WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-pressure high-temperature oxygen

  1. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  2. Pressure balanced type membrane covered polarographic oxygen detectors for use in high temperature-high pressure water, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Norio; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1984-01-01

    A pressure balanced type membrane covered polarographic oxygen detector was developed to determine directly oxygen concentrations in high temperature, high pressure water without cooling and pressure reducing procedures. The detector is characterized by the following features: (1) The detector body and the membrane for oxygen penetration are made of heat resistant resin. (2) The whole detector body is contained in a pressure chamber where interior and exterior pressures of the detector are balanced. (3) Thermal expansion of the electrolyte is absorbed by deformation of a diaphragm attached to the detector bottom. (4) The effect of dissolved Ag + on the signal current is eliminated by applying a guard electrode. As a result of performance tests at elevated temperature, it was demonstrated that a linear relationship between oxygen concentration and signal current was obtained up to 285 0 C, which was stabilized by the guard electrode. The minimum O 2 concentration detectable was 0.03ppm (9.4 x 10 -7 mol/kg). (author)

  3. A DLTS study of the evolution of oxygen precipitates in Si at high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I.V.; Popov, V.P.; Fedina, L.I.; Shaimeev, S.S.; Misiuk, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the dissolution of oxygen precipitates introduced beforehand into Si at temperatures of 920-1000 K (over period of 96 h) is investigated by the DLTS method. A measurement procedure, based on the formation of electrically active complexes (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy) during electron irradiation of the samples, is proposed. It is shown that the precipitates do not decompose when point defects are introduced at room temperature. As the treatment temperature increases (to 1220-1650 K), for the same values of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 1.3 GPa) the intensity of the decomposition of oxygen precipitates increases and at 1650 K they are completely dissolved. Study of the decomposition kinetics showed that hydrostatic pressure raises the limit of solubility of the oxygen atoms Oi and slows down their diffusion. It is determined that the diffusion activation energy Ea, just as the preexponential factor D0, in the expression for the diffusion decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure, resulting in a lower diffusion. Possible mechanisms for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on oxygen diffusion near a precipitate are discussed

  4. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  5. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  6. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  7. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  8. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T c superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T c cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.55 samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 . A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T c as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B 1g -like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group Imm2). The structural transition is clearly reflected in the high pressure

  9. Pressure pressure-balanced pH sensing system for high temperature and high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Koji

    1995-01-01

    As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)

  10. The measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jie.

    1986-01-01

    The various error factors in measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels are anslysed. The measuring method of error self compensation and its simplification for land use are shown

  11. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  12. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  13. Effective like- and unlike-pair interactions at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, F.H.; van Thiel, M.

    1991-05-01

    We describe how information on effective interactions of chemical species involving C, O, and N atoms at high pressure and high temperature may be inferred from available shock wave data of NO and CO. Our approach uses a modern statistical mechanical theory and a detailed equation of state (EOS) model for the condensed phases of carbon

  14. High pressure and high temperature EXAFS and diffraction study of AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Arima, Hiroshi; Fukui, Hiroshi; Okube, Maki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ohtaka, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    We have determined the precise P-T phase diagram of AgI by in-situ high-pressure high-temperature synchrotron experiments. X-ray diffraction and XAFS measurements were performed up to 6.0 GPa and 1100 K using a multi-anvil high-pressure device and synchrotron radiation from SPring-8. In the disordered rock-salt phase, Ag ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral sites and twenty percent of Ag ions occupy the tetrahedral site as a maximum value at 2 GPa. From the viewpoint of the local structure analyses, some sudden changes are recognized near broad phase transition point. Analysis of EXAFS Debye-Waller factor is useful because the force constant can be decided directly even at high pressure and high temperature. Pressure influences greatly the effective potential and anharmonicity decreases with increasing pressure. (author)

  15. Nb effect on Zr-alloy oxidation under high pressure steam at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Kyutae

    2005-01-01

    The high-pressure steam effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) and Zirlo (Zry-1%Nb) claddings at high temperature have been analyzed. Test temperature range was 700-900degC, and pressures were 1-150 bars. High pressure-steam enhances oxidation of Zry-4, and the dependency of enhancement looks exponential to steam pressure. The origin of the oxidation enhancement turned out to be the formation of cracks in oxide. The loss of tetragonal phase by high-pressure steam seems related to the crack formation. Addition of Nb as an alloying element to Zr alloy reduces significantly the steam pressure effects on oxidation. The higher compressive stresses and the smaller fraction of tetragonal oxides in Zry-1%Nb seem to be the diminished effect of high-pressure steam on oxidation. (author)

  16. Spectroscopic studies of sulfite-based polyoxometalates at high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Cabrera, Raul; Firth, Steven; Blackman, Christopher S.; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy; McMillan, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes occurring within non-conventional Dawson-type [α/β-Mo 18 O 54 (SO 3 ) 2 ] 4− polyanions in the form of tetrapentylammonium salts were studied by a combination of IR, Raman and visible spectroscopy at high temperature and high pressure. Evidence of the formation of bronze-type materials above 400 K and also upon pressurization to 8 GPa is presented. This conclusion is suggested to be a general result for polyoxometalate compounds subjected to extreme conditions and it opens opportunities for the design of new materials with interesting optical and electronic properties. - Graphical abstract: Structural changes occurring within non-conventional Dawson-type [α/β-Mo 18 O 54 (SO 3 ) 2 ] 4− polyanions in the form of tetrapentylammonium salts were studied by a combination of IR, Raman and visible spectroscopy at high temperature and high pressure. Evidence of the formation of bronze-type materials above 400 K and also upon pressurization to 8 GPa is presented. This conclusion is suggested to be a general result for polyoxometalate compounds subjected to extreme conditions and it opens opportunities for the design of new materials with interesting optical and electronic properties. Highlights: ► Spectroscopy studies of non-conventional Wells–Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs) at high temperature and high pressure. ► Discussion on the stability of two POM isomers. ► Local formation of bronze-like materials: possibilities for a new synthetic method at high pressure from POM precursors.

  17. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  18. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1-200 bar and temperature range 300-1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients...... of a CO2-N2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated...

  19. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  20. A high-temperature, high-pressure, silver-silver chloride reference electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Bailey, M.G.; Clarke, C.F.; Ikeda, B.M.; Litke, C.D.; Ryan, S.R.

    1989-05-01

    A high-temperature, high-pressure, silver-silver chloride reference electrode is described. This report is meant to serve as a user's guide to the experimentalist. Consequently, the design and construction of the electrode are dealt with in some detail. The problems that may be encountered, along with their possible causes and remedies, are also discussed. Conversion factors are given for both internal and external reference electrodes, so that measured potentials can be related to the standard hydrogen electrode scale

  1. High-pressure high-temperature experiments: Windows to the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaria-Perez, D.

    2011-01-01

    From Earth compositional arguments suggested by indirect methods, such as the propagation of seismic waves, is possible to generate in the laboratory pressure and temperature conditions similar to those of the Earth or other planet interiors and to study how these conditions affect to a certain metal or mineral. These experiments are, therefore, windows to the Universe. The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the huge power of the experimental high-pressure high-temperature techniques and give a global overview of their application to different geophysical fields. Finally, we will introduce the MALTA Consolider Team, which gather most of the Spanish high-pressure community, and present their available high-pressure facilities. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Ran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  3. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng eSun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f. magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO nanoparticles film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors.

  4. An experimental platform for triaxial high-pressure/high-temperature testing of rocks using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Guenther; Lapene, Alexandre; Castanier, Louis M.; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2018-04-01

    A conventional high-pressure/high-temperature experimental apparatus for combined geomechanical and flow-through testing of rocks is not X-ray compatible. Additionally, current X-ray transparent systems for computed tomography (CT) of cm-sized samples are limited to design temperatures below 180 °C. We describe a novel, high-temperature (>400 °C), high-pressure (>2000 psi/>13.8 MPa confining, >10 000 psi/>68.9 MPa vertical load) triaxial core holder suitable for X-ray CT scanning. The new triaxial system permits time-lapse imaging to capture the role of effective stress on fluid distribution and porous medium mechanics. System capabilities are demonstrated using ultimate compressive strength (UCS) tests of Castlegate sandstone. In this case, flooding the porous medium with a radio-opaque gas such as krypton before and after the UCS test improves the discrimination of rock features such as fractures. The results of high-temperature tests are also presented. A Uintah Basin sample of immature oil shale is heated from room temperature to 459 °C under uniaxial compression. The sample contains kerogen that pyrolyzes as temperature rises, releasing hydrocarbons. Imaging reveals the formation of stress bands as well as the evolution and connectivity of the fracture network within the sample as a function of time.

  5. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of organic crystal paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer J.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I  →  orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II  →  unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol.

  6. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of organic crystal paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Spencer J; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I  →  orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II  →  unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol. (paper)

  7. The analysis of energy efficiency in water electrolysis under high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourng, L. W.; Tsai, T. T.; Lin, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the energy efficiency of water electrolysis under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on four different kinds of reaction mechanisms, namely, reversible voltage, activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and concentration polarization, are investigated in details. Results show that the ohmic and concentration over-potentials are increased as temperature is increased, however, the reversible and activation over-potentials are decreased as temperature is increased. Therefore, the net efficiency is enhanced as temperature is increased. The efficiency of water electrolysis at 350°C/100 bars is increased about 17%, compared with that at 80°C/1bar.

  8. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan-Jiang; ZHENG Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC).The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa.With increasing temperature,the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250 320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0 1.5 GPa,indicating that under a saturated water condition,both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite.A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) =0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃).Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber,showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature.%An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 Mpa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO4) phase precipitates at 250-320℃ in the pressure range of 1.0-1.5 Gpa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(Gpa) = 0.0068T - 0.7126 (250℃≤T≤320℃). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is

  9. Comparison of Diesel Spray Combustion in Different High-temperature, High-pressure Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Genzale, Caroline L.; Bruneaux, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models...... participants in the ECN. Thus, in addition to the presentation of a comparative study, this paper demonstrates steps that are needed for other interested groups to participate in ECN spray research. We expect that this collaborative effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced...

  10. Application on electrochemistry measurement of high temperature high pressure condition in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuchun; Xiao Zhongliang; Jiang Ya; Yu Xiaowei; Pang Feifei; Deng Fenfang; Gao Fan; Zhou Nianguang

    2011-01-01

    High temperature high pressure electrochemistry testing system was comprehensively analyzed in this paper, according to actual status for supervision in primary and secondary circuits of PWR nuclear power plants. Three research methods were reviewed and discussed for in-situ monitor system. By combination with ECP realtime measurement it was executed for evaluation and water chemistry optimization in nuclear power plants. It is pointed out that in-situ electrochemistry measurement has great potential application for water chemistry evaluation in PWR nuclear power plants. (authors)

  11. High temperature, high pressure gas loop - the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Sanders, J.P.; Young, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature, gas-circulating Component Flow Test Loop located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was designed and constructed utilizing Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The quality assurance program for operating and testing is also based on applicable ASME standards. Power to a total of 5 MW is available to the test section, and an air-cooled heat exchanger rated at 4.4 MW serves as heat sink. The three gas-bearing, completely enclosed gas circulators provide a maximum flow of 0.47 m 3 /s at pressures to 10.7 MPa. The control system allows for fast transients in pressure, power, temperature, and flow; it also supports prolonged unattended steady-state operation. The data acquisition system can access and process 10,000 data points per second. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor components are being tested

  12. Analysis of fatigue reliability for high temperature and high pressure multi-stage decompression control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Lifang; Xu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-01

    Based on stress-strength interference theory to establish the reliability mathematical model for high temperature and high pressure multi-stage decompression control valve (HMDCV), and introduced to the temperature correction coefficient for revising material fatigue limit at high temperature. Reliability of key dangerous components and fatigue sensitivity curve of each component are calculated and analyzed by the means, which are analyzed the fatigue life of control valve and combined with reliability theory of control valve model. The impact proportion of each component on the control valve system fatigue failure was obtained. The results is shown that temperature correction factor makes the theoretical calculations of reliability more accurate, prediction life expectancy of main pressure parts accords with the technical requirements, and valve body and the sleeve have obvious influence on control system reliability, the stress concentration in key part of control valve can be reduced in the design process by improving structure.

  13. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1–200 bar and temperature range 300–1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients of a CO_2–N_2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated spectra, as well as published experimental data. - Highlights: • A ceramic gas cell designed for gas measurements up to 1300 K and 200 bar. • The first recorded absorption spectrum of CO_2 at 1000 K and 101 bar is presented. • Voigt profiles might suffice in the modeling of radiation from CO_2 in combustion.

  14. Frictional characteristics of silicon graphite lubricated with water at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Eun Hyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jong In

    2001-01-01

    Experimental frictional and wear characteristics of silicon graphite materials is studied in this paper. Those specimens are lubricated with high temperature and highly pressurized water to simulate the same operating condition for the journal bearing and the thrust bearing on the main coolant pump bearing in the newly developing nuclear reactor named SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Operating condition of the bearings is realized by the tribometer and the autoclave. Friction coefficient and wear loss are analyzed to choose the best silicon graphite material. Pin on plate test specimens are used and coned disk springs are used to control the applied force on the specimens. Wear loss and wear width are measured by a precision balance and a micrometer. The friction force is measured by the strain gauge which can be used under high temperature and high pressure. Three kinds of silicon graphite materials are examined and compared with each other, and each material shows similar but different results on frictional and wear characteristics

  15. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  16. In Situ Observation of Gypsum-Anhydrite Transition at High Pressure and High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuan-Jiang; Zheng Hai-Fei

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum-anhydrite transition under a saturated water condition at high pressure and high temperature is performed using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The experimental results show that gypsum dissolvs in water at ambient temperature and above 496 MPa. With increasing temperature, the anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) phase precipitates at 250–320°C in the pressure range of 1.0–1.5GPa, indicating that under a saturated water condition, both stable conditions of pressure and temperature and high levels of Ca and SO 4 ion concentrations in aqueous solution are essential for the formation of anhydrite. A linear relationship between the pressure and temperature for the precipitation of anhydrite is established as P(GPa) = 0.0068T−0.7126 (250°C≤T≤320°C). Anhydrite remained stable during rapid cooling of the sample chamber, showing that the gypsum-anhydrite transition involving both dissolution and precipitation processes is irreversible at high pressure and high temperature. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  17. High-Pressure High-Temperature Phase Diagram of the Organic Crystal Paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Vohra, Yogesh

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped diamond as heating anvil. The HPHT data obtained from boron-doped diamond heater is cross-checked with data obtained using a standard block heater diamond anvil cell. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in a number of different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I --> orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II --> unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. Our previous angle dispersive x-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source has confirmed the existence of two unknown crystal structures Form IV and Form V of paracetamol at high pressure and ambient temperature. The phase transformation from Form II to Form IV occurs at ~8.5 GPa and from Form IV to Form V occurs at ~11 GPa at ambient temperature. Our new data is combined with the previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and X- ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol. Doe-NNSA Carnegie DOE Alliance Center (CDAC) under Grant Number DE-NA0002006.

  18. Assessing the High Temperature, High Pressure Subsurface for Anaerobic Methane Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. L.; Bartlett, D.; Byrnes, A. W.; Walsh, K. M.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Onstott, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important sink in the global methane (CH4) budget. ANMEs are known to oxidize CH4 either independently or in consortia with bacteria, coupling the reduction of electron acceptors such as, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, Mn4+, or Fe3+. To further constrain the contribution of AOM to the global CH4 budget, it is important to assess unexplored environments where AOM is thermodynamically possible such as the high pressure, high temperature deep biosphere. Provided plausible electron acceptor availability, increased temperature and pCH4 yield favorable Gibbs free energies for AOM reactions and the production of ATP (Fig. 1). To date, only sulfate-dependent AOM metabolism has been documented under high temperature conditions (50-72˚C), and AOM has not been assessed above 10.1 MPa. Given that ANMEs share close phylogenetic and metabolic heritage with methanogens and that the most heat-tolerant microorganism known is a barophilic methanogen, there possibly exist thermophilic ANMEs. Here we describe preliminary results from high pressure, high temperature stable isotope tracer incubation experiments on deep biosphere samples. Deep sub-seafloor sediments collected by IODP 370 from the Nankai Trough (257 - 865 m below seafloor) and deep fracture fluid from South Africa (1339 m below land surface) were incubated anaerobically in hydrostatic pressure vessels at 40 MPa in simulated in situ temperatures (40˚ - 80˚C). Sediments and fracture fluid were incubated in sulfate-free artificial seawater, a 2:98 13CH4:N2 headspace, and treated with one of the potential electron acceptors listed above in addition to kill and endogenous activity (i.e. no added electron acceptor) controls. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) suggests that AOM occurred within 60 days of incubation for all investigated electron acceptors and temperatures except 50˚C. Sulfate-dependent AOM rates are consistent with those previously reported in the

  19. Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jeremy Edward

    In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within

  20. Research design and improvement of high temperature high pressure solenoid valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yongtang

    1987-12-01

    A process for development of the pilot type high temperature high pressure solenoid valve used in a PWR power plant is described. The whole development process might be divided into two phases: research design and improvement. In the former phase the questions had chiefly been approached in the following several aspects: the principle construction design, the determination of values for the constructionally key elements, the valve seal design and the solenoid actuator design, and made such valve's successful design in the main. In the latter phase an improvement had been made upon such valve against the problems during the testing use of the valve for a period of time, i.e. the unsatisfactory leak tightness, and achieved satisfactory results. The consummate success in this development not only has met the needs of the engineering project, but also made us obtain a valuable experience useful to design the similar valves

  1. Hardness of high-pressure high-temperature treated single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, S.; Nojima, Y.; Yokomae, T.; Okino, F.; Touhara, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have performed high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) treatments of high quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) over a wide pressure-temperature range up to 13 GPa-873 K and have investigated the hardness of the HPHT-treated SWCNTs using a nanoindentation technique. It was found that the hardness of the SWCNTs treated at pressures greater than 11 GPa and at temperatures higher than 773 K is about 10 times greater than that of the SWCNTs treated at low temperature. It was also found that the hardness change of the SWCNTs is related to the structural change by the HPHT treatments which was based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements

  2. The investigation of degradation reaction of various saccharides in high temperature and high pressure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.; Noguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.

    2008-07-01

    Recently, conversions of polysaccharides included in biomass resources have been studied in order to recover valuable chemicals. Degradation of polysaccharides has been attracted by many researchers, whereas by-products from secondary reactions of the materials have not been studied very well. For the purpose of understanding reaction behavior of various monosaccharides in high-temperature and high-pressure water regions, we investigated reaction pathway and kinetics through reaction experiments of degradation of saccharides in subcritical water. The experiment was conducted by using continuous flow-type micro-reactors. Glucose was used as the starting material. From the experimental results, the conversion of glucose increased with increasing the residence time. The yields of fructose and 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose decreased with increasing the residence time. The yields of organic acids and some aldehydes increased with increasing the residence time.

  3. The investigation of degradation reaction of various saccharides in high temperature and high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T; Noguchi, S; Matsumoto, T; Sasaki, M; Goto, M

    2008-01-01

    Recently, conversions of polysaccharides included in biomass resources have been studied in order to recover valuable chemicals. Degradation of polysaccharides has been attracted by many researchers, whereas by-products from secondary reactions of the materials have not been studied very well. For the purpose of understanding reaction behavior of various monosaccharides in high-temperature and high-pressure water regions, we investigated reaction pathway and kinetics through reaction experiments of degradation of saccharides in subcritical water. The experiment was conducted by using continuous flow-type micro-reactors. Glucose was used as the starting material. From the experimental results, the conversion of glucose increased with increasing the residence time. The yields of fructose and 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose decreased with increasing the residence time. The yields of organic acids and some aldehydes increased with increasing the residence time

  4. Solubilities of iron and nickel oxides under high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke-Chon; Jung, Yong-Ju; Yeon, Jei-Won; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of primary coolant chemistry are to assure fuel and material integrity and to minimize out of core radiation fields. During the PWR operation, crud deposits are expected on the cladding, leading to cladding failure and raising the radioactivity. Such deposits come from the corrosion products of system surface. To achieve optimal conditions for primary coolant, basic researches on mass transfer, deposition and solubility of corrosion products are needed. The initial stage of crud formation could be the studies on the solubility of a structural material. It has been known that the solubility of metal oxides in boric acid under high temperature and high pressure condition depends on the pH and dissolved hydrogen. Thus, the effect of various pH on the solubility of metal oxide in boric acid solution was investigated in this work

  5. Risk Associated With The Decompression Of High Pressure High Temperature Fluids - Study On Black Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, D. C.; Fosbøl, P. L.; Thomsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluids produced from deep underground reservoirs may result in exponential increase in temperature. It is a consequence of adiabatic fluid decompression from the inverse Joule Thomson Effect (JTE). The phenomenon requires analysis in order to avoid any operational risks. This study evaluates...... the JTE upon decompression of black oil in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs. Also the effect caused by the presence of water and brine on the black oil is studied. The final temperature is calculated from the corresponding energy balance at isenthalpic and non-isenthalpic conditions. It is found...... that the final temperature of black oil increases upon adiabatic decompression. In the case of the isenthalpic process at initial conditions of the reservoir, e.g. 150°C and 1000 bars, it is found that the final temperature can increase to 173.7°C. At non-isenthalpic conditions the final temperature increases...

  6. Experimental study on capacitance void fraction meters for high temperature and high pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hironori; Mitsutake, Toru; Shibata, Mitsuhiko; Takase, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    The electro-void fraction meter (Capacitance type meter) was applied to higher pressure conditions of 18 MPa than BWR operating conditions of 7 MPa. The void fraction measurement system has been developed including the electrodes of void fraction measurement, instrumentation cables with mineral insulation and simplified electric circuit to provide good signal-to-noise ratio. It satisfied the performance of thermal and pressure resistance and electric insulating capacity. Calibration function for high temperature and high pressure conditions was confirmed through calibration test with 37-rod bundle against datum 19-rod bundle by the quick-shut valve method respectively under 2 MPa conditions. It was confirmed that the measured data were consistent with those measured by the quick-shut valve method. (author)

  7. High pressure study of high temperatures superconductors: Material base, universal Tc-behavior, and charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.W.; Hor, P.H.; Lin, J.G.; Xiong, Q.; Huang, Z.J.; Meng, R.L.; Xue, Y.Y.; Jean, Y.C.

    1991-01-01

    The superconducting transition temperature (T c ) has been measured in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.7 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , Y 2 Ba 4 Cu 7 O 15 , YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O n+4-δ , La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , and La 2-x Ba x CuO 4 under high pressures. The pressure effect on the positron lifetime (τ) has also been determined in the first four compounds. Based on these and other high pressure data, the authors suggest that (1) all known cuprate high temperature superconductors (HTS's) may be no more than mere modifications of either 214-T, 214-T', 123, or a combination of 214-T' and 123, (2) a nonmonotonic T c -behavior may govern the T c -variation of all hole cuprate HTS's and (3) pressure can induce charge transfer leading to a T c -change. The implications of these suggestions will also be discussed

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel in high temperature and high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uragami, Ken

    1977-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels used in for equipment in chemical plants have failed owing to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). These failures brought about great problems in some cases. The failures were caused by chloride, sulfide and alkali solution environment, in particular, by chloride solution environment. It was known that SCC was caused not only by high content chloride solution such as 42% MgCl 2 solution but also by high temperature water containing Cl - ions as NaCl. In order to estimate quantitatively the effects of some factors on SCC in high temperature water environment, the effects of Cl - ion contents, oxygen partial pressure (increasing in proportion to dissolved oxygen), pH and temperature were investigated. Moreover SCC sensitivity owing to the difference of materials and heat treatments was also investigated. The experimental results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) Regarding the effect of contaminant Cl - ions in proportion as Cl - ion contents increased, the material life extremely decreased owing to SCC. The tendency of decreasing was affected by the level of oxygen partial pressure. (2) Three regions of SCC sensitivity existed and they depended upon oxygen partial pressure. These were a region that did not show SCC sensitivity, a region of the highest SCC sensitivity and a region of somewhat lower SCC sensitivity. (3) In the case of SUS304 steel and 500 ppm Cl - ion contents SCC did not occur at 150 0 C, but it occurred and caused failures at 200 0 C and 250 0 C. (auth.)

  9. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1987-05-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  10. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  11. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  12. Carvacrol suppresses high pressure high temperature inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu-Thi, Hue; Corthouts, Jorinde; Passaris, Ioannis; Grauwet, Tara; Aertsen, Abram; Hendrickx, Marc; Michiels, Chris W

    2015-03-16

    The inactivation of bacterial spores generally proceeds faster and at lower temperatures when heat treatments are conducted under high pressure, and high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing is, therefore, receiving an increased interest from food processors. However, the mechanisms of spore inactivation by HPHT treatment are poorly understood, particularly at moderately elevated temperature. In the current work, we studied inactivation of the spores of Bacillus cereus F4430/73 by HPHT treatment for 5 min at 600MPa in the temperature range of 50-100°C, using temperature increments of 5°C. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the natural antimicrobial carvacrol on spore germination and inactivation under these conditions. Spore inactivation by HPHT was less than about 1 log unit at 50 to 70°C, but gradually increased at higher temperatures up to about 5 log units at 100°C. DPA release and loss of spore refractility in the spore population were higher at moderate (≤65°C) than at high (≥70°C) treatment temperatures, and we propose that moderate conditions induced the normal physiological pathway of spore germination resulting in fully hydrated spores, while at higher temperatures this pathway was suppressed and replaced by another mechanism of pressure-induced dipicolinic acid (DPA) release that results only in partial spore rehydration, probably because spore cortex hydrolysis is inhibited. Carvacrol strongly suppressed DPA release and spore rehydration during HPHT treatment at ≤65°C and also partly inhibited DPA release at ≥65°C. Concomitantly, HPHT spore inactivation was reduced by carvacrol at 65-90°C but unaffected at 95-100°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  14. Filter-based Aerosol Measurement Experiments using Spherical Aerosol Particles under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Young [FNC TECH., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Optical Particle Counter (OPC) is used to provide real-time measurement of aerosol concentration and size distribution. Glass fiber membrane filter also be used to measure average mass concentration. Three tests (MTA-1, 2 and 3) have been conducted to study thermal-hydraulic effect, a filtering tendency at given SiO{sub 2} particles. Based on the experimental results, the experiment will be carried out further with a main carrier gas of steam and different aerosol size. The test results will provide representative behavior of the aerosols under various conditions. The aim of the tests, MTA 1, 2 and 3, are to be able to 1) establish the test manuals for aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement system, which defines aerosol preparation, calibration, operating and evaluation method under high pressure and high temperature 2) develop commercial aerosol test modules applicable to the thermal power plant, environmental industry, automobile exhaust gas, chemical plant, HVAC system including nuclear power plant. Based on the test results, sampled aerosol particles in the filter indicate that important parameters affecting aerosol behavior aerosols are 1) system temperature to keep above a evaporation temperature of ethanol and 2) aerosol losses due to the settling by ethanol liquid droplet.

  15. Fabrication of High Temperature and High Pressure Vessel for the Fuel Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kook Nam; Lee, Jong Min; Sim, Bong Shick; Shon, Jae Min; Ahn, Seung Ho; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2007-01-01

    The Fuel Test Loop(FTL) which is capable of an irradiation testing under a similar operating condition to those of PWR and CANDU nuclear power plants has been developed and installed in HANARO, KAERI. It is consisted of In-Pile Section(IPS) and Out-of Pile System(OPS). The IPS which is located inside the pool is divided into 3-parts; they are in-pool pipes, IVA(IPS Vessel Assembly) and the support structures. The test fuel is loaded inside a double wall, inner pressure vessel and outer pressure vessel, to keep the functionality of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The localization of the IVA is achieved by manufacturing through local company and the functional test and verification were done through pressure drop, vibration, hydraulic and leakage tests. The brazing technique of the instrument lines has been checked for its functionality and yield. A IVA has been manufactured by local technique and will be finally tested under out of the high temperature and high pressure test

  16. Raman spectroscopic study of calcite III to aragonite transformation under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Wang, Duojun

    2017-10-01

    In our study, a series of Raman experiments on the phase transition of calcite at high pressure and high temperature were investigated using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectroscopy technique. It was found that calcite I transformed to calcite II and calcite III at pressures of 1.62 and 2.12 GPa and room temperature. With increasing temperature, the phase transition of calcite III to aragonite occurred. Aragonite was retained upon slowly cooling of the system, indicating that the transition of calcite III to aragonite was irreversible. Based on the available data, the phase boundary between calcite III and aragonite was determined by the following relation: P(GPa) = 0.013 × T(°C) + 1.22 (100°C ≤ T ≤ 170°C). It showed that the transition pressure linearly rose with increasing temperature. A better understanding of the stability of calcite III and aragonite is of great importance to further explore the thermodynamic behavior of carbonates and carbon cycling in the mantle.

  17. Coherent Raman scattering in high-pressure/high-temperature fluids: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The present understanding of high-pressure/high-temperature dense-fluid behavior is derived almost exclusively from hydrodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. Such results average over the microscopic aspects of the materials and are, therefore, insufficient for a complete understanding of fluid behavior. At the present, dense-fluid models can be verified only to the extend that they agree with the macroscopic measurements. Recently, using stimulated Raman scattering, Raman induced Kerr effect scattering, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, we have been able to probe some of the microscopic phenomenology of these dense fluids. In this paper, we discuss primarily the use of CARS in conjunction with a two-stage light-gas gun to obtain vibrational spectra of shock-compressed liquid N 2 , O 2 , CO, their mixtures, CH 3 NO 2 , and N 2 O. These experimental spectra are compared to synthetic spectra calculated using a semiclassical model for CARS intensities and best fit vibrational frequencies, peak Raman susceptibilities, and Raman linewidths. For O 2 , the possibility of resonance enhancement from collision-induced absorption is addressed. Shifts in the vibrational frequencies reflect the influence of increased density and temperature on the intramolecular motion. The derived parameters suggest thermal equilibrium of the vibrational levels is established less than a few nanoseconds after shock passage. Vibrational temperatures are obtained that agree with those derived from equation-of-state calculations. Measured linewidths suggest that vibrational dephasing times have decreased to subpicosecond values at the highest shock pressures

  18. The use of on-line ion chromatography for high temperature and high pressure reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the use of on-line ion chromatography as a tool for chemistry reaction studies in small volume systems. The technique was used to study chemistry behavior in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave system. A dual analyzer, multi-channel on-line ion chromatograph (IC) was configured to automate the sampling and analysis. Analytical channels were set up for analysis of inorganic anions, monovalent cations, conductivity, and pH. Conductivity and pH were measured using the IC as a flow injection analyzer. Use of the IC system provides significant advantages over conventional sampling and analysis techniques: Reduction in sample volume, a closed sampling system that protects air or light sensitive analytes from breakdown, around-the-clock test performance combined with automatic calibration and quality control checking, and detection and tracking of reaction products or unexpected contaminants. Methods used to correct measured concentrations for the effects of sampling and for calculation of control chemical loss half-lives are presented. A limited evaluation of the flow injection analysis methods for conductivity and pH is provided

  19. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  20. Structural stability of the smectite-doped lanthanum under high pressures and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Vicente Fiorini

    2012-01-01

    Smectites are phyllosilicates that have a tetrahedron: octahedron structure ratio of 2:1, with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the interlayers. For these and other features, smectites have been used in many parts of the world as secondary barriers with the goal of containing a possible leak of radioactive elements in final disposal facilities for radioactive waste through cation exchange. Our aim in this work is to reach the cation exchange in calcium montmorillonite (smectite dioctahedral) by lanthanum to simulate trivalent radionuclides and to study the stability of this structure under high pressure and high temperature. To achieve high pressure it was used two different technique: DAC (Diamond Anvil Cell), achieving pressures up to 12GPa at room temperature and hydraulic press with a toroidal chamber profile to achieve pressures up to 7,7GPa and temperatures up to 900 degree C. The heating is achieved simultaneously by an electric system coupled in the hydraulic press. The outcomes show that the smectite structure doped with lanthanum remains stable under 12GPa at room temperature and 2.5GPa at 200 degree C. However, above 300 degree C at 2.5GPa the structure becomes a new phase of muscovite-like, rich of La, where it loses its interlayer water and turns out to be irreversible. Furthermore, it is important to point out that the higher temperature the better ordered is the structure and it is still stable under 7.7GPa and 900 degree C. Moreover, after all experiments the structure continues being dioctahedral. The new phase of muscovite-like, rich of La, in contact with a calcium solution remains partially unchanged, whereas the other part returns to the original structure (montmorillonite-Ca). The following analyses were performed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) for evaluating the spatial structure; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for getting information about the vibrational modes; scanning electron microscopy with dispersive Xray spectroscopy

  1. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  2. Energy-Based Tetrahedron Sensor for High-Temperature, High-Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kent L.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; Blotter, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic energy-based probe has been developed that incorporates multiple acoustic sensing elements in order to obtain the acoustic pressure and three-dimensional acoustic particle velocity. With these quantities, the user can obtain various energy-based quantities, including acoustic energy density, acoustic intensity, and acoustic impedance. In this specific development, the probe has been designed to operate in an environment characterized by high temperatures and high pressures as is found in the close vicinity of rocket plumes. Given these capabilities, the probe is designed to be used to investigate the acoustic conditions within the plume of a rocket engine or jet engine to facilitate greater understanding of the noise generation mechanisms in those plumes. The probe features sensors mounted inside a solid sphere. The associated electronics for the probe are contained within the sphere and the associated handle for the probe. More importantly, the design of the probe has desirable properties that reduce the bias errors associated with determining the acoustic pressure and velocity using finite sum and difference techniques. The diameter of the probe dictates the lower and upper operating frequencies for the probe, where accurate measurements can be acquired. The current probe design implements a sphere diameter of 1 in. (2.5 cm), which limits the upper operating frequency to about 4.5 kHz. The sensors are operational up to much higher frequencies, and could be used to acquire pressure data at higher frequencies, but the energy-based measurements are limited to that upper frequency. Larger or smaller spherical probes could be designed to go to lower or higher frequency range

  3. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 with high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lei; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yongtao; Zhao, Feng; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 combined with high temperature (HPCD+HT) and to analyze the clumping effect of the spores on their HPCD+HT resistance. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa and HPCD at 6.5-25 MPa, and 82 °C, 86 °C, and 91 °C for 0-120 min. The spores were effectively inactivated by HPCD+HT, but a protective effect on the spores was also found, which was closely correlated to the pressure, temperature and time. The spores treated by HPCD+HT at 6.5 and 10 MPa exhibited a two-stage inactivation curve of shoulder and log-linear regions whereas the spores at 15-25 MPa exhibited a three-stage inactivation curve of shoulder, log-linear and tailing regions, and these curves were well fitted to the Geeraerd model. Approximately 90% of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA) was released after HPCD+HT and the 90% DPA release time depend on the pressure and temperature. Moreover, the spore clumping in suspensions was examined by dynamic light scattering. The particle size of the spore suspensions increased with the increase of pressure, temperature and time, indicating the spore clumping. 0.1% Tween 80 as a surfactant inhibited the spore clumping and increased the inactivation ratio of the spores by HPCD+HT. These results indicated that the spore clumping enhanced the spores' resistance to HPCD+HT and induced a protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  5. Quenching ilmenite with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase using super-high-energy ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashishin, Takeshi; Tan, Zhenquan; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Nan; Kim, Jungeum; Numako, Chiya; Naka, Takashi; Valmalette, Jean Christophe; Ohara, Satoshi

    2014-04-25

    The mass production of highly dense oxides with high-temperature and high-pressure phases allows us to discover functional properties that have never been developed. To date, the quenching of highly dense materials at the gramme-level at ambient atmosphere has never been achieved. Here, we provide evidence of the formation of orthorhombic Fe2TiO4 from trigonal FeTiO3 as a result of the high-temperature (>1250 K) and high-pressure (>23 GPa) condition induced by the high collision energy of 150 gravity generated between steel balls. Ilmenite was steeply quenched by the surrounding atmosphere, when iron-rich ilmenite (Fe2TiO4) with a high-temperature and high-pressure phase was formed by planetary collisions and was released from the collision points between the balls. Our finding allows us to infer that such intense planetary collisions induced by high-energy ball milling contribute to the mass production of a high-temperature and high-pressure phase.

  6. Optical diagnostics of diesel spray injections and combustion in a high-pressure high-temperature cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougie, H.J.T.; Tulej, M.; Dreier, T.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Gerber, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on spatially and temporally resolved optical diagnostic measurements of propagation and combustion of diesel sprays introduced through a single-hole fuel injector into a constant volume, high-temperature, high-pressure cell. From shadowgraphy images in non-reacting environments of pure

  7. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  8. Performance test of ex-core high temperature and high pressure water loop test equipment (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiroko; Uehara, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Jinichi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we started research and development so as to monitor the situations in the Nuclear Plant Facilities during a severe accident, such as a radiation-resistant monitoring camera, a radiation-resistant transmission system for conveying the in-core information, and a heat-resistant signal cable. As a part of developments of the heat-resistant signal cable, we prepared ex-core high-temperature and high-pressure water loop test equipment, which can simulate the conditions of BWRs and PWRs, for evaluating reliability and properties of sheath materials of the cable. This equipment consists of autoclave, water conditioning tank, high-pressure metering pump, preheater, heat exchanger and water purification equipment, etc. This report describes the basic design and the performance test results of ex-core high-temperature and high-pressure water loop test equipment. (author)

  9. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin; Shibazaki, Yuki; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10 5 frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10 4 fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures

  10. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Shibazaki, Yuki [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Wang, Yanbin [GeoSoilEnviroCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  11. Molybdenum cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Kozaburo; Katoh, Masahiro; Inui, Masanori

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a sample cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures. All parts of the cell are made of molybdenum which is resistant to the chemical corrosion of alkali metals. Single crystalline molybdenum disks electrolytically thinned down to 40 μm were used as the walls of the cell through which x rays pass. The crystal orientation of the disks was controlled in order to reduce the background from the cell. All parts of the cell were assembled and brazed together using a high-temperature Ru-Mo alloy. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements have been successfully carried out for fluid rubidium up to 1973 K and 16.2 MPa. The obtained S(Q) demonstrates the applicability of the molybdenum cell to x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  13. XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cBN was synthesized by Li 3 N as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). • The film coated on the as-grown cBN crystals was studied by XPS. • The electronic structure variation in the film was investigated. • The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal was analyzed briefly. - Abstract: Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp 2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp 3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li 3 N in the film, it is possible that Li 3 N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li 3 BN 2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li 3 BN 2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li 3 BN 2

  14. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  15. Thermodynamic relations in high temperature and high pressure physics of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    1998-01-01

    Various possible simple relations based on the exact and approximate thermodynamic relations are derived. These relations can be used to investigate the variation of unit cell volume under the effect of pressure and temperature. Thermal expansivity and compressibility can be investigated directly at any pressure or temperature, or through the knowledge of equation of state (EOS). A relation to determine Anderson-Grueneisen parameter δ T under the effect of pressure is predicted. It is discussed that δ T is independent of pressure and thus Murnaghan equation of state works well in low pressure ranges, while the variation of δ T under high pressure should be taken into account. The product of coefficient of volume thermal expansion and bulk modulus remains constant, is correct at high pressure, provided that the pressure dependence of δ T is considered. (author)

  16. Anharmonic effective pair potentials of gold under high pressure and high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Okube, M; Ohtaka, O; Fukui, H; Katayama, Y; Utsumi, W

    2002-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of pressure on the anharmonicity of Au, extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectra near the Au L sub 3 edge were measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1100 K under pressures up to 14 GPa using large-volume high-pressure devices and synchrotron radiation. The anharmonic effective pair potentials of Au, V (u) = au sup 2 + bu sup 3 , at 0.1 MPa, 6 and 14 GPa have been calculated. The pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients has also been evaluated. The reliability of the anharmonic correction proposed on the basis of the Anderson scale has been discussed.

  17. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  18. A time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron diffraction under high pressure or at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roult, G.; Buevoz, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    For high pressure neutron diffraction studies (40 kilobars) the sample is placed in a very thick cell. In order to allow the neutron beam to go through the cell loosing as little intensity as possible, the inner part is kept solid while the external part has some windows facing the incident and reflected beam. The window dimensions are small (a few millimeters wide and a few centimeters long). There are two alternatives: to have the window either in a perpendicular plane or in a plane parallel to the axis. In the first case a fixed wavelength spectrometer can be used but the sample is small and the contribution of the cell to the diffraction pattern is relatively great. In the second case samples can be something like ten times greater and the cell contribution can be eliminated but a fixed wavelength spectrometer cannot be used. Thus the time-of-flight method is very convenient. The second alternative was chosen

  19. The effect of High Pressure and High Temperature processing on carotenoids and chlorophylls content in some vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Celia; Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2014-11-15

    The effect of High Pressure (HP) and High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processing on carotenoid and chlorophyll content of six vegetables was evaluated. In general, carotenoid content was not significantly influenced by HP or HPHT treatments (625 MPa; 5 min; 20, 70 and 117 °C). Regarding chlorophylls, HP treatment caused no degradation or slight increases, while HPHT processes degraded both chlorophylls. Chlorophyll b was more stable than chlorophyll a at 70 °C, but both of them were highly degraded at 117 °C. HPHT treatment at 117 °C provided products with a good retention of carotenoids and colour in the case of red vegetables. Even though the carotenoids also remained in the green vegetables, their chlorophylls and therefore their colour were so affected that milder temperatures need to be applied. As an industrial scale equipment was used, results will be useful for future industrial implementation of this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of OsB under high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Hua; Li, Zuo; Cheng, Yan; Bi, Yan; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2011-09-01

    The energy-volume curves of OsB have been obtained using the first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft-pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). Using the quasi-harmonic Debye model we first analyze the specific heat, the coefficients of thermal expansion as well as the thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of OsB in a wide temperature range at high pressure. At temperature 300 K, the coefficients of thermal expansion αV by LDA and GGA calculations are 1.67×10 -5 1/K and 2.01×10 -5 1/K, respectively. The specific heat of OsB at constant pressure (volume) is also calculated. Meanwhile, we find that the Debye temperature of OsB increases monotonically with increasing pressure. The present study leads to a better understanding of how the OsB materials respond to pressure and temperature.

  1. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  2. Spin crossover and Mott—Hubbard transition under high pressure and high temperature in the low mantle of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Ovchinnikova, T. M.; Plotkin, V. V.; Dyad'kov, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    Effect of high pressure induced spin crossover on the magnetic, electronic and structural properties of the minerals forming the Earth's low mantle is discussed. The low temperature P, T phase diagram of ferropericlase has the quantum phase transition point Pc = 56 GPa at T = 0 confirmed recently by the synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The LDA+GTB calculated phase diagram describes the experimental data. Its extension to the high temperature resulted earlier in prediction of the metallic properties of the Earth's mantle at the depth 1400 km insulator transition and compare them with the experimental seismic and geomagnetic field data.

  3. The synergy of corrosion and fretting wear process on Inconel 690 in the high temperature high pressure water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zihao; Xu, Jian; Li, Jie; Xin, Long; Lu, Yonghao; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Otsuka, Yuichi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2018-04-01

    The synergistic effect of corrosion and fretting process of the steam generator (SG) tube was investigated by using a self-designed high temperature test rig in this paper. The experiments were performed at 100°C , 200°C and 288°C , respectively. The fretting corrosion damage was studied by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results demonstrated that the corrosion process in high temperature high pressure (HTHP) water environment had a distinct interaction with the fretting process of Inconel 690. With the increment of temperature, the damage mechanism changed from a simple mechanical process to a mechanochemical process.

  4. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  5. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable

  6. Mass trasnfer of corrosion products in high temperature, high pressure water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.V.; Nicholson, F.D.

    1976-07-01

    The behaviour of iron oxide crud was studied at 25 0 C and over the range 240 to 270 0 C in a high pressure water loop. Crud deposition and removal was measured in two parallel, heated Zircaloy-2 tubes using iron-59 as a radioactive tracer. This proved to be a powerful technique capable of detecting crud deposits less than 3 nm thick. Rapid deposition of crud was observed following injection into the loop of an iron oxide suspension or a ferric nitrate solution. Crud deposited preferentially on heated surfaces when they were present but not to the exclusion of deposition elsewhere; hot spots on heated surfaces attracted additional deposits. Subcooled boiling appeared to be a more important factor than bulk boiling in the enhancement of crud deposition. The initial rapid deposition of the bulk crud throughout the loop was usually followed by a slower transfer of crud from other surfaces to any heated surface present. Unsteady operating conditions, e.g. a change in power, temperature or pH, frequently caused crud bursts, but once steady conditions were re-established the entrained crud was quickly redeposited. The bulk of deposited crud was not readily re-entrained, particularly from heated surfaces, so that crud bursts involved only a fraction of the total crud deposited. Ferric nitrate solutions injected into the loop formed haematite which deposited more slowly and formed more mobile deposits than magnetite which was injected directly into the loop as a slurry. Examination of deposits from both sources showed them to be even and tightly adherent, being removed only with difficulty. (author)

  7. Phase transition of intermetallic TbPt at high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fei; Wu, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Qin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Here we present synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction experiments combined with diamond anvil cell and laser heating techniques on the intermetallic rare earth compound TbPt (Pnma and Z  =  4) up to 32.5 GPa and ~1800 K. The lattice parameters of TbPt exhibit continuous compression behavior up to 18.2 GPa without any evidence of phase transformation. Pressure-volume data were fitted to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with V 0  =  175.5(2) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  110(5) GPa and K{{T0}}\\prime   =  3.8(7). TbPt exhibits anisotropic compression with β a   >  β b   >  β c and the ratio of axial compressibility is 2.50:1.26:1.00. A new monoclinic phase of TbPt assigned to the Pc or P2/c space group was observed at 32.5 GPa after laser heating at ~1800 K. This new phase is stable at high pressure and presented a quenchable property on decompression to ambient conditions. The pressure-volume relationship is well described by the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which yields V 0  =  672(4) Å3, {{K}{{T0}}}   =  123(6) GPa, which is about ~14% more compressible than the orthorhombic TbPt. Our results provide more information on the structure and elastic property view, and thus a better understanding of the physical properties related to magnetic structure in some intermetallic rare earth alloys.

  8. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hotpress evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity

  9. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinby, T.C.

    A tool is described for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. The target assembly comprising a uranum foil and an aluninum-alloy substrate. The tool is composed of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  10. Solubility Measurements and Modeling of Zinc, Lead and Iron Sulfides at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolina Figueroa Murcia, Diana; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    Solubility measurements of sulfides in aqueous solutions are necessary to understand the behaviour of these scaling minerals in geothermal and oil reservoirs. The low solubility levels of Zinc Sulfide (ZnS), Lead Sulfide (PbS) and Iron Sulfide (FeS) make the solubility measurements a challenging...... oxygen atmosphere to avoid the risk of oxidation of sulfide minerals. The solution is kept in an equilibrium cell at constant temperature and pressure with continuous stirring. The concentration of Zn2+, Pb2+, Fe2+ and S2- are measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry (ICP...

  11. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbschleb, C. T.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Roobol, S. B.; Navarro, V.; Bakker, J. W.; Liu, Q.; Stoltz, D.; Cañas-Ventura, M. E.; Verdoes, G.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Bergman, M.; Crama, L.; Taminiau, I.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  12. Photocatalytic Degradation of Chlorobenzene by TiO2 in High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kometani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluidized-bed-type flow reactor available for the photocatalytic treatment of the suspension of model soil under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions was designed. An aqueous suspension containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizer and inorganic oxides as a model soil, titania (TiO2, silica (SiO2, or kaoline (Al2Si2O5(OH4 was continuously fed into the reactor with the temperature and the pressure controlled to be T=20–400∘C and P = 30 MPa, respectively. The degradation of chlorobenzene (CB in water was chosen as a model oxidation reaction. It appeared that most of the model soils are not so harmful to the SCWO treatment of CB in solutions. When the TiO2 suspension containing H2O2 was irradiated with near-UV light, the promotion of the degradation caused by photocatalytic actions of TiO2 was observed at all temperatures. Persistence of the photocatalytic activity in the oxidation reaction in high-temperature, high-pressure water would open up a possibility of the development of the hybrid process based on the combination of SCWO process and TiO2 photocatalysis for the treatment of environmental pollutants in soil and water, which are difficult to handle by conventional SCWO process or catalytic SCWO process alone.

  13. Phase diagram and equation of state of TiH2 at high pressures and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Naruki; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Machida, Akihiko; Katayama, Yoshinori; Aoki, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the phase diagram of TiH 2 at high pressures and high temperatures. ► Compression induced stain inhibited the phase transition from the bct to fcc phase. ► The phase boundary was appropriately determined using a sample with heat treatment. ► The high temperature Birch–Murnaghan equation of state of fcc TiH 2 was firstly determined. - Abstract: We determined the phase diagram and the equation of state (EoS) of TiH 2 at high pressures up to 8.7 GPa and high temperatures up to 600 °C by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements. Compression induced strain inhibited the phase transition from the low-temperature bct phase to the high-temperature fcc phase, making the phase diagram difficult to determine. However, heating around 600 °C relieved the strain, and the phase boundary between the bct and fcc phases was elucidated. The phase transition temperature at ambient pressure increased from around room temperature to 200 °C at 8.7 GPa. The high temperature Birch–Murnaghan EoS was determined for the fcc phase. With the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K′ 0 = 4.0, the following parameters were obtained: ambient bulk modulus K 0 = 97.7 ± 0.2 GPa, ambient unit cell of the fcc phase V 0 = 88.57 ± 0.02 Å 3 , temperature derivative of the bulk modulus at constant pressure (∂K/∂T) P = −0.01 ± 0.02, and volumetric thermal expansivity α = a + bT with a = 2.62 ± 1.4 × 10 −5 and b = 5.5 ± 4.5 × 10 −8 . K 0 of fcc TiH 2 was close to those for pure Ti and bct TiH 2 reported in previous studies.

  14. Development and testing of a high temperature (673-1273K), high pressure regenerative desulphurization process for IGCC concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Meijer, R. (KEMA Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-01-01

    In the period 1990-1993 a European Community (EC) subsidized international project on the subject of high-temperature and high-pressure desulfurization of coal gas has been carried out within the framework of the JOULE 1 program. This report is a summary of the final report, in which an overview is given of the developed and tested absorbents and the results of a feasibility study for a 100 MWe Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) in combination with a high-temperature desulfurization process. The Utrecht University in Utrecht, Netherlands, developed absorbents in cooperation with The Dutch Centre for Gas Technology GASTEC in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. The absorbents are tested by KEMA and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation in Petten, Netherlands. Foster Wheeler in Livingston, New Jersey, USA, executed the feasibility study. The combination of iron oxide/molybdenum oxide on aluminium phosphate appears to be the most promising absorbent. The preparation method has been patented. From the feasibility study it appeared that by means of a high-temperature desulfurization process the investment and operational costs can be reduced considerably. Further development of the absorbent and the accompanying reactor concept already has started in a new EC project within the framework of the JOULE 1 program

  15. Evaluation of anti-scale property of CrN coatings at high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tomomi; Iwai, Yoshiro; Uno, Ryoji; Yoshinaga, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that oxide scale which adheres to the inner wall of the nozzle in nuclear power plant causes a serious problem. This study was carried out to obtain the knowledge about initiation and deposition behavior of oxide scale on the surface of SUS304 stainless steel and the evaluation of anti-scale property of chromium nitride (CrN) coatings at high temperature and high pressure. SUS304 stainless steel and CrN coating specimens were heated in water up to 200degC for more than 250 hours. Obtained results are summarized as follows. Initiation of the scale started from corrosive part of SUS304 stainless steel and the scale grows by deposition of magnetite particles. CrN coating can be applied to prevent the initiation and deposition of oxide scale. (author)

  16. Six-axis multi-anvil press for high-pressure, high-temperature neutron diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano-Furukawa, A., E-mail: sano.asami@jaea.go.jp; Hattori, T. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arima, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamada, A. [The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Tabata, S.; Kondo, M.; Nakamura, A. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Ehime 792-0001 (Japan); Kagi, H.; Yagi, T. [Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We developed a six-axis multi-anvil press, ATSUHIME, for high-pressure and high-temperature in situ time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction experiments. The press has six orthogonally oriented hydraulic rams that operate individually to compress a cubic sample assembly. Experiments indicate that the press can generate pressures up to 9.3 GPa and temperatures up to 2000 K using a 6-6-type cell assembly, with available sample volume of about 50 mm{sup 3}. Using a 6-8-type cell assembly, the available conditions expand to 16 GPa and 1273 K. Because the six-axis press has no guide blocks, there is sufficient space around the sample to use the aperture for diffraction and place an incident slit, radial collimators, and a neutron imaging camera close to the sample. Combination of the six-axis press and the collimation devices realized high-quality diffraction pattern with no contamination from the heater or the sample container surrounding the sample. This press constitutes a new tool for using neutron diffraction to study the structures of crystals and liquids under high pressures and temperatures.

  17. High temperature, oxygen, and performance: Insights from reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Eric J; Telemeco, Rory S

    2018-04-25

    Much recent theoretical and empirical work has sought to describe the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal tolerance in animals. Leading hypotheses can be broadly divided into two categories that primarily differ in organizational scale: 1) high temperature directly reduces the function of subcellular machinery, such as enzymes and cell membranes, or 2) high temperature disrupts system-level interactions, such as mismatches in the supply and demand of oxygen, prior to having any direct negative effect on the subcellular machinery. Nonetheless, a general framework describing the contexts under which either subcellular component or organ system failure limits organisms at high temperatures remains elusive. With this commentary, we leverage decades of research on the physiology of ectothermic tetrapods (amphibians and non-avian reptiles) to address these hypotheses. Available data suggest both mechanisms are important. Thus, we expand previous work and propose the Hierarchical Mechanisms of Thermal Limitation (HMTL) hypothesis, which explains how subcellular and organ system failures interact to limit performance and set tolerance limits at high temperatures. We further integrate this framework with the thermal performance curve paradigm commonly used to predict the effects of thermal environments on performance and fitness. The HMTL framework appears to successfully explain diverse observations in reptiles and amphibians and makes numerous predictions that remain untested. We hope that this framework spurs further research in diverse taxa and facilitates mechanistic forecasts of biological responses to climate change.

  18. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Milk Exposed to High Temperatures and High Pressure**

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Usajewicz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the survival of two enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains (no. 94 and 402 and a saprophytic E. coli 1 strain at temperatures of 55 and 60 °C, and under the pressure of 300 to 600 MPa at ambient temperature (about 20 °C. The strains, in populations of 106–107 CFU/mL, were introduced into the skim milk and broth. The survival of test strains at high temperatures and high pressure depended to a high degree (p<0.05 on the type of medium in which the cells were suspended. At 55 °C the inactivation of E. coli cells was recorded after 60 to 120 min in the broth, and after 180 min in the milk. At 60 °C the time required for their thermal death was 15 to 30 min in broth. In milk only E. coli 1 cells died after 30-minute heating; the other strains survived in populations of about 40 CFU/mL. In the broth, a pressure of 550 MPa, applied for 20 min at ambient temperature, killed the entire populations of E. coli 94 and E. coli 402, and all E. coli 1 cells died at 600 MPa, also applied for 20 min at ambient temperature. In the milk live cells of all pressurized strains survived in the quantities of 102–103 CFU/mL, so their reduction by 5 log cycles was not achieved. Damaged cells were found in the majority of samples exposed to heating and high pressure. These cells did not form colonies on nutrient agar, but were able to repair damage and grow in nutrient broth at 37 °C.

  19. Study of Raman Spectroscopy on Phase Relations of CaCO3 at High Temperature and High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zheng, H.; Duan, T.

    2006-05-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy was used to study phase relations between calcite I, calcite II and aragonite at high pressure and high temperature. The experiment was performed in an externally heated Basselt type diamond anvil cell (DAC). Natural calcite (calcite I) was used as starting mineral. The sample and a small chip of quartz were loaded in a cavity (300 μm in diameter and 250 μm in depth) in a rhenium gasket. The Na2CO3 aqueous solution of 1mol/L was also loaded as a pressure medium to yield hydrostatic pressure. The whole assembly was pressurized first and then heated stepwise to 400°C. Pressure and temperature in the chamber were determined by the shift of Raman band at 464 cm-1 of quartz and by NiCr-NiSi thermocouple, respectively. The Raman spectra were measured by a Renishaw 1000 spetrometer with 50 mW of 514.5nm argon-ion laser as the excitation light source. The slit width was 50 μm and the corresponding resolution was ±1 cm-1. From the experiments, we observed the phase transitions between calcite I and calcite II, calcite I and aragonite, calcite II and aragonite, respectively. Our data showed a negative slope for the boundary between calcite I and calcite II, which was similar to Bridgman's result, although Hess et al. gave a positive slope. The boundary with a negative slope for calcite II and aragonite was also defined, which had never been done before. And all these data can yield a more complete phase diagram of CaCO3 than the studies of Hess et al. and Suito et al.Reference:Bridgeman P. W.(1939) Journal: American Journal of Science, Vol. 237, p. 7-18Bassett W. A. et al. (1993) Journal: Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 64, p. 2340-2345Suito K. et al. (2001) Journal: American Mineralogist, Vol. 86, p. 997- 1002Hess N. J. et al. (1991) In A. K. Singh, Ed., Recent Trends in High Pressure Research; Proc. X IIIth AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, p. 236-241. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt, Ltd., New

  20. The influence of high pressure and high temperature on the structure of ZrO sub 2 nanosolids

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Da Peng; LiuShue; Wang Quan Yong; Su Wen Hui

    2002-01-01

    Using nanoparticles of ZrO sub 2 (disordered structure) prepared by the method of precipitation as starting materials, ZrO sub 2 nanosolids have been synthesized under different pressures and at different temperatures. The x-ray diffraction results show that the crystallization temperature of the nanoparticles and the temperature at which the structural cubic-monoclinic transformation occurs are obviously reduced for the nanosolids synthesized under high pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and EPR measurements indicate that there are some Zr sup 3 sup + ions in nanosolids. With increasing pressure, the number of Zr sup 3 sup + ions in the nanosolids essentially does not vary, and yet the content of oxygen ions with unsaturated bonds and dangling bonds in the interfacial region gradually decreases. The effect of synthesis pressure on the structure and interface states is mainly due to the decrease of the interatomic distance and the increasing interdiffusion of atoms in the interface phase.

  1. Pre-drilling prediction techniques on the high-temperature high-pressure hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Huaishan; Wu, Shiguo; Sun, Jin; Yang, Chaoqun; Xie, Yangbing; Chen, Chuanxu; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jiliang

    2018-02-01

    Decreasing the risks and geohazards associated with drilling engineering in high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) geologic settings begins with the implementation of pre-drilling prediction techniques (PPTs). To improve the accuracy of geopressure prediction in HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs offshore Hainan Island, we made a comprehensive summary of current PPTs to identify existing problems and challenges by analyzing the global distribution of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs, the research status of PPTs, and the geologic setting and its HTHP formation mechanism. Our research results indicate that the HTHP formation mechanism in the study area is caused by multiple factors, including rapid loading, diapir intrusions, hydrocarbon generation, and the thermal expansion of pore fluids. Due to this multi-factor interaction, a cloud of HTHP hydrocarbon reservoirs has developed in the Ying-Qiong Basin, but only traditional PPTs have been implemented, based on the assumption of conditions that do not conform to the actual geologic environment, e.g., Bellotti's law and Eaton's law. In this paper, we focus on these issues, identify some challenges and solutions, and call for further PPT research to address the drawbacks of previous works and meet the challenges associated with the deepwater technology gap. In this way, we hope to contribute to the improved accuracy of geopressure prediction prior to drilling and provide support for future HTHP drilling offshore Hainan Island.

  2. A high-temperature high-pressure calorimeter for determining heats of solution up to 623 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Turner, Peter J; Murray, Richard C; Cobble, James W

    2010-07-01

    A high-temperature high-pressure isoperibol calorimeter for determining the heats of solution and reaction of very dilute substances in water (10(-4) m) at temperatures up to 623 K is described. The energies of vaporization of water at steam saturation pressure were measured as a function of temperature and the results agree with the corresponding values from steam tables to better than 0.08+/-0.18%. The novelties of the present instrument relative to flow type heat capacity calorimeters are that measurements can be made at orders of magnitude lower concentrations and that measurement of heat of reaction involving solids or gases or in the presence of high concentrations of supporting electrolytes, acids, and bases is possible. Furthermore, the advantage of using enthalpy data over heat capacity data for calculations of the standard state Gibbs free energies of electrolytes is that the experimental heat data of this research need only be integrated once to derive higher temperature free energy data from lower temperatures. The derived heat capacities can be used mathematically to obtain free energies by double integration. However, the resulting errors are much smaller than if experimental aqueous heat capacities were used for the integrations.

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  4. Whole ceramic-like microreactors from inorganic polymers for high temperature or/and high pressure chemical syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wurong; Perumal, Jayakumar; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hao; Sharma, Siddharth; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2014-02-21

    Two types of whole ceramic-like microreactors were fabricated from inorganic polymers, polysilsesquioxane (POSS) and polyvinylsilazane (PVSZ), that were embedded with either perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) tube or polystyrene (PS) film templates, and subsequently the templates were removed by physical removal (PFA tube) or thermal decomposition (PS). A POSS derived ceramic-like microreactor with a 10 cm long serpentine channel was obtained by an additional "selective blocking of microchannel" step and subsequent annealing at 300 °C for 1 h, while a PVSZ derived ceramic-like microreactor with a 14 cm long channel was yielded by a co-firing process of the PVSZ-PS composite at 500 °C for 2 h that led to complete decomposition of the film template leaving a microchannel behind. The obtained whole ceramic-like microfluidic devices revealed excellent chemical and thermal stabilities in various solvents, and they were able to demonstrate unique chemical performance at high temperature or/and high pressure conditions such as Michaelis-Arbuzov rearrangement at 150-170 °C, Wolff-Kishner reduction at 200 °C, synthesis of super-paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles at 320 °C and isomerisation of allyloxybenzene to 2-allylphenol (250 °C and 400 psi). These economic ceramic-like microreactors fabricated by a facile non-lithographic method displayed excellent utility under challenging conditions that is superior to any plastic microreactors and comparable to glass and metal microreactors with high cost.

  5. The suppression of dissolution for alloy 690 in high temperature and high pressure water with chromium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshio; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ohtani, Saburou; Watanabe, Masanori; Hirao, Kyozo; Okumoto, Masaru; Shibaike, Hiroyuki.

    1994-01-01

    As the material of heat exchanger tubes for PWRs, the nickel alloys such as alloy 690 and alloy 600 have been used, but 58 Ni and 60 Co contained as an impurity elute in primary cooling water, and are radioactivated, in this way, they become the cause of radiation exposure. By increasing chromium concentration, the corrosion resistance of nickel alloys is improved, and for modern heat exchangers, the alloy 690, of which the chromium content is increased up to 30%, has been adopted, and excellent results have been obtained. In this research, aiming at the further reduction of radiation exposure, by increasing the chromium concentration in surface layer using ion implantation technology, the change of the corrosion behavior of alloy 690 in high temperature, high pressure water was investigated. The chemical composition of the alloy 690 used, and the making of plate specimens are shown. The polarization behavior of alloy 690 in 0.1 mol/l sulfuric acid deaerated at normal temperature is reported, and the effect of suppressing dissolution was remarkable in the specimens with much implantation. The electrochemical behavior of alloy 690 in simulated cooling water was investigated. Immobile case has high chromium content and is thin. (K.I.)

  6. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei

    2009-05-01

    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  7. In-situ Diffraction Study of Magnetite at Simultaneous High Pressure and High Temperature Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetite intertwined with the evolution of human civilizations, and remains so today. It is technologically and scientifically important by virtue of its unique magnetic and electrical properties. Magnetite is a common mineral found in a variety of geologic environments, and plays an important role in deciphering the oxygen evolution in the Earth's atmosphere and its deep interiors. The latter application asks for the knowledge of the thermal and elastic properties of magnetite at high pressures and temperatures, which is currently not available in literature. We have carried out a few in-situ diffraction experiments on magnetite using white synchrotron radiation at beamline X17B2 of National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). A DIA module in an 1100-ton press and WC anvils were employed for compression, and diffraction spectra were collected at simultaneous high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) (up to 9 GPa and 900 oC). Mixture of amorphous boron and epoxy resin was used as pressure medium, and NaCl as pressure marker. Temperature was recorded by W-Re thermocouples. Commercially purchased magnetite powder and a mixture of the said powder and NaCl (1:1) were used as starting material in separate experiments. Preliminary data analyses have yielded following observations: (1) Charge disordering seen at ambient pressure remains active in current experiments, especially at lower pressures (reversibility and degree of cation disordering depend on the starting material and/or experimental P-T path; and (4) cation disordering notably reduces the apparent bulk moduli of magnetite.

  8. First-principles study on oxidation effects in uranium oxides and high-pressure high-temperature behavior of point defects in uranium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua Y.; Song, Hong X.; Jin, K.; Xiang, S. K.; Wu, Q.

    2011-11-01

    Formation Gibbs free energy of point defects and oxygen clusters in uranium dioxide at high-pressure high-temperature conditions are calculated from first principles, using the LSDA+U approach for the electronic structure and the Debye model for the lattice vibrations. The phonon contribution on Frenkel pairs is found to be notable, whereas it is negligible for the Schottky defect. Hydrostatic compression changes the formation energies drastically, making defect concentrations depend more sensitively on pressure. Calculations show that, if no oxygen clusters are considered, uranium vacancy becomes predominant in overstoichiometric UO2 with the aid of the contribution from lattice vibrations, while compression favors oxygen defects and suppresses uranium vacancy greatly. At ambient pressure, however, the experimental observation of predominant oxygen defects in this regime can be reproduced only in a form of cuboctahedral clusters, underlining the importance of defect clustering in UO2+x. Making use of the point defect model, an equation of state for nonstoichiometric oxides is established, which is then applied to describe the shock Hugoniot of UO2+x. Furthermore, the oxidization and compression behavior of uranium monoxide, triuranium octoxide, uranium trioxide, and a series of defective UO2 at 0 K are investigated. The evolution of mechanical properties and electronic structures with an increase of the oxidation degree are analyzed, revealing the transition of the ground state of uranium oxides from metallic to Mott insulator and then to charge-transfer insulator due to the interplay of strongly correlated effects of 5f orbitals and the shift of electrons from uranium to oxygen atoms.

  9. The influence of defects on the transport properties of AgSbPb18Te20 prepared at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Zhu Pinwen; Jiao Hujun; Chen Haiyong; Ma Yanming; Niu Yingli; Li Yingai; Zhang Lijun; Zhang Tiechen; Gao Chunxiao; Zou Guangtian

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized polycrystal AgSbPb 18 Te 20 by using the method of high pressure and high temperature, and found that the defects produced by high pressure and high temperature caused the changes of transport properties. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the cell parameters did not change obviously with synthesis at high pressure, apart from a small fluctuation. The electrical resistivity first increased, and then decreased to one quarter of the original value, as the synthesis pressure changed from low to high. The Seebeck coefficient decreased with the increase of synthesis pressure, and then changed from positive to negative. High pressure and high temperature could cause AgSbPb 18 Te 20 to change from a p-type to n-type semiconductor, increase the carrier concentration at maximum by two orders of magnitude, and shift the infrared absorption edge to a higher energy range. All of these phenomena were regarded as showing that high pressure and high temperature favored the formation of certain defects which could change the band structure and thereby change the transport properties

  10. ''Cs-tetra-ferri-annite:'' High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of a potential nuclear waste disposal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, P.; Zanazzi, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Structure deformations induced by pressure and temperature in synthetic Cs-tetra-ferri-annite 1M [Cs 1.78 (Fe 2+ 5.93 Fe 3+ 0.07 )(Si 6.15 Fe 3+ 1.80 Al 0.05 )O 20 (OH) 4 ], space group C2/m, were analyzed to investigate the capability of the mica structure to store the radiogenic isotopes 135 Cs and 137 Cs. Cs-tetra-ferri-annite is not a mineral name, but for the sake of brevity is used here to designate a synthetic analog of the mineral tetra-ferri-annite. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative determined by fitting the unit-cell volumes between 0 a/nd 47 kbar to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state are K 0 = 257(8) kbar and K' 0 = 21(1), respectively. Between 23 C and 582 C, the a and b lattice parameters remain essentially unchanged, but the thermal expansion coefficient of the c axis is α c = 3.12(9) x 10 -5 degree C -1 . High pressure (P) and high temperature (T) produce limited internal strain in the structure. The tetrahedral rotation angle, α, is very small and does not change significantly throughout the P and T range investigated. Above 450 C in air, Cs-tetra-ferri-annite underwent an oxidation of octahedral iron in the M2cis site, balanced by the loss of H and shown by a decrease of the unit-cell volume. Independent isobaric data on thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility data define the geometric equation of state for Cs-tetra-ferri-annite. On the whole, the data confirm that the structure of Cs-tetra-ferri-annite may be a suitable candidate for the storage of large ions, such as Cs in the interlayer and should be considered as a potential Synroc component

  11. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 0 C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 0 C. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat treating it to form an adherent stable oxide, and bolting it in place in the cavity

  12. Boron doped diamond synthesized from detonation nanodiamond in a C-O-H fluid at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhov, Fedor M.; Abyzov, Andrey M.; Takai, Kazuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) was synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) of 7 GPa, 1230 °C in a short time of 10 s from a powder mixtures of detonation nanodiamond (DND), pentaerythritol C5H8(OH)4 and amorphous boron. SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy indicated that BDD nano- and micro-crystals have formed by consolidation of DND particles (4 nm in size). XRD showed the enlargement of crystallites size to 6-80 nm and the increase in diamond lattice parameter by 0.02-0.07% without appearance of any microstrains. Raman spectroscopy was used to estimate the content of boron atoms embedded in the diamond lattice. It was found that the Raman diamond peak shifts significantly from 1332 cm-1 to 1290 cm-1 without appearance of any non-diamond carbon. The correlation between Raman peak position, its width, and boron content in diamond is proposed. Hydrogenated diamond carbon in significant amount was detected by IR spectroscopy and XPS. Due to the doping with boron content of about 0.1 at%, the electrical conductivity of the diamond achieved approximately 0.2 Ω-1 cm-1. Reaction mechanism of diamond growth (models of recrystallization and oriented attachment) is discussed, including the initial stages of pentaerythritol pyrolysis and thermal desorption of functional groups from the surface of DND particles with the generation of supercritical fluid of low-molecular substances (H2O, CH4, CO, CO2, etc.), as well as byproducts formation (B2O3, B4C).

  13. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistically significant data population on which to draw reasonable conclusions on long-term stability. With the knowledge gained on the silicon MEMS element, higher level assembly to the pressure transducer envelope package can also be quantified as to the build-effects contribution to long-term stability in the same HPHT vessel due to its accommodating size. Accordingly, a HPHT vessel offering multiple levels of configurability and robustness in data measurement is presented, along

  14. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 deg. C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 deg. C. The 200-kW motor for each circulator is enclosed in the pressure boundary, and the motor is cooled by circulating the gas within the cavity over a water-cooled coil. The full operating speed is 23,500 rpm. A full-flow filter, absolute for particulate above 10 μm, is installed upstream of the circulator to protect the gas bearing surfaces. The minimum clearances between these surfaces during operation are in the range of 15 to 30 μm. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat

  15. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced electrochemical static vapor feed oxygen (O2) concentrator (SVFOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure...

  16. High Pressure Oxygen Generation for Future Exploration Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is the development of a cathode feed electrolysis cell stack capable of generating 3600 psi oxygen at a relevant scale for future exploration...

  17. A new fullerene network phase obtained from C.sub.70./sub. at high-pressure and high-temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marques, L.; Skorokhod, Yuriy; Soares, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2015), s. 535-538 ISSN 1862-6254 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fullerene s * high-pressure synthesis * X-ray diffraction * density functional calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2015

  18. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  19. High-pressure high-temperature experiments: Windows to the Universe; Experimentos a alta presion y alta temperatura: Ventanas al universo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaria-Perez, D.

    2011-07-01

    From Earth compositional arguments suggested by indirect methods, such as the propagation of seismic waves, is possible to generate in the laboratory pressure and temperature conditions similar to those of the Earth or other planet interiors and to study how these conditions affect to a certain metal or mineral. These experiments are, therefore, windows to the Universe. The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the huge power of the experimental high-pressure high-temperature techniques and give a global overview of their application to different geophysical fields. Finally, we will introduce the MALTA Consolider Team, which gather most of the Spanish high-pressure community, and present their available high-pressure facilities. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. High temperature microcalorimetry. Study of metal-oxygen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetot, R.; Picard, C.; Boureau, G.; Gerdanian, P.

    1981-01-01

    Determination of partial molar enthalpy in metal-oxygen systems at 1050 0 C. Three representative systems are studied: the solution of oxygen in titanium, the titanium-oxygen system and the uranium-oxygen system from UOsub(2.00) to UOsub(2.60) [fr

  1. Oxygen-Rich Lithium Oxide Phases Formed at High Pressure for Potential Lithium-Air Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenge; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Liuxiang; Li, Nana; Tang, Lingyun; Amine, Khalil; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    The lithium-air battery has great potential of achieving specific energy density comparable to that of gasoline. Several lithium oxide phases involved in the charge-discharge process greatly affect the overall performance of lithium-air batteries. One of the key issues is linked to the environmental oxygen-rich conditions during battery cycling. Here, the theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure conditions are reported. Three new high pressure oxide phases that form at high temperature and pressure are identified: Li 2 O 3 , LiO 2 , and LiO 4 . The LiO 2 and LiO 4 consist of a lithium layer sandwiched by an oxygen ring structure inherited from high pressure ε-O 8 phase, while Li 2 O 3 inherits the local arrangements from ambient LiO 2 and Li 2 O 2 phases. These novel lithium oxides beyond the ambient Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , and LiO 2 phases show great potential in improving battery design and performance in large battery applications under extreme conditions.

  2. High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability testing device and leaching test of simulated high-level waste glass at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senoo, Muneaki; Banba, Tsunetaka; Tashiro, Shingo; Shimooka, Kenji; Araki, Kunio

    1979-11-01

    A High Pressure Soxhlet Type Leachability Testing Device (HIPSOL) was developed to evaluate long-period stability of high-level waste (HLW) solids. For simulated HLW solids, temperature dependency of the leachability was investigated at higher temperatures from 100 0 C to 300 0 C at 80 atm. Leachabilities of cesium and sodium at 295 0 C were 20 and 7 times higher than at 100 0 C, respectively. In the repository, the temperatures around solidified products may be hundred 0 C. It is essential to test them at such elevated temperatures. HIPSOL is also usable for accelerated test to evaluate long-period leaching behavior of HLW products. (author)

  3. Reactor for tracking catalyst nanoparticles in liquid at high temperature under a high-pressure gas phase with X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2018-02-01

    Structure of catalyst nanoparticles dispersed in liquid phase at high temperature under gas phase of reactant(s) at higher pressure (≥5 bars) is important for fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions performed on these catalyst nanoparticles. Most structural characterizations of a catalyst performing catalysis in liquid at high temperature under gas phase at high pressure were performed in an ex situ condition in terms of characterizations before or after catalysis since, from technical point of view, access to the catalyst nanoparticles during catalysis in liquid phase at high temperature under high pressure reactant gas is challenging. Here we designed a reactor which allows us to perform structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to study catalyst nanoparticles under harsh catalysis conditions in terms of liquid up to 350 °C under gas phase with a pressure up to 50 bars. This reactor remains nanoparticles of a catalyst homogeneously dispersed in liquid during catalysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization.

  4. Optimized High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell & High Pressure PEM Electrolyser for Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems in GEO Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnes Jarle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power. Power levels up to 50 kW are foreseen for the next decades. Battery technology that can sustain up to 50 kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems (RFCS were identified years ago as a possible alternative to rechargeable batteries. CMR Prototech has investigated this technology in a series of projects initiated by ESA focusing on both the essential fuel cell technology, demonstration of cycle performance of a RFCS, corresponding to 15 years in orbit, as well as the very important reactants storage systems. In the last two years the development has been focused towards optimising the key elements of the RFCS; the HTPEM fuel cell and the High Pressure PEM electrolyser. In these ESA activities the main target has been to optimise the design by reducing the mass and at the same time improve the performance, thus increasing the specific energy. This paper will present the latest development, including the main results, showing that significant steps have been taken to increase TRL on these key components.

  5. Evaluation of Fungal Growth on Olive-Mill Wastewaters Treated at High Temperature and by High-Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cibelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs in agriculture represents a significant challenge for health and safety of our planet. Phytotoxic compounds in OMWW generally prohibit use of untreated OMWWs for agricultural irrigation or direct discharge into surface waters. However, pretreated OMWW can have positive effects on chemical and microbiological soil characteristics, to fight against fungal soil-borne pathogens. Low amounts of OMWW following thermal (TT-OMWW and high-pressure homogenization (HPH-OMWW pretreatments counteracted growth of some of 12 soil-borne and/or pathogenic fungi examined. With fungal growth measured as standardized change in time to half maximum colony diameter, Δτ, overall, HPH-OMWW showed increased bioactivity, as increased mean Δτ from 3.0 to 4.8 days. Principal component analysis highlighted two fungal groups: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Rosellinia necatrix, with growth strongly inhibited by the treated OMWWs; and Aspergillus ochraceus and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, with stimulated growth by the treated OMWWs. As a non-thermal treatment, HPH-OMWW generally shows improved positive effects, which potentially arise from preservation of the phenols.

  6. Development of a Rotation Drickamer Apparatus for Deformation Studies Under High Pressure and High Temperature: Applications to magnesiowustite and Wadsleyite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Karato, S.

    2002-12-01

    Well-controlled high-pressure deformation experiments are critical for understanding the dynamics of Earth's interior. Most of the previous works on ultrahigh-pressure (P>10 GPa) deformation experiments have two limitations. (1) The mode of deformation is "stress-relaxation", in which stress changes with time in a given experiment, and (2) the magnitude of stress is limited (press combined with a rotation actuator involving an ac servo-motor. After the desired pressure and temperature are reached, torsional stress can be applied to a sample with a constant rotation rate. The advantage of this design is that the direction of shear deformation is normal to that of compression and therefore compression and deformation can be separated. A sample (typically ~1.8 mm diameter and ~0.2 mm thickness) is sandwiched between two zirconia plates and two heater plates made of TiC + diamond. Thin foils of W3%Re and W25%Re are inserted between two halves of samples which act as a thermocouple as well as strain markers. We have conducted a preliminary test on MgO at ~12 GPa and ~1470 K to the strain up to ~3. Deformation experiments on wadsleyite are underway to investigate the fabric development and rheology in this mineral.

  7. The influence of boron on the crystal structure and properties of mullite. Investigations at ambient, high-pressure, and high-temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luehrs, Hanna

    2013-11-21

    Mullite is one of the most important synthetic compounds for advanced structural and functional ceramic materials. The crystal structure of mullite with the composition Al{sub 2}[Al{sub 2+2x}Si{sub 2-2x}]O{sub 10-x} can incorporate a large variety of foreign cations, including (amongst others) significant amounts of boron. However, no chemical or crystal structure analyses of boron-mullites (B-mullites) were available prior to this work, thus representing the key aspects of this thesis. Furthermore, the influence of boron on selected properties of mullite under ambient, high-temperature, and high-pressure conditions are addressed. Starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}), the initial hypothesis for this study was a 1:1 isomorphous replacement of silicon by boron according to the coupled substitution mechanism: 2 Si{sup 4+} + O{sup 2-} → 2 B{sup 3+} + □. Based on a series of compounds synthesized from sol-gel derived precursors at ambient pressure and 1200 C, the formation conditions and physical properties of B-mullites were investigated. The formation temperature for B-mullites decreases with increasing boron-content, as revealed by thermal analyses. An anisotropic development of lattice parameters is observed: Whereas lattice parameters a and b only exhibit minor changes, a linear relationship between lattice parameter c and the amount of boron in the crystal structure was established, on the basis of prompt gamma activation analyses (PGAA) and Rietveld refinements. According to this relationship about 15% of the silicon in mullite can be replaced by boron yielding single-phase B-mullite. B-mullites with significantly higher (∝ factor 3) boron-contents in the mullite structure were also observed but the respective samples contain alumina impurities. Fundamental new details regarding the response of B-mullite to high-temperature and highpressure are presented in this thesis. On the one hand, long-term thermal stability at

  8. Comparison of high pressure and high temperature short time processing on quality of carambola juice during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-05-01

    This study validated high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for achieving greater than 5-log reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in carambola juice and determined shelf life of processed juice stored at 4 °C. Carambola juice processed at 600 MPa for 150 s was identified capable of achieving greater than 5.15-log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, and the quality was compared with that of high temperature short time (HTST)-pasteurized juice at 110 °C for 8.6 s. Aerobic, psychrotrophic, E. coli /coliform, and yeasts and moulds in the juice were reduced by HPP or HTST to levels below the minimum detection limit (HTST juices. However, HTST treatment significantly changed the color of juice, while no significant difference was observed between the control and HPP samples. HPP and HTST treatments reduced the total soluble solids in the juice, but maintained higher sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar contents than untreated juice. The total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents were higher in juice treated with HPP than untreated and HTST juice, but there was no significant difference in the flavonoid content. Aroma score analysis showed that HPP had no effect on aroma, maintaining the highest score during cold storage. The results of this study suggest that appropriate HPP conditions can achieve the same microbial safety as HTST, while maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of carambola juice.

  9. High-temperature vaporization behavior of oxygen-deficient thoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.J.; Tetenbaum, M.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental results of the present study on the vaporization behavior of oxygen-deficient thoria are directed toward a more precise and detailed study of the lower phase boundary (l.p.b.) and congruently vaporizing composition (c.v.c), and intermediate compositions, and the corresponding oxygen potentials and total pressure at temperatures above 2000K. The l.p.b. and c.v.c. values were found to fit an equation of the form log x = A + (B/T), where x is the stoichiometric defect in ThO 2 -x. Oxygen potentials corresponding to the l.p.b. and c.v.c. have been estimated from vapor pressures and thermodynamic data. A very sharp decrease in oxygen potential occurs when thoria isreduced only slightly from the stoichiometric composition. In the temperature range from 2400 to 2655 K, the oxygen partial pressure dependency of x in ThO 2 -x was found to be approximately proportional to PO 2 - 1 /4to PO 2 - 1 /. The small extent of reduction over a wide range of oxygen potentials at these temperatures is a clear illustration of the higher stability of the ThO 2 -x phase compared with that of UO 2 -x. Values of ΔHO 2 and ΔSO 2 have been estimated for selected compositions from the dependence of the measured oxygen potential on temperature. Estimates of the standard free energy of formation of bivariant ThO 2 -x compositions have been made. A substantial increase in the total pressure of thorium-bearing species occurs when stoichiometric thoria is reduced toward the lower phase boundary. (orig.) [de

  10. High-temperature reaction of ''anisotropic'' pyrolitic graphite with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenko, V.A.; Pomytkin, A.P.; Neshpor, V.S.; Vinokur, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is the kinetics of initial interaction stages of highly dense crystalloorientated pyrographite with oxygen. Oxidation was carried out in pure oxygen within 0.1-740 mm Hg pressure range and 500-1100 deg C temperature range. It is stated, that at the temperatures below 700 deg C pyrographite oxidation is subjected to a linear law. Above 700-800 deg C the linear law is preserved only at the initial oxidation stage, then the process is described by a parabolic law. Extension of the linear site is decreased in time with the reduction of oxygen pressure. The reaction has apparent fractional order. Activation energy of pyrogrpahite oxidation by the linear low constitutes approximately 58 kcal/mol within 600-800 deg C range and 14 kcal/mol within 800-1100 deg C range. The apparent activation energy constitutes approximately 13 kcal/mol in the region of correspondence to the parabolic law

  11. High temperature properties of Zircaloy--oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, G.B.; Bates, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The effect of oxygen on three properties of Zircaloy-4 cladding relevant to LOCA evaluation codes was determined. Thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal diffusivity were measured over the range room temperature--1200 0 C (2192 0 F) and 0.7 to 28 at.% oxygen. Thermal expansion and elastic moduli showed increases with oxygen concentration, while thermal diffusivity tended to decrease. Zircaloy-2 was examined over the same temperature range, but only to 5 at.% oxygen, differences in the properties between the two alloys were minor. The thermal emittance of Zircaloy-4 was measured in argon over the wavelength range 1.5 to 2.5 μm on previously oxidized tubing and on surfaces in the process of oxidizing in unlimited steam. For the latter, a high emittance (approximately 0.9) was reached at an oxide thickness of about 100 mg/dm 2 , and the tubing surface remained black and substoichiometric as oxidation continued at temperatures to 1200 0 C

  12. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions. Novel Design of an Ultra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope System for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope's (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 C). The design of a high pressure, high temperature scanning tunneling microscope system, that is capable of monitoring reactions in situ at conditions from UHV and ambient temperature up to 1 atm and 250 C, is briefly presented along with vibrational and thermal analysis, as this system serves as a template to improve upon during the design of the new ultra high pressure, high temperature STM. Using this existing high pressure scanning tunneling microscope we monitored the co-adsorption of hydrogen, ethylene and carbon dioxide on platinum (111) and rhodium (111) crystal faces in the mTorr pressure range at 300 K in equilibrium with the gas phase. During the catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane in the absence of CO the metal surfaces are covered by an adsorbate layer that is very mobile on the time scale of STM imaging. We found that the addition of CO poisons the hydrogenation reaction and induces ordered structures on the single crystal surfaces. Several ordered structures were observed upon CO addition to the surfaces pre-covered with hydrogen and ethylene: a rotated (√19 x √19)R23.4 o on Pt(111), and domains of c(4 x 2)-CO+C 2 H 3 , previously unobserved (4 x 2)-CO+3C 2 H 3 , and (2 x 2)-3CO on Rh(111). A mechanism for CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation on the metal single crystals was proposed, in which CO blocks surface metal sites and reduces adsorbate mobility to limit adsorption and reaction rate of ethylene and hydrogen. In order to observe heterogeneous catalytic reactions that occur well above ambient pressure and temperature that more closely

  13. High-Pressure and High-Temperature in situ X-Ray Diffraction Study of FeP2 up to 70 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ting-Ting; Wu Xiang; Qin Shan; Liu Jing; Li Yan-Chun; Zhang Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The high-pressure and high-temperature structural behavior of FeP 2 is investigated by means of synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction combined with a laser heating technique up to 70 GPa and at least 1800 K. No phase transition of FeP 2 occurs up to 68 GPa at room temperature. While a new phase of FeP 2 assigned to the CuAl 2 -type structure (I4/mcm, Z = 4) is observed at 70 GPa after laser-heating. This new phase presents a quenchable property on decompression to ambient conditions. Our results update previous experimental data and are consistent with theoretical studies. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  14. Raman scattering of 2H-MoS2 at simultaneous high temperature and high pressure (up to 600 K and 18.5 GPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianJun Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Raman spectroscopy of natural molybdenite powder was investigated at simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in a heatable diamond anvil cell (DAC, to obtain the temperature and pressure dependence of the main Raman vibrational modes (E1g, E 2 g 1 ,A1g, and 2LA(M. Over our experimental temperature and pressure range (300–600 K and 1 atm−18.5 GPa, the Raman modes follow a systematic blue shift with increasing pressure, and red shift with increasing temperature. The results were calculated by three-variable linear fitting. The mutual correlation index of temperature and pressure indicates that the pressure may reduce the temperature dependence of Raman modes. New Raman bands due to structural changes emerged at about 3–4 GPa lower than seen in previous studies; this may be caused by differences in the pressure hydrostaticity and shear stress in the sample cell that promote the interlayer sliding.

  15. Raman scattering of 2H-MoS2 at simultaneous high temperature and high pressure (up to 600 K and 18.5 GPa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, JianJun; Li, HePing; Dai, LiDong; Hu, HaiYing; Zhao, ChaoShuai

    2016-03-01

    The Raman spectroscopy of natural molybdenite powder was investigated at simultaneous conditions of high temperature and high pressure in a heatable diamond anvil cell (DAC), to obtain the temperature and pressure dependence of the main Raman vibrational modes (E1g, E2 g 1 ,A1g, and 2LA(M)). Over our experimental temperature and pressure range (300-600 K and 1 atm-18.5 GPa), the Raman modes follow a systematic blue shift with increasing pressure, and red shift with increasing temperature. The results were calculated by three-variable linear fitting. The mutual correlation index of temperature and pressure indicates that the pressure may reduce the temperature dependence of Raman modes. New Raman bands due to structural changes emerged at about 3-4 GPa lower than seen in previous studies; this may be caused by differences in the pressure hydrostaticity and shear stress in the sample cell that promote the interlayer sliding.

  16. Fabrication of intermetallic NiAl by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction using aluminium nanopowder under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Shu Shan; Cheng Hai Yong; Yang Hai Bin; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    By using aluminium nanopowder prepared by wire electrical explosion, pure monophase NiAl compound with fine crystallites (<=10 mu m) and good densification (98% of the theoretical green density) was successfully fabricated by means of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) under a high pressure of 50 MPa. Investigation shows that, due to the physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles, the SHS reaction mode and mechanism are distinct from those when using conventional coarse-grained reactants. The SHS reaction process depends on the thermal conditions related to pressure and can occur at a dramatically low temperature of 308 sup o C, which cannot be expected in conventional SHS reaction. With increasing pressure, the SHS explosive ignition temperature (T sub i sub g) of forming NiAl decreases due to thermal and kinetic effects.

  17. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  18. The inclusions of Mg-B (MgB12?) as potential pinning centres in high-pressure-high-temperature-synthesized or sintered magnesium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhna, T A; Gawalek, W; Savchuk, Ya M; Habisreuther, T; Wendt, M; Sergienko, N V; Moshchil, V E; Nagorny, P; Schmidt, Ch; Dellith, J; Dittrich, U; Litzkendorf, D; Melnikov, V S; Sverdun, V B

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure and superconductive characteristics of high-pressure-high-temperature (2 GPa, 700-1000 deg. C )-synthesized and sintered MgB 2 without additions from different initial powders was performed. Among various secondary phases Mg-B inclusions with a stoichiometry close to MgB 12 were identified. With an increasing amount of these inclusions the critical current density increased. So these inclusions can be feasible pinning centres in MgB 2 . The highest j c values in zero field were 1300 kA cm -2 at 10 K, 780 kA cm -2 at 20 K and 62 kA cm -2 at 35 K and in 1 T field were 1200 kA cm -2 at 10 K, 515 kA cm -2 at 20 K and 0.1 kA cm -2 at 35 K for high-pressure-synthesized magnesium diboride and the field of irreversibility at 20 K reached 8 T. The average grain sizes calculated from x-ray examinations in materials having high j c were 15-37 nm

  19. THE BEHAVIOR OF SOLUBLE METALS ELUTED FROM Ni/Fe-BASED ALLOY REACTORS AFTER HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE WATER PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of heavy metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors after high-temperature and high-pressure water reaction were studied at temperatures ranging from 250 to 400oC. For this purpose, water and cysteic acid were heated in two reactor materials which are SUS 316 and Inconel 625. Under the tested conditions, the erratic behaviors of soluble metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy in high temperature water were observed. Results showed that metals could be eluted even at a short contact time. The presence of air also promotes elution at sub-critical conditions. At sub-critical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. It was observed that eluted metals tend to increased under acidic conditions and most of those metals were over the limit of WHO guideline for drinking water. The results are significant both on the viewpoint of environmental regulation on disposal of wastes containing heavy metals, toxicity of resulting product and catalytic effect on a particular reaction.

  20. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  1. Flow Field Measurements of Methane-Oxygen Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Kimio; Kikkawa, Hoshitaka; Akamatsu, Fumiteru; Katsuki, Masashi

    We carried out the flow field measurement of methane-oxygen turbulent nonpremixed flame in non-combusting and combusting situations at high pressures using LDV. The main objectives are to study the influences of combustion on the turbulence structure at high pressures and to provide detailed data on which numerical predictions on such flows can rely. Direct observation and CH* chemiluminescence detection are conducted at high pressures up to 1.0MPa. It was found that the flame length at elevated pressures became constant. From flow field measurements, the following features of flames at elevated pressure were found: (1) the existence of flame suppressed turbulence in the upstream region of the jet and enhanced it in the downstream region with increasing pressure; (2) Turbulence in the flame was more anisotropic than in the corresponding cold jet in all regions of the flow with increasing pressure; (3) Reynolds shear stresses did not change at elevated pressure; (4) Combustion processes had a marked influence on the turbulence macroscale under high pressures, however, the turbulence macroscale was not changed even with the increase in pressure.

  2. High Temperature, High Pressure Equation of State: Solidification of Hydrocarbons and Measurement of Krytox Oil Using Rolling-Ball Viscometer Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamwo, Isaac K. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Burgess, Ward [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Tapriyal, Deepak [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2014-10-03

    The global consumption of oil and gas continues to rise and has led to the search and recovery of petroleum sources from reservoirs exhibiting increasingly high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. For example, ultra-deep petroleum formations found at depths of approximately 5 km or more, can exhibit pressure and temperature values as high as 240 MPa (35,000 psi) and 533 K (260°C). The hydrocarbons produced from these ultra-deep formations experience significant decreases in temperature and pressure from reservoir to platform conditions. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop accurate equation of state models (EOS) and fluid properties databases that covers the entire temperature and pressure ranges associated with this process to promote the efficient, safe, and environmentally responsible production from these reservoirs at extreme conditions. Currently available databases and EOS models are generally limited to approximately 69 MPa and do not correlate accurately when extrapolated to the extreme environments associated with ultra-deep reservoirs where temperatures can reach as high as 533 K and pressures up to 240 MPa. Despite recent exploration and production of petroleum from ultra-deep formations, there are major gaps in the databases for pure and mixture density and viscosity of hydrocarbons. These are the most important fluid properties that enable accurate booking of reserves as well as the design of size and equipment to safely bring these fluids to the platform. The overall objective of this project is to develop methodologies to provide crude oil thermodynamic and transport properties—including density, viscosity, and phase composition— at extreme temperature and pressure conditions. The knowledge of these crude oil properties reduces uncertainties associated with deep drilling and promotes safer and reliable access to domestic energy resources. This report is an extension of work reported in our first Technical Report Series (TRS) released

  3. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time....

  4. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  5. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  6. Small-angle x-ray scattering and density measurements of liquid Se50-Te50 mixture at high temperatures and high pressures using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajihara, Y; Inui, M; Matsuda, K; Tomioka, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray transmission measurements of liquid Se 50 -Te 50 mixture at SPring-8 in Japan and obtained the structure factor S(Q) at small-Q region (0.6 -1 ) and the density at high temperatures and high pressures up to 1000 0 C and 180 MPa. We report preliminary results in this paper. With increasing temperature, the density shows a minimum at around 500 0 C and a maximum at around 700 0 C. On the other hand, S(0) becomes maximum and S(Q) strongly depends on Q at around 600 0 C, which is about the middle temperature where the density shows the minimum and maximum. The temperatures shift to lower side when the pressure increases. These results prove that, with increasing temperature, the sample exhibits gradual transition from low-density structure to high-density structure, which causes mesoscopic density fluctuations in the intermediate temperature region.

  7. Development of internal CRD for next generation BWR-endurance and robustness tests of ball-bearing materials in high-pressure and high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji Goto; Shuichi Ohmori; Michitsugu Mori; Shohei Kawano; Tadashi Narabayashi; Shinichi Ishizato

    2005-01-01

    An internal CRD using a heatproof ceramics insulated coil is under development to be a competitive and higher performance as Next- Generation BWR. In the case of the 1700MWe next generation BWR, adapting the internal CRDs, the reactor pressure vessel is almost equivalent to that of 1356 MWe ABWR. The endurance and robustness tests were examined in order to confirm the durability of the bearing for the internal CRD. The durability of the ball bearing for the internal CRD was performed in the high-pressure and high-temperature reactor water of current BWR conditions. The experimental results confirmed the durability of rotational numbers for the operation length of 60 years. We added the cruds into water to confirm the robustness of the ball bearing. The test results also showed good robustness even in high-density crud conditions, compared with the current BWR. This program is conducted as one of the selected offers for the advertised technical developments of the Institute of Applied Energy founded by METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) of Japan. (authors)

  8. Direct arylation of benzene with aryl bromides using high-temperature/high-pressure process windows: expanding the scope of C-H activation chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-04-16

    A detailed investigation on the direct arylation of benzene with aryl bromides by using first-row transition metals under high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) conditions is described. By employing a parallel reactor platform for rapid reaction screening and discovery at elevated temperatures, various metal/ligand/base combinations were evaluated for their ability to enable biaryl formation through C-H activation. The combination of cobalt(III) acetylacetonate and lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide was subjected to further process intensification at 200 °C (15 bar), allowing a significant reduction of the catalyst/base loading and a dramatic increase in catalytic efficiency (turnover frequency) by a factor of 1000 compared to traditional protocols. The high-throughput screening additionally identified novel nickel- and copper-based metal/ligand combinations that favored an amination pathway competing with C-H activation, with the addition of ligands, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, having a profound influence on the selectivity. In addition to metal-based catalysts, high-T/p process windows were also successfully applied to transition-metal-free systems, utilizing 1,10-phenanthroline as organocatalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Multipurpose high-pressure high-temperature diamond-anvil cell with a novel high-precision guiding system and a dual-mode pressurization device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippinger, Thomas; Miletich, Ronald; Burchard, Michael

    2011-09-01

    A novel diamond-anvil cell (DAC) design has been constructed and tested for in situ applications at high-pressure (HP) operations and has proved to be suitable even for HP sample environments at non-ambient temperature conditions. The innovative high-precision guiding mechanism, comparable to a dog clutch, consists of perpendicular planar sliding-plane elements and is integrated directly into the base body of the cylindrically shaped DAC. The combination of two force-generating devices, i.e., mechanical screws and an inflatable gas membrane, allows the user to choose independently between, and to apply individually, two different forcing mechanisms for pressure generation. Both mechanisms are basically independent of each other, but can also be operated simultaneously. The modularity of the DAC design allows for an easy exchange of functional core-element groups optimized not only for various analytical in situ methods but also for HP operation with or without high-temperature (HT) application. For HP-HT experiments a liquid cooling circuit inside the specific inner modular groups has been implemented to obtain a controlled and limited heat distribution within the outer DAC body.

  10. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis; 1976 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Basic data are collected for the construction of a high-temperature high-pressure membrane-assisted water electrolysis test plant of the constant load type and another of the variable load type. To collect the data, basic experiments are conducted on a small water electrolysis unit, diaphragms are fabricated and tested for performance, design calculation is performed using a computer, a test unit for testing electrolysis bath constituting materials is built for the construction of a gas/liquid separation unit. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis test apparatus. The first part of this report is titled 'Outline' and states the objectives of this research, summarizes the achievements of fiscal 1974, 1975, and 1976, and mentions the names of officers responsible for the execution of the research and development, etc. The second part is titled 'Contents of research' and reports the details of the research conducted in fiscal 1976. The subjects taken up in the second part are 'Research on constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on Teflon-based diaphragms for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis baths,' 'Research on variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on small test plant electrolysis bath design,' etc., which are being undertaken by Showa Denko K.K. and four other corporations. (NEDO)

  12. The effect of molybdenum addition on SCC susceptibility of stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune; Kawamoto, Teruaki

    1978-01-01

    The effect of molybdenum addition on the SCC susceptibility of sensitized stainless steel in oxygenated high temperature water has been studied through the creviced bent beam SCC test (CBB test) and A262E intergranular corrosion test. The molybdenum addition improved the SCC susceptibility of sensitized stainless steels in oxygenated high temperature water not only by delaying the sensitization at lower temperatures but also by increasing the material resistance to the SCC under a given degree of sensitization. These laboratory test results reveal that the molybdenum addition is quite beneficial for improving the SCC susceptibility of stainless steel pipe weld joints in boiling water reactor environment. (auth.)

  13. The high-temperature modification of LuAgSn and high-pressure high-temperature experiments on DyAgSn, HoAgSn, and YbAgSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heying, B.; Rodewald, U.C.; Hermes, W.; Schappacher, F.M.; Riecken, J.F.; Poettgen, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Heymann, G.; Huppertz, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. fuer Chemie und Biochemie; Sebastian, C.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik Fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The high-temperature modification of LuAgSn was obtained by arc-melting an equiatomic mixture of the elements followed by quenching the melt on a water-cooled copper crucible. HT-LuAgSn crystallizes with the NdPtSb-type structure, space group P6{sub 3}mc: a = 463.5(1), c = 723.2(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0270, 151 F{sup 2}, and 11 variables. The silver and tin atoms build up two-dimensional, puckered [Ag{sub 3}Sn{sub 3}] networks (276 pm Ag-Sn) that are charge-balanced and separated by the lutetium atoms. The Ag-Sn distances between the [Ag{sub 3}Sn{sub 3}] layers of 294 pm are much longer. Single crystals of isotypic DyAgSn (a = 468.3(1), c = 734.4(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0343, 411 F{sup 2}, and 11 variables) and HoAgSn (a = 467.2(1), c = 731.7(2) pm, wR2 = 0.0318, 330 F{sup 2}, and 11 variables) were obtained from arc-melted samples. Under high-pressure (up to 12.2 GPa) and high-temperature (up to 1470 K) conditions, no transitions to a ZrNiAl-related phase have been observed for DyAgSn, HoAgSn, and YbAgSn. HT-TmAgSn shows Curie-Weiss paramagnetism with {mu}{sub eff} = 7.53(1) {mu}{sub B}/Tm atom and {theta}P = -15.0(5) K. No magnetic ordering was evident down to 3 K. HT-LuAgSn is a Pauli paramagnet. Room-temperature {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectra of HT-TmAgSn and HT-LuAgSn show singlet resonances with isomer shifts of 1.78(1) and 1.72(1) mm/s, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  15. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Sun, Chong; Lin, Xueqiang; Cheng, Xiangkun; Liu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH)3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels. PMID:28773328

  16. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels.

  17. Mineralizer-assisted high-pressure high-temperature synthesis and characterization of novel phosphorus nitride imides and luminescent alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were the synthesis, identification and structural characterization of new alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophopshates and phosphorus nitrides. Furthermore, luminescence properties of the resulting materials should be investigated and a connection between these properties and the respective structures should be established. For this purpose, a range of synthesis strategies was employed, including conventional solid-state syntheses in silica ampoules and high-pressure high-temperature syntheses using the multianvil technique. The emphasis of the synthetic part of this thesis lies on the development of new synthetic strategies in order to increase crystallinity of alkaline earth metal (oxo)nitridophosphates and thus accelerate their structure determination. This involves the selection of a suitable mineralizer and the investigation of its interaction with the respective starting materials. In addition, the analytical methods applied in this thesis in order to identify and characterize the compounds are just as essential as the synthesis strategies. X-ray diffraction on single crystals and on powders was carried out as the main analytical method while being supported by quantitative and qualitative 1 H and 31 P solid-state NMR measurements, FTIR and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, as well as electron microscopy methods including both imaging and diffraction techniques. Implied by the large number of novel structures investigated, theoretical studies including topological analysis, calculations of lattice energies and bond-valence sums also played a major role in this thesis. Optical analysis methods such as reflectance spectroscopy, luminescence microscopy and photoluminescence measurements helped to determine the luminescence properties of some of the presented compounds.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1974 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature and high-pressure water electrolysis; 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    The goals at present are to clarify conditions for the realization of the water electrolysis process relative to various primary energy sources and to experimentally construct a small practical electrobath to operate at high temperature and high pressure for the attainment of high economic efficiency. Efforts in this fiscal year are mentioned below. Surveys and studies are conducted about hydrogen production by water electrolysis and about achievements in the past and problems at present concerning hydrogen production by water electrolysis in Japan and overseas. The expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources is also studied and evaluated. For a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis bath conceptual design (small test plant, bathing temperature 120 degrees C, pressure 20atm, hydrogen production rate 2Nm{sup 3}/h), studies are conducted about a constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath and a variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath. Surveys and studies are also conducted about the expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources, and the role is evaluated. (NEDO)

  19. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.; Elersic, K.; Mozetič, M.; Kovač, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Stöckel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Pánek, Radomír; Balat-Pichelin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 305, June (2014), s. 674-682 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Inconel * Oxidation * High temperature * Oxygen plasma * Hydrogen plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433214007119

  20. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  1. Kinetics of the high temperature oxygen exchange reaction on 238PuO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiting, Christofer E.; Du, Miting; Felker, L. Kevin; Wham, Robert M.; Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen exchange reactions performed on PuO 2 suggest the reaction is influenced by at least three mechanisms: an internal chemical reaction, surface mobility of active species/defects, and surface exchange of gaseous oxygen with lattice oxygen. Activation energies for the surface mobility and internal chemical reaction are presented. Determining which mechanism is dominant appears to be a complex function including at least specific surface area and temperature. Thermal exposure may also impact the oxygen exchange reaction by causing reductions in the specific surface area of PuO 2 . Previous CeO 2 surrogate studies exhibit similar behavior, confirming that CeO 2 is a good qualitative surrogate for PuO 2 , in regards to the oxygen exchange reaction. Comparison of results presented here with previous work on the PuO 2 oxygen exchange reaction allows complexities in the previous work to be explained. These explanations allowed new conclusions to be drawn, many of which confirm the conclusions presented here. - Highlights: • PuO 2 Oxygen exchange kinetics can be influenced by at least 3 different mechanisms. • An internal chemical reaction controls the rate at high temperature and large SSA. • Surface mobility and surface exchange influence rate at lower temperatures and SSA. • Exchange temperatures may alter SSA and make data difficult to interpret.

  2. Singlet oxygen generation in a high pressure non-self-sustained electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Adam; Norberg, Seth; Shawcross, Paul; Lempert, Walter R; Rich, J William; Adamovich, Igor V

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of singlet oxygen generation experiments in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge. The discharge consists of a high-voltage, short pulse duration, high repetition rate pulsed discharge, which produces ionization in the flow, and a low-voltage dc discharge which sustains current in a decaying plasma between the pulses. The sustainer voltage can be independently varied to maximize the energy input into electron impact excitation of singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O 2 -He mixtures at static pressures of at least up to P 0 = 380 Torr and sustainer discharge powers of at least up to 1200 W, achieved at P 0 = 120 Torr. The reduced electric field in the positive column of the sustainer discharge varies from E/N = 0.3 x 10 -16 to 0.65 X 10 -16 V cm 2 , which is significantly lower than E/N in self-sustained discharges and close to the theoretically predicted optimum value for O 2 (a 1 Δ) excitation. Measurements of visible emission spectra O 2 (b 1 Σ → X 3 Σ) in the discharge afterglow show the O 2 (b 1 Σ) concentration to increase with the sustainer discharge power and to decrease as the O 2 fraction in the flow is increased. Rotational temperatures inferred from these spectra in 10% O 2 -90% He flows at P 0 = 120 Torr and mass flow rates of m-dot = 2.2 are 365-465 K. SDO yield at these conditions, 1.7% to 4.4%, was inferred from the integrated intensity of the (0, 0) band of the O 2 (a 1 Δ → X 3 Σ) infrared emission spectra calibrated using a blackbody source. The yield remains nearly constant in the discharge afterglow, up to at least 15 cm distance from the discharge. Kinetic modelling calculations using a quasi-one-dimensional nonequilibrium pulser-sustainer discharge model coupled with the Boltzmann equation for plasma electrons predict gas temperature rise in the discharge in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements

  3. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2013-08-14

    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Barasheed, Abeer Z.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of AdsorbateStructure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions: Novel Design of anUltra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling MicroscopeSystem for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-16

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope’s (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 °C).

  6. Formation of SIMOX–SOI structure by high-temperature oxygen implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yasushi; Kamikawa, Tomohiro; Nakata, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    We have performed oxygen ion implantation in silicon at very high substrate-temperatures (⩽1000 °C) for the purpose of forming silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure. We have expected that the high-temperature implantation can effectively avoids ion-beam-induced damages in the SOI layer and simultaneously stabilizes the buried oxide (BOX) and SOI-Si layer. Such a high-temperature implantation makes it possible to reduce the post-implantation annealing temperature. In the present study, oxygen ions with 180 keV are incident on Si(0 0 1) substrates at various temperatures from room temperature (RT) up to 1000 °C. The ion-fluencies are in order of 10"1"7–10"1"8 ions/cm"2. Samples have been analyzed by atomic force microscope, Rutherford backscattering, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found in the AFM analysis that the surface roughness of the samples implanted at 500 °C or below are significantly small with mean roughness of less than 1 nm, and gradually increased for the 800 °C-implanted sample. On the other hand, a lot of dents are observed for the 1000 °C-implanted sample. RBS analysis has revealed that stoichiometric SOI-Si and BOX-SiO_2 layers are formed by oxygen implantation at the substrate temperatures of RT, 500, and 800 °C. However, SiO_2-BOX layer has been desorbed during the implantation. Raman spectra shows that the ion-beam-induced damages are fairly suppressed by such a high-temperatures implantation.

  7. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on hydrogen production technology by high-temperature high- pressure water electrolysis; 1975 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-29

    This report details the research result in fiscal 1975. Part 1 'Outlines' includes the research target, the summary of fiscal 1974 research results, the summary of fiscal 1975 research results, and responsible researchers. Part 2 'Details of the research' includes the fiscal 1975 research results. Chapter 1 reports 'Study on constant-load high- temperature high-pressure (multi-electrode type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 2 reports 'Study on Teflon system diaphragm for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis tanks' promoted by Yuasa Battery Co. through Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha. Chapter 3 reports 'Study on variable-load high- temperature high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis tank' promoted by Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 4 reports 'The first detailed design of the electrolysis tank for a small test plant' promoted by Hitachi Zosen Corp. through Showa Denko K.K. Chapter 5 reports 'Research on the applicability of water electrolysis systems to various fields' promoted by Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. through Showa Denko K.K. (NEDO)

  9. Mobility Optimization in LaxBa1-xSnO3 Thin Films Deposited via High Pressure Oxygen Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, William Michael

    BaSnO3 (BSO) is one of the most promising semiconducting oxides currently being explored for use in future electronic applications. BSO possesses a unique combination of high room temperature mobility (even at very high carrier concentrations, > 1019 cm-3), wide band gap, and high temperature stability, making it a potentially useful material for myriad applications. Significant challenges remain however in optimizing the properties and processing of epitaxial BSO, a critical step towards industrial applications. In this study we investigate the viability of using high pressure oxygen sputtering to produce high mobility La-doped BSO thin films. In the first part of our investigation we synthesized, using solid state reaction, phase-pure stoichiometric polycrystalline 2% La-doped BaSnO 3 for use as a target material in our sputtering system. We verified the experimental bulk lattice constant, 4.117 A, to be in good agreement with literature values. Next, we set out to optimize the growth conditions for DC sputtering of La doped BaSnO3. We found that mobility for all our films increased monotonically with deposition temperature, suggesting the optimum temperature for deposition is > 900 °C and implicating a likely improvement in transport properties with post-growth thermal anneal. We then preformed systematic studies aimed at probing the effects of varying thickness and deposition rate to optimize the structural and electronic transport properties in unbuffered BSO films. In this report we demonstrate the ability to grow 2% La BSO thin films with an effective dopant activation of essentially 100%. Our films showed fully relaxed (bulk), out-of-plane lattice parameter values when deposited on LaAlO3, MgO, and (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2 TaAlO6)0.7 substrates, and slightly expanded out-of-plane lattice parameters for films deposited on SrTiO3, GdScO3, and PrScO3 substrates. The surface roughness's of our films were measured via AFM, and determined to be on the nm scale or better

  10. Radiation losses from oxygen and iron impurities in a high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radiation and ionization losses due to impurities present in a high temperature plasma have been calculated for a light element (oxygen), which is completely stripped in the core of existing Tokamak discharges, and a heavy one (iron), which is only partially stripped. Two extreme cases have been treated: in the first one coronal equilibrium is reached; the radiated power is then equal to the product of the electron density, the impurity density, and a function of the electron temperature; in the second one impurities recycle with a constant radial velocity v 0 in a background plasma; radiation and ionization losses are proportional to the impurity flux and are a decreasing function of the diffusion velocity. The results presented can be used to evaluate losses in a practical case [fr

  11. Measurement of mass flux in high temperature high pressure steam-water two-phase flow using a combination of Pitot tubes and a gamma densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.C.; Bzovey, D.

    1990-01-01

    The design and calibration of a two-phase mass-flux measurement device making use of a Pitot-tube rake and a gamma densitometer are described. Five Pitot tubes and three chordal void-fraction measurements are used. Similar devices have been reported previously. The present device is designed for easy operation and simple data interpretation for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric flows under high pressure transient two-phase flow conditions. The device was calibrated using a vertical two-phase flow loop as well as a model-scale pump loop in horizontal orientation. Good agreement between the measured two-phase mass fluxes and the single-phase values was obtained in both cases. (orig.)

  12. In situ detection of two-stage crystallization in ZrTiCuNiBe under high pressure and high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L L; Wu, Q; Zhan, Z J; Cao, L M; Wang, L M; Shao, G J; Zhang, J; Wang, W K

    2002-01-01

    Structural changes in bulk metallic Zr sub 4 sub 1 sub . sub 2 Ti sub 1 sub 3 sub . sub 8 Cu sub 1 sub 2 sub . sub 5 Ni sub 1 sub 0 Be sub 2 sub 2 sub . sub 5 glass subjected to heat treatments under high pressure were investigated by means of synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction (SRXRD). In situ SRXRD measurements showed that the crystallization process of this material is comprised of two stages. Subsequent heating at 10 GPa converts the sample from the amorphous (Am) phase into a metastable fcc phase and then leads to the fcc phase changing back to the Am phase, indicating that there is a kind of 'reversible' phase transition phenomenon occurring in the alloy. Such phenomenon is explained on the basis of free energy considerations.

  13. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-01

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB 6 , SrB 6 , BaB 6 and the ternary hexaborides Ca x Sr 1−x B 6 , Ca x Ba 1−x B 6 , Sr x Ba 1−x B 6 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB 6 (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials

  14. Modelling of zircaloy-4 degradation in oxygen and nitrogen mixtures at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasserre-Gagnaire, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 claddings provide the first containment of UO 2 fuel in Pressurised Water Reactors. It has been demonstrated that the fuel assemblies cladding could be exposed to air at high temperature in several accidental situations such as a loss of cooling accident in a spent fuel storage When mixed to oxygen at high temperature, the nitrogen, usually used as an inert gas, causes the accelerated corrosion of the cladding. The kinetic curves obtained by thermogravimetry reveal two stages: a pre-transition and a post-transition one. The pre-transition stage corresponds to the growth of a protective dense oxide layer: the kinetic rate decreases with time and is controlled by oxygen vacancy diffusion in the oxide layer. In the post-transition stage, the oxide layer is no longer protective and the kinetic rate increases with time. Images obtained by optical microscopy of a sample in the post-transition stage reveal the presence of corroded zones characterized by a porous scale with zirconium nitride precipitates at metal - oxide interface. Corrosion of Zy4 plates at 850 deg. C under mixed oxygen - nitrogen atmospheres has been studied during the post-transition stage. A sequence of three reactions is proposed to explain the mechanism of nitrogen-enhanced corrosion and the porosity of the corroded regions. The accelerating effect of nitrogen in the corrosion scale can therefore be described on the basis of an autocatalytic effect of the zirconium nitride precipitates. Then, it is demonstrated that the steady-state approximation as well as the existence of an elementary step controlling the growth process are valid during the post-transition stage. Thanks to the study of the variations of the surface rate of growth with the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressure, the rate-determining step is identified as the external interface reaction step of the oxidation of the zirconium nitride precipitates. Finally, a nucleation and growth model used for thermal reactions in powders

  15. Rosemary and oxygen scavenger in active packaging for prevention of high-pressure induced lipid oxidation in pork patties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolumar Garcia, Jose Tomas; Lapena Gomez, David; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid...... oxidation was studied at the surface and the inner part by measuring secondary lipid oxidation products (TBARs) and the tendency to form radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Lipid oxidation was lower in the inner part than at the surface for all three packaging systems. Rosemary active...... packaging was the most effective method to protect pork patties from the HPP-induced lipid oxidation, while oxygen scavenger packaging was not effective since residual oxygen remained in the package in the initial period of storage. The kinetics of the oxygen trapping by oxygen scavengers appears...

  16. Solubility of oxygen in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxy-helium atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D

    1979-06-01

    The molar oxygen concentration in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxygen-helium atmosphere was measured directly in pressurized subsamples, using a modified version of the Winkler oxygen analysis. At a partial pressure of oxygen of 1 atm or less, its concentration in the aqueous phase was adequately described by Henry's Law at total pressures up to 600 atm. This phenomenon, which permits a straightforward determination of dissolved oxygen within hyperbaric systems, resulted from pressure-induced compensatory alterations in the Henry's Law variables rather than from a true obedience to the Ideal Gas Law. If the partial pressure of a gas contributes significantly to the hydrostatic pressure, Henry's Law is no longer adequate for determining its solubility within the compressed medium.

  17. Preliminary Investigation on the Useful Chemicals obtained from High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water Treatment of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis Obutus Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Daimon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of utilizing residual forest biomass to produce valuable chemicals was investigated. An outer layer of a bark of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obutusa tree, a Japanese cypress, was used as a sample material. Experiments were carried out in a semibatch reactor apparatus that allows the study of the effect of reaction temperatures in a single run. Analysis of the products by GC-MS reveals formation of useful compounds such as furfural, some aromatic compounds (1,3-di-tert-butyl benzene and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol, and fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Keywords: fatty acids, furfural, high temperature water treatment, hinoki, residual biomass

  18. High-pressure and high-temperature physical properties of LiF studied by density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Quan, Wei-Long; Song, Ting; Khenata, Rabah; Bin-Omran, Saad

    2018-05-01

    Using the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation based on first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory, the high-pressure structural phase transition of LiF is explored. From the analysis of Gibbs free energies, we find that no phase transition occurs for LiF in the presented pressure range from 0 to 1000 GPa, and this result is consistent with the theoretical prediction obtained via ab initio calculations [N.A. Smirnov, Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 014109]. Using the classical molecular dynamics technique with effective pair potentials which consist of the Coulomb, dispersion, and repulsion interaction, the melting phase diagram of LiF is determined. The obtained normalized volumes under pressure are in good agreement with our density functional theory results and the available experimental data. Meanwhile, with the help of the quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phononic effects are considered, the thermodynamic properties of interest, including the volume thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal bulk modulus and its first and second pressure derivatives, heat capacity at constant volume, entropy, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter of LiF are predicted systematically. All the properties of LiF with the stable NaCl-type structure in the temperature range of 0-4900 K and the pressure up to 1000 GPa are summarized.

  19. H + CH{sub 2}CO {yields} CH{sub 3} + CO at high temperature : a high pressure chemical activation reaction with positive barrier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hranisavljevic, J.; Kumaran, S. S.; Michael, J. V.

    1997-12-08

    The Laser Photolysis-Shock Tube (LP-ST) technique coupled with H-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) has been used to study reaction, H + CH{sub 2}CO {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + CO, over the temperature range, 863-1400 K. The results can be represented by the Arrhenius expression, k = (4.85 {+-} 0.70) x 10{sup {minus}11} exp({minus}2328 {+-} 155 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The present data have been combined with the earlier low temperature flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence measurements to yield a joint three parameter expression, k = 5.44 x 10{sup {minus}14} T{sup 0.8513} exp({minus}1429 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. This is a chemical activation process that proceeds through vibrationally excited acetyl radicals. However, due to the presence of a low lying forward dissociation channel to CH{sub 3} + CO, the present results refer to the high pressure limiting rate constants. Hence, transition state theory with Eckart tunneling is used to explain the data.

  20. Evaluation of the IGSCC(Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) resistance of inconel alloys by static potential method in high temperature and high pressure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, Wan Young; Nam, Tae Woon

    1997-01-01

    Inconel alloys which have good high temperature mechanical properties and corrosion resistance have been used extensively as steam generator tube of nuclear power plants. There have been some reports on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) failure problems in steam generator tubes of nuclear reactors. In order to evaluate the effects of heat treatment and composition on the IGSCC behavior of inconel alloys in simulated nuclear reactor environment, four different specimens (inconel 600 MA, 600 TT, 690 MA and 690 TT) were prepared and tested by eletrochemical method. Static potential tests for stressed C-ring type inconel specimens were carried out in 10% NaOH solution at 300 deg C (75 atm). It was found that IGSCC was initiated in inconel 600 MA specimen, but the other three specimens were not cracked. Based on the gradients of corrosion current density of the four specimens as a function of test time, thermally treated alloys show better IGSCC resistance than mull-annealed alloys, and inconel 690 TT has better passivation characteristic than inconel 600 MA. Inconel 690 TT shows clear periodic passivation that indicates good SCC resistance. The good IGSCC resistance of inconel 690 TT is due to periodic passivation characteristics of surface layer. (author)

  1. Study of cements silicate phases hydrated under high pressure and high temperature; Etude des phases silicatees du ciment hydrate sous haute pression et haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meducin, F.

    2001-10-01

    This study concerns the durability of oil-well cementing. Indeed, in oil well cementing a cement slurry is pumped down the steel casing of the well up the annular space between it and the surrounding rock to support and protect the casing. The setting conditions of pressure and temperature may be very high (up to 1000 bar and 250 deg C at the bottom of the oil-well). In this research, the hydration of the main constituent of cement, synthetic tri-calcium silicate Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}, often called C{sub 3}S (C = CaO; S = SiO{sub 2} and H H{sub 2}O), is studied. Calcium Silicate hydrates are prepared in high-pressure cells to complete their phase diagram (P,T) and obtain the stability conditions for each species. Indeed, the phases formed in these conditions are unknown and the study consists in the hydration of C{sub 3}S at different temperatures, pressures, and during different times to simulate the oil-well conditions. In a first step (until 120 deg C at ambient pressure) the C-S-H, a not well crystallized and non-stoichiometric phase, is synthesized: it brings adhesion and mechanical properties., Then, when pressure and temperature increase, crystallized phases appear such as jaffeite (Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6}) and hillebrandite (Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2}). Silicon {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (using standard sequences MAS, CPMAS) allow us to identify all the silicates hydrates formed. Indeed, {sup 29}Si NMR is a valuable tool to determine the structure of crystallized or not-well crystallized phases of cement. The characterization of the hydrated samples is completed by other techniques: X- Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The following results are found: jaffeite is the most stable phase at C/S=3. To simulate the hydration of real cement, hydration of C{sub 3}S with ground quartz and with or without super-plasticizers is done. In those cases, new phases appear: kilchoanite mainly, and xonotlite. A large amount of

  2. A Rechargeable High-Temperature Molten Salt Iron-Oxygen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Guan, Chengzhi; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Shiyu; Bao, Hongliang; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Guoping; Chen, George Zheng; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-06-11

    The energy and power density of conventional batteries are far lower than their theoretical expectations, primarily because of slow reaction kinetics that are often observed under ambient conditions. Here we describe a low-cost and high-temperature rechargeable iron-oxygen battery containing a bi-phase electrolyte of molten carbonate and solid oxide. This new design merges the merits of a solid-oxide fuel cell and molten metal-air battery, offering significantly improved battery reaction kinetics and power capability without compromising the energy capacity. The as-fabricated battery prototype can be charged at high current density, and exhibits excellent stability and security in the highly charged state. It typically exhibits specific energy, specific power, energy density, and power density of 129.1 Wh kg -1 , 2.8 kW kg -1 , 388.1 Wh L -1 , and 21.0 kW L -1 , respectively, based on the mass and volume of the molten salt. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  4. High-pressure and high-temperature physical properties of half-metallic full-Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}RuSi by first-principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ma, Qin, E-mail: maqin_lut@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Sun, Xiao-Wei [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, Zi-Jiang [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wei, Xiao-Ping [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Tian, Jun-Hong [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2017-02-15

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model are used to investigate the high-pressure and high-temperature physical properties, including the lattice constant, magnetic moment, density of states, pressure-volume-temperature relationship, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter for the new Mn-based full-Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}RuSi in CuHg{sub 2}Ti-type structure. The optimized equilibrium lattice constant is consistent with experimental and other theoretical results. The calculated total spin magnetic moment remains an integral value of 2.0 μ{sub B} in the lattice constant range of 5.454–5.758 Å, and then decreases very slowly with the decrease of lattice constant to 5.333 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that Mn{sub 2}RuSi compound presents half-metallic ferrimagnetic properties under the equilibrium lattice constant. The effects of temperature and pressure on bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter are opposite, which are consistent with a compression rate of volume. Furthermore, the results show that the effect of temperature is larger than pressure for heat capacity and the effect of high temperature and pressure on thermal expansion coefficient is small. All the properties of Mn{sub 2}RuSi alloy are summarized in the pressure range of 0–100 GPa and the temperature up to 1200 K. - Highlights: • High-pressure and high-temperature physical properties of Mn2RuSi were investigated. • Ferrimagnetic ground state has been confirmed in Mn2RuSi alloy. • The first-principle calculations and quasi-harmonic Debye model were used. • The pressure up to 100 GPa and the temperature up to 1200 K.

  5. Dependence of mitochondrial and cytosolic adenine nucleotides on oxygen partial pressure in isolated hepatocytes. Application of a new rapid high pressure filtration technique for fractionation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummerich, H; de Groot, H; Noll, T; Soboll, S

    1988-01-01

    By using a new rapid high pressure filtration technique, mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP and ADP contents were determined in isolated hepatocytes at different oxygen partial pressures. At 670 mmHg, subcellular adenine nucleotide contents and ATP/ADP ratios were comparable with values obtained with the digitonin fractionation technique. However at lower oxygen partial pressure ADP appears to be rephosphorylated during digitonin fractionation whereas with high pressure filtration fractionation ...

  6. Multifunctional Optical Sensors for Nanomanometry and Nanothermometry: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Upconversion Luminescence of Lanthanide-Doped Phosphates-LaPO4/YPO4:Yb3+-Tm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowski, Marcin; Shyichuk, Andrii; Tymiński, Artur; Grzyb, Tomasz; Lavín, Víctor; Lis, Stefan

    2018-05-23

    Upconversion luminescence of nano-sized Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ codoped rare earth phosphates, that is, LaPO 4 and YPO 4 , has been investigated under high-pressure (HP, up to ∼25 GPa) and high-temperature (293-773 K) conditions. The pressure-dependent luminescence properties of the nanocrystals, that is, energy red shift of the band centroids, changes of the band ratios, shortening of upconversion lifetimes, and so forth, make the studied nanomaterials suitable for optical pressure sensing in nanomanometry. Furthermore, thanks to the large energy difference (∼1800 cm -1 ), the thermalized states of Tm 3+ ions are spectrally well-separated, providing high-temperature resolution, required in optical nanothermometry. The temperature of the system containing such active nanomaterials can be determined on the basis of the thermally induced changes of the Tm 3+ band ratio ( 3 F 2,3 → 3 H 6 / 3 H 4 → 3 H 6 ), observed in the emission spectra. The advantage of such upconverting optical sensors is the use of near-infrared light, which is highly penetrable for many materials. The investigated nanomanometers/nanothermometers have been successfully applied, as a proof-of-concept of a novel bimodal optical gauge, for the determination of the temperature of the heated system (473 K), which was simultaneously compressed under HP (1.5 and 5 GPa).

  7. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  8. Introduction of high oxygen concentrations into silicon wafers by high-temperature diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Ruzin, A.; Wegrzecki, M.

    1999-01-01

    The tolerance of silicon detectors to hadron irradiation can be improved by the introduction of a high concentration of oxygen into the starting material. High-resistivity Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon is required for detectors used in particle physics applications. A significantly high oxygen concentration (>10 17 atoms cm -3 ) cannot readily be achieved during the FZ silicon refinement. The diffusion of oxygen at elevated temperatures from a SiO 2 layer grown on both sides of a silicon wafer is a simple and effective technique to achieve high and uniform concentrations of oxygen throughout the bulk of a 300 μm thick silicon wafer

  9. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  10. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  11. Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts in high temperature polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Bergqvist, R. S.; Hjuler, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts has been investigated in H3PO4, H3PO4-doped Nafion and PBI polymer electrolytes in a temperature range from 80 to 190°C. Compared with pure H3PO4, using the H3PO4 doped Nafion and PBI polymer electrolytes can significantly improve the oxygen...

  12. High-pressure high-temperature stability of hcp-IrxOs1-x (x = 0.50 and 0.55) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Crichton, Wilson A.; Hanfland, Michael; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2016-12-23

    Hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 and hcp-Ir0.50Os0.50 alloys were synthesised by thermal decomposition of single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere. Both alloys correspond to a miscibility gap in the Ir–Os binary phase diagram and therefore are metastable at ambient conditions. An in situ powder X-ray diffraction has been used for a monitoring a formation of hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 alloy from (NH4)2[Ir0.55Os0.45Cl6] precursor. A crystalline intermediate compound and nanodimentional metallic particles with a large concentration of defects has been found as key intermediates in the thermal decomposition process in hydrogen flow. High-temperature stability of titled hcp-structured alloys has been investigated upon compression up to 11 GPa using a multi-anvil press and up to 80 GPa using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells to obtain a phase separation into fcc + hcp mixture. Compressibility curves at room temperature as well as thermal expansion at ambient pressure and under compression up to 80 GPa were collected to obtain thermal expansion coefficients and bulk moduli. hcp-Ir0.55Os0.45 alloy shows bulk moduli B0 = 395 GPa. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated as α = 1.6·10-5 K-1 at ambient pressure and α = 0.3·10-5 K-1 at 80 GPa. Obtained high-pressure high-temperature data allowed us to construct the first model for pressure-dependent Ir–Os phase diagram.

  13. Change in the work function of zirconium by oxidation at high temperatures and low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Naito, Shizuo; Mabuchi, Mahito; Hashino, Tomoyasu

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the work function of zirconium on oxidation are measured at oxygen pressures of 3.0 x 10 -6 - 3.0 x 10 -4 Pa and at temperatures in the range 426-775 K. The work function first decreases then increases until a final saturation stage is reached. Use of secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) shows that the changes correspond to oxygen adsorption, oxide nucleation and oxide growth, respectively. The initial decrease in work function is interpreted by the incorporation of oxygen adatoms into the subsurface. The oxygen adsorption potential of zirconium is evaluated by an effective medium theory, and the physical origin of the incorporation of oxygen adatoms is discussed. The positive change in the work function caused by oxide formation and the temperature and pressure dependences of the change in the work function by oxidation are explained qualitatively. (author)

  14. High Temperature Oxidation of Steel in an Oxygen-enriched Low NOX Furnace Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, D.; Grandmaison, E.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Matovic, M.D. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Barnes, K.R. [KB Technical Services, Inc (formerly) Stelco Inc, Research Manager, Stelco Inc., P.O. Box 2030, Hamilton, ON L8N 3T1 (Canada); Nelson, B.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Senior Researcher, Dofasco Inc., P.O. Box 2460, Hamilton, ON L8N 3J5 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Steel scaling tests have been performed in a research furnace utilizing an oxygen-enriched, low NOX, burner. This work was performed in conjunction with a study of the combustion characteristics for the Canadian Gas Research Institute (CGRI) low NOX burner. The furnace (a facility of the Centre for Advanced Gas Combustion Technology (CAGCT)) was fired with the burner mounted in a sidewall configuration similar to the geometry encountered in steel reheat furnaces. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations ({approx}0.8% - {approx}4.3%) and oxygen enrichment levels (0-90%) at 1100C. Steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. Within the tests for each grade, stack oxygen concentration had the largest effect on the scaling properties while oxygen enrichment level had only a small effect.

  15. Platinum Iron Intermetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Formed In Situ by High-Pressure Pyrolysis for Efficient Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-supported PtFe alloy catalysts are synthesized by the one-step, high-temperature pyrolysis of Pt, Fe, and C precursors. As a result of the high temperature, the formed PtFe nanoparticles possess highly ordered, face-centered tetragonal, intermetallic structures with a mean size of ≈11.8 nm....... At 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, the PtFe nanoparticles show a 6.8 times higher specific activity than the reference Pt/C catalyst towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent stability, most likely because of the durable intermetallic structure and the preleaching...... treatment of the catalyst. During these preliminary syntheses, we found that a portion of the PtFe nanoparticles is buried in the in situ formed carbon phase, which limits Pt utilization in the catalyst and results in a mass-specific activity equivalent to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover...

  16. The stress corrosion cracking of type 316 stainless steel in oxygenated and chlorinated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congleton, J.; Shih, H.C.; Shoji, T.; Parkins, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests have been performed on Type 316 stainless steel in 265 C water containing from 0 to 45 ppm oxygen and from < 0.1 to 1000 ppm chloride. The main difference between the present data and previously published results, the latter mainly for Type 304 stainless steel, is that as well as cracking occurring in water containing high oxygen and chloride, it is shown that a cracking regime exists at very low oxygen contents for a wide range of chloride contents. The type of cracking varies with the oxygen and chloride content of the water and the most severe cracking was of comparable extent in both the gauge length and the necked region of the specimen. The least severe cracking only caused cracks to occur in the necked region of the specimen and there was a range of oxygen and chloride contents in which no cracking occurred. The rest potential for annealed Type 316 stainless steel has been mapped for a wide range of oxygen and chloride content waters and it is shown that at 265 C the 'no-cracking' regime of the oxygen-chloride diagram corresponds to potentials in the range -200 to +150 mV(SHE). (author)

  17. Kinetics of the high temperature oxygen exchange reaction on {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Christofer E., E-mail: chris.whiting@udri.udayton.edu [University of Dayton – Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0172 (United States); Du, Miting; Felker, L. Kevin; Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P. [University of Dayton – Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0172 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen exchange reactions performed on PuO{sub 2} suggest the reaction is influenced by at least three mechanisms: an internal chemical reaction, surface mobility of active species/defects, and surface exchange of gaseous oxygen with lattice oxygen. Activation energies for the surface mobility and internal chemical reaction are presented. Determining which mechanism is dominant appears to be a complex function including at least specific surface area and temperature. Thermal exposure may also impact the oxygen exchange reaction by causing reductions in the specific surface area of PuO{sub 2}. Previous CeO{sub 2} surrogate studies exhibit similar behavior, confirming that CeO{sub 2} is a good qualitative surrogate for PuO{sub 2}, in regards to the oxygen exchange reaction. Comparison of results presented here with previous work on the PuO{sub 2} oxygen exchange reaction allows complexities in the previous work to be explained. These explanations allowed new conclusions to be drawn, many of which confirm the conclusions presented here. - Highlights: • PuO{sub 2} Oxygen exchange kinetics can be influenced by at least 3 different mechanisms. • An internal chemical reaction controls the rate at high temperature and large SSA. • Surface mobility and surface exchange influence rate at lower temperatures and SSA. • Exchange temperatures may alter SSA and make data difficult to interpret.

  18. Study of the corrosion of metallic coatings and alloys containing aluminum in a mixed atmosphere - sulphur, oxygen - at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellmann, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is the development of materials for a sulphur experimental loop allowing the thermodynamic properties of such an energy cycle to be checked. As solutions must comply with industrial methods, rare materials are excluded as they are too expensive or difficult to implement. Iron-based materials have been tested but could not have at the same time a good corrosion resistance and high temperature forming and mechanical toughness properties. Therefore, metallic coatings have been chosen, specifically alumina. After having reported a bibliographical study on corrosion by sulphur vapour and by oxygen and by sulphur-oxygen, the author presents the experimental materials and methods. Then, the author reports the study of mixed corrosion (by sulphur and oxygen together) of metallic alloys (ferritic and austeno-ferritic alloys, aluminium and titanium alloys), and of the corrosion of FeAlx coatings, of AlTix alloys [fr

  19. The surface structure of SrTiO3 at high temperatures under influence of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Molen, S. J. van der; Aarts, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use low energy electron microscopy to investigate the structure of the SrTiO 3 (001) surface at elevated temperatures and different oxygen pressures. Upon varying the temperature between 500 °C and 900 °C in oxygen pressures ranging from 10 −9 millibar to 10 −4 millibar, two surface transitions are found to be present. The lower temperature (1 × 1) → (2 × 1) transition that is known to occur in ultrahigh vacuum can be reversed by increasing the oxygen pressure. At higher temperatures, we observe a (2 × 1) → disordered (1 × 1) transition which is irreversible in the experimental parameter range. The observations are expected to have a strong bearing on the growth of interface structures

  20. High temperature thermodynamics of solutions of oxygen in zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureau, G.; Gerdanian, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Tian-Calvet microcalorimetric method has been applied to the determination at 1323 Kelvin of ΔH(O 2 ), the partial molar enthalpy of mixing of oxygen in zirconium and in hafnium. No measurable departure from Henry's law has been found for dilute solutions (ratio oxygen over metal smaller than 0.1). For concentrated solutions repulsive interactions are found in agreement with the existence of ordered structures at lower temperatures. The domain of homogeneity of zirconium has been found larger than previously assumed. (author)

  1. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  2. Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on ferritic stainless steel AISI 441 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, M.F.; Carvalho, I.S.; Santos, R.S.; Correa, O.V.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels can be exposed to aggressive gases at high temperatures. To understand the behavior of oxidation of the steel AISI 441 was made oxidation at temperatures between 850 ° C and 950 ° C, at two different atmospheres: synthetic air, using tubular furnace and Argon, containing 1ppm O_2, in thermobalance. The kinetics of oxidation of the films was established by measuring the mass gain per unit of area as a function of the oxidation time. The microstructure and chemical composition of the oxides were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. Chemical analysis showed that films formed on steel AISI 441 had mostly chromium oxide and the following elements: Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti and Si. Regarding the kinetics of oxidation, it was observed that in synthetic air, the steel oxidation increased gradually with the temperature, but in argon, it showed the highest oxidation at 900 ° C and the lowest oxidation at 950 ° C. (author)

  3. Real-Time, Non-Intrusive Detection of Liquid Nitrogen in Liquid Oxygen at High Pressure and High Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Harrison, Louie

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic Raman sensor has been designed for real-time, nonintrusive detection of liquid nitrogen in liquid oxygen (LOX) at high pressures and high flow rates in order to monitor the quality of LOX used during rocket engine ground testing. The integrated sensor employs a high-power (3-W) Melles Griot diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSS), frequency-doubled Nd:YAG 532- nm laser; a modified Raman probe that has built-in Raman signal filter optics; two high-resolution spectrometers; and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with selected bandpass filters to collect both N2 and O2 Raman signals. The PMT detection units are interfaced with National Instruments Lab- VIEW for fast data acquisition. Studies of sensor performance with different detection systems (i.e., spectrometer and PMT) were carried out. The concentration ratio of N2 and O2 can be inferred by comparing the intensities of the N2 and O2 Raman signals. The final system was fabricated to measure N2 and O2 gas mixtures as well as mixtures of liquid N2 and LOX

  4. Hydroxyl radical-PLIF measurements and accuracy investigation in high pressure gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    In-flow species concentration measurements in reacting flows at high pressures are needed both to improve the current understanding of the physical processes taking place and to validate predictive tools that are under development, for application to the design and optimization of a range of power plants from diesel to rocket engines. To date, non intrusive measurements have been based on calibrations determined from assumptions that were not sufficiently quantified to provide a clear understanding of the range of uncertainty associated with these measurements. The purpose of this work is to quantify the uncertainties associated with OH measurement in a oxygen-hydrogen system produced by a shear, coaxial injector typical of those used in rocket engines. Planar OH distributions are obtained providing instantaneous and averaged distribution that are required for both LES and RANS codes currently under development. This study has evaluated the uncertainties associated with OH measurement at 10, 27, 37 and 53 bar respectively. The total rms error for OH-PLIF measurements from eighteen different parameters was quantified and found as 21.9, 22.8, 22.5, and 22.9% at 10, 27, 37 and 53 bar respectively. These results are used by collaborators at Georgia Institute of Technology (LES), Pennsylvania State University (LES), University of Michigan (RANS) and NASA Marshall (RANS).

  5. High temperature thermodynamics of solutions of oxygen in vanadium, niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureau, G.; Gerdanian, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Tian-Calvet microcalorimetric method has been applied to the determination at 1323 K of ΔH(O 2 ), the partial molar enthalpy of mixing of oxygen in vanadium, niobium and tantalum. The present results are in good agreement with earlier studies using e.m.f. techniques. Nevertheless in the first two solutions, ΔH(O 2 ) has been found somewhat more negative than previously reported. The partial molar entropies of mixing have been recalculated. The low values of the excess entropies are explained by a strong increase of the Debye temperature and a decrease of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level as the oxygen content increases. (author)

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric property of oxygen deficient nickel doped SnO2 for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anju; Sabeer, N. A. Muhammad; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by the detailed investigation on the thermoelectric performance of oxide materials our work concentrated on the influence of acceptor dopants and defect density in the lattice plane for the enhancement of thermoelectric power. The series of Sn1‑x Nix O2 (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) compositions were prepared by solid state reaction mechanism and found that 3 atomic percentage Ni doped SnO2 can be considered as a good candidate due to its promising electrical and transport properties. Defect lattices were introduced in the sample and the deviation from oxygen stochiometry was ensured using photoluminescence measurement. High power factor was obtained for the 3 atomic percentage nickel doped SnO2 due to the effective number of charge carrier concentration and the depletion of oxygen rich layers. Defect centered and acceptor doped SnO2 lattice opens a new door for energy harvesting at higher temperatures.

  7. Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts in high temperature polymer electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen reduction on carbon supported platinum catalysts has been investigated in H3PO4, H3PO4-doped Nafion and polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer electrolytes in a temperature range up to 190 degrees C. Compared with pure H3PO4, the combination of H3PO4 and polymer electrolytes can significantly...... membrane fuel cell based on H3PO4-doped PBI for operation at temperatures between 150 and 200 degrees C. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high-pressure water electrolysis method (outline); 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-30

    As the R and D of hydrogen production technology by the high-temperature/high pressure water electrolysis method, this paper outlined (1) the concept design and the investigational research on the constant load type high-temperature/high-pressure (multi-pole type) diaphragm water electrolysis tank (in charge of Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd.); (2) the concept design and the investigational research on the load variation type high-temperature/high-pressure diaphragm water electrolysis equipment (in charge of Showa Denko K.K. and Hitachi Zosen Corp.); (3) the investigational research on the role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources and the evaluation (in charge of Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc.). In (1), the concept design of a small test plant was made, and the detailed design and test plan on the material test equipment were drew up. In (2), Showa Denko K.K. is running the water electrolysis plant. As a result of studying the electric power unit and operational conditions of hydrogen production, it was concluded that high-temperature/high-pressure operation should be tried for making the water electrolysis tank highly efficient. Hitachi Zosen Corp. made the study of the multi-pole type pressurized filter system high-pressure water electrolysis equipment which was developed for submarine and the design of the bubble behavior observing tank and material test tank for the concept design of load variation type test plant. (NEDO)

  9. Ceramic synthesis of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jin; Yong, Li; Mou-Sheng, Song; Lin, Chen; Xiao-Peng, Jia; Hong-An, Ma

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the preparation of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 is investigated at pressure 3.8 GPa and temperature 1100-1200 °C. Experimental results indicate that not only is the sintered rate more effective, but also the sintered temperature is lower under high pressure and high temperature than those of under normal pressure. It is thought that the adscititious pressure plays the key role in this process, which is discussed in detail. The composition and the structure of the as-prepared samples are recorded by XRD patterns. The result shows that the phases of BaTiO3, BaBiO2.77, and Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 with piezoelectric ceramic performance generate in the sintered samples. Furthermore, the surface morphology characteristics of the typical samples are also investigated using a scanning electron microscope. It indicates that the grain size and surface structure of the samples are closely related to the sintering temperature and sintering time. It is hoped that this study can provide a new train of thought for the preparation of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with excellent performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Guizhou Province, China (Grant Nos. KY [2013]183 and LH [2015]7232), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Tongren University, China (Grant No. DS1302).

  10. Contribution to the study of iron-manganese alloy oxidation in oxygen at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Francoise

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis reports a systematic investigation of the oxidation of three relatively pure iron-manganese alloys in oxygen, under atmospheric pressure, and between 400 and 1000 C, these alloys being annealed as well as work-hardened. It also compares their behaviour with that of non-alloyed iron oxidized under the same conditions. The author describes the experimental techniques and installations, discusses the morphology of oxide films formed under the experimental conditions, discusses the film growth kinetics which is studied by thermogravimetry, proposes interpretations of results, and outlines the influence of manganese addition to iron on iron oxidation

  11. Dielectronic recombination of carbon, oxygen and iron in low-density and high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Kasai, Satoshi; Tazima, Teruhiko

    1977-03-01

    The coefficient of dielectronic recombination, which is one of the important atomic processes in tokamak plasmas, is evaluated by a semiclassical method neglecting the effects of the density and the radiation fields. Those of carbon, oxygen and iron, which play important roles in such as plasma resistivity and energy losses, are calculated numerically in the range of the electron temperature of 10 eV - 10 keV. Compared with the results obtained from Burgess equation, which is most useful for the ions with effective nuclear charge z 25 such as molybdenum. (auth.)

  12. Reaction of Oxygen with Chromium and Chromium Carbide at Low O2 Pressures and High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Dong O.; Kang, Sung G.; Paik, Young N.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation rate of chromium carbide has been measured continuously using thermogravimetric analysis at different oxygen pressures ranging from 1.33x10 -2 to 2.67x10 -1 Pa O 2 at 1000-1300 .deg. C. The oxidation of pure chromium has also been studied between 1000-1300 .deg. C under 6.67x10 -2 Pa O 2 and compared with that of chromium carbide. The oxidation of chromium carbide showed a linear behavior which was different from that of chromium. The oxidation rate of chromium carbide increased with increasing temperature and oxygen pressure was lower than of pure chromium. Above 1200 .deg. C, the volatile oxide was formed and evaporated causing a weight loss. The compositions and morphology of the oxide were studied with X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The morphology of oxide changed with varying temperature and pressure. The oxide scale was consisted of mainly two different layers of Cr 2 O 3 and CrO, and the properties of oxide scale were correlated with oxidation behavior. The oxide film formed in the above test condition has been detached from the carbide surface. The crack and pore were thought to be from CO gas evolving at the interface of chromium carbide and its oxide and the major factor of the linear behavior of chromium carbide

  13. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ze Slovankou 3, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.balat@promes.cnrs.fr [PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, 7 rue du four solaire, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France)

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni{sub 60}Cr{sub 30}Mo{sub 10}Ni{sub 4}Nb{sub 1}) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals.

  14. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez; Gyergyek, Tomaz; Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir; Balat-Pichelin, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni60Cr30Mo10Ni4Nb1) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr2O4 compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al2O3 crystals.

  15. Investigations on the kinetics of the oxygen reduction in high temperature fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erning, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    Lanthan-Strontium-Manganite perowskites are the most widespread materials in use for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The electrode reaction taking place, i.e. the reduction of oxygen supplied by air, was investigated by electrochemical means to obtain further knowledge about the electrode processes. The high activation energy of this reaction (200 kJ/mol), preventing lower operation temperatures of the SOFC, was the starting point for the investigation. Quasi steady state current voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy were performed in a three electrode configuration. The electrodes were of circular shape with a diameter of 10 mm. The preparation was made by screen printing as well as wet powder spraying onto plates made of Yttria-stabilized zirconia. Perowskite powders of varying chemical and stoichiometric composition were used. To obtain higher power densities and, more important, lower apparent activation energies, catalytic layers were added at the interface electrode/electrolyte. Additionally, a less complex system, a model electrode/electrolyte setup made from single-crystal YSZ as electrolyte and gold in liquid and solid state as electrode was developed to create a better defined system. This setup was used to investigate the behaviour of the electrode/electrolyte interface. Reliable, reproducible results could be obtained using either setup. The experimental conditions i.e. oxygen partial pressure, temperature and overpotential were varied in order to determine the kinetic properties of the electrodes. Apparent activation energies, pre-exponential factors, apparent charge-transfer coefficients and electrochemical orders of reaction were calculated from the current-voltage data in order to propose possible reaction steps. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of the performance of high temperature conversion reactors for compound-specific oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzfeld, Kristina L; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-05-01

    In this study conversion conditions for oxygen gas chromatography high temperature conversion (HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) are characterised using qualitative mass spectrometry (IonTrap). It is shown that physical and chemical properties of a given reactor design impact HTC and thus the ability to accurately measure oxygen isotope ratios. Commercially available and custom-built tube-in-tube reactors were used to elucidate (i) by-product formation (carbon dioxide, water, small organic molecules), (ii) 2nd sources of oxygen (leakage, metal oxides, ceramic material), and (iii) required reactor conditions (conditioning, reduction, stability). The suitability of the available HTC approach for compound-specific isotope analysis of oxygen in volatile organic molecules like methyl tert-butyl ether is assessed. Main problems impeding accurate analysis are non-quantitative HTC and significant carbon dioxide by-product formation. An evaluation strategy combining mass spectrometric analysis of HTC products and IRMS 18 O/ 16 O monitoring for future method development is proposed.

  17. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of the zirconium--niobium--oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The vaporization behavior of the Zr--Nb--O system was studied by means of successive vaporization, Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments, and mass spectrometric analysis of the vapors effusing from a Knudsen crucible. The successive vaporization experiments were performed on two ternary samples in open crucibles. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the residues and x-ray fluorescence analysis of the condensates and residues indicated the preferential vaporization of niobium-containing species with the composition of the residue subsequently becoming closer to that of congruently vaporizing ZrO/sub 2-x/. The Knudsen effusion-target collection experiments were employed on two samples, pure NbO 2 (s) and a two-phase ZrO 2 --NbO 2 mixture, in order to obtain information on the activity of NbO 2 in the two-phase mixture. Second law enthalpies and entropies of sublimation as well as third law enthalpies were obtained for both systems. The vaporization behaviors of five compositions in the Zr--Nb--O system, NbO 2 , NbO, a ZrO 2 --NbO 2 two-phase mixture, Nb 2 O 5 , and Zr 6 Nb 2 O 17 , were investigated. Above Nb 2 O 5 and the fully oxidized Zr 6 Nb 2 O 17 oxygen is preferentially lost; over NbO 2 , the two-phase ZrO 2 --NbO 2 system, and NbO the principal gaseous species is NbO 2

  18. In Situ XRD Studies of ZnO/GaN Mixtures at High Pressure and High Temperature: Synthesis of Zn-Rich (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Chen, H.; Wang, L.; Bai, J.; Hanson, J.C.; Warren, J.B.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

    2010-02-04

    The high-pressure, high-temperature conditions for the synthesis of Zn-rich (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions from mixtures of ZnO/GaN were explored using synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD). Following a new synthetic path, (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions with a Zn content up to 75% were prepared for the first time. The structures of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions were characterized by XRD and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses and were in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional calculations. These materials adopt a wurtzite crystal structure with metal-N or metal-O bond distances in the range of 1.95-1.98 {angstrom}. Although the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions seem to be stable over the full range of compositions, no ideal solid solution formation was observed. In all cases, the lattice parameters were larger than those of ideal solid solutions. The variation of the lattice parameter c showed an upward double bowing curve, as was predicted by theoretical calculations. Also, no ideal behavior was observed in the electronic properties of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions. X-ray absorption spectra at the Zn and Ga K-edges of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) systems showed significant electronic perturbations with respect to ZnO and GaN. The synthesized (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solution with a Zn content of 50% displayed the ability to absorb visible light well above 500 nm. This material has a great potential for splitting water under visible light irradiation. The availability of (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions with a high Zn content opens the door to fully explore the application of these materials in photocatalysis.

  19. In Situ XRD Studies of ZnO/GaN Mixtures at High Pressure and High Temperature: Synthesis of Zn-Rich (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wang, L; Bai, J; Hanson, J; Warren, J; Muckerman, J; Fujita, E; Rodriguez, J

    2010-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature conditions for the synthesis of Zn-rich (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions from mixtures of ZnO/GaN were explored using synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD). Following a new synthetic path, (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions with a Zn content up to {approx}75% were prepared for the first time. The structures of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions were characterized by XRD and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses and were in excellent agreement with the predictions of density functional calculations. These materials adopt a wurtzite crystal structure with metal-N or metal-O bond distances in the range of 1.95-1.98 {angstrom}. Although the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions seem to be stable over the full range of compositions, no ideal solid solution formation was observed. In all cases, the lattice parameters were larger than those of ideal solid solutions. The variation of the lattice parameter c showed an upward double bowing curve, as was predicted by theoretical calculations. Also, no ideal behavior was observed in the electronic properties of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions. X-ray absorption spectra at the Zn and Ga K-edges of the (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) systems showed significant electronic perturbations with respect to ZnO and GaN. The synthesized (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solution with a Zn content of 50% displayed the ability to absorb visible light well above 500 nm. This material has a great potential for splitting water under visible light irradiation. The availability of (Ga{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x})(N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) solid solutions with a high Zn content opens the door to fully explore the application of these materials in photocatalysis.

  20. Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovathingal, Savio

    An oxidation model for carbon surfaces is developed to predict ablation rates for carbon heat shields used in hypersonic vehicles. Unlike existing empirical models, the approach used here was to probe gas-surface interactions individually and then based on an understanding of the relevant fundamental processes, build a predictive model that would be accurate over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and even microstructures. Initially, molecular dynamics was used to understand the oxidation processes on the surface. The molecular dynamics simulations were compared to molecular beam experiments and good qualitative agreement was observed. The simulations reproduced cylindrical pitting observed in the experiments where oxidation was rapid and primarily occurred around a defect. However, the studies were limited to small systems at low temperatures and could simulate time scales only of the order of nanoseconds. Molecular beam experiments at high surface temperature indicated that a majority of surface reaction products were produced through thermal mechanisms. Since the reactions were thermal, they occurred over long time scales which were computationally prohibitive for molecular dynamics to simulate. The experiments provided detailed dynamical data on the scattering of O, O2, CO, and CO2 and it was found that the data from molecular beam experiments could be used directly to build a model. The data was initially used to deduce surface reaction probabilities at 800 K. The reaction probabilities were then incorporated into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Simulations were performed where the microstructure was resolved and dissociated oxygen convected and diffused towards it. For a gas-surface temperature of 800 K, it was found that despite CO being the dominant surface reaction product, a gas-phase reaction forms significant CO2 within the microstructure region. It was also found that surface area did not play any role in concentration of

  1. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  2. Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meysing, Daniel M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Warren, Charles W.; Abbas, Ali; Burst, James M.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha P.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Walls, John M.; Lonergan, Mark C.; Barnes, Teresa M.; Wolden, Colin A.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) produced by reactive sputtering has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CdS for use as the n-type window layer in CdTe solar cells. Here, complementary techniques are used to expose the window layer (CdS or CdS:O) in completed superstrate devices and combined with a suite of materials characterization to elucidate its evolution during high temperature device processing. During device fabrication amorphous CdS:O undergoes significant interdiffusion with CdTe and recrystallization, forming CdS1-yTey nanocrystals whose Te fraction approaches solubility limits. Significant oxygen remains after processing, concentrated in sulfate clusters dispersed among the CdS1-yTey alloy phase, accounting for ~30% of the post-processed window layer based on cross-sectional microscopy. Interdiffusion and recrystallization are observed in devices with un-oxygenated CdS, but to a much lesser extent. Etching experiments suggest that the CdS thickness is minimally changed during processing, but the CdS:O window layer is reduced from 100 nm to 60-80 nm, which is confirmed by microscopy. Alloying reduces the band gap of the CdS:O window layer to 2.15 eV, but reductions in thickness and areal density improve its transmission spectrum, which is well matched to device quantum efficiency. The changes to the window layer in the reactive environments of device fabrication are profoundly different than what occurs by thermal annealing in an inert environment, which produced films with a band gap of 2.4 eV for both CdS and CdS:O. These results illustrate for the first time the significant changes that occur to the window layer during processing that are critical to the performance of CdTe solar cells.

  3. A case of the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning with apallic syndrome resulted in complete recovery after treatment with oxygen at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuishi, Takeshi; Motomura, Hiroshi; Boku, Shoji; Mori, Koichi.

    1984-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient had apallic syndrome 32 days after 12-hour coma resulting from acute carbon monoxide poisoning and could return to the social life by undergoing fifty oxygen treatments at high pressure. EEG revealed no low voltage, which is usually seen in cases of apallic syndrome. Cranial CT scan revealed that low density areas in the white matter of the brain had improved with improvement of clinical symptoms. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Influence of oxygen at high pressure on the induction of damage in barley seeds by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, E.; Nilan, R.A.; Konzak, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure prior to, during, and after irradiation on the induction of radiation damage was investigated using Himalaya (C.I. 620) barley seeds. Seeds were adjusted to water contents of 2 to 14% and then irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in vacuo or under various oxygen tensions. After irradiation, the seeds were rehydrated at approximately 0 0 C in water continuously bubbled with oxygen or nitrogen. Biological effects of the treatments were recorded as M 1 seedling injury. Seeds irradiated in oxygen pressure sustained two or three times more damage than those irradiated in vacuo followed by rehydrating in oxygenated water. Greater damage occurred when seeds were (a) exposed to oxygen pressure and the pressure released before irradiation, (b) irradiated under oxygen pressure, or (c) irradiated in vacuo and then exposed to oxygen pressure than when irradiated in vacuo and rehydrated in oxygenated water. These results suggest that seeds can be saturated with oxygen before irradiation and also that the radiation-induced sites (presumably free radicals) which react with the oxygen are somewhat stable in very dry seeds. That the reaction probably occurs before the seeds are rehydrated was demonstrated by the failure to remove the effect of oxygen pressure between high oxygen pressure treatment and irradiation. The results indicate that placing the seeds under oxygen pressure may increase the rate and extent of the reactions occurring during post-radiation storage of seeds in the presence of oxygen. The increase in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is partially lost during aerobic storage and is largely pre-empted when seeds are placed under oxygen pressure. The decrease in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is accompanied by an increase in damage occurring with anaerobic rehydration, suggesting that the reaction which leads to damage was initiated before rehydration and to the same oxygen sensitive sites

  5. Effect of dynamic strain ageing on the environmentally assisted cracking of low-alloy steels oxygenated high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Kuester, K.; Ilg, U.; Widera, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plastic deformation behavior of low-alloy steels (LAS) is significantly influenced by their individual susceptibility to dynamic strain ageing (DSA). Interstitial atoms of nitrogen (N) or carbon (C) in the steel matrix can change the mechanical properties like ductility and strength by interaction with moving dislocations during plastic deformation. The degree of DSA is depending on temperature and strain rate during plastic deformation. Under critical parameter combinations strength increases while ductility decreases. Furthermore, the interaction of dislocations and interstitial atoms can lead to a localization of plastic deformation, which results in planar gliding processes. Shear bands in LAS types with a high susceptibility to DSA show significantly higher slip steps during plastic deformation as compared to heats with low susceptibility to DSA. Since the basic mechanism of environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of LAS in high-temperature water (HTW) environment is slip-step-dissolution, slip behavior is of crucial nature for the kinetics of crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore, a program concerning deformation behavior, slip characterization regarding distribution and size, and behavior in oxygenated HTW environment was performed. Analysis of slip steps by advanced techniques for surface morphology investigation showed that the maximum height of slip steps is in the range of freshly formed magnetite layers on LAS in oxygenated HTW environment. This supports the active effect of localized deformation on EAC in LAS types of high susceptibility to DSA. The exposure to oxygenated HTW environment with additional mechanical loading under critical combinations of temperature and strain rate of different LAS types with high, intermediate and low susceptibility to DSA in Slow Strain Rate Tensile-tests (SSRT) showed preferential crack initiation in the areas of coarse shear bands due to localized deformation. Furthermore, a continuous transition of the

  6. Examining the microhardness evolution and thermal stability of an Al–Mg–Sc alloy processed by high-pressure torsion at a high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique R. Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Al–3% Mg–0.2% Sc alloy was solution treated and processed through 10 turns of high-pressure torsion (HPT at 450 K. Afterwards, the HPT-processed alloy was annealed for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 423 to 773 K and its mechanical properties and microstructural evolution were examined using microhardness measurements and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD analysis. The results demonstrate that HPT processing at an elevated temperature leads to a more uniform microhardness distribution and to an early saturation in the hardness values in the Al alloy compared with high-pressure torsion at room temperature. In addition, detailed EBSD analysis conducted on the HPT-processed samples immediately after annealing revealed that the Al–Mg–Sc alloy subjected to HPT processing at 450 K exhibits superior thermal stability by comparison with the same material subjected to HPT at 300 K. Keywords: Aluminium alloys, Hall–Petch relationship, Hardness, High-pressure torsion, Severe plastic deformation, Thermal stability

  7. The simulation of the alternate turbopump development high pressure oxygen and fuel turbopumps for the space shuttle main engine using the Shaberth computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is basically comprised of a combustion chamber and nozzle, high and low pressure oxygen turbopumps and high and low pressure fuel turbopumps. In the current configuration, the high pressure fuel (HPTFP) and high pressure oxygen turbopumps (HPOTP) have experienced a history of ball bearing wear. The wear problem can be attributed to numerous factors including the hydrodynamic axial and radial loads caused by the flow of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen through the turbopump impellers and turbine. Also, friction effects between the rolling elements, races, and cage can create thermally induced bearing geometry changes. To alleviate some of the current configuration problems, an alternate turbopump development (ATD) was proposed. However, the ATD HPOTP and HPTFP are constrained to operate interchangeably with the current turbopumps, thus, the operation conditions must be similar. The ATD configuration features a major change in bearings used to support the integrated shaft, impeller, and turbine system. A single ball and single roller will replace the pump-end and turbine and duplex ball bearings. The Shaft-Bearing-Thermal (SHABERTH) computer code was used to model the ATD HPOTP and ATD HPFTP configurations. A two bearing model was used to simulate the HPOTP and HPFTP bearings and shaft geometry. From SHABERTH, a comparison of bearing reaction loads, frictional heat generation rates, and Hertz contact stresses will be attempted with analysis at the 109 percent and 65 percent power levels.

  8. Flux mapping at 77 K and local measurement at lower temperature of thin-wall YBaCuO single-domain samples oxygenated under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, X., E-mail: Xavier.chaud@grenoble.cnrs.f [CRETA, CNRS, 25, Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Noudem, J. [CRISMAT/ENSICAEN, CNRS, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Prikhna, T.; Savchuk, Y. [ISM, National Acad. of Sciences of Ukraine, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev, 04074 (Ukraine); Haanappel, E. [LNCMP, UMR 5147, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France); Diko, P. [IEP, Slovak Acad. of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53, Kosice (Slovakia); Zhang, C.P. [SMRC, NIN, 96 Weiyang Road, Xi' an 710016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    YBCO single-domain samples are suitable for the production of high trapped fields in the range 20-77 K using a cryocooler or liquid nitrogen. But the oxygenation process required to actually transform the single domains into superconductors induces an extensive crack network that is limiting the material performances. Thin-wall geometry has been introduced to reduce the diffusion paths and to enable a progressive oxygenation strategy. As a consequence cracks are drastically reduced. In addition the use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) speeds up further the process by displacing the oxygen-temperature equilibrium towards the higher temperature of the phase diagram. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample. Remarkable results are obtained without any doping by the combination of thin walls and oxygen high pressure. While classical plain samples yield 300-400 mT, a trapped field of 840 mT has been measured at 77 K on a 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain sample with an annealing time as short as 3 days. Local measurements with a fixed Hall probe on top of the sample were performed at lower temperature after magnetization either in a static field or in a pulse field. The trapped field is significantly higher at lower temperature. Cryocoolers become the key to compromise between performances and cryogenic cost around 40 K.

  9. Microsoft excel spreadsheets for calculation of P-V-T relations and thermodynamic properties from equations of state of MgO, diamond and nine metals as pressure markers in high-pressure and high-temperature experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Tatiana S.; Dorogokupets, Peter I.; Dymshits, Anna M.; Danilov, Boris S.; Litasov, Konstantin D.

    2016-09-01

    We present Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for calculation of thermodynamic functions and P-V-T properties of MgO, diamond and 9 metals, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W, depending on temperature and volume or temperature and pressure. The spreadsheets include the most common pressure markers used in in situ experiments with diamond anvil cell and multianvil techniques. The calculations are based on the equation of state formalism via the Helmholtz free energy. The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel and is a time-efficient tool to evaluate volume, pressure and other thermodynamic functions using T-P and T-V data only as input parameters. This application is aimed to solve practical issues of high pressure experiments in geosciences and mineral physics.

  10. Impact of the structural anisotropy of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} on on high temperature surface modifications and diffusion of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauquelin, Nicolas

    2010-11-29

    La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} was first studied due to its structural similarities with the High Temperature superconductor La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} and more recently due to its promise as a cathode material in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as well as an oxygen exchange membrane. It crystallizes in the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} layered structure and accommodates highly mobile oxygen at its ground state and is therefore overstoichiometric. During this thesis, pure single crystals of La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} were successfully grown using the floating-zone method, subsequently characterized using neutron and Laue Backscattering diffraction and oriented pieces of single crystal with [100] and [001] orientation were prepared. The surface morphology behavior after long term exposure to high temperature in different atmospheres was observed using microscopy techniques because stability at high temperature is required for application purposes and it was discovered a structural change to nickel-rich phases at T>1173 K. The sensibility of the oxygen non-stoichiometry to cooling was studied and subsequently a new {sup 18}O-{sup 18}O exchange apparatus allowing quenching of the samples using liquid nitrogen was developed. Oxygen selfdiffusion was studied using SIMS in the range 673-873K in both [100] and [001] crystallographic directions. The effect of the disorientation of the sample surface on the determination of the slowest diffusion coefficient was discovered and revealed the very strong anisotropy (>5 orders of magnitude difference) between the different diffusion paths. Finally using HTXRD and oxygen release experiments, it was shown that oxygen diffusion from interstitial oxygen starts to be relevant at 550-600 K and a change of behavior is observed around 700 K, corresponding to a possible change in the diffusion mechanism from interstitial to interstitialcy.

  11. Impact of the structural anisotropy of La2NiO4+δ on on high temperature surface modifications and diffusion of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauquelin, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    La 2 NiO 4+δ was first studied due to its structural similarities with the High Temperature superconductor La 2 NiO 4+δ and more recently due to its promise as a cathode material in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as well as an oxygen exchange membrane. It crystallizes in the K 2 NiF 4 layered structure and accommodates highly mobile oxygen at its ground state and is therefore overstoichiometric. During this thesis, pure single crystals of La 2 NiO 4+δ were successfully grown using the floating-zone method, subsequently characterized using neutron and Laue Backscattering diffraction and oriented pieces of single crystal with [100] and [001] orientation were prepared. The surface morphology behavior after long term exposure to high temperature in different atmospheres was observed using microscopy techniques because stability at high temperature is required for application purposes and it was discovered a structural change to nickel-rich phases at T>1173 K. The sensibility of the oxygen non-stoichiometry to cooling was studied and subsequently a new 18 O- 18 O exchange apparatus allowing quenching of the samples using liquid nitrogen was developed. Oxygen selfdiffusion was studied using SIMS in the range 673-873K in both [100] and [001] crystallographic directions. The effect of the disorientation of the sample surface on the determination of the slowest diffusion coefficient was discovered and revealed the very strong anisotropy (>5 orders of magnitude difference) between the different diffusion paths. Finally using HTXRD and oxygen release experiments, it was shown that oxygen diffusion from interstitial oxygen starts to be relevant at 550-600 K and a change of behavior is observed around 700 K, corresponding to a possible change in the diffusion mechanism from interstitial to interstitialcy.

  12. Simultaneous determination of V, As, Se, Cd, Ba and Pb in coal by ICP-MS after high pressure oxygen combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, K.; Arikawa, Y. [Japan Womens University, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Science

    2007-04-15

    A simple decomposition procedure by a high pressure oxygen combustion method was employed for the determination of six elements (V, As, Se, Cd, Ba and Pb) in coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Combustion under 3 MPa pressure of oxygen in a sealed bomb is a simple and effective method for the decomposition of carbonaceous materials. Organic components are burnt to form CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Other components also form oxides, which are absorbed in the absorbing solution of a 5 mL of 5% HNO{sub 3} - 1% H{sub 2}O1 Mixed solution put in a bomb. To completely decompose the sample, 600 mg of starch is added to 300 mg of a ground coal sample. Though ignition normally takes about s, 30 min is required before opening the bomb to keep to the oxides absorbed into the absorbing solution. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated by comparing the determination value of each element with a certified value of a standard reference material. In this study, NIST SRM 1632c and 1632b, given by the National Institute for Standards and Technology in Washington DC, USA were used as standard reference materials. The results obtained by ICP-MS after high pressure oxygen combustion showed good agreements with the certified values of NIST 1632c for 6 elements (V, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Pb). This method was applied to the determination of 6 elements in coal real samples supplied by CCUJ (Center of Coal Utilization Japan).

  13. Decomposition of Nitrous Oxide over Fe-Ferrierites. Effect of High-Temperature Pretreatment on the Formation of Deposited Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Jana; Schwarze, Michael; Tvarůžková, Zdenka; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, 2/3 (2004), s. 123-127 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4040016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Fe-ferrierite * high-temperature treatment * effect on N2O decomposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2004

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  15. Model for the high-temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x - inclusion of electron spin and charge degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Hardy, W.N.; Casalta, H.

    1994-01-01

    A lattice-gas model for the high temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x is presented, which assumes constant effective pair interactions between oxygen atoms and includes in a simple fashion the effect of the electron spin and charge degrees of freedom. This is done using...... a commonly utilized picture relating the creation of mobile electron holes and unpaired spins to the insertion of oxygen into the basal plane. The model is solved using the nearest-neighbor square approximation of the cluster-variation method. In addition, preliminary Monte Carlo results using next......-nearest-neighbor interactions are presented. The model is compared to experimental results for the thermodynamic response function, kT (partial derivative x/partial derivative mu)T (mu is the chemical potential), the number of monovalent copper atoms, and the fractional site occupancies. The model drastically improves...

  16. Developmental problems and their solution for the Space Shuttle main engine alternate liquid oxygen high-pressure turbopump: Anomaly or failure investigation the key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Gross, L. A.

    1995-05-01

    The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate high-pressure liquid oxygen pump experienced synchronous vibration and ball bearing life problems that were program threatening. The success of the program hinged on the ability to solve these development problems. The design and solutions to these problems are engirded in the lessons learned and experiences from prior programs, technology programs, and the ability to properly conduct failure or anomaly investigations. The failure investigation determines the problem cause and is the basis for recommending design solutions. For a complex problem, a comprehensive solution requires that formal investigation procedures be used, including fault trees, resolution logic, and action items worked through a concurrent engineering-multidiscipline team. The normal tendency to use an intuitive, cut-and-try approach will usually prove to be costly, both in money and time and will reach a less than optimum, poorly understood answer. The SSME alternate high-pressure oxidizer turbopump development has had two complex problems critical to program success: (1) high synchronous vibrations and (2) excessive ball bearing wear. This paper will use these two problems as examples of this formal failure investigation approach. The results of the team's investigation provides insight into the complexity of the turbomachinery technical discipline interacting/sensitivities and the fine balance of competing investigations required to solve problems and guarantee program success. It is very important to the solution process that maximum use be made of the resources that both the contractor and Government can bring to the problem in a supporting and noncompeting way. There is no place for the not-invented-here attitude. The resources include, but are not limited to: (1) specially skilled professionals; (2) supporting technologies; (3) computational codes and capabilities; and (4) test and manufacturing facilities.

  17. The surface structure of SrTiO{sub 3} at high temperatures under influence of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Molen, S. J. van der; Aarts, J. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-02-03

    We use low energy electron microscopy to investigate the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3} (001) surface at elevated temperatures and different oxygen pressures. Upon varying the temperature between 500 °C and 900 °C in oxygen pressures ranging from 10{sup −9} millibar to 10{sup −4} millibar, two surface transitions are found to be present. The lower temperature (1 × 1) → (2 × 1) transition that is known to occur in ultrahigh vacuum can be reversed by increasing the oxygen pressure. At higher temperatures, we observe a (2 × 1) → disordered (1 × 1) transition which is irreversible in the experimental parameter range. The observations are expected to have a strong bearing on the growth of interface structures.

  18. Systematic thermodynamic properties of actinide metal-oxygen systems at high temperatures: Emphasis on lower valence states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.J.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic data for the actinide metals and oxides (thorium to curium ) have been assessed, examined for consistency, and compared with the lanthanides. Correlations relating the enthalpies of formation of the solid oxides with the corresponding aquo ions make possible the estimation of the thermodynamic properties of AmO 2 (s) and Am 2 O 3 (s) which are in accordance with vaporization data. The known thermodynamic properties of the substoichiometric dioxides MOsub(2-x)(s) at high temperatures demonstrate the relative stabilities of valence states less than 4+ and lead to the examination of stability requirements for the sesquioxides M 2 O 3 (s) and the monoxides MO(s). Sequential trends in the gaseous metals, monoxides and dioxides are examined, compared, and contrasted with the lanthanides. (author)

  19. Adaptation of a thermo assay balance to the study of oxidation by water vapor and / or oxygen at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uller, L.; Santarini, G.; Dixmier, J.; Coriou, H.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an apparatus which allows the continuous follow-up of oxidation in the presence of steam, with different addition of O 2 is described. This apparatus permits to abserve the initial kinetics of oxidation of the stainless steel type 18-10 in mixtures steam/oxygen. (A.R.) [pt

  20. General and localized corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Smialowska, S.; Pednekar, S.

    1983-02-01

    The susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of two carbon steels, SA106-grB and SA333-gr6, which are used in seamless BWR piping, and a low-alloy pressure vessel steel, A508-C12, were studied in high purity water as a function of oxygen concentration (0.16 to 8 ppM) and temperature (50 to 288 0 C) . The susceptibility to SCC was measured using the slow strain rate technique. The fracture surfaces of the test specimens were also examined using SEM to determine the mode of failure. In water containing 1 and 8 ppM oxygen and at temperatures above 135 0 C, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) was observed to occur in A508-C12, SA333-gr6 and SA106grB steels at very high stresses. The susceptibility to SCC increased with temperature

  1. Oxygen order-disorder phase transition in PrBaCo2O5.48 at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streule, S.; Podlesnyak, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Sheptyakov, D.; Medarde, M.; Mesot, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the PrBaCo 2 O 5.48 compound by means of neutron powder diffraction at temperatures 300K OD =776K, which we associate with an oxygen order-disorder transition: the well-known room temperature ordered crystal structure, in which slabs of CoO 6 octahedra and CoO 5 pyramids interleave (Pmmm symmetry) gets lost at temperatures T>T OD , resulting in a statistical distribution of octahedra and pyramids in the sample. The new phase can be described by the tetragonal P4/mmm space group. The transition is caused by displacement of apical oxygen ions and is an indication that ionic conductivity, which has been observed in 3D cobaltites, may also exist in layered cobaltites

  2. The W-W02 Oxygen Fugacity Buffer at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for f02 Buffering and Metal-silicate Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) controls multivalent phase equilibria and partitioning of redox-sensitive elements, and it is important to understand this thermodynamic parameter in experimental and natural systems. The coexistence of a metal and its oxide at equilibrium constitutes an oxygen buffer which can be used to control or calculate fO2 in high pressure experiments. Application of 1-bar buffers to high pressure conditions can lead to inaccuracies in fO2 calculations because of unconstrained pressure dependencies. Extending fO2 buffers to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's deep interior requires precise determinations of the difference in volume (Delta) V) between the buffer phases. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were obtained using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and a multi anvil press (MAP) to measure unit cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. These data were fitted to Birch-Murnaghan 3rd-order thermal equations of state using a thermal pressure approach; parameters for W are KT = 306 GPa, KT' = 4.06, and aKT = 0.00417 GPa K-1. Two structural phase transitions were observed for WO2 at 4 and 32 GPa with structures in P21/c, Pnma and C2/c space groups. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 190, 213, 300 GPa, KT' = 4.24, 5.17, 4 (fixed), and aKT = 0.00506, 0.00419, 0.00467 GPa K-1 for the P21/c, Pnma and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure by inverting the W and WO2 equations of state to obtain phase volumes at discrete pressures (1-bar to 100 GPa, 1 GPa increments) along isotherms (300 to 3000K, 100 K increments). The slope of the absolute fO2 of the WWO buffer is positive with increasing temperature up to approximately 70 GPa and is negative above this pressure. The slope is positive along isotherms from 1000 to 3000K with increasing pressure up to at least 100 GPa. The WWO buffer is at

  3. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  4. Considerable Enhancement of Field Emission of SnO2Nanowires by Post-Annealing Process in Oxygen at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang XS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field emission properties of SnO2nanowires fabricated by chemical vapor deposition with metallic catalyst-assistance were investigated. For the as-fabricated SnO2nanowires, the turn-on and threshold field were 4.03 and 5.4 V/μm, respectively. Considerable enhancement of field emission of SnO2nanowires was obtained by a post-annealing process in oxygen at high temperature. When the SnO2nanowires were post-annealed at 1,000 °C in oxygen, the turn-on and threshold field were decreased to 3.77 and 4.4 V/μm, respectively, and the current density was increased to 6.58 from 0.3 mA/cm2at the same applied electric field of 5.0 V/μm.

  5. Defects, stoichiometry, and electronic transport in SrTiO{sub 3-δ} epilayers: A high pressure oxygen sputter deposition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambwani, P.; Xu, P.; Jeong, J. S.; Deng, R.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Jalan, B.; Leighton, C., E-mail: leighton@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Haugstad, G. [Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    SrTiO{sub 3} is not only of enduring interest due to its unique dielectric, structural, and lattice dynamical properties, but is also the archetypal perovskite oxide semiconductor and a foundational material in oxide heterostructures and electronics. This has naturally focused attention on growth, stoichiometry, and defects in SrTiO{sub 3}, one exciting recent development being such precisely stoichiometric defect-managed thin films that electron mobilities have finally exceeded bulk crystals. This has been achieved only by molecular beam epitaxy, however (and to a somewhat lesser extent pulsed laser deposition (PLD)), and numerous open questions remain. Here, we present a study of the stoichiometry, defects, and structure in SrTiO{sub 3} synthesized by a different method, high pressure oxygen sputtering, relating the results to electronic transport. We find that this form of sputter deposition is also capable of homoepitaxy of precisely stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}, but only provided that substrate and target preparation, temperature, pressure, and deposition rate are carefully controlled. Even under these conditions, oxygen-vacancy-doped heteroepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films are found to have carrier density, mobility, and conductivity significantly lower than bulk. While surface depletion plays a role, it is argued from particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements of trace impurities in commercial sputtering targets that this is also due to deep acceptors such as Fe at 100's of parts-per-million levels. Comparisons of PIXE from SrTiO{sub 3} crystals and polycrystalline targets are shown to be of general interest, with clear implications for sputter and PLD deposition of this important material.

  6. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  7. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...

  8. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Oxygen-induced intergranular fracture of the nickel-base alloy IN718 during mechanical loading at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a transition in the mechanical-failure behavior of nickel-base superalloys from ductile transgranular crack propagation to time-dependent intergranular fracture when the temperature exceeds about 600 °C. This transition is due to oxygen diffusion into the stress field ahead of the crack tip sufficient to cause brittle decohesion of the grain boundaries. Since very high cracking rates were observed during fixed-displacement loading of IN718, it is not very likely that grain boundary oxidation governs the grain-boundary-separation process, as has been proposed in several studies on the fatigue-damage behavior of the nickel-base superalloy IN718. Further studies on bicrystal and thermomechanically processed specimens of IN718 have shown that this kind of brittle fracture, which has been termed "dynamic embrittlement", depends strongly on the structure of the grain boundaries.

  10. Oxygen partial pressure control during in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction on cerium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, M.; Belin, R.C.; Richaud, J-C.; Rogez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium dioxide is widely used as a surrogate for plutonium dioxide in the studies of MOX type nuclear fuel. Thus, obtaining an accurate description of the structures present in this system in a range of temperatures is of importance to the development of fuel for the IV. generation of nuclear reactors. However, such a study requires appropriate scientific tools, in particular regarding the control and monitoring of the oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ). Here we discuss several in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments performed to determine the phases present in the hypo-stoichiometric CeO 2-x region of the phase diagram and clearly demonstrate the need for controlling the pO 2 . (authors)

  11. Transpassive dissolution of alloy 625, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum in high-temperature solutions containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritzer, P.; Boukis, N.; Dinjus, E.

    2000-01-01

    Coupons of nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and the nickel-based Alloy 625 (UNS 06625) were corroded in strongly oxidizing hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions at 350 C and a pressure (p) of 24 MPa, with reaction times between 0.75 h and 50 h. For Alloy 625, the effect of surface roughness also was investigated. Nickel and molybdenum showed strong material loss after only 5 h of reaction as a result of the instability of the solid oxides formed under experimental conditions. The attack on chromium started at the grain boundaries. At longer reaction times, thick, spalling oxide layers formed on the surface. The attack on Alloy 625 also started at the grain boundaries and at inclusions leading to the formation of small pits. On polished surfaces, the growth of these pits occurred faster than on nonpolished surfaces, but fewer pits grew. Corrosion products formed at the surface consisted of oxygen and chromium. On isolated spots, nickel- and chlorine-containing products also were found

  12. Contribution to the study of the pseudobinary Zr1Nb-Oxygen phase diagram by local oxygen measurements of Zr1Nb fuel cladding after high temperature oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Negyesi, M.; Burda, J.; Klouček, V.; Lorinčík, Jan; Sopoušek, J.; Kabátová, J.; Novotný, L.; Linhart, S.; Chmela, T.; Siegl, J.; Vrtílková, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 420, 1-3 (2012), s. 314-319 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Zr1Nb * oxygen * fuel cladding Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2012

  13. Gas-solids kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 as an oxygen carrier for high-pressure chemical looping processes : the influence of the total pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Pio Bordeje, M.A.; Gallucci, F.; Roghair, I.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide on alumina is often used as oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion owing to its very high reduction rates at lower temperatures and its very good mechanical and chemical stability at not too high temperatures. In this work, the redox kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 have been studied at

  14. Characterisation of perovskite-type high-temperature membranes used for oxygen supply in fossil fuelled power plant processes; Charakterisierung perowskitischer Hochtemperaturmembranen zur Sauerstoffbereitstellung fuer fossil gefeuerte Kraftwerksprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebius, Sigrid Annett

    2010-03-12

    In this thesis thermochemical properties of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials were investigated. Those materials are assumed to be applicable as gas separation membranes in the oxyfuel process. Here, the materials are aimed to produce the required oxygen for the combustion more energy-efficient than using cryogenic air separation. High-temperature materials which are applicable for this purpose must be gastight and should exhibit a high oxygen permeation rate and a preferably low thermal expansion coefficient. Moreover, the materials need to be long-term stable under power plant relevant conditions. The aim of this work is a better understanding of the material behaviour. Furthermore, on the basis of the results it should be possible to draw conclusions concerning the suitability of the material for application in oxyfuel power plant processes. Therefor, the influence of the chemical composition (doping elements and stoichiometry) of the perovskites, the temperature and the oxygen content in the ambient atmosphere on the thermochemical properties are studied systematically. In the framework of this thesis it could be stated that the thermochemical behaviour of prospective membrane materials strongly depends on the above mentioned parameters. In addition, the degradation behaviour (thermochemical stability) of the materials was investigated. The degradation behaviour influences the suitability of the material to be used in oxyfuel power plant processes. Here, the influence of the chemical composition of the perovskites, the temperature and the CO{sub 2}-concentration in dry and humid atmospheres was also studied. On the basis of the results it could be stated that the thermochemical stability strongly depends on the surrounding atmosphere and on the chemical composition of the perovskites. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Separating the roles of nitrogen and oxygen in high pressure-induced blood-borne microparticle elevations, neutrophil activation, and vascular injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    An elevation in levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) due to high air pressure exposure and the associated inflammatory changes and vascular injury that occur with it may be due to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that these responses arise due to elevated partial pressures of N2 and not because of high-pressure O2. A comparison was made among high-pressure air, normoxic high-pressure N2, and high-pressure O2 in causing an elevation in circulating annexin V-positive MPs, neutrophil activation, and vascular injury by assessing the leakage of high-molecular-weight dextran in a murine model. After mice were exposed for 2 h to 790 kPa air, there were over 3-fold elevations in total circulating MPs as well as subgroups bearing Ly6G, CD41, Ter119, CD31, and CD142 surface proteins-evidence of neutrophil activation; platelet-neutrophil interaction; and vascular injury to brain, omentum, psoas, and skeletal muscles. Similar changes were found in mice exposed to high-pressure N2 using a gas mixture so that O2 partial pressure was the same as that of ambient air, whereas none of these changes occurred after exposures to 166 kPa O2, the same partial pressure that occurs during high-pressure air exposures. We conclude that N2 plays a central role in intra- and perivascular changes associated with exposure to high air pressure and that these responses appear to be a novel form of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  18. High-pressure crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  19. Experimental investigations concerning the possible effect of dynamic strain ageing on environmentally-assisted cracking of low alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Haenninen, H.; Bruemmer, G.; Ilg, U.; Widera, M.; Hofmann, H.; Wachter, O.

    2003-01-01

    Service experience has revealed cracks due to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in welds of the feedwater piping system of a boiling water reactor (BWR). Two slightly different low alloy steel (LAS) weld filler metals were used in the system of concern, however, only one of them was affected by cracking. To achieve an improved understanding, a laboratory study was initiated to investigate the crack growth behavior of the two relevant weld filler metals in an oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) environment representing BWR normal water chemistry (NWC) under sequences of cyclic and constant load. Despite the basic similarities in the nominal chemical composition of both weld filler alloys, the crack growth behaviors revealed significant differences. This could not be explained based on the material's sulphur content, which is known to have a pronounced effect on EAC. To elucidate the observed behavior, studies concerning dynamic strain aging (DSA) have been initiated. DSA has been recently suspected to be another parameter that may influence EAC of LAS in HTW. A reasonable coincidence was observed between the susceptibility to DSA exhibited by slow strain rate tensile tests (SSRT) in air and by internal friction measurements with measured free nitrogen contents on the one hand and with the EAC behavior observed in service and in laboratory experiments on the other hand. (orig.)

  20. High-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma water deuterium and 18-oxygen enrichment using a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, M; Darimont, C; Piguet-Welsch, C; Fay, L B

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of deuterium and oxygen-18 (18O) enrichment of water samples isolated from blood. This analytical method enables rapid and simple determination of these enrichments of microgram quantities of water. Water is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases by the use of a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC-EA), that are then transferred on-line into the isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Accuracy determined with the standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) and Greenland ice sheet precipitation (GISP) is reliable for deuterium and 18O enrichments. The range of linearity is from 0 up to 0.09 atom percent excess (APE, i.e. -78 up to 5725 delta per mil (dpm)) for deuterium enrichment and from 0 up to 0.17 APE (-11 up to 890 dpm) for 18O enrichment. Memory effects do exist but can be avoided by analyzing the biological samples in quintuplet. This method allows the determination of 1440 samples per week, i.e. 288 biological samples per week. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  2. Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was

  3. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  4. Investigations on the determination of corrosion kinetics and the structure of corrosion products on high-temperature alloys under low oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poestges, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1979-04-01

    On three nickel-base-alloys (NIMONIC 80A, INCONNEL 617 and ALLOY 713LC), which are planned as materials for components of the primary cooling circuit of high-temperature reactors, studies for the determination of the oxidation behaviour under reactor relevant conditions were performed. The test conditions were fixed at an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -16 bars with a total pressure of 0,2 bars and a temperature of 1080 0 C. The use of the X-ray diffraction analysis on the oxidised samples of type NIMONIC 80A showed the corrosion products Cr 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating as well as Al 2 O 3 in the inner oxide zone. The samples of the alloy type INCOEL 617 showed the oxides Cr 2 O 3 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating. Samples of the alloy ALLOY 713LC showed Cr 2 O 3 and CrNbO 4 in the outer oxide coating and Al 2 O 3 in the zone of inner oxidation. Sufficient detection certainty was only ascertained by investigating samples with plane surface. For both alloys first mentioned, it was possible to prove the validity of the paralinear relationship W = k x t -1 / 2 - a x t for the increase in weight for the explanation of the time law of the oxidation. For the non-destructive determination of the oxide coating thickness on the alloys samples, the X-ray fluorescence analysis gave reproducible results of good precision. (orig.) [de

  5. Assessment of oxygen diffusion coefficients by studying high-temperature oxidation behaviour of Zr1Nb fuel cladding in the temperature range of 1100–1300 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Négyesi, M., E-mail: negy@seznam.cz [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Praha – Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Chmela, T. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Praha – Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Veselský, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Krejčí, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); CHEMCOMEX Praha a.s., Elišky Přemyslovny 379, 156 10 Praha – Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Novotný, L.; Přibyl, A. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Praha – Zbraslav (Czech Republic); Bláhová, O. [New Technologies Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 306 14 Plzeň (Czech Republic); Burda, J. [NRI Rez plc, Husinec-Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Siegl, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Vrtílková, V. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Nad Kamínkou 1345, 156 10 Praha – Zbraslav (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-15

    The paper deals with high-temperature steam oxidation behaviour of Zr1Nb fuel cladding. First of all, comprehensive experimental program was conducted to provide sufficient experimental data, such as the thicknesses of evolved phase layers and the overall weight gain kinetics, as well as the oxygen concentration and nanohardness values at phase boundaries. Afterwards, oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide, in the α-Zr(O) layer, in the double-phase (α + β)-Zr region, and in the β-phase region have been estimated based on the experimental data employing analytical solution of the multiphase moving boundary problem, assuming the equilibrium conditions being fulfilled at the interface boundaries. Eventually, the determined oxygen diffusion coefficients served as input into the in-house numerical code, which was designed to predict the high-temperature oxidation behaviour of Zr1Nb fuel cladding. Very good agreement has been achieved between the numerical calculations and the experimental data.

  6. The effect of chloride on general corrosion and crack initiation of low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Matthias; Roth, Armin; Widera, Martin; Kuester, Karin; Huettner, Frank; Nowak, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chloride on the general corrosion and its potential impact on EAC crack initiation of low-alloy steel (German reactor pressure vessel steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7) in oxygenated high-temperature water were investigated. The general corrosion behavior was analyzed by exposure tests with either permanently increased chloride concentration levels or temporary chloride transients. The potential effect on EAC crack initiation was analyzed with pre-strained C-ring specimens and in SSRT (CERT) tests with slowly rising strain. Both kinds of tests were performed under simulated BWR conditions and with different chloride levels. The chloride concentrations of 5 to 50 ppb were chosen according to the action levels of the German water chemistry guideline for the reactor coolant of BWRs (VGB R401J, 2006). In all exposure tests, none of the pre-strained C-ring specimens showed crack initiation during up to 1000 hours of exposure time with up to 50 ppb chloride. Investigations of the oxide layer thickness after immersion testing revealed a decrease with increasing chloride concentration. As shown by post-test chemical analysis of the oxide layer composition by TOF-SIMS, this effect is most likely primarily due to adsorption of chloride on the oxide layer surface, since only very limited penetration of chloride into the oxide was detected. In contrast to the tests with C-ring specimens, where no crack initiation occurred, slightly accelerated crack initiation at lower elongation levels was observed at increasing chloride concentrations in SSRT tests under simulated BWR conditions using actively loaded specimens. In addition, SSRT specimens that were cyclically loaded at the oxide fracture elongation level were used to generate a continuous, exposure of bare metal to the environment by repeated fracture of the oxide. This loading pattern did not cause crack initiation at all chloride concentrations applied (up to 50 ppb). From these results, it may be concluded that at least

  7. Fascination at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  8. The effect of high pressure and residual oxygen on the color stability of minced cured restructured ham at different levels of drying, pH, and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Lindahl, Gunilla; Karlsson, Anders H; Lloret, Elsa; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Orlien, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    Color stability of minced cured restructured ham was studied by considering the effects of high pressure (HP) (600 MPa, 13°C, 5 min), raw meat pH24 (low, normal, high), salt content (15, 30 g/kg), drying (20%, 50% weight loss), and residual oxygen level (0.02%-0.30%). Raw hams were selected by pH24 in Semimembranosus, mixed with additives, frozen, sliced, and dried by the Quick-Dry-Slice® (QDS) process followed by HP treatment or not (control). Packaging and storage simulated industrial packaging: modified atmosphere containing 80% N2, 20% CO2, and residual O2 in one of three intervals: hams, while the stabilizing effect on 50% QDS hams was smaller, concluding that water has the dominating role. Raw meat pH24, salt content, and residual oxygen level had varying effects on the stability of the red color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-pressure vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived oxygenates to hydrocarbons by a PtMo bimetallic catalyst: Product selectivity, reaction pathway, and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohe, Sara L.; Choudhari, Harshavardhan J.; Mehta, Dhairya D.; Dietrich, Paul J.; Detwiler, Michael D.; Akatay, Cem M.; Stach, Eric A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delgass, W. Nicholas; Agrawal, Rakesh; Ribeiro, Fabio H.

    2016-12-01

    High-pressure, vapor-phase, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions of dihydroeugenol (2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), as well as other phenolic, lignin-derived compounds, were investigated over a bimetallic platinum and molybdenum catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (5%Pt2.5%Mo/MWCNT). Hydrocarbons were obtained in 100% yield from dihydroeugenol, including 98% yield of the hydrocarbon propylcyclohexane. The final hydrocarbon distribution was shown to be a strong function of hydrogen partial pressure. Kinetic analysis showed three main dihydroeugenol reaction pathways: HDO, hydrogenation, and alkylation. The major pathway occurred via Pt catalyzed hydrogenation of the aromatic ring and methoxy group cleavage to form 4-propylcyclohexanol, then Mo catalyzed removal of the hydroxyl group by dehydration to form propylcyclohexene, followed by hydrogenation of propylcyclohexene on either the Pt or Mo to form the propylcyclohexane. Transalkylation by the methoxy group occurred as a minor side reaction. Catalyst characterization techniques including chemisorption, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the catalyst structure. Catalyst components identified were Pt particles, bimetallic PtMo particles, a Mo carbide-like phase, and Mo oxide phases.

  10. Irradiation effects of high temperature superconductor of lanthanoid oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Koh-ichi; Kohara, Takao [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Neutron irradiation effects on excess oxygen were studied by neutron irradiation on La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} treated with high pressure oxygen. La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} was prepared by the usual method and annealed for 10 h under the oxygen pressure of 800-2000 atm. at 600degC. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is 27-32K before irradiation (La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+d}, amount of excess oxygen d=0.03-0.12). Neutron irradiation was carried out by two kinds of experiments. Low irradiation dose test at low temperature (LTL: {approx}20-200K, storage in LN{sub 2}) showed Tc decreased more slowly than that of high temperature range. Experiment at high temperature (Hyd:{approx}80deg{yields}, storage at room temperature) showed -10K/10{sup 18}n/cm{sup 2}, the decrease of Tc was three times larger than that of YBCO type superconductor. (S.Y.)

  11. Supersymmetry at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kaku, M.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the properties of Green's functions in a spontaneously broken supersymmetric model at high temperatures. We show that, even at high temperatures, we do not get restoration of supersymmetry, at least in the one-loop approximation

  12. High-temperature equilibrium study of the oxygen-site occupancy in YBa2Cu3O7-δ by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, H.; Forster, M.; Schaefer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the positron lifetime and the Doppler broadening of the annihilation γ line were performed on sintered YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ specimens between ambient temperature and 1140 K at oxygen partial pressures, p O2 , between 10 2 and 10 5 Pa in order to study the atomic processes of changes of the oxygen content in thermal equilibrium. Above 680 K the positron lifetime increases with increasing temperature and decreasing oxygen partial pressure. It is found that the normalized positron annihilation rate λ 1 * depends exclusively on the oxygen deficiency δ and decreases linearly with increasing δ. Our results demonstrate that the positrons are annihilated predominantly on the sites of the Cu(1)-O(1) chains where the oxygen atoms are removed (oxygen-deficient sites), as suggested by theoretical studies. A simple atomistic model of oxygen exchange is confirmed by the experimentally observed variation of the positron annihilation rate with (p O2 ) -0.27

  13. Ion filter for high temperature cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Yasuhiro; Nakamori, Masaharu.

    1994-01-01

    A porous ceramic pipe mainly comprising alumina is used as a base pipe, and then crud and radioactive ion adsorbing materials in high temperature and high pressure water mainly comprising a FeTiO 3 compound are flame-coated on the outer surface thereof to a film thickness of about 100 to 300μ m as an aimed value by an acetylene flame-coating method. The flame-coated FeTiO 3 layer is also porous, so that high temperature and high pressure water to be cleaned can pass through from the inside to the outside of the pipe. Cruds can be removed and radioactive ions can be adsorbed during passage. Since all the operations can be conducted at high temperature and high pressure state, cooling is no more necessary for the high temperature and high pressure water to be cleaned, heat efficiency of the plant can be improved and a cooling facility can be saved. Further, since the flame-coating of FeTiO 3 to the porous ceramic pipe can be conducted extremely easily compared with production of a sintering product, cost for the production of filter elements can be saved remarkably. (T.M.)

  14. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  15. Effects of exposure to high-temperature helium containing oxygen on the mechanical properties of molybdenum and TZM-Mo alloy at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, R.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to helium containing oxygen of 0.1-115 vpm at 1000 0 C on the mechanical properties of molybdenum and TZM-Mo alloy at room temperature were studied. The stress-relieved molybdenum specimen which was not recrystallized at test temperature showed the ductility after exposure to helium containing oxygen. The recrystallized molybdenum and TZM lost ductility after exposure to helium containing oxygen of 0.1-13 vpm in a few hours. The embrittlement of molybdenum was considered to be due to the grain boundary weakening. Molybdenum to which carbon was added seemed to hinder the grain boundary weakening by the oxygen contamination. Both stress-relieved and recrystallized TZM specimens picked up oxygen linearly with time of exposure to helium. The increase in oxygen content of TZM, which was considered to be caused by the internal oxidation of titanium and zirconium, results in the embrittlement of TZM. (orig.)

  16. Oxygen Buffering in High Pressure Solid Media Assemblies: New Approach Enabling Study of fO2 from IW-4 to IW+4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Ross, D. K.; Butterworth, A. L.; Gainsforth, Z.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity is an intensive parameter that controls some fundamental chemical and physical properties in planetary materials. In terrestrial magmas high fO2 promotes magnetite stability and low fO2 causes Fe-enrichment due to magnetite suppression. In lunar and asteroidal basalts, low fO2 can allow metal to be stable. Experimental studies will therefore be most useful if they are done at a specific and relevant fO2 for the samples under consideration. Control of fO2 in the solid media apparatus (piston cylinder multi-anvil) has relied on either sliding sensors or graphite capsule buffering, which are of limited application to the wide range of fO2 recorded in planetary or astromaterials. Here we describe a new approach that allows fO2 to be specified across a wide range of values relevant to natural samples.

  17. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  18. Oxygen-doped Sb{sub 4}Te phase change films for high-temperature data retention and low-power application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yifeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu Teachers University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Sun, Mingcheng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhai, Jiwei, E-mail: apzhai@tongji.edu.cn [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer O-doped Sb{sub 4}Te phase-change films were reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amorphous-to-crystalline transitions of O-doped Sb{sub 4}Te films were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By doping oxygen, the stability of Sb{sub 4}Te films is improved greatly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistance of the Sb{sub 4}Te films increases by doping oxygen. - Abstract: The amorphous-to-crystalline transitions of oxygen-doped Sb{sub 4}Te (STO) films are investigated by in situ film resistance measurements. The crystalline temperature and resistance of the oxygen-doped films increase. The analysis of X-ray diffractomer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that the films with doping of a small amount of oxygen atoms can refine the grain size and form oxide, improving the resistance and thermal stability of phase change films. Excessive oxygen in Sb{sub 4}Te will make Te separate, resulting in deteriorating the stability. As a result, STO2 film has the relatively high activation energy for crystallization. The 10-year lifetime is raised from 29 Degree-Sign C of undoped Sb{sub 4}Te film to 102 Degree-Sign C of STO3 film. Phase transition from amorphous state to crystalline state is observed at relatively lower power, compared with a device using Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film.

  19. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  20. Dependence of Tc on the oxygen distribution in the Cu-O chains in the high temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uimin, G.V.; Gantmakher, V.F.; Neminsky, A.M.; Novomlinsky, L.A.; Shovkun, D.V.; Bruell, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is experimentally confirmed that in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x ceramics with x fixed within the range 0.4-0.5 the temperature of the superconducting transition Tc can be appreciably reduced by quenching a sample from moderate temperatures between 50degC and 200degC. The theory developed for the description of the ensemble of Cu-O-... chain fragments in orthorhombic phase is applied for the explanation of the experimental results, which can be interpreted as follows. In ortho-II phase the oxygen filling factors in oxygen deficient Cu(1) planes alternate from row to row. Alternation decreases with temperature increasing. Redistribution of the oxygen ions between the rows increases the fraction of short Cu-O-... chain fragments which cannot inject holes into CuO 2 planes. This diminishes the hole concentration in the Cu(2) planes and, hence, Tc. Near 150degC the sample undergoes the second order transition into ortho-I phase where rows are equally filled with oxygen. Further increasing of the temperature does not reveal an appreciable reduction of Tc. A comparison of the experiment with the simplest model is performed. (orig.)

  1. A high pressure centrifugal oxygen compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    The application of a centrifugal compressor train to 5860 kPa(g) (850 psig) for a coal gasification plant is discussed. Special considerations in the application, installation, and operation of the equipment are presented. Discussion includes such topics as compressor controls, machinery protection, noise, personnel safety, and operation of the equipment

  2. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  3. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  4. High Temperature Operational Experiences of Helium Experimental Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung-Deok; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Min Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The development of high temperature components of VHTR is very important because of its higher operation temperature than that of a common light water reactor and high pressure industrial process. The development of high temperature components requires the large helium loop. Many countries have high temperature helium loops or a plan for its construction. Table 1 shows various international state-of-the-art of high temperature and high pressure gas loops. HELP performance test results show that there is no problem in operation of HELP at the very high temperature experimental condition. These experimental results also provide the basic information for very high temperature operation with bench-scale intermediate heat exchanger prototype in HELP. In the future, various heat exchanger tests will give us the experimental data for GAMMA+ validation about transient T/H behavior of the IHX prototype and the optimization of the working fluid in the intermediate loop

  5. Oxygen transport and degradation properties of high-temperature membranes for CO{sub 2}-free power plants; Sauerstofftransport und Degradationsverhalten von Hochtemperaturmembranen fuer CO{sub 2}-freie Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehuber, Dominic

    2010-07-01

    This thesis deals with membranes for oxygen separation from air for high temperature application in fossil power plants within the scope of the oxyfuel-process. Different perovskite membrane materials (ABO3-ae) were investigated concerning the oxygen transport and their chemical stability under operation condition. The association between oxygen transport properties and both the thermodynamic boundary conditions as well as the material properties (membrane thickness and surface properties) was studied. One possibility to achieve higher oxygen fluxes through the membrane is to reduce the thickness. In this case the influence of surface processes on the overall permeation becomes noteworthy. The effect of different membrane surface modifications on the permeation rate was investigated. For example it could be confirmed, that a porous layer on the membrane surface significantly increases the permeation flux due to the compensation of surface exchange limitations. Beyond that, degradation processes during the operation under power plant condition were investigated. Special attention was attached to the influence of degradation on the permeation flux during long term operation. Thereby kinetic demixing of the membrane material was observed. (orig.)

  6. Oxidation characteristics of Ti-14Al-21Nb alloy at high temperature in purified oxygen; Ti-14Al?-21Nb gokin no sansochu ni okeru koon sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, M; Taniguchi, S; Shibata, T [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-10-20

    The Ti-14Al-21Nb alloy called Super {alpha}{sub 2} is an alloy which has been improved of plastic transformation ability by adding Nb into Ti3Al with high specific strength, and is used for member materials in aircraft engines. In order to identify its oxidation characteristics, this paper discusses the oxidation characteristics under purified oxygen and atmospheric pressure in temperatures ranging from 1000 K to 1300 K. The experiment made a button-formed ingot with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of about 10 mm by melting and thermal refining, and used a thermobalance. Main conclusion thus obtained may be summarized as follows: the amount of increase due to oxidation after 100 ks oxidation at 1000 K is very small; oxidation between 1100 K and 1200 K follows nearly the parabolic rate laws; the scale consisted mainly of rutile, but a thin alumina concentration layer is formed; Nb is concentrated in the rutile-alumina mixed layer, and local fracture and regeneration are repeated at temperatures higher than 1300 K. 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Estimation of Hydrazine Decomposition on Measuring the High-Temperature pH in Hydrazine/ETA Solutions at 553 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae Sik; Yeon, Jei Won; Yun, Myung Hee; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Sang Ill

    2010-01-01

    Hydrazine is one of the most excellent oxygen scavengers used in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, in some pants, the hydrazine is used as a source of hydrogen required to suppress radiolysis of the coolant water in the primary loop. When hydrazine was exposed in the high temperature and high pressure water, it can be decomposed into the various products such as NH 3 , N 2 , H 2 , and NO 3 ions. As the result, the pH of solution containing hydrazine in the condition of the high temperature and high pressure can be changed by those decomposed products. In the present work, we investigated the decomposition behavior of hydrazine in ETA (ethanol amine) solution. In addition, we measured the high temperature pH at 553 K on the various hydrazine/ETA solutions for confirming the applicability of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)- based pH electrode in secondary circuit of the nuclear power plants

  8. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  9. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  10. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also i...

  11. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  12. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  13. Screening of hydrogen storage media applying high pressure thermogravimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, J.

    2001-01-01

    A number of commercially available hydride-forming alloys of the MmNi5–xSnx (Mm=mischmetal, a mixture of lanthanides) type were examined using a high pressure, high temperature microbalance,scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Activation conditions, reversible storage capacity...

  14. Crack behaviour of ferritic pressure vessels steels in oxygenated high temperature water under transient loadings. Crack corrosion phase 2. Crack development and fatigue. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenberg, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Using the example of the ferritic steels 22NiMoCr3-7 and 15MnNi6-3 representative for Nuclear Power Plants experimental data for the evaluation of the influence of the light water reactor (LWR) coolant environment and postulated chloride contaminations on crack development and fatigue have been determined in order to verify and extend the basis for a reliable estimation of the residual service life of reactor components. The aim of the research project was the investigation of the environmental effects at low strain rate conditions and the determination of the fatigue life under cyclic loading at uniaxial and multiaxial stress state. The quasi-static tensile tests (Constant Extension Rate Test, CERT) were performed using 3 low strain rates, each differing by about one order of magnitude (2.5.10 -3 , 3.1.10 -4 and 2.3.10 -5 %/s). The low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments were conducted applying alternating tensile-compression loading with strain amplitudes of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9 % at strain rates of 0.1 and 0.01 %/s (tests in air primarily 0.1 %/s). The cyclic notched tensile tests were carried out with a nominal axial strain in the notch root of 0.5 % at a strain rate of 0.1 %/s. The experiments in each case were performed in air, high purity water and chloride containing water at a testing temperature of 240 C, the oxygen content of the liquid medium was set to 0.4 ppm (simulated boiling water reactor coolant). In the CERT experiments chloride contents of 30, 50 and 100 ppb were applied, in the LCF tests the chloride content was 50 ppb which can be regarded as an upper realistic limit for a postulated chloride contamination of the reactor coolant. All experiments in liquid environment were preceded by a pre-autoclaving phase of at least 100 h in order to allow the formation of a stable oxide layer (magnetite). The testing material 22NiMoCr3-7 was available in form of an original reactor pressure vessel shell primarily designated for the German nuclear power plant

  15. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  16. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  17. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  18. The steam pressure effect on high temperature corrosion of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. P.; Park, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    To find the effect of pressure on the high temperature oxidation of zircaloy-4, an autoclave capable of measuring the degree of oxidation at high temperatures and high pressure was manufactured. The degree of high temperature oxidation of zircaloy-4 was measured at three different conditions, high pressure steam, high pressure Ar gas with small amount of steam, and 1 atm steam. All the measurements were done at 750 deg C. The oxide thickness is much thicker in high pressure steam, comparing to that in the 1 atm steam. And, the higher is the steam pressure, the thicker becomes the oxide. No effect was observed in the case of high pressure Ar containing small amount of steam. Many cracks exist on the surface of specimens oxidized at high pressure steam, which come from the enhanced tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation due to high pressure steam. The enhanced oxidation seems to oxide cracking

  19. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  20. High Pressure Research on Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  1. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  2. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  3. High temperature reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  4. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  5. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston

  6. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  7. High temperature materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  8. High temperature metallic recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. E.; Solmon, N. G.; Smeltzer, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    An industrial 4.5 MM Btu/hr axial counterflow recuperator, fabricated to deliver 1600 F combustion air, was designed to handle rapid cyclic loading, a long life, acceptable costs, and a low maintenance requirement. A cost benefit anlysis of a high temperature waste heat recovery system utilizing the recurperator and components capable of 1600 F combustion air preheat shows that this system would have a payback period of less than two years. Fifteen companies and industrial associations were interviewed and expressed great interest in recuperation in large energy consuming industries. Determination of long term environmental effects on candidate recuperator tubing alloys was completed. Alloys found to be acceptable in the 2200 F flue gas environment of a steel billet reheat furnace, were identified.

  9. High-Pressure Synthesis and Study of NO+NO3− and NO2+NO3− Ionic Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kuznetsov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrosonium-nitrate NO+NO3− and dinitrogen pentoxide NO2+NO3− ionic crystals were synthesized by laser heating of a condensed oxygen-rich O2-N2 mixture compressed to different pressures, up to 40 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell (DAC. High-pressure/high-temperature Raman and X-ray diffraction studies of synthesized samples disclosed a transformation of NO+NO3− compound to NO2+NO3− crystal at temperatures above ambient and pressures below 9 GPa. High-pressure experiments revealed previously unreported bands in Raman spectra of NO+NO3− and NO2+NO3− ionic crystals. Structural properties of both ionic compounds are analyzed. Obtained experimental results support a hypothesis of a rotational disorder of NO+ complexes in NO+NO3− and indicate a rotational disorder of ionic complexes in NO2+NO3− solid.

  10. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in the cast part feed system, including overflows. CSIR intends using the results of this research for further development and application of high temperature die construction materials in high pressure die casting processes of light metal alloys...

  11. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  12. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  13. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  14. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  15. High-temperature uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the mechanism responsible for the superconducting properties of cuprate materials is even more mysterious than we thought. Two decades ago, Georg Bednorz and Alex Mueller of IBM's research laboratory in Zurich rocked the world of physics when they discovered a material that lost all resistance to electrical current at the record temperature of 36 K. Until then, superconductivity was thought to be a strictly low-temperature phenomenon that required costly refrigeration. Moreover, the IBM discovery - for which Bednorz and Mueller were awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics - was made in a ceramic copper-oxide material that nobody expected to be particularly special. Proposed applications for these 'cuprates' abounded. High-temperature superconductivity, particularly if it could be extended to room temperature, offered the promise of levitating trains, ultra-efficient power cables, and even supercomputers based on superconducting quantum interference devices. But these applications have been slow to materialize. Moreover, almost 20 years on, the physics behind this strange state of matter remains a mystery. (U.K.)

  16. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  17. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  18. High-pressure water facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  19. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  20. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  1. Computer code validation by high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.A.; Ogden, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    At least five of the computer codes utilized in analysis of severe fuel damage-type events are directly dependent upon or can be verified by high temperature chemistry. These codes are ORIGEN, CORSOR, CORCON, VICTORIA, and VANESA. With the exemption of CORCON and VANESA, it is necessary that verification experiments be performed on real irradiated fuel. For ORIGEN, the familiar knudsen effusion cell is the best choice and a small piece of known mass and known burn-up is selected and volatilized completely into the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer is used in the integral mode to integrate the entire signal from preselected radionuclides, and from this integrated signal the total mass of the respective nuclides can be determined. For CORSOR and VICTORIA, experiments with flowing high pressure hydrogen/steam must flow over the irradiated fuel and then enter the mass spectrometer. For these experiments, a high pressure-high temperature molecular beam inlet must be employed. Finally, in support of VANESA-CORCON, the very highest temperature and molten fuels must be contained and analyzed. Results from all types of experiments will be discussed and their applicability to present and future code development will also be covered

  2. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  3. Fusion blanket high-temperature heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Deep penetration of 14 MeV neutrons makes two-temperature region blankets feasible. A relatively low-temperature (approx. 300 0 C) metallic structure is the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, while the interior of the blanket, which is a simple packed bed of nonstructural material, operates at very high temperatures (>1000 0 C). The water-cooled shell structure is thermally insulated from the steam-cooled interior. High-temperature steam can dramatically increase the efficiency of electric power generation, as well as produce hydrogen and oxygen-based synthetic fuels at high-efficiency

  4. Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350 0 C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS

  5. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  6. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  7. Positron annihilation studies on high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of positron annihilation measurements as a function of temperature, across Tc, in a variety of high temperature superconductors such as Y-Ba-Cu-O (Y1237), Y-Ba-Cu-O (Y1248), Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O, Ba-K-Bi-O and Nd-Ce-Cu-O are presented. It is shown that the variation of annihilation parameters in the superconducting state is correlated with the diposition of the positron density distribution with respect to the superconducting CuO planes. An increase in positron lifetime is observed below Tc when the positrons probe the CuO planes whereas a decrease in lifetime is observed when the positron density overlaps predominantly with the apical oxygen atom. With this correlation, the different temperature variation of annihilation parameters, seen in the various high temperature superconductors, is understood in terms of a local charge transfer from the planar oxygen atom to the apical oxygen atom. The significance of these results in the context of various theoretical models of high temperature superconductivity is discussed. In addition, the application of positron annihilation spectroscopy to the study of oxygen defects in the Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Nd-Ce-Cu-O is presented. (author). 53 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Computer simulation at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  9. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  10. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  11. High-temperature and high-pressure cubic zirconia anvil cell for Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyang; Zheng, Haifei; Xiao, Wansheng; Zeng, Yishan

    2003-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive cubic zirconia anvil cell has been developed for the performance of in situ Raman spectroscopy up to the conditions of 500 degrees C and 30 kbar pressure. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for Raman spectroscopy. Molybdenum heater wires wrapped around ceramic tubes encircling two cubic zirconia anvils are used to heat samples, and the temperatures are measured and controlled by a Pt-PtRh thermocouple adhered near the sample chamber and an intelligent digital control apparatus. With this cell, Raman spectroscopic measurements have been satisfactorily performed on water at 6000 bar pressure to 455 degrees C and on ice of room temperature to 24 kbar, in which the determinations of pressures make use of changes of the A1 Raman modes of quartz and the shift of the sharpline (R-line) luminescence of ruby, respectively.

  12. Mass transfer of corrosion products in high temperature, high pressure water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodd, J.T.; Nicholson, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    The CWL-3 loop is used to study the mass transfer of corrosion products in water at 270 0 C for pressures up to 6.9 MPa. Two parallel Zircaloy-2 test sections are heated directly by a low voltage a.c. electrical current to give a heat flux up to 500 W cm -2 and a heat rating up to 1500 W cm -1 . Coolant flow rates can be varied up to 0.4 kg cm -2 s -1 with or without boiling. A tracer technique has been developed to monitor continuously the deposition of corrosion products in the test sections during operation of the loop. Magnetite deposits 2.6 nm thick can be readily detected. (author)

  13. Thermophysical and transport properties of metals at high pressure and very high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.; Gathers, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of enthalpy, specific volume, temperature, and electrical resistivity for lead and uranium were measured. From the measured data, estimates of the bulk modulus and sound velocity in these metals are made

  14. Novel instrument for high-pressure research at ultra-high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, D.; Katz, A.I.; Mills, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A resistively heated diamond-anvil cell has been used to achieve pressures of 110 kbar at temperatures exceeding 1200 0 C for periods long enough to collect x-ray powder diffraction data with energy-dispersive techniques using ''white'' x-radiation produced at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig

  15. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  16. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  17. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  18. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  19. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  20. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  1. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  2. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  3. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  4. Chemical and structural changes in Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) lanthanide nickelates as a function of oxygen partial pressure at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flura, Aurélien; Dru, Sophie; Nicollet, Clément; Vibhu, Vaibhav; Fourcade, Sébastien; Lebraud, Eric; Rougier, Aline; Bassat, Jean-Marc; Grenier, Jean-Claude, E-mail: grenier@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr

    2015-08-15

    The chemical stability of lanthanide nickelates Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) has been studied in the temperature range 25–1300 °C, either in air or at low pO{sub 2} (down to 10{sup −4} atm). Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) measurements coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization have shown that all compounds retain their K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure in these conditions, while remaining over-stoichiometric in oxygen up to 1000 °C. Only Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} starts to decompose into Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO above 1000 °C, at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, a careful analysis of the lanthanide nickelates structural features has been performed by in situ XRD, as a function of temperature and pO{sub 2}. For all compounds, a structural transition has been always observed in the temperature range 200–400 °C, in air or at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, their cell volume did not vary upon the variation of the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, these materials do not exhibit a chemical expansion in these conditions, which is beneficial for a fuel cell application as cathode layers. Additional dilatometry measurements have revealed that a temperature as high as 950 °C for Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} or 1100 °C for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} and Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} has to be reached in order to begin the sintering of the material particles, which is of primary importance to obtain an efficient electronic/ionic conduction in the corresponding designed cathode layers. Besides, excellent matching was found between the thermal expansion coefficients of lanthanide nickelates and SOFC electrolytes such as 8wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) or Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} (GDC), at least from 400 °C up to 1400 °C in air or up to 1200 °C at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. - Graphical abstract: This study reports the good chemical stability of oxygen overstoichiometric Ln2NiO4+δ(Ln = La, Pr or Nd) at high temperatures

  5. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  6. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  7. Development of VHTR high temperature piping in KHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Takano, Shiro

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature pipings used for multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors are the internally insulated pipings for transporting high temperature, high pressure helium at 1000 deg C and 40 kgf/cm 2 , and the influences exerted by their performance as well as safety to the plants are very large. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has engaged in the development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs for years. In this report, the progress of the development, the test carried out recently and the problems for future are described. KHI manufactured and is constructing a heater and internally insulated helium pipings for the large, high temperature structure testing loop constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The design concept for the high temperature pipings is to separate the temperature boundary and the pressure boundary, therefore, the double walled construction with internal heat insulation was adopted. The requirements for the high temperature pipings are to prevent natural convection, to prevent bypass flow, to minimize radiation heat transfer and to reduce heat leak through insulator supporters. The heat insulator is composed of two layers, metal laminate insulator and fiber insulator of alumina-silica. The present state of development of the high temperature pipings for VHTRs is reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Effect of high pressure on the mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, Silvio; Lepienski, Carlos M.; Jr, Paulo C. Soares; Balzaretti, Naira M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → High pressure densification of LS2 decreases the mechanical properties. → Densification of LS2 at high temperature improves the mechanical properties. → Hardness and elastic modulus of LS2 densified at high temperature are notably high. - Abstract: Lithium disilicate glass has been submitted to a high pressure treatment associated to a heat treatment, and the effects of densification and crystallization at high pressure on the mechanical properties were evaluated. The hardness and elastic modulus were examined by instrumented indentation using a Berkovich tip. The crack pattern morphology after indentation with a cube corner indenter was also investigated. The hardness and elastic modulus of the samples submitted to high pressure at room temperature decreased with increasing pressure. The hardness and elastic modulus of the samples submitted simultaneously to high pressure (up to 7.7 GPa) and high temperature increased noticeably. The amount, length and type of cracks induced by the cube corner tip changed with increasing pressure. These results indicate that the high temperature treatment under high pressure improved the mechanical properties of LS 2 .

  9. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  10. Synthesis and stability of hydrogen selenide compounds at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Edward J.; Binns, Jack; Alvarez, Miriam Pena; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T. (Edinburgh); (CHPSTAR- China)

    2017-11-14

    The observation of high-temperature superconductivity in hydride sulfide (H2S) at high pressures has generated considerable interest in compressed hydrogen-rich compounds. High-pressure hydrogen selenide (H2Se) has also been predicted to be superconducting at high temperatures; however, its behaviour and stability upon compression remains unknown. In this study, we synthesize H2Se in situ from elemental Se and molecular H2 at pressures of 0.4 GPa and temperatures of 473 K. On compression at 300 K, we observe the high-pressure solid phase sequence (I-I'-IV) of H2Se through Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements, before dissociation into its constituent elements. Through the compression of H2Se in H2 media, we also observe the formation of a host-guest structure, (H2Se)2H2, which is stable at the same conditions as H2Se, with respect to decomposition. These measurements show that the behaviour of H2Se is remarkably similar to that of H2S and provides further understanding of the hydrogen chalcogenides under pressure.

  11. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  13. Pressure effects on high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Kwangpyo; Ryu, Taegeun

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effects on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding in high temperature steam have been analyzed. A double layer autoclave was made for the high pressure, high temperature oxidation tests. The experimental test temperature range was 700 - 900 deg C, and pressures were 0.1 - 15 MPa. Steam partial pressure turns out to be an important one rather than total pressure. Steam pressure enhances the oxidation rate of Zry-4 exponentially. The enhancement depends on the temperature, and the maximum exists between 750 - 800 deg C. Pre-existing oxide layer decreases the enhancement about 40 - 60%. The acceleration of oxidation rate by high pressure team seems to be originated from the formation of cracks by abrupt transformation of tetragonal phase in oxide, where the un-stability of tetragonal phase comes from the reduction of surface energy by steam. (author)

  14. High pressure research at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  15. Failure analysis of a barrel exposed to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.; Salam, I.; Rizvi, S.A.; Qasir, S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of a tank gun barrel which had failed after firing only a few rounds. The failure was in the form of bulging at the muzzle end (ME). The material of the barrel was characterized using different techniques including chemical and mechanical testing, optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Study disclosed that the barrel was subjected to excessively high temperature that resulted in its softening and consequent bulging under high pressure of the round. (author)

  16. High-temperature bulk acoustic wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric crystals like langasite (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 , LGS) and gallium orthophosphate (GaPO 4 ) exhibit piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic waves at temperatures of up to at least 1450 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Consequently, resonant sensors based on those materials enable new sensing approaches. Thereby, resonant high-temperature microbalances are of particular interest. They correlate very small mass changes during film deposition onto resonators or gas composition-dependent stoichiometry changes of thin films already deposited onto the resonators with the resonance frequency shift of such devices. Consequently, the objective of the work is to review the high-temperature properties, the operation limits and the measurement principles of such resonators. The electromechanical properties of high-temperature bulk acoustic wave resonators such as mechanical stiffness, piezoelectric and dielectric constant, effective viscosity and electrical conductivity are described using a one-dimensional physical model and determined accurately up to temperatures as close as possible to their ultimate limit. Insights from defect chemical models are correlated with the electromechanical properties of the resonators. Thereby, crucial properties for stable operation as a sensor under harsh conditions are identified to be the formation of oxygen vacancies and the bulk conductivity. Operation limits concerning temperature, oxygen partial pressure and water vapor pressure are given. Further, application-relevant aspects such as temperature coefficients, temperature compensation and mass sensitivity are evaluated. In addition, approximations are introduced which make the exact model handy for routine data evaluation. An equivalent electrical circuit for high-temperature resonator devices is derived based on the one-dimensional physical model. Low- and high-temperature approximations are introduced. Thereby, the structure of the equivalent circuit corresponds to the

  17. High-temperature bulk acoustic wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric crystals like langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) exhibit piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic waves at temperatures of up to at least 1450 °C and 900 °C, respectively. Consequently, resonant sensors based on those materials enable new sensing approaches. Thereby, resonant high-temperature microbalances are of particular interest. They correlate very small mass changes during film deposition onto resonators or gas composition-dependent stoichiometry changes of thin films already deposited onto the resonators with the resonance frequency shift of such devices. Consequently, the objective of the work is to review the high-temperature properties, the operation limits and the measurement principles of such resonators. The electromechanical properties of high-temperature bulk acoustic wave resonators such as mechanical stiffness, piezoelectric and dielectric constant, effective viscosity and electrical conductivity are described using a one-dimensional physical model and determined accurately up to temperatures as close as possible to their ultimate limit. Insights from defect chemical models are correlated with the electromechanical properties of the resonators. Thereby, crucial properties for stable operation as a sensor under harsh conditions are identified to be the formation of oxygen vacancies and the bulk conductivity. Operation limits concerning temperature, oxygen partial pressure and water vapor pressure are given. Further, application-relevant aspects such as temperature coefficients, temperature compensation and mass sensitivity are evaluated. In addition, approximations are introduced which make the exact model handy for routine data evaluation. An equivalent electrical circuit for high-temperature resonator devices is derived based on the one-dimensional physical model. Low- and high-temperature approximations are introduced. Thereby, the structure of the equivalent circuit corresponds to the Butterworth

  18. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  19. Crystal Growth and Characterization of (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 Single Crystals Obtained by a Top-Seeded Solution Growth Method under High-Pressure Oxygen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Hiroaki; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2011-09-01

    A single crystal of ferroelectric 0.88(Bi,Na)TiO3-0.12BaTiO3 (BNT-BT) solid solution with tetragonal P4mm structure was grown by a top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method at a high oxygen pressure (PO2 ) of 0.9 MPa. The crystals exhibited a large remanent polarization (Pr) of 54 µC/cm2, which leads to a spontaneous polarization estimated to be 54 µC/cm2. The large Pr compared with that of crystals grown at PO2 = 0.1 MPa is suggested to originate from a low oxygen vacancy concentration. The high-PO2 TSSG method is demonstrated to be effective for obtaining large-sized, high-quality BNT-BT crystals.

  20. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  1. Leak Detection of High Pressure Feedwater Heater Using Empirical Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song Kyu; Kim, Eun Kee; Heo, Gyun Young; An, Sang Ha

    2009-01-01

    Even small leak from tube side or pass partition within the high pressure feedwater heater (HPFWH) causes a significant deficiency in its performance. Plant operation under the HPFWH leak condition for long time will result in cost increase. Tube side leak within HPFWH can produce the high velocity jet of water and it can cause neighboring tube failures. However, most of plants are being operated without any information for internal leaks of HPFWH, even though it is prone to be damaged under high temperature and high pressure operating conditions. Leaks from tubes and/or pass partition of HPFWH occurred in many nuclear power plants, for example, Mihama PS-2, Takahama PS-2 and Point Beach Nuclear Plant Unit 1. If the internal leaks of HPFWH are monitored, the cost can be reduced by inexpensive repairs relative to loss in performance and moreover plant shutdown as well as further tube damages can be prevented

  2. Drilling and testing hot, high-pressure wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAndrew, R. (Ranger Oil Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Parry, N. (Phillips Petroleum Company United Kingdom Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Prieur, J.M. (Conoco UK Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Wiggelman, J. (Shell UK Exploration and Production, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Diggins, E. (Brunei Shell Petroleum (Brunei Darussalam)); Guicheney, P. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Cameron, D.; Stewart, A. (Dowell Schlumberger, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    Meticulous planning and careful control of operations are needed to safely drill and test high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Techniques, employed in the Central Graben in the UK sector of the North Sea, where about 50 HTHP wells have been drilled, are examined. Three main areas of activity are covered in this comprehensive review: drilling safety, casing and cementation, and testing. The three issues at the heart of HTHP drilling safety are kick prevention, kick detection and well control. Kicks are influxes of reservoir fluid into the well. Test equipment and operations are divided into three sections: downhole, subsea and surface. Also details are given of how this North Sea experience has been used to help plan a jackup rig modification for hot, high-pressure drilling off Brunei. 16 figs., 32 refs.

  3. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  4. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  5. The oxygen content of the high-temperature superconducting compound Bi2+xSr3-yCayCu2O8+d with respect to varying Ca and Bi contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, P.; Su, H.L.; Aldinger, F.

    1994-01-01

    The oxygen content of Bi 2+x Sr 3-y Ca y Cu 2 O 8+d (2212 phase) has been determined as a function of its cation concentration. With increasing Ca and Bi content the oxygen content increases and T c decreases. The oxygen content of Ca rich 2212 phase increases with decreasing annealing temperatures. The study shows that the T c of the 2212 phase primarily is controlled by its cation concentration

  6. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  7. Thermally induced coloration of KBr at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveson, Sarah M.; Kiefer, Boris; Deng, Jie; Liu, Zhenxian; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) experiments reveal electronic changes in KBr at pressures between ˜13 -81 GPa when heated to high temperatures that cause runaway heating to temperatures in excess of ˜5000 K . The drastic changes in absorption behavior of KBr are interpreted as rapid formation of high-pressure F-center defects. The defects are localized to the heated region and thus do not change the long-range crystalline order of KBr. The results have significant consequences for temperature measurements in LHDAC experiments and extend the persistence of F centers in alkali halides to at least 81 GPa.

  8. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  9. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  10. High-temperature metallography setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.; Shmarjahu, D.; Elfassy, S.

    1979-06-01

    A high-temperature metallography setup is presented. In this setup the observation of processes such as that of copper recrystallization was made possible, and the structure of metals such as uranium could be revealed. A brief historical review of part of the research works that have been done with the help of high temperature metallographical observation technique since the beginning of this century is included. Detailed description of metallographical specimen preparation technique and theoretical criteria based on the rate of evaporation of materials present on the polished surface of the specimens are given

  11. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  12. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  13. High-temperature thermodynamics of the vanadium-oxygen system for 0≤ O/V ≤ 1.5. II. Direct measures of ΔH(O2) at 1323 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetot, R.; Picard, C.; Gerdanian, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Tian-Calvet microcalorimetric method has been used at 1323 K in order to determine ΔH(O 2 ), the partial molar enthalpy of mixing of oxygen, for the vanadium-oxygen system with O/V ratios from 0 to 1.5. Comparison is made with earlier independent determinations from electromotive force measurements

  14. High temperature performance limit of containment system of transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1998-01-01

    The containment performance of a containment system using elastomer gaskets for transport casks under a high temperature and high pressure was clarified. Major results are as follows; (1) The deformation characteristics of the gaskets were represented by the compressive permanent strain rate (Dp). The temperature and time dependence was shown by Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP). (2) Generally, the high temperature performance limit is obtained by a value of LMP when the Dp value reaches 80%. However, the gaskets (FKM, VMQ, EPDM) used for real transport casks were not damaged and the containment performance was not deteriorated as a conservative condition. (3) Assuming that the service period of the gaskets for transport casks is 3 months or 1 year, the high temperature performance limit of the gasket made of fluorine rubber (FKM) is 202degC or 182degC, respectively, which includes safety margin. (author)

  15. Elevated temperature and high pressure large helium gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Minoru; Midoriyama, Shigeru; Miyata, Toyohiko; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Izaki, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    The development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors especially aiming at the multi-purpose utilization of nuclear heat energy is carried out actively in Japan and West Germany. In Japan, the experimental HTGR of 50 MWt and 1000 deg C outlet temperature is being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and others since 1969, and the development of direct iron-making technology utilizing high temperature reducing gas was started in 1973 as the large project of Ministry of Internalional Trade and Industry. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Has taken part in these development projects, and has developed many softwares for nuclear heat design, system design and safety design of nuclear reactor system and heat utilization system. In hardwares also, efforts have been exerted to develop the technologies of design and manufacture of high temperature machinery and equipments. The high temperature, high pressure, large helium gas loop is under construction in the technical research institute of the company, and it is expected to be completed in December, 1979. The tests planned are that of proving the dynamic performances of the loop and its machinery and equipments and the verification of analysis codes. The loop is composed of the main circulation system, the objects of testing, the helium gas purifying system, the helium supplying and evacuating system, instruments and others. (Kako, I.)

  16. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  17. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  18. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  19. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  20. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  1. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  2. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  3. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.; Wu, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb 3 Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take

  4. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  5. The oxygen content of the high-temperature superconducting compound Bi{sub 2+x}Sr{sub 3-y}CayCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} with respect to varying Ca and Bi contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, P.; Su, H.L.; Aldinger, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuggart (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The oxygen content of Bi{sub 2+x}Sr{sub 3-y}Ca{sub y}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} (2212 phase) has been determined as a function of its cation concentration. With increasing Ca and Bi content the oxygen content increases and T{sub c} decreases. The oxygen content of Ca rich 2212 phase increases with decreasing annealing temperatures. The study shows that the T{sub c} of the 2212 phase primarily is controlled by its cation concentration.

  6. Zircaloy behaviour in high temperature irradiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanic, V.F.

    1982-04-01

    The corrosion and hydriding of Zircaloy during irradiation in high temperature water is strongly dependent on the oxygen concentration of the water. Corrosion tests in the NRX and NRU research reactors using small samples have demonstrated the importance of water chemistry in maintaining Zircaloy corrosion and hydriding within acceptable limits. Zircaloy fuel cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides during irradiation in hich temperature water containing dissolved oxygen. Results from examinations of prototype fuel cladding irradiated in the research reactors are presented to show how local variations in coolant flow, fast neutron flux, metallurgical structure and surface condition can influence the onset of non-uniform corrosion under these conditions. Destructive examinations of CANDU-PHW reactor fuel cladding have emphasized the importance of good chemistry control, especially the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water. When reactor coolants are maintained under normal reducing conditions at high pH (5 to 10 cm 3 D 2 /kg D 2 O; 2 /kg D 2 O; pH > 10 with LiOD), Zircaloy cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides. These patch-type oxides tend to coalesce with time to form a thick, uniform oxide layer after extended exposure. Under reducing coolant conditions, Zircaloy cladding absorbs less than 200 mg D/kg Zr (approximately 2.5 mg/dm 2 equivalent hydrogen) in about 500 days. With oxygen in the coolant, deuterium absorption is considerably less despite the significant increase in corrosion under such conditions

  7. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  8. High pressure MHD coal combustors investigation, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, H.; Hamberg, R.

    1981-05-01

    A high pressure MHD coal combustor was investigated. The purpose was to acquire basic design and support engineering data through systematic combustion experiments at the 10 and 20 thermal megawatt size and to design a 50 MW/sub t/ combustor. This combustor is to produce an electrically conductive plasma generated by the direct combustion of pulverized coal with hot oxygen enriched vitiated air that is seeded with potassium carbonate. Vitiated air and oxygen are used as the oxidizer, however, preheated air will ultimately be used as the oxidizer in coal fired MHD combustors.

  9. Stability and anisotropy of (FexNi1-x)2O under high pressure and implications in Earth's and super-Earths' core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxuan; Wu, Xiang; Qin, Shan

    2018-01-10

    Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe 2 O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature. The elasticity and anisotropy of I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O at high pressures are also determined. Based on these results, we have derived the upper limit of oxygen to be 4.3 wt% in Earth's lower outer core. On the other hand, I4/mmm-(Fe x Ni 1-x ) 2 O with high AV S is likely to exist in a super-Earth's or an ocean planet's solid core causing the locally seismic heterogeneity. Our results not only give some clues to explore and synthesize novel iron-rich iron oxides but also shed light on the fundamental information of oxygen in the planetary core.

  10. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  11. Elasticity of fluorite at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, J.; Tennakoon, S.; Mookherjee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorite (CaF2) is a simple halide with cubic space group symmetry (Fm-3m) and is often used as an internal pressure calibrant in moderate high-pressure/high-temperature experiments [1]. In order to gain insight into the elastic behavior of fluorite, we have conducted Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) on a single crystal of fluorite with rectangular parallelepiped geometry. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction, we aligned the edges of the rectangular parallelepiped with [-1 1 1], [-1 1 -2], and [-1 -1 0] crystallographic directions. We conducted the RUS measurements up to 620 K. RUS spectra are influenced by the geometry, density, and the full elastic moduli tensor of the material. In our high-temperature RUS experiments, the geometry and density were constrained using thermal expansion from previous studies [2]. We determined the elasticity by minimizing the difference between observed resonance and calculated Eigen frequency using Rayleigh-Ritz method [3]. We found that at room temperature, the single crystal elastic moduli for fluorite are 170, 49, and 33 GPa for C11, C12, and C44 respectively. At room temperatures, the aggregate bulk modulus (K) is 90 GPa and the shear modulus (G) is 43 GPa. We note that the elastic moduli and sound wave velocities decrease linearly as a function of temperature with dVP /dT and dVS /dT being -9.6 ×10-4 and -5.0 ×10-4 km/s/K respectively. Our high-temperature RUS results are in good agreement with previous studies on fluorite using both Ultrasonic methods and Brillouin scattering [4,5]. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by US NSF awards EAR-1639552 and EAR-1634422. References: [1] Speziale, S., Duffy, T. S. 2002, Phys. Chem. Miner., 29, 465-472; [2] Roberts, R. B., White, G. K., 1986, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 19, 7167-7172. [3] Migliori, A., Maynard, J. D., 2005, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 121301. [4] Catlow, C. R. A., Comins, J. D., Germano, F. A., Harley, R. T., Hayes, W., 1978, J. Phys. C Solid State Phys

  12. Ceramics for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Problems related to materials, their fabrication, properties, handling, improvements are examined. Silicium nitride and silicium carbide are obtained by vacuum hot-pressing, reaction sintering and chemical vapour deposition. Micrographs are shown. Mechanical properties i.e. room and high temperature strength, creep resistance fracture mechanics and fatigue resistance. Recent developments of pressureless sintered Si C and the Si-Al-O-N quaternary system are mentioned

  13. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquat, J. A.; Eifert, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high temperature, corrosion resistant logging cable heads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile environment loggings in which these cable heads were used.

  14. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  15. High temperature fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; dePaz, J.F.; Gohar, M.Y.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion energy may have unique advantages over other systems as a source for high temperature process heat. A conceptual design of a blanket for a 7 m tokamak reactor has been developed that is capable of producing 1100 0 C process heat at a pressure of approximately 10 atmospheres. The design is based on the use of a falling bed of MgO spheres as the high temperature heat transfer system. By preheating the spheres with energy taken from the low temperature tritium breeding part of the blanket, 1086 MW of energy can be generated at 1100 0 C from a system that produces 3000 MW of total energy while sustaining a tritium breeding ratio of 1.07. The tritium breeding is accomplished using Li 2 O modules both in front of (6 cm thick) and behind (50 cm thick) the high temperature ducts. Steam is used as the first wall and front tritium breeding module coolant while helium is used in the rear tritium breeding region. The system produces 600 MW of net electricity for use on the grid

  16. Generating high temperature tolerant transgenic plants: Achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Anil; Mittal, Dheeraj; Negi, Manisha; Lavania, Dhruv

    2013-05-01

    Production of plants tolerant to high temperature stress is of immense significance in the light of global warming and climate change. Plant cells respond to high temperature stress by re-programming their genetic machinery for survival and reproduction. High temperature tolerance in transgenic plants has largely been achieved either by over-expressing heat shock protein genes or by altering levels of heat shock factors that regulate expression of heat shock and non-heat shock genes. Apart from heat shock factors, over-expression of other trans-acting factors like DREB2A, bZIP28 and WRKY proteins has proven useful in imparting high temperature tolerance. Besides these, elevating the genetic levels of proteins involved in osmotic adjustment, reactive oxygen species removal, saturation of membrane-associated lipids, photosynthetic reactions, production of polyamines and protein biosynthesis process have yielded positive results in equipping transgenic plants with high temperature tolerance. Cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel proteins that regulate calcium influxes across the cell membrane have recently been shown to be the key players in induction of high temperature tolerance. The involvement of calmodulins and kinases in activation of heat shock factors has been implicated as an important event in governing high temperature tolerance. Unfilled gaps limiting the production of high temperature tolerant transgenic plants for field level cultivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  18. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  19. High speed analysis of high pressure combustion in a constant volume cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Manski, S.S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    A combustion process with N2, O2 and C2H4 as fuel used in an opticallyaccessible, high pressure, high temperature, constant volume cell forresearch on diesel fuel spray formation, is studied. The flame frontspeed Vf,HS is determined using high speed imaging. The pressure traceof the combustion

  20. Design and performance of high-pressure PLANET beamline at pulsed neutron source at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, T.; Sano-Furukawa, A. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arima, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Komatsu, K. [Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamada, A. [University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Inamura, Y.; Nakatani, T. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seto, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nagai, T. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Utsumi, W. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Iitaka, T. [Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kagi, H. [Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Katayama, Y. [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inoue, T. [Geodynamic Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Otomo, T. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 205-001 (Japan); Suzuya, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kamiyama, T. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 205-001 (Japan); Arai, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yagi, T. [Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    PLANET is a time-of-flight (ToF) neutron beamline dedicated to high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. The large six-axis multi-anvil high-pressure press designed for ToF neutron diffraction experiments enables routine data collection at high pressures and high temperatures up to 10 GPa and 2000 K, respectively. To obtain clean data, the beamline is equipped with the incident slits and receiving collimators to eliminate parasitic scattering from the high-pressure cell assembly. The high performance of the diffractometer for the resolution (Δd/d~0.6%) and the accessible d-spacing range (0.2–8.4 Å) together with low-parasitic scattering characteristics enables precise structure determination of crystals and liquids under high pressure and temperature conditions.

  1. Design and performance of high-pressure PLANET beamline at pulsed neutron source at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, T.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Arima, H.; Komatsu, K.; Yamada, A.; Inamura, Y.; Nakatani, T.; Seto, Y.; Nagai, T.; Utsumi, W.; Iitaka, T.; Kagi, H.; Katayama, Y.; Inoue, T.; Otomo, T.; Suzuya, K.; Kamiyama, T.; Arai, M.; Yagi, T.

    2015-01-01

    PLANET is a time-of-flight (ToF) neutron beamline dedicated to high-pressure and high-temperature experiments. The large six-axis multi-anvil high-pressure press designed for ToF neutron diffraction experiments enables routine data collection at high pressures and high temperatures up to 10 GPa and 2000 K, respectively. To obtain clean data, the beamline is equipped with the incident slits and receiving collimators to eliminate parasitic scattering from the high-pressure cell assembly. The high performance of the diffractometer for the resolution (Δd/d~0.6%) and the accessible d-spacing range (0.2–8.4 Å) together with low-parasitic scattering characteristics enables precise structure determination of crystals and liquids under high pressure and temperature conditions

  2. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  5. Exploring the Phase Diagram SiO2-CO2 at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavner, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 is an important volatile system relevant for planetary sciences and fundamental chemistry. Molecular CO2 has doubly bonded O=C=O units but high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) studies have recently shown its transformation into a three-dimensional network of corner-linked [CO4] units analogous to the silica mineral polymorphs, through intermediate non-molecular phases. Here, we report P-V-T data on CO2-IV ice from time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments, which allow determining the compressibility and thermal expansivity of this intermediate molecular-to-non-molecular phase.1 Aditionally, we have explored the SiO2-CO2 phase diagram and the potential formation of silicon carbonate compounds. New data obtained by laser-heating diamond-anvil experiments in CO2-filled microporous silica polymorphs will be shown. In particular, these HP-HT experiments explore the existence of potential CO2/SiO2 compounds with tetrahedrally-coordinated C/Si atoms by oxygens, which are predicted to be stable (or metastable) by state-of-the-art ab initio simulations.2,3 These theoretical predictions were supported by a recent study that reports the formation of a cristobalite-type Si0.4C0.6O2 solid solution at high-pressures and temperatures, which can be retained as a metastable solid down to ambient conditions.4 Entirely new families of structures could exist based on [CO4]4- units in various degrees of polymerisation, giving rise to a range of chain, sheet and framework solids like those found in silicate chemistry. References[1] S. Palaich et al., Am. Mineral. Submitted (2015) [2] A. Morales-Garcia et al., Theor. Chem. Acc. 132, 1308 (2013) [3] R. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. X, 4, 011030 (2014) [4] M. Santoro et al. Nature Commun. 5, 3761 (2014)

  6. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  7. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  8. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  9. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  10. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  11. High temperature superconductors and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a superconductive compound having the formula: Ni/sub 1-x/M/sub x/Z/sub y/ wherein M is a metal which will destroy the magnetic character of nickel (preferably copper, silver or gold); Z is hydrogen or deuterium; x is 0.1 to 0.9; and y, correspondingly, 0.9 to 0.1, and method of conducting electric current with no resistance at relatively high temperature of T>1 0 K comprising a conductor consisting essentially of the superconducting compound noted above

  12. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  13. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  14. Positron annihilation studies on high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the positron annihilation studies on high temperature superconductors (HTSC), with results drawn mainly from our work, is presented. These include results of the studies on the temperature dependence of positron lifetime across T c , which have been carried out in the whole gamut of oxide superconductors. These experimental results are discussed in conjunction with the results of theoretically calculated positron density distribution, and it is shown that the observed temperature dependence of lifetime is intimately linked to the probing of the Cu-O network by the positrons. Results on the investigation of oxygen defects, which play a crucial role in HTSC, are presented. The most significant contribution of positrons to HTSC relates to the investigation of Fermi surface and the results of these studies, drawn from literature, are indicated. Some of our recent results in other novel superconducting materials, viz., the fullerenes and borocarbides are also presented. (author). 69 refs., 15 figs

  15. Alloy model for high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, M.; Saul, A.

    1991-07-01

    An alloy model is proposed for the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors. It is based on the assumption that holes and extra electrons are localized in small copper oxygen clusters, that would be the components of such alloy. This model, when used together with quantum chemical calculations on small clusters, can explain the structure observed in the experimental densities of states of both hole and electron superconductors close to the Fermi energy. The main point is the strong dependence of the energy level distribution and composition on the number of electrons in a cluster. The alloy model also suggests a way to correlate Tc with the number of holes, or extra electrons, and the number of adequate clusters to locate them. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Elastic Wave Velocity Measurements on Mantle Peridotite at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, G. W.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, B.

    2002-12-01

    With the success of conducting ultrasonic measurements at high pressure and high temperature in large volume high pressure apparatus with in-situ measurement of the sample length by X-ray imaging, it is now possible to measure elastic wave velocities on aggregate samples with candidate compositions of the mantle to the conditions of the Earth's transition zone in the laboratory. These data can be directly compared with seismic data to distinguish the compositional models in debate. In this work, we carried out velocity measurements on natural peridotite KLB-1 at the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Fine powered sample of natural KLB-1 was used as starting material. Specimens for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed and equilibrated at various pressure and temperature conditions along geotherm up to the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized with density measurement, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. Bench top P and S wave velocities of KLB-1 sample sintered at 3-4 GPa and 1400 degree centigrade showed a very good agreement with the VRH average of pyrolite. High pressure and high temperature measurements was conducted up to 7 GPa and 800 degree centigrade using ultrasonic interferometric method in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging. The utilization of X-ray imaging technique provides direct measurements of sample lengths at high pressure and high temperature, ensuring a precise determination of velocities. The results of P and S wave velocities at high pressure and high temperature as well as their comparison with calculated pyrolite model will be presented.

  17. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  18. Studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) discovered are from the family of ceramic oxides. Their large scale utilization in electrical utilities and in microelectronic devices are the frontal challenges which can perhaps be effectively met only through consolidated efforts and expertise of a multidisciplinary nature. During the last two years the growth of the new field has occurred on an international scale and perhaps has been more rapid than in most other fields. There has been an extraordinary rush of data and results which are continually being published as short texts dispersed in many excellent journals, some of which were started to ensure rapid publication exclusively in this field. As a result, the literature on HTSCs has indeed become so massive and so diffuse that it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep abreast with the important and reliable facets of this fast-growing field. This provided the motivation to evolve a process whereby both professional investigators and students can have ready access to up-to- date in-depth accounts of major technical advances happening in this field. The present series Studies of High Temperature Superconductors has been launched to, at least in part, fulfill this need

  19. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  20. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  1. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  2. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  3. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  4. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  5. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  6. High pressure X-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  7. Void fraction measurement system for high temperature flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssedou, A; Aube, F; Champagne, P [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Institut de Genie Energetique

    1992-05-01

    A {gamma}-ray absorption technique has been developed for measuring the axial distribution of the void fraction for high-temperature and high-pressure two-phase flows. The system is mounted on a moving platform driven by a high-power stepping motor. A personal computer (IBM AT) connected to a data acquisition system is used to control the displacement of the {gamma} source and detector, and to read the response of the detector. All the measurement procedures are carried out automatically by dedicated software developed for this purpose. (Author).

  8. Synthesis and Structural Study of Sr2CuO3+δ Superconductor under High Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Qing, Liu; Fu-Ren, Wang; Feng-Ying, Li; Liang-Chen, Chen; Ri-Cheng, Yu; Chang-Qing, Jin; Yan-Chun, Li; Jing, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A single-phase Sr 2 CuO 3+δ superconductor is synthesized under high temperature and high pressure, in which oxygen atoms only partially occupy the apical sites next to the CuO 2 planes and act as hole-dopants. The superconducting transition temperature with T c max = 75 K is achieved in the material. Structure analysis from x-ray powder diffraction data show that this material crystallizes into a K 2 NiF 4 structure with tetragonal unit cell of a = 3. 795(3) Å and c = 12. 507(1) Å. Energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray-diffraction studies at ambient are performed on powder samples of Sr 2 CuO 3+δ in a diamond-anvil cell at pressure up to 35 GPa. Anisotropic compressibility is found. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition might exist as revealed by the discontinuous change of crystal cell volume V with pressure. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Acoustic levitation for high temperature containerless processing in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. A.; Sisler, R.; Merkley, D. R.; Danley, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    New facilities for high-temperature containerless processing in space are described, including the acoustic levitation furnace (ALF), the high-temperature acoustic levitator (HAL), and the high-pressure acoustic levitator (HPAL). In the current ALF development, the maximum temperature capabilities of the levitation furnaces are 1750 C, and in the HAL development with a cold wall furnace they will exceed 2000-2500 C. The HPAL demonstrated feasibility of precursor space flight experiments on the ground in a 1 g pressurized-gas environment. Testing of lower density materials up to 1300 C has also been accomplished. It is suggested that advances in acoustic levitation techniques will result in the production of new materials such as ceramics, alloys, and optical and electronic materials.

  10. The high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U.

    1991-01-01

    The book deals with the development of the German high-temperature reactor (pebble-bed), the design of a prototype plant and its (at least provisional) shut-down in 1989. While there is a lot of material on the HTR's competitor, the fast breeder, literature is very incomplete on HTRs. The author describes HTR's history as a development which was characterised by structural divergencies but not effectively steered and monitored. There was no project-oriented 'community' such as there was for the fast breeder. Also, the new technology was difficult to control there were situations where no one quite knew what was going on. The technical conditions however were not taken as facts but as a basis for interpretation, wishes and reservations. The HTR gives an opportunity to consider the conditions under which large technical projects can be carried out today. (orig.) [de

  11. High temperature creep of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Kovacs, I.

    1978-01-01

    The creep behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium of 99.7% purity has been investigated in the temperature range 790-880 0 C in a high temperature microscope. It was found that the creep properties depend strongly on the history of the sample. To take this fact into account some additional properties such as the dependence of the yield stress and the microhardness on the pre-annealing treatment have also been studied. Samples used in creep measurements were selected on the basis of their microhardness. The activation energy of creep depends on the microhardness and on the creep temperature. In samples annealed at 1250 0 C for one hour (HV=160 kgf mm -2 ) the rate of creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion in the temperature range 820-880 0 C with an activation energy of 78+-8 kcal mol -1 . (Auth.)

  12. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  13. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  14. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs

  15. Modern high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Wu Chu

    1988-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, its unusual scientific challenge and great technological potential have been recognized. For the past three-quarters of a century, superconductivity has done well on the science front. This is because sueprconductivity is interesting not only just in its own right but also in its ability to act as a probe to many exciting nonsuperconducting phenomena. For instance, it has continued to provide bases for vigorous activities in condensed matter science. Among the more recent examples are heavy-fermion systems and organic superconductors. During this same period of time, superconductivity has also performed admirably in the applied area. Many ideas have been conceived and tested, making use of the unique characteristics of superconductivity - zero resistivity, quantum interference phenomena, and the Meissner effect. In fact, it was not until late January 1987 that it became possible to achieve superconductivity with the mere use of liquid nitrogen - which is plentiful, cheap, efficient, and easy to handle - following the discovery of supercondictivity above 90 K in Y-Ba-Cu-O, the first genuine quaternary superconductor. Superconductivity above 90 K poses scientific and technological challenges not previously encountered: no existing theories can adequately describe superconductivity above 40 K and no known techniques can economically process the materials for full-scale applications. In this paper, therefore, the author recalls a few events leading to the discovery of the new class of quaternary compounds with a superconducting transition temperature T c in the 90 K range, describes the current experimental status of high-temperature superconductivity and, finally, discusses the prospect of very-high-temperature superconductivity, i.e., with a T c substantially higher than 100 K. 97 refs., 7 figs

  16. High temperature corrosion behaviour of Ti-46.6Al-1.4Mn-2Mo in environments of low oxygen and high sulphur potentials at 750 and 900 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.L.; Datta, P.K.; Hwang, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the oxidation and sulphidation behaviour of a TiAl-based intermetallic, Ti-46.6Al-1.4Mn-2Mo (at%) with duplex and laminar microstructures, was investigated in environments of H 2 /H 2 S/H 2 O at 750 and 900 C. The corrosion kinetics of the intermetallic were determined by means of discontinuous gravimetry and the as-received and exposed samples were characterised using SEM, EDX and XRD. The weight gain/time data in the oxygen and sulphur containing environment used indicated parabolic kinetics with Kp∝10 -12 g 2 /cm 4 /s at 750 C and cubic kinetics at 900 C. The increase in exposure temperature did not significantly change the corrosion behaviour of the materials. The material showed the development of a multilayered scale consisting of an outermost TiO 2 layer beneath which an Al 2 O 3 layer existed: the formation of MnS and Al 2 S 3 was observed to occur between the oxide layers and substrate. This paper will discuss the significance of these results and consider the mechanisms responsible for degradation of this type of intermetallics in high sulphur and low oxygen environment with reference to their limit of temperature tolerance. (orig.)

  17. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  18. Electrode for improving electrochemical measurements in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengarsai, T.

    2005-01-01

    A silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference electrode was specially designed and constructed in a body of oxidized titanium for potentiometric measurements under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. To avoid the thermal decomposition of silver-chloride, the electrode is designed to maintain the reference element at low temperature while it is still connected to high-temperature process zone via a non-isothermal electrolyte bridge. This configuration leads to the development of a thermal gradient along the length of the electrode. At room temperature, the stability of the Ag/AgCl reference electrode versus a standard calomel electrode (SCE) is maintained with an accuracy of 5 mV. The electrode's performance at high temperature and pressure (up to 300 o C and 1500 psi) was examined by measuring the potential difference against platinum, which acted as a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Comparison of the experimental and theoretical values verifies the reliability and reproducibility of the electrode. Deviation from the Nernst equation is considered and related to the thermal liquid junction potential (TLJP). An empirical correction factor is used to maintain the Ag/AgCl potential within an acceptable accuracy limit of ±20 mV at high temperature. (author)

  19. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Haglind, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed algorithm to solve high temperature Kalina cycle in part load. • A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation considered as case study. • Part-load performance curves and fitted equations presented. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated by changing the solar heat input to the receiver. Compared with the steam Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle has an additional degree of freedom in terms of the ammonia mass fraction which can be varied in order to maximize the part-load efficiency of the cycle. The results include the part-load curves for various turbine inlet ammonia mass fractions and the fitted equations for these curves.

  20. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  1. The high-pressure phase of CePtAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymann, Gunter; Heying, Birgit; Rodewald, Ute C.; Janka, Oliver; Univ. Oldenburg

    2017-01-01

    The intermetallic aluminum compound HP-CePtAl was synthesized by arc melting of the elements with subsequent high-pressure/high-temperature treatment at 1620 K and 10.5 GPa in a multianvil press. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal MgZn_2-type structure (P6_3/mmc) with lattice parameters of a=552.7(1) and c=898.8(2) pm refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. With the help of single crystal investigations (wR=0.0527, 187 F"2 values, 13 variables), the proposed structure type was confirmed and the mixed Pt/Al site occupations could be refined. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed a disappearance of the complex magnetic ordering phenomena, which are observed in NP-CePtAl.

  2. The high-pressure phase of CePtAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, Gunter [Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie; Heying, Birgit; Rodewald, Ute C. [Univ. Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Univ. Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-03-01

    The intermetallic aluminum compound HP-CePtAl was synthesized by arc melting of the elements with subsequent high-pressure/high-temperature treatment at 1620 K and 10.5 GPa in a multianvil press. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal MgZn{sub 2}-type structure (P6{sub 3}/mmc) with lattice parameters of a=552.7(1) and c=898.8(2) pm refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. With the help of single crystal investigations (wR=0.0527, 187 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables), the proposed structure type was confirmed and the mixed Pt/Al site occupations could be refined. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed a disappearance of the complex magnetic ordering phenomena, which are observed in NP-CePtAl.

  3. New technology for carbon dioxide at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassina, Bazaze; Raouf, Zehioua; Menial, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has long been the nemesis of environmentalists because of its role in global warming, but under just the right conditions-namely, high pressure and high temperature its one of nature's best and most environmentally benign solvents. Decaf-coffee lovers, for instance, benefit from its ability to remove caffeine from coffee beans.During the last few years, carbon dioxide has also made inroads in the dry-cleaning industry, providing a safe cleaning alternative to the chemical perchloroethylene. But it's on the high-tech front that carbon dioxide may make its biggest impact. T here are huge opportunities. Scientists have known for more than a century that at 75 times atmospheric pressure and 31 degree centigrade, carbon dioxide goes into and odd state that chemists called s upercritical . What's interesting to industry is that supercritical carbon dioxide may be an enabling technology for going to smaller dimensions.(Author)

  4. Oxygenation of the traditional and thin-walled MT-YBCO in flowing oxygen and under high evaluated oxygen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Chaud, Xavier; Gawalek, Wolfgang; Rabier, Jaques; Savchuk, Yaroslav; Joulain, Anne; Vlasenko, Andrey; Moshchil, Viktor; Sergienko, Nina; Dub, Sergey; Melnikov, Vladimir; Litzkendorf, Doris; Habisreuther, Tobias; Sverdun, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The high pressure-high temperature oxygenation of thin-walled MT-YBCO (with artificially produced holes) allows decreasing the amount of macrocracks and increasing j c of the material. The MT-YBCO produced from Y123 and Y211 in the fields higher than 2 T showed higher j c in the ab-planes and lower j c in the c-direction than the MT-YBCO manufactured from Y123 and Y 2 O 3 and can be explained by the difference in twin and microcrack density that in turn can be affected by the difference in Y211 phase distribution

  5. High pressure synthesis of BiS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    crystal structures and electrical properties.1,2 Up until now, the most sulfur rich phase in the Bi-S phase diagram was Bi2S3.3 For BiS2 the Bi atoms have anisotropic charge distribution and more complex structures are expected when comparing the layered structures of transition metal dichalcogenides....... The possibilities of using high pressure synthesis to discover new phases in the Bi-S binary system were investigated as early as the 1960’s.4 The research led to discovery of a compound with BiS2 stoichiometry, but no structure solution of BiS2 was reported. A reason behind making this new phase is to study...... the physical properties since the related compound Bi2S3 is known to be a thermoelectric material.5 In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure...

  6. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  7. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. High temperature superconductor current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimetz, B.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of superconductors in high electrical current applications (magnets, transformers, generators etc.) usually requires cooling with liquid Helium, which is very expensive. The superconductor itself produces no heat, and the design of Helium dewars is very advanced. Therefore most of the heat loss, i.e. Helium consumption, comes from the current lead which connects the superconductor with its power source at room temperature. The current lead usually consists of a pair of thick copper wires. The discovery of the High Temperature Superconductors makes it possible to replace a part of the copper with superconducting material. This drastically reduces the heat losses because a) the superconductor generates no resistive heat and b) it is a very poor thermal conductor compared with the copper. In this work silver-sheathed superconducting tapes are used as current lead components. The work comprises both the production of the tapes and the overall design of the leads, in order to a) maximize the current capacity ('critical current') of the superconductor, b) minimize the thermal conductivity of the silver clad, and c) optimize the cooling conditions

  9. Container floor at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutler, H.; Klapperich, H.J.; Mueller-Frank, U.

    1978-01-01

    The invention describes a floor for container which is stressed at high, changing temperatures and is intended for use in gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Due to the downward cooling gas flow in these types of reactor, the reactor floor is subjected to considerable dimensional changes during switching on and off. In the heating stage, the whole graphite structure of the reactor core and floor expands. In order to avoid arising constraining forces, sufficiently large expansion spaces must be allowed for furthermore restoring forces must be present to close the gaps again in the cooling phase. These restoring forces must be permanently present to prevent loosening of the core cuits amongst one another and thus uncontrollable relative movement. Spring elements are not suitable due to fast fatigue as a result of high temperatures and radiation exposure. It is suggested to have the floor elements supported on rollers whose rolling planes are downwards inclined to a fixed point for support. The construction is described in detail by means of drawings. (GL) [de

  10. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  11. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  12. High-temperature axion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowrick, N.J.; McDougall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of new terms in the high-temperature axion potential arising from the dynamical nature of the axion field and from higher-order corrections to the θ dependence in the free energy of the quark-gluon plasma. We find that the dynamical nature of the axion field does not affect the potential but that the higher-order effects lead to new terms in the potential which are larger than the term previously considered. However, neither the magnitude nor the sign of the potential can be calculated by a perturbative expansion of the free energy since the coupling is too large. We show that a change in the magnitude of the potential does not significantly affect the bound on the axion decay constant but that the sign of the potential is of crucial importance. By investigating the formal properties of the functional integral within the instanton dilute-gas approximation, we find that the sign of the potential does not change and that the minimum remains at θ=0. We conclude that the standard calculation of the axion energy today is not significantly modified by this investigation

  13. Creep of high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Feng, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature creep deformation of composites is examined. Creep of composites depends on the interplay of many factors. One of the basic issues in the design of the creep resistant composites is the ability to predict their creep behavior from the knowledge of the creep behavior of the individual components. In this report, the existing theoretical models based on continuum mechanics principles are reviewed. These models are evaluated using extensive experimental data on molydisilicide-silicon carbide composites obtained by the authors. The analysis shows that the rule of mixture based on isostrain and isostress provides two limiting bounds wherein all other theoretical predictions fall. For molydisilicide composites, the creep is predominantly governed by the creep of the majority phase, i.e. the matrix with fibers deforming elastically. The role of back stresses both on creep rates and activation energies are shown to be minimum. Kinetics of creep in MoSi 2 is shown to be controlled by the process of dislocation glide with climb involving the diffusion of Mo atoms

  14. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  15. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  16. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  17. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  18. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and High PressureX-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure,Composition and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions on A Model SingleCrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Max O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Our research focuses on taking advantage of the ability of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to operate at high-temperatures and high-pressures while still providing real-time atomic resolution images. We also utilize high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HPXPS) to monitor systems under identical conditions thus giving us chemical information to compare and contrast with the structural and dynamic data provided by STM.

  19. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  20. High temperature superconductors for fusion magnets -influence of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudy, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present the results of study of influence of neutron irradiation of high temperature superconductors for fusion magnets. High temperature superconductors (type of YBCO (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxygen)) are strong candidates to be applied in the next step of fusion devices. Defects induced by fast neutrons are effective pinning centres, which can significantly improve critical current densities and reduce J c anisotropy. Due to induced lattice disorder, T c is reduced. Requirements for ITER (DEMO) are partially achieved at 64 K.

  1. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  2. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  3. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  4. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  5. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  6. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  7. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  8. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  9. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  10. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  11. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  12. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  13. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  14. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  15. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  16. Energetic materials under high pressures and temperatures: stability, polymorphism and decomposition of RDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreger, Z A

    2012-01-01

    A recent progress in understanding the response of energetic crystal of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) to high pressures and temperatures is summarized. The optical spectroscopy and imaging studies under static compression and high temperatures provided new insight into phase diagram, polymorphism and decomposition mechanisms at pressures and temperatures relevant to those under shock compression. These results have been used to aid the understanding of processes under shock compression, including the shock-induced phase transition and identification of the crystal phase at decomposition. This work demonstrates that studies under static compression and high temperatures provide important complementary route for elucidating the physical and chemical processes in shocked energetic crystals.

  17. Chemical stability of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the available studies on the chemical stability of the high temperature superconductors (HTS) in various environments was made. The La(1.8)Ba(0.2)CuO4 HTS is unstable in the presence of H2O, CO2, and CO. The YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor is highly susceptible to degradation in different environments, especially water. The La(2-x)Ba(x)CuO4 and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O HTS are relatively less reactive than the YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Processing of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) HTS in purified oxygen, rather than in air, using high purity noncarbon containing starting materials is recommended. Exposure of this HTS to the ambient atmosphere should also be avoided at all stages during processing and storage. Devices and components made out of these oxide superconductors would have to be protected with an impermeable coating of a polymer, glass, or metal to avoid deterioration during use.

  18. Catalysis in high-temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föger, K; Ahmed, K

    2005-02-17

    Catalysis plays a critical role in solid oxide fuel cell systems. The electrochemical reactions within the cell--oxygen dissociation on the cathode and electrochemical fuel combustion on the anode--are catalytic reactions. The fuels used in high-temperature fuel cells, for example, natural gas, propane, or liquid hydrocarbons, need to be preprocessed to a form suitable for conversion on the anode-sulfur removal and pre-reforming. The unconverted fuel (economic fuel utilization around 85%) is commonly combusted using a catalytic burner. Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd. has developed anodes that in addition to having electrochemical activity also are reactive for internal steam reforming of methane. This can simplify fuel preprocessing, but its main advantage is thermal management of the fuel cell stack by endothermic heat removal. Using this approach, the objective of fuel preprocessing is to produce a methane-rich fuel stream but with all higher hydrocarbons removed. Sulfur removal can be achieved by absorption or hydro-desulfurization (HDS). Depending on the system configuration, hydrogen is also required for start-up and shutdown. Reactor operating parameters are strongly tied to fuel cell operational regimes, thus often limiting optimization of the catalytic reactors. In this paper we discuss operation of an authothermal reforming reactor for hydrogen generation for HDS and start-up/shutdown, and development of a pre-reformer for converting propane to a methane-rich fuel stream.

  19. Computational simulation of reactive species production by methane-air DBD at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takana, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishiyama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Computational simulations of a single streamer in DBD in lean methane-air mixture at pressure of 1 and 3 atm and temperature of 300 and 500 K were conducted for plasma-enhanced chemical reactions in a closed system. The effects of surrounding pressure and temperature are characterized for reactive species production by a DBD discharge. The results show that the production characteristics of reactive species are strongly influenced by the total gas number density and the higher concentration of reactive species are produced at higher pressure and lower gas temperature for a given initial reduced electric field.

  20. Influence of High Pressure and High Temperature Hydrogen on Fracture Toughness of Ni-Containing Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balitskii Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available W ramach przeprowadzonych badan okreslono wpływ wodoru na krótkotrwała wytrzymałosc i płasko-naprezeniowa ciagliwosc stali 10Cr15Ni27 oraz stopów niklu 04Cr16Ni56, 05Cr19Ni55 przy wielkosciach cisnienia do 35 MPa i zakresie temperatury od 293 do 773 K. Wpływ wodoru wysokiego cisnienia powoduje, ze wydłuzenie, plastycznosc, wytrzymałosc nisko cyklowa N i parametr odpornosci na pekanie Kc przyjmuja minimalne wartosci dla próbek stopu 04Cr16Ni56 przy cisnieniu wynoszacym 10 MPa, natomiast dla nasyconych wodorem próbek stali 10Cr15Ni27 i stopu 05Cr19Ni55 minimum wartosci tych parametrów wystepuje przy cisnieniu 15 MPa, dla koncentracji wodoru wynoszacej odpowiednio 15 i 19 wppm.

  1. Thermodynamically Controlled High-Pressure High-Temperature Synthesis of Crystalline Fluorinated sp 3 -Carbon Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, Kamil; Landskron, Kai

    2015-11-19

    We report the feasibility of the thermodynamically controlled synthesis of crystalline sp3-carbon networks. We show that there is a critical pressure below which decomposition of the carbon network is favored and above which the carbon network is stable. Based on advanced, highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations using the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW) and the Birch–Murnaghan equation of state, this critical pressure is 26.5 GPa (viz. table of contents graphic). Such pressures are experimentally readily accessible and afford thermodynamic control for suppression of decomposition reactions. The present results further suggest that a general pattern of pressure-directed control exists for many isolobal conversions of sp2 to sp3 allotropes, relating not only to fluorocarbon chemistry but also extending to inorganic and solid-state materials science.

  2. Natural convection of high-temperature, high-pressure gas in a horizontal annular layer of thermal insulator, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Takizuka, Takakazu; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1979-02-01

    Numerical calculations are described of the natural convection in a horizontal annular layer of thermal insulator. The purpose is to compare the numerical results for variable physical properties with those for constant properties. The numerical procedure and typical results are presented. (author)

  3. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  4. Macroscopic Expressions of Molecular Adiabatic Compressibility of Methyl and Ethyl Caprate under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular compressibility, which is a macroscopic quantity to reveal the microcompressibility by additivity of molecular constitutions, is considered as a fixed value for specific organic liquids. In this study, we introduced two calculated expressions of molecular adiabatic compressibility to demonstrate its pressure and temperature dependency. The first one was developed from Wada’s constant expression based on experimental data of density and sound velocity. Secondly, by introducing the 2D fitting expressions and their partial derivative of pressure and temperature, molecular compressibility dependency was analyzed further, and a 3D fitting expression was obtained from the calculated data of the first one. The third was derived with introducing the pressure and temperature correction factors based on analogy to Lennard-Jones potential function and energy equipartition theorem. In wide range of temperatures (293

  5. Development of High Temperature (3400F) and High Pressure (27,000 PSI) Gas Venting Process for Nitrogen Batch Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    split for the Closure Plug and Seal Head. This section covers the analysis of the modified Closure Plug and Corrosion Barriers and includes a comparison...YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) xx-01-2018 Final Report June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...41 31. Corrosion Barriers and Closure Plug Temperature Results Cross-Sectional View – Steady-State Thermal

  6. Transmission electron microscopy studies of C3N4H4 treated at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, R C; Chen, L C; Zhu, J L; Li, F Y; Liu, Z X; Qin, Z C; Yu, T N; Jin, C Q; Duan, X F; Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    C 3 N 4 H 4 was treated at 6.0 GPa and 1500 deg C for 2.5 min. Powder x-ray measurement shows that the sample is decomposed and a hexagonal graphite phase forms. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that small amounts of diamond and amorphous carbon phase coexist with the graphite phase. Parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis was also carried out for these phases

  7. First-Principle Calculations for Thermodynamic Properties of LiBC Under High Temperature and High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-Li; CHENG Yan; TAN Ni-Na; GOU Qing-Quan

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of LiBC are investigated by using the full-potential linearized muffin-tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within the frame of density functional theory (DFT) and using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The dependencies of the normalized lattice parameters a/a0 and c/c0, the ratio (c/a)/2, the normalized primitive volume V/V0 on pressure and temperature are successfully obtained. It is found that the interlayer covalent interactions (Li-B bonds or Li-C bonds) are more sensitive to temperature and pressure than intralayer ones (B-C bonds), as gives rise to the extreme lattice anisotropy in the bulk hcp LiBC.

  8. Effect of surface cold work on corrosion of Alloy 690TT in high temperature high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Han, E.-H.; Ke, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of surface cold work on corrosion of Alloy 690TT. The Alloy 690TT was mechanical ground and electro polished respectively and immersed in primary water at DO = 2 ppm and DH = 2.5ppm respectively. The microstructure of surface and the compositions and morphology of the surface film on Alloy 690TT after immersion test were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and focused ion beam (FIB). The results showed that feather-like oxide with decorated polyhedral oxide formed on ground surface and needle-like oxide with decorated polyhedral oxide formed on electro-polished surface. (author)

  9. Amorphous and liquid samples structure and density measurements at high pressure - high temperature using diffraction and imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, N.; King, A.; Clark, A. N.; Perrillat, J. P.; Boulard, E.; Morard, G.; Deslandes, J. P.; Itié, J. P.; Ritter, X.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2016-12-01

    Determination of the density and structure of liquids such as iron alloys, silicates and carbonates is a key to understand deep Earth structure and dynamics. X-ray diffraction provided by large synchrotron facilities gives excellent results as long as the signal scattered from the sample can be isolated from its environment. Different techniques already exist; we present here the implementation and the first results given by the combined angle- and energy-dispersive structural analysis and refinement (CAESAR) technique introduced by Wang et al. in 2004, that has never been used in this context. It has several advantages in the study of liquids: 1/ the standard energy-dispersive technique (EDX), fast and compatible with large multi-anvil presses frames, is used for fast analysis free of signal pollution from the sample environment 2/ some limitations of the EDX technique (homogeneity of the sample, low resolution) are irrelevant in the case of liquid signals, others (wrong intensities, escape peaks artifacts, background subtraction) are solved by the CAESAR technique 3/ high Q data (up to 15 A-1 and more) can be obtained in a few hours (usually less than 2). We present here the facilities available on the PSICHE beamline (SOLEIL synchrotron, France) and a few results obtained using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press and a 1200 tons load capacity multi-anvil press with a (100) DIA compression module. X-ray microtomography, used in conjunction with a PE press featuring rotating anvils (RotoPEc, Philippe et al., 2013) is also very effective, by simply measuring the 3D volume of glass or liquid spheres at HPHT, thus providing density. This can be done in conjunction with the CAESAR technique and we illustrate this point. Finally, absorption profiles can be obtained via imaging techniques, providing another independent way to measure the density of these materials. References Y. Wang et al., A new technique for angle-dispersive powder diffraction using an energy-dispersive setup and synchrotron radiation (2004), J. Appl. Cryst. (2004). 37, 947-956 J. Philippe, Y. Le Godec, F. Bergame et M. Morand, Patent INPI 11 62335 (2013)

  10. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  12. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  13. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  14. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  15. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  16. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  17. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  18. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  19. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  20. High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments on Zn at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Fujihisa, H; Kikegawa, T

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on Zn with a He-pressure medium at low temperature. When the sample was compressed in the He medium at low temperature, large nonhydrostaticity developed, yielding erroneous lattice parameters. On the other hand, when the pressure was changed at high temperatures, good hydrostaticity was maintained. No anomaly in the volume dependence of the c/a axial ratio has been found.