)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Until the coining of the concept of operational art and the identification of the .... concepts. During the Second World War Eisenhower was provided with subordinates such as Bradley and Patton, freeing his hand to concentrate on what to ... with warlike operations in contrast to administrative and logistic functions, training.

  9. Crane and Excavator Operator. (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on crane and excavator operation is designed to enable the crane and excavator operator to perform his/her duties more proficiently. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide…

  10. Operant-Box Sociology (United States)

    Dimond, Stuart J.


    Sketches a model which considers society a teacher which instructs like an operant box..." The author contends that the family, the school, the play group, the adolescent gang, the office, the prison, the mental hospital, each reward, instruct and control the individual who learns by operant means what the institution teaches." (Author/AL)

  11. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of ...... estimation, vibration level estimation and fatigue analysis....

  12. Operant conditioning in invertebrates. (United States)

    Brembs, Björn


    Learning to anticipate future events on the basis of past experience with the consequences of one's own behavior (operant conditioning) is a simple form of learning that humans share with most other animals, including invertebrates. Three model organisms have recently made significant contributions towards a mechanistic model of operant conditioning, because of their special technical advantages. Research using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster implicated the ignorant gene in operant conditioning in the heat-box, research on the sea slug Aplysia californica contributed a cellular mechanism of behavior selection at a convergence point of operant behavior and reward, and research on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis elucidated the role of a behavior-initiating neuron in operant conditioning. These insights demonstrate the usefulness of a variety of invertebrate model systems to complement and stimulate research in vertebrates.

  13. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  14. Operations Between Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus

    A structural theory of operations between real-valued (or extended-real-valued) functions on a nonempty subset A of Rn is initiated. It is shown, for example, that any operation ∗ on a cone of functions containing the constant functions, which is pointwise, positively homogeneous, monotonic......, and associative, must be one of 40 explicitly given types. In particular, this is the case for operations between pairs of arbitrary, or continuous, or differentiable functions. The term pointwise means that (f ∗g)(x) = F(f(x), g(x)), for all x ∈ A and some function F of two variables. Several results in the same...... spirit are obtained for operations between convex functions or between support functions. For example, it is shown that ordinary addition is the unique pointwise operation between convex functions satisfying the identity property, i.e., f ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ f = f, for all convex f, while other results classify Lp...

  15. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole


    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... and that sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...

  16. Modern operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S


    Modern Operating Systems, Fourth Edition, is intended for introductory courses in Operating Systems in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Electrical Engineering programs. It also serves as a useful reference for OS professionals ' The widely anticipated revision of this worldwide best-seller incorporates the latest developments in operating systems (OS) technologies. The Fourth Edition includes up-to-date materials on relevant'OS. Tanenbaum also provides information on current research based on his experience as an operating systems researcher. ' Modern Operating Systems, Third Editionwas the recipient of the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award. The McGuffey Longevity Award recognizes textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time.' " Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: ' *Provide Practical Detail on the Big Picture Concepts: A clear and entertaining writing s...

  17. Noncommutative operational calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry E. Heatherly


    Full Text Available Oliver Heaviside's operational calculus was placed on a rigorous mathematical basis by Jan Mikusinski, who constructed an algebraic setting for the operational methods. In this paper, we generalize Mikusi'{n}ski's methods to solve linear ordinary differential equations in which the unknown is a matrix- or linear operator-valued function. Because these functions can be zero-divisors and do not necessarily commute, Mikusi'{n}ski's one-dimensional calculus cannot be used. The noncommuative operational calculus developed here,however, is used to solve a wide class of such equations. In addition, we provide new proofs of existence and uniqueness theorems for certain matrix- and operator valued Volterra integral and integro-differential equations. Several examples are given which demonstrate these new methods.

  18. Aircraft operations management manual (United States)


    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  19. Integrated formal operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, G.; Dearholt, W.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Tyler, R.; Wrye, J.


    The concept of formal operations (that is, a collection of business practices to assure effective, accountable operations) has vexed the Laboratory for many years. To date most attempts at developing such programs have been based upon rigid, compliance-based interpretations of a veritable mountain of Department of Energy (DOE) orders, directives, notices, and standards. These DOE dictates seldom take the broad view but focus on highly specialized programs isolated from the overall context of formal operations. The result is a confusing array of specific, and often contradictory, requirements that produce a patchwork of overlapping niche programs. This unnecessary duplication wastes precious resources, dramatically increases the complexity of our work processes, and communicates a sense of confusion to our customers and regulators. Coupled with the artificial divisions that have historically existed among the Laboratory`s formal operations organizations (quality assurance, configuration management, records management, training, etc.), this approach has produced layers of increasingly vague and complex formal operations plans, each of which interprets its parent and adds additional requirements of its own. Organizational gridlock ensues whenever an activity attempts to implement these bureaucratic monstrosities. The integrated formal operations plan presented is to establish a set of requirements that must be met by an integrated formal operations program, assign responsibilities for implementation and operation of the program, and specify criteria against which the performance of the program will be measured. The accountable line manager specifies the items, processes, and information (the controlled elements) to which the formal operations program specified applies. The formal operations program is implemented using a graded approach based on the level of importance of the various controlled elements and the scope of the activities in which they are involved.

  20. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators. (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A


    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  1. Factors associated with risky sun exposure behaviors among operating engineers. (United States)

    Duffy, Sonia A; Choi, Seung Hee; Hollern, Rachael; Ronis, David L


    The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with sun exposure behaviors among Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators). Operating Engineers (N = 498) were asked to complete a cross-sectional survey. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to determine health behavioral, perceptional, and demographic factors associated with sun exposure behavior (sun burns, blistering, use of sunscreen, and interest in sun protection services). Almost half reported two or more sunburns/summer and the median times blistering was 2 with a range of 0-100. About one-third never used sun block, while just over one-third rarely used sun block. Almost one-quarter were interested in sun protection guidance. Multivariate analyses showed that perceptions of skin type, alcohol problems, fruit intake, BMI, sleep quality, age, sex, and race were significantly associated with at least one of the outcome variables (P Operating Engineers are at high risk for skin cancer due to high rates of exposure to ultraviolet light and low rates of sun block use. Subgroups of Operating Engineers are particularly at risk for sun damage. Interventions are needed to decrease sun exposure among Operating Engineers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury): An Operational Analysis (United States)


    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis by Kenneth J. Cox Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army...Title (Include Security Classification): The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis (UNCLASSIFIED) 9. Personal Authors...Security Classification of this page Unclassified 3 ABSTRACT The Battle for Crete (Operation Mercury ): An Operational Analysis In May

  3. Scientific Operation of LIGO (United States)

    Sanders, Gary H.


    LIGO construction has been completed. The three interferometers at the two LIGO observatory sites (Livingston, Louisiana and Hanford, Washington) have been operated successfully as power-recycled Michelson interferometers with Fabry-Perot arm cavities. Commissioning of the interferometers has progressed to operating them simultaneously in this final optical configuration. Initial coincidence operation between the observatory sites has provided a full test of the detector hardware and software subsystems, and full operation of the data acquisition and data analysis systems. The LIGO Laboratory and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration are working together to exploit the early series of interleaved engineering and science runs to commission the detector and data systems, to provide a detailed characterization of the detector and to produce the first scientific results from LIGO. The operation of LIGO is also coordinated with operation of the GEO 600 detector, the TAMA 300 detector and the Allegro resonant mass detector. The status of this early operation, including the first science run during 2002, and the resulting data study will be presented. The support of the US National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY - 0107417 is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Magellan Telescopes operations 2008 (United States)

    Osip, David J.; Phillips, Mark M.; Palunas, Povilas; Perez, Frank; Leroy, M.


    The twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes have been in routine operations at the Las Campanas Observatory in the Chilean Andes since 2001 and 2002 respectively. The telescopes are owned and operated by Carnegie for the benefit of the Magellan consortium members (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Harvard University, the University of Arizona, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan). This paper provides an up to date review of the scientific, technical, and administrative structure of the 'Magellan Model' for observatory operations. With a modest operations budget and a reasonably small staff, the observatory is operated in the "classical" mode, wherein the visiting observer is a key member of the operations team. Under this model, all instrumentation is supplied entirely by the consortium members and the various instrument teams continue to play a critical support role beyond initial deployment and commissioning activities. Here, we present a critical analysis of the Magellan operations model and suggest lessons learned and changes implemented as we continue to evolve an organizational structure that can efficiently deliver a high scientific return for the investment of the partners.

  5. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel


    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  6. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  7. Fermilab booster operational status: Beam loss and collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Webber


    Beam loss reduction and control challenges confronting the Fermilab Booster are presented in the context of the current operational status. In Summer 2002 the programmatic demand for 8 GeV protons will increase to 5E20/year. This is an order of magnitude above recent high rates and nearly as many protons as the machine has produced in its entire 30-year lifetime. Catastrophic radiation damage to accelerator components must be avoided, maintenance in an elevated residual radiation environment must be addressed, and operation within a tight safety envelope must be conducted to limit prompt radiation in the buildings and grounds around the Booster. Diagnostic and performance tracking improvements, enhanced orbit control, and a beam loss collimation/localization system are essential elements in the approach to achieving the expected level of performance and are described here.

  8. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the current context of global economic liberalisation and technological advancements, industrial companies are less likely to generate value in the traditional vertically integrated chain. Instead, they are doing so by means of elaborate cross-border and cross-organisational networks. As a rule...... and processes in global operations networks, and • Trajectories and reconfiguration of global operations networks. The themes are intended to incorporate elements which in combination provide a comprehensive multidisciplinary view on operations networks. Behind these themes lay clusters of questions and topics...

  9. Computer system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Hae Cho; Lee, Ho Yeun; Kim, Young Taek; Lee, Sung Kyu; Park, Jeong Suk; Nam, Ji Wha; Kim, Soon Kon; Yang, Sung Un; Sohn, Jae Min; Moon, Soon Sung; Park, Bong Sik; Lee, Byung Heon; Park, Sun Hee; Kim, Jin Hee; Hwang, Hyeoi Sun; Lee, Hee Ja; Hwang, In A. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The report described the operation and the trouble shooting of main computer and KAERINet. The results of the project are as follows; 1. The operation and trouble shooting of the main computer system. (Cyber 170-875, Cyber 960-31, VAX 6320, VAX 11/780). 2. The operation and trouble shooting of the KAERINet. (PC to host connection, host to host connection, file transfer, electronic-mail, X.25, CATV etc.). 3. The development of applications -Electronic Document Approval and Delivery System, Installation the ORACLE Utility Program. 22 tabs., 12 figs. (Author) .new.

  10. EEI: Operation Involvement (United States)

    Eberhart, Jonathan


    Describes the operation of Educational Expeditions International (EEI), a private organization which links interested amateurs with professional researchers on exploratory adventures. EEI funds scientists and their studies for which amateurs pay for the privilege of joining. (CP)

  11. Operating plan FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document is the first edition of Argonne`s new Operating Plan. The Operating Plan complements the strategic planning in the Laboratory`s Institutional Plan by focusing on activities that are being pursued in the immediate fiscal year, FY 1998. It reflects planning that has been done to date, and it will serve in the future as a resource and a benchmark for understanding the Laboratory`s performance. The heart of the Institutional Plan is the set of major research initiatives that the Laboratory is proposing to implement in future years. In contrast, this Operating Plan focuses on Argonne`s ongoing R&D programs, along with cost-saving measures and other improvements being implemented in Laboratory support operations.

  12. Title V Operating Permits (United States)

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  13. Operable Unit Boundaries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  14. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.


    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  15. Crushed Stone Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  16. Emergency Operations Center (United States)

    EOC serves as the response operational focal point. A communication and coordination hub designed to increase data management and coordination abilities, provides communication support for Watch Officer, Homeland Security, regional and field assets.

  17. Payroll Operational Data Store (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Payroll ODS will provide a single repository of payroll data to produce accurate and timely financial reports to support operating, budget, and policy decisions.

  18. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  19. Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: Department Head Office  

  20. LCOGT network observatory operations (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Hjelstrom, Annie; Boroson, Todd; Burleson, Ben; Conway, Patrick; De Vera, Jon; Elphick, Mark; Haworth, Brian; Rosing, Wayne; Saunders, Eric; Thomas, Doug; White, Gary; Willis, Mark; Walker, Zach


    We describe the operational capabilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. We summarize our hardware and software for maintaining and monitoring network health. We focus on methodologies to utilize the automated system to monitor availability of sites, instruments and telescopes, to monitor performance, permit automatic recovery, and provide automatic error reporting. The same jTCS control system is used on telescopes of apertures 0.4m, 0.8m, 1m and 2m, and for multiple instruments on each. We describe our network operational model, including workloads, and illustrate our current tools, and operational performance indicators, including telemetry and metrics reporting from on-site reductions. The system was conceived and designed to establish effective, reliable autonomous operations, with automatic monitoring and recovery - minimizing human intervention while maintaining quality. We illustrate how far we have been able to achieve that.