WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-pressure gas streams

  1. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  2. Hydrogen recovery by pressure swing adsorption. [From ammonia purge-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A pressure swing absorption process (PSA) designed to recover H/sub 2/ from ammonia purge-gas streams developed by Bergbarr-Forschung GmbH of West Germany is reviewed. The PSA unit is installed in the process stream after the ammonia absorber unit which washes the ammonia-containing purge gas which consists of NH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/. Usually 4 absorber units containing carbon molecular sieves make up the PSA unit; however, only one unit is generally used to absorb all components except H/sub 2/ while the other units are being regenerated by depressurization. Economic comparisons of the PSA process with a cryogenic process indicate that for some ammonia plants there may be a 30% saving in fuel gas requirements with the PSA system. The conditions of the purge gas strongly influence which system of recovery is more suitable.

  3. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  4. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  5. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  6. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  7. The impact of Indian Ocean high pressure system on rainfall and stream flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Nasir, H.; Zia, S.S.; Ansari, W.A.; Salam, K.; Tayyab, N.

    2012-01-01

    Centre of Action approach is very useful in getting insight of rainfall and stream flow variability of specific region. Hameed et al. showed that Inter-annual variability of Gulf Stream north wall is influenced by low Icelandic pressure system and has more statistically significant correlation than North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with longitude of Icelandic low. This study also aims to explore possible relationships between rainfall and stream flow in Collie river catchment in Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) with Indian Ocean high pressure dynamics. The relationship between rainfall and stream flow with Indian Ocean high pressure system have been investigated using correlation analysis for early winter season (MJJA), lag correlation for MJJA versus SOND rainfall and stream flow are also calculated and found significant at 95% confidence level. By investigating the relationship between COA indices with rainfall and stream flow over the period 1976-2008, significant correlations suggests that rainfall and stream flow in Collie river basin is strongly influenced by COA indices. Multiple correlations between rainfall and stream flow with Indian Ocean high pressure (IOHPS and IOHLN) is 0.7 and 0.6 respectively. Centers of Action (COA) indices explain 51% and 36% of rainfall and stream flow respectively. The correlation between rainfall and stream flow with IOHPS is -0.4 and -0.3 whereas, with IOHLN is -0.47 and -0.52 respectively. (author)

  8. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  9. CO2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); McLaughlin, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krishnan, Gopala [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Jayaweera, Indira [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The objective of this project was to develop a novel, low-cost CO2 capture process from pre-combustion gas streams. The bench-scale work was conducted at the SRI International. A 0.15-MWe integrated pilot plant was constructed and operated for over 700 hours at the National Carbon Capture Center, Wilsonville, AL. The AC-ABC (ammonium carbonate-ammonium bicarbonate) process for capture of CO2 and H2S from the pre-combustion gas stream offers many advantages over Selexol-based technology. The process relies on the simple chemistry of the NH3-CO2-H2O-H2S system and on the ability of the aqueous ammoniated solution to absorb CO2 at near ambient temperatures and to release it as a high-purity, high-pressure gas at a moderately elevated regeneration temperature. It is estimated the increase in cost of electricity (COE) with the AC-ABC process will be ~ 30%, and the cost of CO2 captured is projected to be less than $27/metric ton of CO2 while meeting 90% CO2 capture goal. The Bechtel Pressure Swing Claus (BPSC) is a complementary technology offered by Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc. BPSC is a high-pressure, sub-dew-point Claus process that allows for nearly complete removal of H2S from a gas stream. It operates at gasifier pressures and moderate temperatures and does not affect CO2 content. When coupled with AC-ABC, the combined technologies allow a nearly pure CO2 stream to be captured at high pressure, something which Selexol and other solvent-based technologies cannot achieve.

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  11. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  12. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miller, Scott [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ku, Anthony [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Polishchuk, Kimberly [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wei, Wei [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shisler, Roger [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wickersham, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McEvoy, Kevin [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Alberts, William [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Barton, Thomas [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  13. Low-temperature plasma-catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in atmospheric pressure gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Lu Fugong; Xu Yong; Zhang Jing; Yang Xuefeng

    2006-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a typical air pollutant capable of causing serious health disorders in human beings. This work reports plasma-catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in gas streams via dielectric barrier discharges over Ag/CeO 2 pellets at atmospheric pressure and 70 0 C. With a feed gas mixture of 276 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼99% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed with an 86% oxidative conversion into CO 2 at GHSV of 16500 h -1 and input discharge energy density of 108 J l -1 . At the same experimental conditions, the conversion percentages of HCHO to CO 2 from pure plasma-induced oxidation (discharges over fused silica pellets) and from pure catalytic oxidation over Ag/CeO 2 (without discharges) are 6% and 33% only. The above results and the CO plasma-catalytic oxidation experiments imply that the plasma-generated short-lived gas phase radicals, such as O and HO 2 , play important roles in the catalytic redox circles of Ag/CeO 2 to oxidize HCHO and CO to CO 2

  14. High-pressure gas-breakthrough apparatus and a procedure for determining the gas-breakthrough pressure of compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.

    1997-08-01

    Gas may be produced in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Given that the vault will be sealed with clay-based materials, the fate of the gas is uncertain. Therefore, an instrument was previously built to measure the pressure required to pass gas through compacted clay materials (a gas-breakthrough apparatus). However, the 10 MPa pressure limit of the apparatus was insufficient to test compacted buffer material at the density proposed in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Therefore, a high-pressure (50 Wa) gas-breakthrough apparatus was designed, constructed and installed. This report describes the components of the apparatus and the materials and procedures that are used for the gas-breakthrough tests. (author)

  15. High pressure gas reinjection unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    Nuovo Pignone has built for gas reinjection at Ekofisk the highest pressure injection unit to date: suction pressure 246 bar, discharge 647 bar, for 5.7 million cu m/day of natural gas, and driven by a GE MS 5001 gas turbine of 24,000 hp. The barrel-type compressor has been used already in Algeria at Hassi Messaoud. Full scale tests have shown that the unit is satisfactory; special attention being paid to the stability of the rotor. Air cooled heat exchangers were used in the test loop to cool the discharge gas; at Ekofisk, heat exchangers with sea water will be used. The valves in the test loop were of a special, low- noise type. Vibrations of the rotor system and changes in gas pressure monitored, showing that a pressure of 680 bars can be achieved without instability. Economic considerations lead to preference for rotary compressors driven by gas turbines for similar applications in the exploitation of oil fields. A graph of the characteristics of the unit is given.

  16. Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas at two pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming, cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle changes the fluid from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium gas in an expander so as to be at different temperature ranges and pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T 1 . By first circulating the fluid from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a cool gas at a temperature range T 2 to T 3 in the go leg, then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a cooler gas at a reduced pressure and at a reduced temperature T 4 and finally by circulating the cooler gas back again to the refrigerator in a return leg at a temperature range T 4 to T 5 , while in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg, and in the same enclosure therewith for compression into a higher pressure gas at T 2 in a closed cycle, where T 2 greater than T 3 and T 5 greater than T 4 , the fluid leaves the enclosure in the go leg as a gas at its coldest point in the go leg, and the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature decreases along its length from the refrigerator due to the cooling from the gas in the return leg

  17. High temperature, high pressure gas loop - the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Sanders, J.P.; Young, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature, gas-circulating Component Flow Test Loop located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was designed and constructed utilizing Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The quality assurance program for operating and testing is also based on applicable ASME standards. Power to a total of 5 MW is available to the test section, and an air-cooled heat exchanger rated at 4.4 MW serves as heat sink. The three gas-bearing, completely enclosed gas circulators provide a maximum flow of 0.47 m 3 /s at pressures to 10.7 MPa. The control system allows for fast transients in pressure, power, temperature, and flow; it also supports prolonged unattended steady-state operation. The data acquisition system can access and process 10,000 data points per second. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor components are being tested

  18. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  19. Source limitation of carbon gas emissions in high-elevation mountain streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle through transport, storage, and direct emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. Despite predictions of high physical gas exchange rates due to turbulent flows and ubiquitous supersaturation of CO2—and perhaps also CH4—patterns of gas emissions are essentially undocumented for high mountain ecosystems. Much like other headwater networks around the globe, we found that high-elevation streams in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA, were supersaturated with CO2 during the growing season and were net sources to the atmosphere. CO2concentrations in lakes, on the other hand, tended to be less than atmospheric equilibrium during the open water season. CO2 and CH4 emissions from the aquatic conduit were relatively small compared to many parts of the globe. Irrespective of the physical template for high gas exchange (high k), we found evidence of CO2 source limitation to mountain streams during the growing season, which limits overall CO2emissions. Our results suggest a reduced importance of aquatic ecosystems for carbon cycling in high-elevation landscapes having limited soil development and high CO2 consumption via mineral weathering.

  20. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1988-04-01

    Discharge of the molten core debris from a pressurized reactor vessel has been recognized as an important accident scenario for pressurized water reactors. Recent high-pressure melt streaming experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, designed to study cavity and containment events related to melt ejection, have resulted in two important observations: (1) Expansion and breakup of the ejected molten jet. (2) Significant aerosol generation during the ejection process. The expansion and breakup of the jet in the experiments are attributed to rapid evolution of the pressurizing gas (nitrogen or hydrogen) dissolved in the melt. It has been concluded that aerosol particles may be formed by condensation of melt vapor and mechanical breakup of the melt and generation. It was also shown that the above stated phenomena are likely to occur in reactor accidents. This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals, and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems that are addressed in this work

  1. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1–200 bar and temperature range 300–1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients of a CO_2–N_2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated spectra, as well as published experimental data. - Highlights: • A ceramic gas cell designed for gas measurements up to 1300 K and 200 bar. • The first recorded absorption spectrum of CO_2 at 1000 K and 101 bar is presented. • Voigt profiles might suffice in the modeling of radiation from CO_2 in combustion.

  2. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  3. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems. 192.197 Section 192.197 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high...

  4. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D N; Ayyappan, R; Kamble, L P; Singh, J P; Muralikrishna, L V; Alex, M; Balagi, V; Mukhopadhyay, P K

    2008-01-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm 2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ∼1 x 10 -5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mmx160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face and diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6x10 -9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2x10 -7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5x10 -5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4x10 -6 mbar in the same time under the same conditions

  5. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  6. Successive measurements of streaming potential and electroosmotic pressure with the same core-holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chenggang; Hu, Hengshan; Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Successive measurements of the streaming potential and electroosmotic pressure of each core sample are important for understanding the mechanisms of electrokinetic effects. In previous studies, one plug of the core-holder needs to be replaced in these two experiments, which causes the change of the fluid parameters and the boundary conditions in the core. We design a new core-holder to permit successive experiments without plug replacement, which ensures the consistency of the measurement environment. A two-direction harmonic pressure-driving source is accordingly designed. Using this new equipment, electrokinetic experiments conducted ten core samples at 0.4 mol/L NaCl solution. The results show good agreement between the electrokinetically deduced permeability and premeasured gas permeability. For high salinity saturated samples, the permeability can be inverted from electroosmotic effect instead of the streaming potential.

  7. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  8. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1-200 bar and temperature range 300-1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients...... of a CO2-N2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated...

  9. Gas-ion laser with gas pressure maintenance means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A gas-ion laser is described including means to maintain the ionizable gas in the laser cavity at a rather constant pressure over an extended period of time to significantly increase the useful life of the gas-ion laser. The gas laser includes a gas makeup system having a high pressure source or storage container and a regulating valve. The valve has a permeable solid state orifice member through which the gas flows from the high pressure source to the laser cavity to replenish the gas in the laser cavity and maintain the gas pressure in the cavity rather constant. The permeable orifice member is selected from a solid state material having a permeability that is variable in relation to the magnitude of the energy applied to the orifice member. The gas-ion laser has a valve operating means such as a heater for varying the applied energy such as thermal energy to the member to regulate the gas flow. Additionally, the gas-ion laser has a valve control means that is responsive to the gas pressure in the laser cavity for controlling the valve control means to maintain the pressure at a desired level. (U.S.)

  10. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  11. High- and low-pressure operation of the gas electron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Sauli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the operation of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) in gas mixtures Xe-CO 2 , Ar-CO 2 and CH 4 at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 5 atm. In Ar- and Xe-based mixtures, the maximum GEM gain considerably decreases with pressure, from a few hundreds at 1 atm to below 10 at 5 atm. Combined gain of GEM and the micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) can exceed values of 10000 at 1 atm and 100 at 5 atm. High GEM gains, of above 1000, were obtained in CH 4 at low pressures. We have observed the effect of the avalanche confinement in GEM micro-holes, resulting in violation of the pressure scaling and in the possibility of GEM operation in pure noble gases. (author)

  12. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  13. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Boothroyd, Ian; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The impact of unconventional natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing methods from shale gas basins has been assessed using life-cycle emissions inventories, covering areas such as pre-production, production and transmission processes. The transmission of natural gas from well pad to processing plants and its transport to domestic sites is an important source of fugitive CH4, yet emissions factors and fluxes from transmission processes are often based upon ver out of date measurements. It is important to determine accurate measurements of natural gas losses when compressed and transported between production and processing facilities so as to accurately determine life-cycle CH4 emissions. This study considers CH4 emissions from the UK National Transmission System (NTS) of high pressure natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions using a Picarro Surveyor cavity-ring-down spectrometer were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high pressure pipelines and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from these joints. When scaled up to the UK's National Transmission System pipeline length of 7600 km gives a fugitive CH4 flux of 4700 ± 2864 kt CH4/yr - this fugitive emission from high pressure pipelines is 0.016% of the annual gas supply.

  14. Use of argon to measure gas exchange in turbulent mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Madinger, Hilary L.

    2018-05-01

    Gas exchange is a parameter needed in stream metabolism and trace gas emissions models. One way to estimate gas exchange is via measuring the decline of added tracer gases such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Estimates of oxygen (O2) gas exchange derived from SF6 additions require scaling via Schmidt number (Sc) ratio, but this scaling is uncertain under conditions of high gas exchange via bubbles because scaling depends on gas solubility as well as Sc. Because argon (Ar) and O2 have nearly identical Schmidt numbers and solubility, Ar may be a useful tracer gas for estimating stream O2 exchange. Here we compared rates of gas exchange measured via Ar and SF6 for turbulent mountain streams in Wyoming, USA. We measured Ar as the ratio of Ar : N2 using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS). Normalizing to N2 confers higher precision than simply measuring [Ar] alone. We consistently enriched streams with Ar from 1 to 18 % of ambient Ar concentration and could estimate gas exchange rate using an exponential decline model. The mean ratio of gas exchange of Ar relative to SF6 was 1.8 (credible interval 1.1 to 2.5) compared to the theoretical estimate 1.35, showing that using SF6 would have underestimated exchange of Ar. Steep streams (slopes 11-12 %) had high rates of gas exchange velocity normalized to Sc = 600 (k600, 57-210 m d-1), and slope strongly predicted variation in k600 among all streams. We suggest that Ar is a useful tracer because it is easily measured, requires no scaling assumptions to estimate rates of O2 exchange, and is not an intense greenhouse gas as is SF6. We caution that scaling from rates of either Ar or SF6 gas exchange to CO2 is uncertain due to solubility effects in conditions of bubble-mediated gas transfer.

  15. High-pressure measuring cell for Raman spectroscopic studies of natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    A system for obtaining Raman spectra of gases at high pressure has been constructed. In order to ensure that a natural gas sample is totally representative, a high-pressure gas-measuring cell has been developed, built up by stainless steel fittings and a sapphire tube. The design and construction...... of this cell are described. A perfect pressure seal has been demonstrated up to 15.0 MPaA (MPa absolute). The cell has been successfully used to obtain Raman spectra of natural gas samples. Some of these spectra are presented and assigned. The most remarkable observation in the spectra is that it is possible...... to detect hydrogen sulfide at concentrations of 1-3 mg H2S/Nm(3). An attempt to make a quantitative analysis of natural gas by the so-called "ratio method" is presented. In addition to this, the relative normalized differential Raman scattering cross sections for ethane and i-butane molecules at 8.0 MPa...

  16. High pressure gas spheres for neutron and photon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, G.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.; Kaltenbaek, J.; Leugers, B.; Reifarth, R.

    2009-09-01

    High pressure gas spheres have been designed and successfully used in several nuclear physics experiments on noble gases. The pros and cons of this solution are the simple design and the high reliability versus the fact that the density is limited to 40-60% of liquid or solid gas samples. Originally produced for neutron capture studies at keV energies, the comparably small mass of the gas spheres were an important advantage, which turned out to be of relevance for other applications as well. The construction, performance, and operation of the spheres are described and examples for their use are presented.

  17. Effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on performance of natural gas liquefaction with mixed refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-12-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out to investigate the effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on the performance of natural gas (NG) liquefaction with mixed refrigerant (MR). A cold stream (low-pressure MR) is in thermal contact with opposite flow of two hot streams (high-pressure MR and NG feed) at the same time. In typical process simulation with commercial software (such as Aspen HYSYS®), the liquefaction performance is estimated with a method of minimum temperature approach, simply assuming that two hot streams have the same temperature. In this study, local energy balance equations are rigorously solved with temperature-dependent properties of MR and NG feed, and are linked to the thermodynamic cycle analysis. The figure of merit (FOM) is quantitatively examined in terms of UA (the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and heat exchange area) between respective streams. In a single-stage MR process, it is concluded that the temperature profile from HYSYS is difficult to realize in practice, and the FOM value from HYSYS is an over-estimate, but can be closely achieved with a proper heat-exchanger design. It is also demonstrated that there exists a unique optimal ratio in three UA's, and no direct heat exchanger between hot streams is recommended.

  18. Recovery of krypton-85 from dissolver off-gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J.P.; Lamb, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Rare Gas Plant at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Recovers fission product krypton and xenon from dissolver off gas streams. Recently the system was upgraded to allow processing of hydrogen rich dissolver off-gas streams. A trickle bed hydrogen recombiner was installed and tested. The Rare Gas Plant can now safely process gas streams containing up to 80% hydrogen

  19. High temperature gas cleaning for pressurized gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, H.; Hagstroem, P.; Hallgren, A.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the project was to build an apparatus to study pressurized, high temperature gas cleaning of raw gasification gas generated from biomass. A flexible and easy to operate pressurized apparatus was designed and installed for the investigations in high temperature gas cleaning by means of thermal, catalytic or chemical procedures. A semi continuos fuel feeding concept, at a maximum rate of 700 g/h, allowed a very constant formation of a gas product at 700 deg C. The gas product was subsequently introduced into a fixed bed secondary reactor where the actual gas cleanup or reformation was fulfilled. The installation work was divided into four work periods and apart from a few delays the work was carried out according to the time plan. During the first work period (January - June 1994) the technical design, drawings etc. of the reactor and additional parts were completed. All material for the construction was ordered and the installation work was started. The second work period (July - December 1994) was dedicated to the construction and the installation of the different components. Initial tests with the electrical heating elements, control system and gas supply were assigned to the third work period (January - June 1995). After the commissioning and the resulting modifications, initial pyrolysis and tar decomposition experiments were performed. During the fourth and final work period, (June - December 1995) encouraging results from first tests allowed the experimental part of the project work to commence, however in a slightly reduced program. The experimental part of the project work comparatively studied tar decomposition as a function of the process conditions as well as of the choice of catalyst. Two different catalysts, dolomite and a commercial Ni-based catalyst, were evaluated in the unit. Their tar cracking ability in the pressure interval 1 - 20 bar and at cracker bed temperatures between 800 - 900 deg C was compared. Long term tests to study

  20. The Magellanic Stream System. I. Ram-Pressure Tails and the Relics of the Collision Between the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200-300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n h = 10-4 cm-3 at 50-70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L MS. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  1. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  2. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  3. Performance of microstrip and microgap gas detectors at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, F.A.F.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Marques, R.F.; Margato, L.M.S.; Goncalo, J.R.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the operation of microstrip and microgap detectors at various gas pressures up to 6 bar with Kr-CO 2 , Xe-CO 2 and Xe-CH 4 is presented. The data were collected with a microstrip (1000 μm pitch) and a microgap (200 μm pitch) detector using a clean chamber and gas system. It is shown that maximum gain is strongly dependent on pressure and gains as high as 9 x 10 3 were obtained with Kr-CO 2 at 6 bar with a MSGC. With the smaller-pitch MGC we could get a gain of 180 with Xe-CH 4 at 6 bar; the typical energy resolution at 22 keV being about 15%. From the present work one can conclude that microstructures can operate at high pressure and that their application in high-efficiency, low-granularity X-ray detectors with an energy range up to a few tens of keV can be seriously considered. (orig.)

  4. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng

    2016-09-06

    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.

  5. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, L.M.C.; Henriques, J.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas

  6. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: lgato@mail.ist.utl.pt; Henriques, J.C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: jcch@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas.

  7. THE MAGELLANIC STREAM SYSTEM. I. RAM-PRESSURE TAILS AND THE RELICS OF THE COLLISION BETWEEN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S., E-mail: francois.hammer@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, Meudon F-92195 (France)

    2015-11-10

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200–300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n{sub h} = 10{sup −4} cm{sup −3} at 50–70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L{sub MS}. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  8. Impacts of seasonality on hydrogen production using natural gas pressure letdown stations. Paper no. IGEC-1-083

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, J.; Rowe, A.; Bailey, R.; McDonald, D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties associated with the development of a hydrogen economy is the creation of a supply infrastructure. A means for distributed hydrogen generation through a process using the exergy in high pressure natural gas streams has been proposed. The system recovers energy via expansion of natural gas through a turbo-expander at existing pressure reduction systems. Generated electric power is then used to drive an electrolyzer and create hydrogen. A model of the process is used to determine production rates for electricity and hydrogen given flow data for a number of pressure letdown sites in BC. Like many traditional renewable energy sources, most letdown stations have strong annual variations in flow conditions. Annual variations in stream flow rate, inlet pressure and inlet temperature can greatly affect hydrogen production rates. In the model, component efficiencies are scaled for operation at part-load, or away from optimum design conditions. Results indicate a significant reduction in predicted hydrogen production rates as compared to installed component name-plate capacity. Operating the system with a 'grid-tie' can increase the capacity factor, but economic viability will depend on local electricity and natural gas prices. (author)

  9. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  10. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Almond, S.; Boothroyd, I.

    2016-12-01

    Concern over the greenhouse gas impact of the exploitation of unconventional natural gas from shale deposits has caused a spotlight to be shone on to the entire hydrocarbon industry. Numerous studies have developed life-cycle emissions inventories to assess the impact that hydraulic fracturing has upon greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporated within life-cycle assessments are transmission and distribution losses, including infrastructure such as pipelines and compressor stations that pressurise natural gas for transport along pipelines. Estimates of fugitive emissions from transmission, storage and distribution have been criticized for reliance on old data from inappropriate sources (1970s Russian gas pipelines). In this study, we investigate fugitive emissions of CH4 from the UK high pressure national transmission system. The study took two approaches. Firstly, CH4 concentration is detected by driving along roads bisecting high pressure gas pipelines and also along an equivalent distance along a route where no high pressure gas pipeline was nearby. Five pipelines and five equivalent control routes were driven and the test was that CH4 measurements, when adjusted for distance and wind speed, should be greater on any route with a pipe than any route without a pipe. Secondly, 5 km of a high pressure gas pipeline and 5 km of equivalent farmland, were walked and soil gas (above the pipeline where present) was analysed every 7 m using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from

  11. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  12. Corotating pressure waves without streams in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 magnetic field and plasma data are presented which demonstrate the existence of large scale, corotating, non-linear pressure waves between 2 AU and 4 AU that are not accompanied by fast streams. The pressure waves are presumed to be generated by corotating streams near the Sun. For two of the three pressure waves that are discussed, the absence of a stream is probably a real, physical effect, viz., a consequence of deceleration of the stream by the associated compression wave. For the third pressure wave, the apparent absence of a stream may be a geometrical effect it is likely that the stream was at latitudes just above those of the spacecraft, while the associated shocks and compression wave extended over a broader range of latitudes so that they could be observed by the spacecraft. It is suggested that the development of large-scale non-linear pressure waves at the expense of the kinetic energy of streams produces a qualitative change in the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Within a few AU the quasi-stationary solar wind structure is determined by corotating streams whose structure is determined by the boundary conditions near the Sun

  13. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Studies on Microscopic Structure of Diesel Sprays under Atmospheric and High Gas Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Deshmukh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the spray structure of diesel from a 200-μm, single-hole solenoid injector is studied using microscopic imaging at injection pressures of 700, 1000 and 1400 bar for various gas pressures. A long-distance microscope with a high resolution camera is used for spray visualization with a direct imaging technique. This study shows that even at very high injection pressures, the spray structure in an ambient environment of atmospheric pressure reveals presence of entangled ligaments and non-spherical droplets during the injection period. With increase in the injection pressure, the ligaments tend to get smaller and spread radially. The spray structure studies are also conducted at high gas pressures in a specially designed high pressure chamber with optical access. The near nozzle spray structure at the end of the injection shows that the liquid jet breakup is improved with increase in gas density. The droplet size measurement is possible only late in the injection duration when the breakup appears to be complete and mostly spherical droplets are observed. Hence, droplet size measurements are performed after 1.3 ms from start of the injection pulse. Spatial and temporal variation in Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD is observed and reported for the case corresponding to an injection pressure of 700 bar. Overall, this study has highlighted the importance of verifying the extentof atomization and droplet shape even in dense sprays before using conventional dropsizing methods such as PDPA.

  15. Method and means for filtering polychlorinated biphenyls from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of filtering, adjacent to an end user-customer's residence or business in which at least a single gas appliance is located, a natural gas stream in which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and degraded PCB products have been concentrated at sufficient levels to be a health threat in a natural gas gathering and distributing network. It comprises: introducing the natural gas stream to a filter selected from a group that includes impingement, absorbing and adsorbing media whereby PCB's and degraded PCB products concentrated in the gas stream at sufficient levels to be a health threat by a periodic loading of the natural gas within the gathering and distributing network, are filtered from the gas stream and captured irrespective of mode of transport, passing the filtered natural gas stream to the customer's gas appliance wherein safe use of the energy associated with the stream occurs; periodically and safely removing the filter, inserting a new filter in place of the removed filter

  16. Excited Atoms and Molecules in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of high-pressure non-thermal discharges are increasingly drawing attention in view of many interesting applications. These, partially ionized media in non-equilibrium state, tend to generate complex effects that are difficult to interpret without a detailed knowledge of elementary processes involved. Electronically excited molecules and atoms may play an important role as intermediate states in a wide range of atomic and molecular processes, many of which are important in high-pressure discharges. They can serve also as reservoirs of energy or as sources of high energy electrons either through the energy pooling or through superelastic collisions. By presenting the analysis of current situation on the processes involving excited atoms and molecules of interest for high-pressure gas discharges, we will attempt to draw attention on the insufficiency of available data. In the same time we will show how to circumvent this situation and still be able to develop accurate models and interpretations of the observed phenomena

  17. Image simulation of high-speed imaging by high-pressure gas ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Liu Ximing; Wu Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The signal of the neighbor pixels is cumulated in Freight Train Inspection System because data fetch time is shorter than ion excursion time. This paper analyzes the pertinency of neighbor pixels and designs computer simulation method to generate some emulate images such as indicator image. The result indicates the high-pressure gas ionization detector can be used in high-speed digital radiography field. (authors)

  18. Toxicological and chemical characterization of the process stream materials and gas combustion products of an experimental low-btu coal gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J M; Hanson, R L; Royer, R E; Clark, C R; Henderson, R F

    1984-04-01

    The process gas stream of an experimental pressurized McDowell-Wellman stirred-bed low-Btu coal gasifier, and combustion products of the clean gas were characterized as to their mutagenic properties and chemical composition. Samples of aerosol droplets condensed from the gas were obtained at selected positions along the process stream using a condenser train. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay (TA98, with and without rat liver S9). All materials required metabolic activation to be mutagenic. Droplets condensed from gas had a specific mutagenicity of 6.7 revertants/microgram (50,000 revertants/liter of raw gas). Methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and nitrogen-containing compounds were positively identified in a highly mutagenic fraction of raw gas condensate. While gas cleanup by the humidifier-tar trap system and Venturi scrubber led to only a small reduction in specific mutagenicity of the cooled process stream material (4.1 revertants/microgram), a significant overall reduction in mutagenicity was achieved (to 2200 revertants/liter) due to a substantial reduction in the concentration of material in the gas. By the end of gas cleanup, gas condensates had no detectable mutagenic activity. Condensates of combustion product gas, which contained several polycyclic aromatic compounds, had a specific mutagenicity of 1.1 revertants/microgram (4.0 revertants/liter). Results indicate that the process stream material is potentially toxic and that care should be taken to limit exposure of workers to the condensed tars during gasifier maintenance and repair and to the aerosolized tars emitted in fugitive emissions. Health risks to the general population resulting from exposure to gas combustion products are expected to be minimal.

  19. Investigation of a high pressure oxy-coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of an oxy-coal process, which is pressurized to a combustion pressure of 80 bar. At that pressure the water-vapor can be separated economically from the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O flue gases, either by nucleate condensation or by condensation on cooled surfaces in condenser heat exchangers at a temperature of about 300 C. The heat of condensation can be recaptured to preheat the boiler feed water. So the number of economizers is drastically reduced compared to a conventional steam cycle. Another interesting feature of the high pressure oxy-coal process is the fact, that low rank coal with high moisture content can be fired. Such a process at a pressure of about 80 bar is currently investigated by Babcock, USA, as the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS) and will be analyzed in the present paper. A known disadvantage of the oxy-coal processes is the large recirculating flue gas stream to control the combustion temperature, and which need large pipes and heavy recirculation fans. This disadvantage could be avoided if instead of flue gas a part of the condensed water from the condenser heat exchangers is recirculated. Within the present study both types of processes have been simulated and for an electric power output of about 220 MW. Furthermore, results of CFD simulations of a pressurized 250 MW combustor with a single swirl burner and flue gas recirculation will be presented.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  1. Modifying Char Dustcake Pressure Drop Using Particulate Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landham, C.; Dahlin, R.S.; Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.

    2002-09-19

    Coal gasification produces residual particles of coal char, coal ash, and sorbent that are suspended in the fuel gas stream exiting the gasifier. In most cases, these particles (referred to, hereafter, simply as char) must be removed from the stream prior to sending the gas to a turbine, fuel cell, or other downstream device. Currently, the most common approach to cleaning the gas stream at high temperature and pressure is by filtering the particulate with a porous ceramic or metal filter. However, because these dusts frequently have small size distributions, irregular morphology, and high specific surface areas, they can have very high gas flow resistance resulting in hot-gas filter system operating problems. Typical of gasification chars, the hot-gas filter dustcakes produced at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) during recent coal gasification tests have had very high flow resistance (Martin et al, 2002). The filter system has been able to successfully operate, but pressure drops have been high and filter cleaning must occur very frequently. In anticipation of this problem, a study was conducted to investigate ways of reducing dustcake pressure drop. This paper will discuss the efficacy of adding low-flow-resistance particulate matter to the high-flow-resistance char dustcake to reduce dustcake pressure drop. The study had two parts: a laboratory screening study and confirming field measurements at the PSDF.

  2. Removal of ammonia from gas streams with dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lanyan; Huang Li; Shu Xiaohong; Zhang Renxi; Dong Wenbo; Hou Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the experimental study of gas-phase removal of ammonia (NH 3 ) via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, in which we mainly concentrated on three aspects-influence of initial NH 3 concentration, peak voltage, and gas residence time on NH 3 removal efficiency. Effectiveness, e.g. the removal efficiency, specific energy density, absolute removal amount and energy yield, of the self-made DBD reactor had also been studied. Basic analysis on DBD physical parameters and its performance was made in comparison with previous investigation. Moreover, products were detected via ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Experimental results demonstrated the application potential of DBD as an alternative technology for odor-causing gases elimination from gas streams

  3. Glovebox with purification and pressure control of the neutral gas atmosphere in closed circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadrot, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the gas main are placed 2 series of specific gas purifiers in parallel. Pressure is controlled with a buffer tank two three way solenoid value upstream and down stream a compressor and a supercharger. A checking board allows continuous monitoring of circuit tightness [fr

  4. Retrofit of heat exchanger networks with pressure recovery of process streams at sub-ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Caballero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New mathematical model for heat exchanger networks retrofit with pressure recovery. • Optimal heat and work integration applied to the retrofit of sub-ambient processes. • Streams pressure manipulation is used to enhance heat integration of the system. • Compressors and turbines can act on a coupling shaft and/or as stand-alone equipment. • Use of smaller amount of cold utilities, reducing significantly the operational costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a new mathematical programming model for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks (HENs), wherein the pressure recovery of process streams is conducted to enhance heat integration. Particularly applied to cryogenic processes, HENs retrofit with combined heat and work integration is mainly aimed at reducing the use of expensive cold services. The proposed multi-stage superstructure allows the increment of the existing heat transfer area, as well as the use of new equipment for both heat exchange and pressure manipulation. The pressure recovery of streams is carried out simultaneously with the HEN design, such that the process conditions (streams pressure and temperature) are variables of optimization. The mathematical model is formulated using generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) and is optimized via mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), through the minimization of the retrofit total annualized cost, considering the turbine and compressor coupling with a helper motor. Three case studies are performed to assess the accuracy of the developed approach, including a real industrial example related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) production. The results show that the pressure recovery of streams is efficient for energy savings and, consequently, for decreasing the HEN retrofit total cost especially in sub-ambient processes

  5. The suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Popp, Andrea; Zane, Matthew; Clark, Jordan F.

    2018-02-01

    Determining groundwater discharge to streams using dissolved gases is known to be useful over a wide range of streamflow rates but the suitability of dissolved gas methods to determine discharge rates in high gradient mountain streams has not been sufficiently tested, even though headwater streams are critical as ecological habitats and water resources. The aim of this study is to test the suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge rates to high gradient streams by field experiments in a well-characterized, high gradient mountain stream and a literature review. At a reach scale (550 m) we combined stream and groundwater radon activity measurements with an in-stream SF6 tracer test. By means of numerical modeling we determined gas exchange velocities and derived very low groundwater discharge rates (∼15% of streamflow). These groundwater discharge rates are below the uncertainty range of physical streamflow measurements and consistent with temperature, specific conductance and streamflow measured at multiple locations along the reach. At a watershed-scale (4 km), we measured CFC-12 and δ18O concentrations and determined gas exchange velocities and groundwater discharge rates with the same numerical model. The groundwater discharge rates along the 4 km stream reach were highly variable, but were consistent with the values derived in the detailed study reach. Additionally, we synthesized literature values of gas exchange velocities for different stream gradients which show an empirical relationship that will be valuable in planning future dissolved gas studies on streams with various gradients. In sum, we show that multiple dissolved gas tracers can be used to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient mountain streams from reach to watershed scales.

  6. The suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Manning, Andrew H.; Popp, Andrea; Zane, Mathew; Clark, Jordan F.

    2018-01-01

    Determining groundwater discharge to streams using dissolved gases is known to be useful over a wide range of streamflow rates but the suitability of dissolved gas methods to determine discharge rates in high gradient mountain streams has not been sufficiently tested, even though headwater streams are critical as ecological habitats and water resources. The aim of this study is to test the suitability of using dissolved gases to determine groundwater discharge rates to high gradient streams by field experiments in a well-characterized, high gradient mountain stream and a literature review. At a reach scale (550 m) we combined stream and groundwater radon activity measurements with an in-stream SF6 tracer test. By means of numerical modeling we determined gas exchange velocities and derived very low groundwater discharge rates (∼15% of streamflow). These groundwater discharge rates are below the uncertainty range of physical streamflow measurements and consistent with temperature, specific conductance and streamflow measured at multiple locations along the reach. At a watershed-scale (4 km), we measured CFC-12 and δ18O concentrations and determined gas exchange velocities and groundwater discharge rates with the same numerical model. The groundwater discharge rates along the 4 km stream reach were highly variable, but were consistent with the values derived in the detailed study reach. Additionally, we synthesized literature values of gas exchange velocities for different stream gradients which show an empirical relationship that will be valuable in planning future dissolved gas studies on streams with various gradients. In sum, we show that multiple dissolved gas tracers can be used to determine groundwater discharge to high gradient mountain streams from reach to watershed scales.

  7. High-pressure water electrolysis: Electrochemical mitigation of product gas crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, Maximilian; Stolten, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New technique to reduce gas crossover during water electrolysis • Increase of the efficiency of pressurized water electrolysis • Prevention of safety hazards due to explosive gas mixtures caused by crossover • Experimental realization for a polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer • Discussion of electrochemical crossover mitigation for alkaline water electrolysis - Abstract: Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis can be used as an energy carrier storing electricity generated from renewables. During water electrolysis hydrogen can be evolved under pressure at isothermal conditions, enabling highly efficient compression. However, the permeation of hydrogen through the electrolyte increases with operating pressure and leads to efficiency loss and safety hazards. In this study, we report on an innovative concept, where the hydrogen crossover is electrochemically mitigated by an additional electrode between the anode and the cathode of the electrolysis cell. Experimentally, the technique was applied to a proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer operated at a hydrogen pressure that was fifty times larger than the oxygen pressure. Therewith, the hydrogen crossover was reduced and the current efficiency during partial load operation was increased. The concept is also discussed for water electrolysis that is operated at balanced pressures, where the crossover of hydrogen and oxygen is mitigated using two additional electrodes

  8. Prediction and correlation of high-pressure gas solubility in polymers with simplified PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In general the results are satisf......Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In general the results...

  9. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  10. Analysis of pressure drop accidents in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameoka, Toshiyuki

    1980-01-01

    Research and development are carried out on various problems in order to realize a multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled experimental reactor by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and others. In the experimental reactor in consideration at present, it is planned to flow helium at 1000 deg C and 40 atm. For the purpose, high temperature heat insulation structures are designed and developed, which insulate heat on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels and pipings. Consideration must be given to these internal heat insulation structures about the various characteristics in the working environmental temperature and pressure conditions, the measures for preventing the by-pass flow due to the formation of gaps and the abnormal leak of heat through the natural convection in the heat insulators and others. In this paper, the experimental results on the rapid pressure reduction characteristics of ceramic fiber heat insulation structures are reported. The ceramic fiber heat insulation structures have the features such as the application to uneven surfaces and penetration parts, the prevention of by-pass flow, and very low permeability. The problem is the restoring force after the high temperature compression. The experiment on rapid pressure reduction due to the accidental release of gas and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Elevated temperature and high pressure large helium gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Minoru; Midoriyama, Shigeru; Miyata, Toyohiko; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Izaki, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    The development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors especially aiming at the multi-purpose utilization of nuclear heat energy is carried out actively in Japan and West Germany. In Japan, the experimental HTGR of 50 MWt and 1000 deg C outlet temperature is being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and others since 1969, and the development of direct iron-making technology utilizing high temperature reducing gas was started in 1973 as the large project of Ministry of Internalional Trade and Industry. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Has taken part in these development projects, and has developed many softwares for nuclear heat design, system design and safety design of nuclear reactor system and heat utilization system. In hardwares also, efforts have been exerted to develop the technologies of design and manufacture of high temperature machinery and equipments. The high temperature, high pressure, large helium gas loop is under construction in the technical research institute of the company, and it is expected to be completed in December, 1979. The tests planned are that of proving the dynamic performances of the loop and its machinery and equipments and the verification of analysis codes. The loop is composed of the main circulation system, the objects of testing, the helium gas purifying system, the helium supplying and evacuating system, instruments and others. (Kako, I.)

  12. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  13. Models of Tidally Induced Gas Filaments in the Magellanic Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardy, Stephen A.; D’Onghia, Elena; Fox, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    The Magellanic Stream and Leading Arm of H I that stretches from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) and over 200° of the Southern sky is thought to be formed from multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC. In this scenario, most of the gas in the Stream and Leading Arm is stripped from the SMC, yet recent observations have shown a bifurcation of the Trailing Arm that reveals LMC origins for some of the gas. Absorption measurements in the Stream also reveal an order of magnitude more gas than in current tidal models. We present hydrodynamical simulations of the multiple encounters between the LMC and SMC at their first pass around the Milky Way, assuming that the Clouds were more extended and gas-rich in the past. Our models create filamentary structures of gas in the Trailing Stream from both the LMC and SMC. While the SMC trailing filament matches the observed Stream location, the LMC filament is offset. In addition, the total observed mass of the Stream in these models is underestimated by a factor of four when the ionized component is accounted for. Our results suggest that there should also be gas stripped from both the LMC and SMC in the Leading Arm, mirroring the bifurcation in the Trailing Stream. This prediction is consistent with recent measurements of spatial variation in chemical abundances in the Leading Arm, which show that gas from multiple sources is present, although its nature is still uncertain.

  14. Numerical Analysis on Transient of Steam-gas Pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Yeon-Gun; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, various pressurizers are adopted to satisfy their characteristics and uses. The additional active systems such as heater, pressurizer cooler, spray and insulator are essential for a steam or a gas pressurizer. With a steam-gas pressurizer, additional systems are not required due to the use of steam and non-condensable gas as pressure-buffering materials. The steam-gas pressurizer in integrated small reactors experiences very complicated thermal-hydraulic phenomena. To ensure the integrity of this pressurizer type, the analysis on the transient behavior of the steam-gas pressure is indispensable. For this purpose, the steam-gas pressurizer model is introduced to predict the accurate system pressure. The proposed model includes bulk flashing, rainout, inter-region heat and mass transfer and wall condensation with non-condensable gas. However, the ideal gas law is not applied because of significant interaction at high pressure between steam and non-condensable gas. The results obtained from this proposed model agree with those from pressurizer tests. (authors)

  15. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  16. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO /SUB x/ , hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140 0 to -160 0 C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140 0 to -160 0 C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton

  17. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  18. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, E.; Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay

    1960-01-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm 2 ), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm 2 ). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [fr

  19. Modern high pressure gas injection centrifugal compressor for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin [Worley Parsons Services Pty Ltd, Brisbane, NSW (Australia). Mechanical Dept.

    2011-12-15

    This article covers different design, manufacturing, performance and reliability aspects of modern high pressure gas re-injection centrifugal compressor units. Advances and recent technologies on critical areas such as rotor dynamics, anti-surge system, rotating stall prevention, auxiliary systems, material selection, shop performance tests and gas sealing are studied. Three different case studies for modern re-injection machines including 12 MW, 15 MW and 32 MW trains are presented. (orig.)

  20. Gas stream cleaning system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunchal, S. Kumar; Erck, Louis J.; Harris, Harry A.

    1979-04-13

    An oil mist and solid particle laden gas from an oil shale retorting operation is initially treated with a temperature controlled oil spray and then by a coalescer to reduce the quantity of oil mist and remove most of the solid particle content of the gas stream and then finally treated by an electrostatic precipitator to essentially remove the oil mist remaining in the gas.

  1. Reactor for tracking catalyst nanoparticles in liquid at high temperature under a high-pressure gas phase with X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2018-02-01

    Structure of catalyst nanoparticles dispersed in liquid phase at high temperature under gas phase of reactant(s) at higher pressure (≥5 bars) is important for fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions performed on these catalyst nanoparticles. Most structural characterizations of a catalyst performing catalysis in liquid at high temperature under gas phase at high pressure were performed in an ex situ condition in terms of characterizations before or after catalysis since, from technical point of view, access to the catalyst nanoparticles during catalysis in liquid phase at high temperature under high pressure reactant gas is challenging. Here we designed a reactor which allows us to perform structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to study catalyst nanoparticles under harsh catalysis conditions in terms of liquid up to 350 °C under gas phase with a pressure up to 50 bars. This reactor remains nanoparticles of a catalyst homogeneously dispersed in liquid during catalysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization.

  2. Synthesis gas generation by high pressure partial oxidation (HP POX {sup registered}); Synthesegaserzeugung durch Hochdruck-Partialoxidation (HP POX {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B.; Seifert, P.; Zeissler, R. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen; Walter, St. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The high pressure synthesis gas process HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) is a thermal conversion process, which converts e.g. natural gas or heavy residue oil with oxygen to fuel or synthesis gas. Innovative burner technologies allow autothermal catalytic or non-catalytic reforming of gaseous feedstock and gasification of liquid feed streams. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide rich synthesis gases with low methane content (particularly suitable as feed gas for methanol synthesis) can be generated. The technology represents a new generation of entrained flow gasification characterized by the new developed equipment and a design pressure of 100 bar. According to the feeds, the HP POX gasification process is the link between the downstream synthesis chemistry (use of gaseous and liquid feeds) and the power plant process (liquid or solid fuels as suspension or slurry). The HP POX development is carried out together with the Lurgi AG at the Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering (IEC). The 5 MW HP POX test plant built in Freiberg by Lurgi is core of the joint research project, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA), the Saxon Ministry of Science and the Fine Arts (SMWK), and the mg technologies ag (parent company of Lurgi). The conducted sets of experiments indicate that the unit can be operated in a safe, smooth and stable manner. During this periods of operation, which included nine test campaigns for autothermal reforming (ATR), the maximum pressure for ATR amounted to 70 bar which exceeds the current benchmark in industry for 30 bar. Main objective of R and D work is the development of modelling tools for extreme gasification conditions and different gasification principles of up to 100 bar. These tools are supposed to improve the understanding of the entire gasification process. Their development requires a systematic investigation of the reaction mechanisms and the interactions with the process

  3. Method and system for purification of gas streams for solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    of: - providing at least one scrubber in the gas stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the solid oxide cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the solid oxide cell; and - purifying the gas streams towards the first...... and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material and a material suitable as an electrode...... material, and wherein the material suitable as an electrolyte material and a material suitable as an electrode material form triple phase boundaries similar to or identical to the triple phase boundaries of the electrode for which the gas stream is purified with the at least one scrubber....

  4. High-pressure 3He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, 3 He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10 -3 (n/cm 2 ) -1 . The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector

  5. The effect of pressurization path on high pressure gas forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V at elevated temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Gang; Wang Jianlong; Dang Kexin; Yuan Shijian

    2015-01-01

    High pressure gas forming is a tubular component forming technology with pressurized gas at elevated temperature, based on QPF, HMGF and Hydroforming. This process can be used to form tube blank at lower temperatures with high energy efficiency and also at higher strain rates. With Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-alloy tube, the potential of HPGF was studied further through experiments at the elevated temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C. In order to know the formability of the Ti-alloy tube, tensile tests were ...

  6. Removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Yang Xuefeng; Li Cuihong; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a major indoor air pollutant and can cause serious health disorders in residents. This work reports the removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via alumina-pellet-filled dielectric barrier discharge plasmas at atmospheric pressure and 70 deg. C. With a feed gas mixture of 140 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼92% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed at GHSV (gas flow volume per hour per discharge volume) of 16 500 h -1 and E in = 108 J l -1 . An increase in the specific surface area of the alumina pellets enhances the HCHO removal, and this indicates that the adsorbed HCHO species may have a lower C-H bond breakage energy. Based on an examination of the influence of gas composition on the removal efficiency, the primary destruction pathways, besides the reactions initiated by discharge-generated radicals, such as O, H, OH and HO 2 , may include the consecutive dissociations of HCHO molecules and HCO radicals through their collisions with vibrationally- and electronically-excited metastable N 2 species. The increase of O 2 content in the inlet gas stream is able to diminish the CO production and to promote the formation of CO 2 via O-atom or HO 2 -radical involved reactions

  7. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  8. Measurement and calculation of gas compressibility factor for condensate gas and natural gas under pressure up to 116 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ke-Le; Liu, Huang; Sun, Chang-Yu; Ma, Qing-Lan; Chen, Guang-Jin; Shen, De-Ji; Xiao, Xiang-Jiao; Wang, Hai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Volumetric properties of two reservoir fluid samples were measured with pressure up to 116 MPa. • Dew point pressures at four temperatures for condensate gas sample are obtained. • Correlations and thermodynamic model for describing gas compressibility factor under high pressure were compared. • The thermodynamic model recommended is most suitable for fluids produced from reservoirs with a wide pressure range. -- Abstract: The volumetric properties of two reservoir fluid samples collected from one condensate gas well and one natural gas well were measured under four groups of temperatures, respectively, with pressure up to 116 MPa. For the two samples examined, the experimental results show that the gas compressibility factor increases with the increase of pressure. But the influence of the temperature is related to the range of the experimental pressure. It approximately decreases with the increase of temperature when the pressure is larger than (45 to 50) MPa, while there is the opposite trend when the pressure is lower than (45 to 50) MPa. The dew point pressure was also determined for the condensate gas sample, which decreases with the increase of temperature. The capabilities of four empirical correlations and a thermodynamic model based on equation of state for describing gas compressibility factor of reservoir fluids under high pressure were investigated. The comparison results show that the thermodynamic model recommended is the most suitable for fluids whatever produced from high-pressure reservoirs or conventional mild-pressure reservoirs

  9. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  10. On the high gain operation of low-pressure microdot gas avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breskin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Microdot avalanche chambers (MDOT) equipped with thin semitransparent Cr photocathodes, were characterized with UV photons at low gas pressure. Gains superior to 10 4 were reached with gas multiplication at the dots. In a mode where preamplification in the gas volume precedes the additional dot multiplication, gains superior to 10 6 were measured at 30-60 torr of propane. The fast amplification mechanism results in narrow high amplitude pulses with 2-3 ns rise time, visible with no further electronic amplification means. We present here our preliminary results and briefly discuss potential applications. (orig.)

  11. Beam tests of 'SPACAL' type modules for a high pressure gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, V.F.; Krasnokutskij, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Solodkov, A.A.; Starchenko, E.A.; Sushkov, V.V.; Zajtsev, A.M.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Kopikov, S.V.; Solov'yanov, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    High-pressure gas modules with cylindrical ionization chambers for a Very Forward Calorimeter are constructed and tested in the IHEP U-70 electron beam. The amplifiers are used in a remote mode (3 m long cables). The module performance at small angles is tested in the energy range of 10-30 GeV using different gas mixtures like Ar + CH 4 , Ar + CF 4 and pure CF 4 at the pressure of 20-40 Atm. The best value of energy resolution equal to 18% is reached at the angle of 5.7 deg for 30 GeV electrons. The design is found to be adequate for future use in ATLAS/LHC. 24 refs., 10 figs

  12. Gas stream analysis using voltage-current time differential operation of electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A method for analysis of a gas stream. The method includes identifying an affected region of an affected waveform signal corresponding to at least one characteristic of the gas stream. The method also includes calculating a voltage-current time differential between the affected region of the affected waveform signal and a corresponding region of an original waveform signal. The affected region and the corresponding region of the waveform signals have a sensitivity specific to the at least one characteristic of the gas stream. The method also includes generating a value for the at least one characteristic of the gas stream based on the calculated voltage-current time differential.

  13. Sound produced by an oscillating arc in a high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Fedor K.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    We suggest a simple theory to describe the sound generated by small periodic perturbations of a cylindrical arc in a dense gas. Theoretical analysis was done within the framework of the non-self-consistent channel arc model and supplemented with time-dependent gas dynamic equations. It is shown that an arc with power amplitude oscillations on the order of several percent is a source of sound whose intensity is comparable with external ultrasound sources used in experiments to increase the yield of nanoparticles in the high pressure arc systems for nanoparticle synthesis.

  14. Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Gat, U.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1,000 deg. C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Three gas-bearing circulators, mounted in series, provide a maximum volumetric flow of 0.47 m 3 /s and a maximum head of 78 kJ/kg at operating pressures from 0.1 to 10.7 MPa. Control of gaseous impurities in the circulating gas was the significant operating requirement that dictated the choice of a circulator that is lubricated by the circulating gas. The motor for each circulator is contained within the pressure boundary, and it is cooled by circulating the gas in the motor cavity over water-cooled coils. Each motor is rated at 200 kW at a speed of 23,500 rpm. The circulators have been operated in the loop for more than 5,000 h. The flow of the gas in the loop is controlled by varying the speed of the circulators through the use of individual 250-kVA, solid state power supplies that can be continuously varied in frequency from 50 to 400 Hz. To prevent excessive wear on the gas bearings during startup, the circulator motor accelerates the rotor to 3,000 rpm in less than one second. During operation, no problems associated with the gas bearings, per se, were encountered; however, related problems pointed to design considerations that should be included in future applications of circulators of this type. The primary test that has been conducted in this loop required sustained operation for several weeks without interruption. After a number of unscheduled interruptions, the operating goals were attained. During part of this period, the loop was operated with only two circulators installed in the pressure vessels with a guard installed in the third vessel to protect the closure flange from the gas temperatures. Unattended

  15. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Development of silver impregnated alumina for iodine separation from off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Makoto [Energy Research Laboratory, Hitachi (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    An inorganic iodine adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA), has been developed to separate iodine effectively from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities and to decrease the volume of waste (spent adsorbent). Iodine removal efficiency was improved at relatively high humidity by using alumina carrier with two different pore diameters. Waste volume reduction was achieved by impregnating relatively large amounts of silver into the alumina pores. The developed adsorbent was tested first with simulated off-gas streams under various experimental conditions and finally with actual off-gas streams of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The decontamination factor (DF) was about 100 with the AgA bed depth of 2cm at 70% relative humidity, which was a DF one order higher than that when AgA with one pore size was used. Iodine adsorption capacity was checked by passing excess iodine into the AgA bed. Values were about 0.12 and 0.35 g-I/cm`-AgA bed for 10 and 24wt% silver impregnated AgA, respectively. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the applicability of the developed AgA to the off-gas treatment system of nuclear facilities.

  17. Filter system for purifying gas or air streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmeyer, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    1981-01-01

    A filter system is provided for purifying a gas stream by means of flowable or tricklable contact filter material, wherein the stream flows through the filter material and the filter material forms a movable bed. The system contains a filter chamber through which the filter material can flow and which is provided with an inlet opening and an outlet opening for the filter material between which the filter material is conveyed by gravity. The filter system includes deflection means for deflecting the stream , after a first passage of the stream through the filter bed to charge the filter bed for a first time, to a position above where the stream first passed through the filter bed and for conducting the stream at least once again transversely through the filter bed above the first charge so that the filter bed is charged a second time. The filter chamber contains a first opening where the stream enters the filter bed for the first time and is aligned with the deflection means, and a second opening aligned with the deflection means and above the first opening. The second opening is located where the stream leaves the filter bed for the second time, with a partial quantity of the gas stream being able to pass directly through the filter bed from the first opening to the second opening without going through the deflection means. The distance between the upper edge of the first opening and the lower edge of the second opening is at least twice the thickness of the filter chamber

  18. Computational analysis of transient gas release from a high pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, G.; Oshkai, P.; Djilali, N. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Penau, F. [CERAM Euro-American Inst. of Technology, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2006-07-01

    Gas jets exiting from compressed vessels can undergo several regimes as the pressure in the vessel decreases, and a greater understanding of the characteristics of gas jets is needed to determine safety requirements in the transport, distribution, and use of hydrogen. This paper provided a study of the bow shock waves that typically occur during the initial stage of a gas jet incident. The transient behaviour of an initiated jet was investigated using unsteady, compressible flow simulations. The gas was considered to be ideal, and the domain was considered to be axisymmetric. Tank pressure for the analysis was set at a value of 100 atm. Jet structure was examined, as well as the shock structures and separation due to adverse pressure gradients at the nozzle. Shock structure displacement was also characterized.

  19. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  20. A DETECTION OF GAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE M31 STELLAR STREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Andreas [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Physics and Astronomy Building, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11, rue de l’Université, F-67000, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-10

    Detailed studies of stellar populations in the halos of the Milky Way and the Andromeda (M31) galaxies have shown increasing numbers of tidal streams and dwarf galaxies, attesting to a complicated and on-going process of hierarchical structure formation. The most prominent feature in the halo of M31 is the Giant Stellar Stream, a structure ∼4.°5 in extent along the sky, which is close to, but not coincident with the galaxy's minor axis. The stars that make up this stream are kinematically and chemically distinct from the other stars in the halo. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph high-resolution ultraviolet absorption spectra of three active galactic nuclei sight lines which probe the M31 halo, including one that samples gas in the main southwestern portion of the Giant Stream. We see two clear absorption components in many metal species at velocities typical of the M31 halo and a third, blueshifted component which arises in the stream. Photoionization modeling of the column density ratios in the different components shows gas in an ionization state typical of that seen in other galaxy halo environments and suggests solar to slightly super-solar metallicity, consistent with previous findings from stellar spectroscopy.

  1. Ultrahigh gas storage both at low and high pressures in KOH-activated carbonized porous aromatic frameworks.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanqiang; Ben, Teng; Zhang, Bingyao; Fu, Yao; Qiu, Shilun

    2013-01-01

    The carbonized PAF-1 derivatives formed by high-temperature KOH activation showed a unique bimodal microporous structure located at 0.6 nm and 1.2 nm and high surface area. These robust micropores were confirmed by nitrogen sorption experiment and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sorption experiments indicated that these novel porous carbon materials have significant gas sorption abilities in both low-pressure and high-pressure environments. Moreover the methane storage ability of K-PAF-1-750 is among the best at 35 bars, and its low-pressure gas adsorption abilities are also comparable to the best porous materials in the world. Combined with excellent physicochemical stability, these materials are very promising for industrial applications such as carbon dioxide capture and high-density clean energy storage.

  2. Application of the carbon dioxide-barium hydroxide hydrate gas-solid reaction for the treatment of dilute carbon dioxide-bearing gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The removal of trace components from gas streams via irreversible gas-solid reactions in an area of interest to the chemical engineering profession. This research effort addresses the use of fixed beds of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate flakes for the removal of an acid gas, CO 2 , from air that contains approx. 330 ppM/sub v/ CO 2 . Areas of investigation encompassed: (1) an extensive literature review of Ba(OH) 2 hydrate chemistry, (2) microscale studies on 0.150-g samples to develop a better understanding of the reaction, (3) process studies at the macroscale level with 10.2-cm-ID fixed-bed reactors, and (4) the development of a model for predicting fixed-bed performance. Experimental studies indicated fixed beds of commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes at ambient temperatures to be capable of high CO 2 -removal efficiencies (effluent concentrations 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop (1.8 kPa/m at a superficial gas velocity of 13 cm/s). Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O was determined to be more reactive toward CO 2 than either Ba(OH) 2 .3H 2 O or Ba(OH) 2 .1H 2 O. A key variable in the development of this fixed-bed process was relative humidity. Operation at conditions with effluent relative humidities >60% resulted in significant recrystallization and restructuring of the flake and subsequent pressure-drop problems

  3. Simulation bidimensional of water and gas alternative injection; Simulacao bidimensional de injecao alternada de agua e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ana Paula Silva C. de

    1999-07-01

    This dissertation presents a study of the unidimensional of water and gas alternate injection (WAG) using the stream line theory. It is considered incompressible fluid., unit mobility ratio, negligible capillary and gravitational effects, homogeneous and isotropic reservoir, isothermal flow two phases, oil and water, and three components, oil, water and gas. In the stream line theory, the following injection schemes are considered: staggered line five-spot, direct line and seven-spot. It is also considered that there is no flow among the streams. In the WAG calculations it is used the fractional flow theory and the method of characteristics, which consists of shock waves and rarefactions. The composition of these waves is said compatible if it satisfies the entropy condition. The solution goes through a certain path from the left to the right side constrained by the initial and boundary conditions. The gas injection is at a high pressure to ensure miscible displacement. It is considered first injection of a water bank and then, injection of a gas bank. We concluded that the gas injection at a high pressure recoveries all residual oil and the water saturation remains is greater than initial saturation. (author)

  4. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  5. Application of water-insoluble polymers to orally disintegrating tablets treated by high-pressure carbon dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-09-10

    The phase transition of pharmaceutical excipients that can be induced by humidifying or heating is well-known to increase the hardness of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). However, these conditions are not applicable to drug substances that are chemically unstable against such stressors. Here, we describe a system which enhances the hardness of tablets containing water-insoluble polymers by using high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2). On screening of 26 polymeric excipients, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) markedly increased tablet hardness (+155N) when maintained in a high-pressure CO2 environment. ODTs containing 10% AMCE were prepared and treatment with 4.0MPa CO2 gas at 25°C for 10min increased the hardness to +30N, whose level corresponded to heating at 70°C for 720min. In addition, we confirmed the effects of CO2 pressure, temperature, treatment time, and AMCE content on the physical properties of ODTs. Optimal pressure of CO2 gas was considered to be approximately 3.5MPa for an AMCE formula, as excessive pressure delayed the disintegration of ODTs. Combination of high-pressure CO2 gas and AMCE is a prospective approach for increasing the tablet hardness for ODTs, and can be conducted without additional heat or moisture stress using a simple apparatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Sarron, V.; Riès, D.; Dozias, S.; Vandamme, M.; Pouvesle, J.-M.

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 107-108 cm s-1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications.

  7. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, E; Sarron, V; Riès, D; Dozias, S; Vandamme, M; Pouvesle, J-M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 10 7 –10 8 cm s −1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications. (paper)

  8. The effect of pressurization path on high pressure gas forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure gas forming is a tubular component forming technology with pressurized gas at elevated temperature, based on QPF, HMGF and Hydroforming. This process can be used to form tube blank at lower temperatures with high energy efficiency and also at higher strain rates. With Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-alloy tube, the potential of HPGF was studied further through experiments at the elevated temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C. In order to know the formability of the Ti-alloy tube, tensile tests were also carried out. The results show that: at the temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C, the flow curves exhibit the power-law constitutive relation until peak stress is reached and the deformability is suitable for the HPGF process of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy tube. The effects of pressurization path on the corner filling process and thickness profile are obvious. The high pressure inflow process can result in temperature difference between the straight wall area and corner area, which makes the thickness profile special. Besides, with the stepped pressurization path, the more constant filling rate and better thickness profile can be obtained.

  9. A supersonic gas target for a bundle divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.R.; Fisher, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A novel gas target concept for recovering both energy and particles from a high-energy plasma stream is presented. This concept includes the maintenance of a pressure discontinuity by a normal shock and a very high mass flow rate in a relatively small system. The pressure discontinuity allows the exhaust plasma stream to minimize backflow into the plasma, by interacting with the target in a low-pressure region; the high mass flow rate allows exit temperatures that are reasonable from a materials viewpoint and suitable for energy recovery. (author)

  10. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar [Butte, MT

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  11. Evaluation and compensation of steady gas flow force on the high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve direct-driven by voice coil motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoren; Gao, Longlong; Yang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel energy saving high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve is presented. ► An evaluated method for steady gas flow forces on pneumatic valves is proposed. ► Gas jet angles at the orifices for the valve are larger than 69° commonly used. ► The steady gas flow force is strongly nonlinear with valve opening. ► The steady gas flow force is compensated and the aim at energy saving is realized. - Abstract: A novel voice coil motor (VCM) direct drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve is designed, and then the steady gas flow force acting on the spool of the servo valve is investigated by numerical simulation and experimental methods in this paper. At present, many studies about flow force are concentrated mainly on hydraulic valves, but rarely on pneumatic valves. However, the velocity of gas is up to sonic when high-pressure gas flows through the servo valve orifice. And therefore, the steady gas flow force, generated by high pressure and high speed gas flow, cannot be neglected and is an important disturbance for the VCM direct-drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve. Consequently, the numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is adopted to analyze the flow filed, jet angles, and steady gas flow forces for the servo valve with different valve openings and inlet pressures. The experimental study is performed to evaluate and confirm the numerical analysis. Then the compensated approach is proposed to reduce the steady gas flow force for the servo valve, changing the angle of non-metering port designed in the valve sleeve to the spool axis. The results demonstrate that the presented numerical analysis method is validated, the gas jet angle for the servo valve orifice is more than 69° and varies with different spool openings, and the steady gas flow force is nonlinear with valve opening and linear with inlet pressure when the outlet boundary is atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the steady gas

  12. A method for simulating the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Hu, Hongbing; Yu, Bo; Sun, Dongliang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Yongtu

    2018-01-15

    The rupture of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline can pose a serious threat to human life and environment. In this research, a method has been proposed to simulate the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain. The process of gas releases from the rupture of a high-pressure pipeline is divided into three stages, namely the discharge, jet, and dispersion stages. Firstly, a discharge model is established to calculate the release rate of the orifice. Secondly, an improved jet model is proposed to obtain the parameters of the pseudo source. Thirdly, a fast-modeling method applicable to any terrain is introduced. Finally, based upon these three steps, a dispersion model, which can take any terrain into account, is established. Then, the dispersion scenarios of released gas in four different terrains are studied. Moreover, the effects of pipeline pressure, pipeline diameter, wind speed and concentration of hydrogen sulfide on the dispersion scenario in real terrain are systematically analyzed. The results provide significant guidance for risk assessment and contingency planning of a ruptured natural gas pipeline. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  14. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  15. Gas stream clean-up filter and method for forming same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; DeVault, J.; Halow, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas cleaning filter is formed in-situ within a vessel containing a fluidizable bed of granular material of a relatively large size fraction. A filter membrane provided by a porous metal or ceramic body or such a body supported a perforated screen on one side thereof is coated in-situ with a layer of the granular material from the fluidized bed by serially passing a bed-fluidizing gas stream through the bed of granular material and the membrane. The layer of granular material provides the filtering medium for the combined membrane-granular layer filter. The filter is not blinded by the granular material and provides for the removal of virtually all of the particulates from a process gas stream. The granular material can be at least partially provided by a material capable of chemically reacting with and removing sulfur compounds from the process gas stream. Low level radioactive waste containing organic material may be incinerated in a fluidized bed in communication with the described filter for removing particulates from the gaseous combustion products

  16. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from side-stream digester effluents using gas-permeable membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus recovery was combined with ammonia recovery using gas-permeable membranes. In a first step, the ammonia and alkalinity were removed from municipal side-stream wastewater using low-rate aeration and a gas-permeable membrane manifold. In a second step, the phosphorus was removed using magne...

  17. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 deg. C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 deg. C. The 200-kW motor for each circulator is enclosed in the pressure boundary, and the motor is cooled by circulating the gas within the cavity over a water-cooled coil. The full operating speed is 23,500 rpm. A full-flow filter, absolute for particulate above 10 μm, is installed upstream of the circulator to protect the gas bearing surfaces. The minimum clearances between these surfaces during operation are in the range of 15 to 30 μm. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat

  18. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  19. Power-generation method using combined gas and steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C; Radtke, K; Keller, H J

    1997-03-20

    The invention concerns a method of power generation using a so-called COGAS (combined gas and steam) turbine installation, the aim being to improve the method with regard to the initial costs and energy consumption so that power can be generated as cheaply as possible. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that air taken from the surrounding atmosphere is splint into an essentially oxygen-containing stream and an essentially nitrogen-containing stream and the two streams fed further at approximately atmospheric pressure. The essentially nitrogen-containing stream is mixed with an air stream to form a mixed nitrogen/air stream and the mixed-gas stream thus produced is brought to combustion chamber pressure in the compressor of the gas turbine, the combustion of the combustion gases in the combustion chamber of the gas turbine being carried out with the greater part of this compressed mixed-gas stream. (author) figs.

  20. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas....../liquid streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  1. Removal of Contaminants from Waste Streams at Gas Evolving Flow-Through Porous Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud Saleh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the removal of inorganic and organic toxic materials from industrial waste streams. One of the most important branch of these electrochemical techniques is the flow-through porous electrode. Such systems allow for the continuous operation and hence continuous removal of the contaminants from waste streams at high rates and high efficiency. However, when there is an evolution of gas bubbles with the removal process, the treatment process needs a much different treatment of both the design and the mathematical treatment of the such these systems. The evolving gas bubbles within the electrode decrease the pore electrolyte conductivity of the porous electrodes, decrease the efficiency and make the current more non-uniform. This cause the under utilization of the reaction area and finally make the electrode inoperable. In this work the harmful effects of the gas bubbles on the performance of the porous electrode will be modeled. The model accounts for the effects of kinetic, mass transfer and gas bubbles resistance on the overall performance of the electrode. This will help in optimizing the operating conditions and the cell design

  2. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  3. Recognition and measurement gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical concentric annulus at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.

  4. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  5. Numerical Assessment of the Influences of Gas Pressure on Coal Burst Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When coal mines exploit deep seams with high-gas content, risks are encountered due to the additional high likelihood of rock bursting potential problems. The bursts of coal pillars usually lead to severe fatalities, injuries, and destruction of property, including impeding access to active mine workings underground. The danger exists given that conditions in the already highly brittle coal material can be exacerbated by high stress and high gas pressure conditions. It is thus critical to develop methods that improve current understanding about bursting liability, and techniques to forecast or prevent coal bursting in underground coal mines. This study uses field data from a deep coal mine, and numerical modeling to investigate the effects of gas pressure and mechanical compressive stresses on coal bursting liability in high gas content coal seams. The bursting energy index is adopted to determine the coal bursting liability under high gas pressure conditions. The adopted methodology uses a two-staged approach comprising investigating the influence of gas pressure on the bursting liability of coal pillar, and the influence of the gas pressure on the resulting pillar failure mode. Based on numerical simulations of coal pillars, correlations are observed between the magnitudes of gas pressures and the bursting energy index. Irrespective of pillar size, failure time is shortest when the gas pressure achieves a threshold value between 50 kPa to 70 kPa. At 50 kPa, the value of the BEI increases by 50% going from the 4 m pillar to the 6 m pillar. The value of the BEI increases by 43% going from the 6 m high pillar to the 8 m high pillar at 50 kPa. When pillars fail there is a degree of stress relief leading to a reduction in bursting liability. The results suggest that before 50 kPa, pillar failure is largely due to mechanical loading. After 50 kPa, pillar failure is largely due to excessive gas pressures.

  6. Disruption mitigation with high-pressure helium gas injection on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Qian, J. P.; Zhuang, H. D.; Zeng, L.; Duan, Y.; Shi, T.; Wang, H.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2018-03-01

    High pressure noble gas injection is a promising technique to mitigate the effect of disruptions in tokamaks. In this paper, results of mitigation experiments with low-Z massive gas injection (helium) on the EAST tokamak are reported. A fast valve has been developed and successfully implemented on EAST, with valve response time  ⩽150 μs, capable of injecting up to 7 × 1022 particles, corresponding to 300 times the plasma inventory. Different amounts of helium gas were injected into stable plasmas in the preliminary experiments. It is seen that a small amount of helium gas (N_He≃ N_plasma ) can not terminate a discharge, but can trigger MHD activity. Injection of 40 times the plasma inventory impurity (N_He≃ 40× N_plasma ) can effectively radiate away part of the thermal energy and make the electron density increase rapidly. The mitigation result is that the current quench time and vertical displacement can both be reduced significantly, without resulting in significantly higher loop voltage. This also reduces the risk of runaway electron generation. As the amount of injected impurity gas increases, the gas penetration time decreases slowly and asymptotes to (˜7 ms). In addition, the impurity gas jet has also been injected into VDEs, which are more challenging to mitigate that stable plasmas.

  7. Evaluation of stream crossing methods prior to gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.H.; Rogers, J.S.; Ricca, A.

    1995-01-01

    Stream surveys are conducted along proposed gas pipeline routes prior to construction to assess potential impacts to stream ecosystems and to recommend preferred crossing methods. Recently, there has been a high level of scrutiny from the Public Service Commission (PSC) to conduct these stream crossings with minimal effects to the aquatic community. PSC's main concern is the effect of sediment on aquatic biota. Smaller, low flowing or intermittent streams are generally crossed using a wet crossing technique. This technique involves digging a trench for the pipeline while the stream is flowing. Sediment control measures are used to reduce sediment loads downstream. Wider, faster flowing, or protected streams are typically crossed with a dry crossing technique. A dry crossing involves placing a barrier upstream of the crossing and diverting the water around the crossing location. The pipeline trench is then dug in the dry area. O'Brien and Gere and NYSEG have jointly designed a modified wet crossing for crossing streams that exceed maximum flows for a dry crossing, and are too wide for a typical wet crossing. This method diverts water around the crossing using a pumping system, instead of constructing a dam. The trench is similar to a wet crossing, with sediment control devices in place upstream and downstream. If streams are crossed during low flow periods, the pumping system will be able to reduce the majority of water flow and volume form the crossing area, thereby reducing ecological impacts. Evaluation of effects of this crossing type on the stream biota are currently proposed and may proceed when construction begins

  8. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  10. Evaluation of Ruthenium Capture Methods for Tritium Pretreatment Off-Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, Denis M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel, radioactive elements are released into various plant off-gas streams. While much research and development has focused on the abatement of the volatile nuclides 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I, the potential release of semivolatile isotopes that could also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility has been examined. Ruthenium (as 106Ru) has been identified as one of the semivolatile nuclides requiring the greatest degree of abatement prior to discharging the plant off-gas to the environment.

  11. Role of gas pressure and lateral stress on blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    Both gas pressure in bubbles and lateral stress have been suggested as primary causes of blistering. An analysis of both mechanisms is presented, and the conditions for blistering are examined. To realistically predict the gas pressure in bubbles, a recently derived high-density equation of state for helium is utilized

  12. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  13. Gas Hubs. South Stream. A grand geopolitical gamble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaletos, I.

    2008-01-01

    June 2007, the Russian energy company Gazprom and the Italian oil company Eni, signed a momentous accord for the building of a 8,200 km long gas pipeline running from the Black Sea port of Beregovaya to various points in western and eastern Europe. The project, South Stream - the sister pipeline to the Nord Stream pipeline that is being built from Russia to Germany - has far-reaching economic and political ramifications, and will influence energy policies on a Pan-European scale

  14. Capture of elemental and organic iodine from dilute gas streams by silver-exchanged mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Jordan, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of off-gas streams arising from reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) is an area of active study by the U.S. Department of Energy. Such off-gas streams contain volatile fission products, including long-lived {sup 129}I. Although {sup 129}I is released into the off-gas at multiple points within the chemical reprocessing flowsheet, previous research has focused on removal from the dissolver off-gas stream (DOG). The DOG is expected to contain up to 98% of iodine in UNF at ppm levels within the stream. Other off-gas streams will also contain iodine but at substantially lower concentrations. Recent work has shown that compliance with U.S. regulations will likely require capture of iodine from these dilute streams in addition to capture from DOG. In particular, the vessel off-gas (VOG) stream is expected to contain 1-3% of the total iodine inventory at ppb concentrations. A review of literature also indicates that the speciation of iodine in the VOG stream will differ from that of the DOG, with the DOG containing primarily I{sub 2} and the VOG containing a mixture of I{sub 2} and organic iodine species. Silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) has been identified for use in the removal of iodine from off-gas streams. It is an effective capture material for I{sub 2} at the concentrations expected in the DOG, but little is known about its performance in gas streams that may contain both I{sub 2} and organic iodides at very dilute concentrations. The experiments to be described were designed to separately characterize the adsorption of I{sub 2} and methyl iodide on AgZ through extended duration testing. Simulated vessel off-gases containing low levels of either I{sub 2} or methyl iodide were contacted with AgZ sorbent beds for up to four months. Through the use of sorbent beds in series and varied sampling times, key parameters such as adsorption rate, decontamination factor, and performance over time could be determined for the capture of each species by AgZ. This

  15. An analysis of the shielding gas flow from a coaxial conical nozzle during high power CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, Antonio; Sibillano, Teresa; Lugara, Pietro Mario; Gonnella, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Giuseppe; Maffione, Donato

    2006-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on the role of the nitrogen gas stream, exiting from a conventional conical nozzle tip during a laser welding process, has been carried out. A mathematical model has been used, based on the Navier-Stokes equations which express fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for a compressible fluid. Numerical simulations of the gas stream colliding onto a plane surface have been performed showing the effects of variations of inlet gas pressure, nozzle exit diameter and standoff distance on the density and Mach number contours, axis pressure of the gas jet and plate pressure produced on the workpiece surface. Laser welding experiments have been performed on carbon and stainless steel specimens, by varying the process parameters in the same range as in the simulations and keeping constant the incident power and the travel speed. Two different gas stream regimes were found, namely sonic and subsonic, which were experimentally verified to produce cutting and welding conditions, respectively. Weld performances have been evaluated in terms of bead width, penetration depth and melted area. Nozzle standoff distance was found to have a negligible influence, while the exit diameter and the flow rate significantly affect the weld results. The numerical predictions allowed an explanation of the experimental results yielding useful suggestions for enhancing the weld quality, acting simply on the shielding gas parameters

  16. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 0 C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 0 C. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat treating it to form an adherent stable oxide, and bolting it in place in the cavity

  17. Pulsed high energy synthesis of fine metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Repetitively pulsed plasma jets generated by a capillary arc discharge at high stagnation pressure (>15,000 psi) and high temperature (>10,000 K) are utilized to produce 0.1-10 .mu.m sized metal powders and decrease cost of production. The plasma jets impact and atomize melt materials to form the fine powders. The melt can originate from a conventional melt stream or from a pulsed arc between two electrodes. Gas streams used in conventional gas atomization are replaced with much higher momentum flux plasma jets. Delivering strong incident shocks aids in primary disintegration of the molten material. A series of short duration, high pressure plasma pulses fragment the molten material. The pulses introduce sharp velocity gradients in the molten material which disintegrates into fine particles. The plasma pulses have peak pressures of approximately one kilobar. The high pressures improve the efficiency of disintegration. High gas flow velocities and pressures are achieved without reduction in gas density. Repetitively pulsed plasma jets will produce powders with lower mean size and narrower size distribution than conventional atomization techniques.

  18. The formation of chondrules at high gas pressures in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, A; Young, E D; Ash, R D; O'Nions, R K

    2000-12-01

    High-precision magnesium isotope measurements of whole chondrules from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite meteorite show that some aluminum-rich Allende chondrules formed at or near the time of formation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and that some others formed later and incorporated precursors previously enriched in magnesium-26. Chondrule magnesium-25/magnesium-24 correlates with [magnesium]/[aluminum] and size, the aluminum-rich, smaller chondrules being the most enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium. These relations imply that high gas pressures prevailed during chondrule formation in the solar nebula.

  19. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  20. A stream-based methane monitoring approach for evaluating groundwater impacts associated with unconventional gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M; Stolp, Bert J; Kimball, Briant A; Susong, David D; Marston, Thomas M; Gardner, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Gaining streams can provide an integrated signal of relatively large groundwater capture areas. In contrast to the point-specific nature of monitoring wells, gaining streams coalesce multiple flow paths. Impacts on groundwater quality from unconventional gas development may be evaluated at the watershed scale by the sampling of dissolved methane (CH4 ) along such streams. This paper describes a method for using stream CH4 concentrations, along with measurements of groundwater inflow and gas transfer velocity interpreted by 1-D stream transport modeling, to determine groundwater methane fluxes. While dissolved ionic tracers remain in the stream for long distances, the persistence of methane is not well documented. To test this method and evaluate CH4 persistence in a stream, a combined bromide (Br) and CH4 tracer injection was conducted on Nine-Mile Creek, a gaining stream in a gas development area in central Utah. A 35% gain in streamflow was determined from dilution of the Br tracer. The injected CH4 resulted in a fivefold increase in stream CH4 immediately below the injection site. CH4 and δ(13) CCH4 sampling showed it was not immediately lost to the atmosphere, but remained in the stream for more than 2000 m. A 1-D stream transport model simulating the decline in CH4 yielded an apparent gas transfer velocity of 4.5 m/d, describing the rate of loss to the atmosphere (possibly including some microbial consumption). The transport model was then calibrated to background stream CH4 in Nine-Mile Creek (prior to CH4 injection) in order to evaluate groundwater CH4 contributions. The total estimated CH4 load discharging to the stream along the study reach was 190 g/d, although using geochemical fingerprinting to determine its source was beyond the scope of the current study. This demonstrates the utility of stream-gas sampling as a reconnaissance tool for evaluating both natural and anthropogenic CH4 leakage from gas reservoirs into groundwater and surface water

  1. Catalytic pleat filter bags for combined particulate separation and nitrogen oxides removal from flue gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ok; Choi, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of a high temperature catalytically active pleated filter bag with hybrid filter equipment for the combined removal of particles and nitrogen oxides from flue gas streams is presented. A special catalyst load in stainless steel mesh cartridge with a high temperature pleated filter bag followed by optimized catalytic activation was developed to reach the required nitrogen oxides levels and to maintain the higher collection efficiencies. The catalytic properties of the developed high temperature filter bags with hybrid filter equipment were studied and demonstrated in a pilot scale test rig and a demonstration plant using commercial scale of high temperature catalytic pleated filter bags. The performance of the catalytic pleated filter bags were tested under different operating conditions, such as filtration velocity and operating temperature. Moreover, the cleaning efficiency and residual pressure drop of the catalyst loaded cartridges in pleated filter bags were tested. As result of theses studies, the optimum operating conditions for the catalytic pleated filter bags are determined. (author)

  2. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems which are addressed in this work. Models are developed for jet expansion, primary breakup of the jet and secondary fragmentation of melt droplets resulting from violent effervescence of dissolved gas. The jet expansion model is based on a general relation for bubble growth which includes both inertia-controlled and diffusion-controlled growth phases. The jet expansion model is able to predict the jet void fraction, jet radius as a function of axial distance from the pressure vessel, bubble size and bubble pressure. The number density of gas bubbles in the melt, which is a basic parameter in the model, was determined experimentally and is about 10 8 per m 3 of liquid. The primary breakup of the jet produces a spray of droplets, about 2-3 mm in diameter. Parametric calculations for a TMLB' reactor accident sequence show that the corium jet is disrupted within a few initial jet diameters from the reactor vessel and that the radius of corium spray at the level of the reactor cavity floor is in the range of 0.8 to 2.6 m. (orig./HP)

  3. A reactor for high-throughput high-pressure nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, N. J.; Knapp, S. M. M.; Landis, C. R., E-mail: landis@chem.wisc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53719 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The design of a reactor for operando nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of high-pressure gas-liquid reactions is described. The Wisconsin High Pressure NMR Reactor (WiHP-NMRR) design comprises four modules: a sapphire NMR tube with titanium tube holder rated for pressures as high as 1000 psig (68 atm) and temperatures ranging from −90 to 90 °C, a gas circulation system that maintains equilibrium concentrations of dissolved gases during gas-consuming or gas-releasing reactions, a liquid injection apparatus that is capable of adding measured amounts of solutions to the reactor under high pressure conditions, and a rapid wash system that enables the reactor to be cleaned without removal from the NMR instrument. The WiHP-NMRR is compatible with commercial 10 mm NMR probes. Reactions performed in the WiHP-NMRR yield high quality, information-rich, and multinuclear NMR data over the entire reaction time course with rapid experimental turnaround.

  4. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hai [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Tsai, Hai-Lung [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Dong, Junhang [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

  5. Study on time response character for high pressure gas ionization chamber of krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chunming; Wu Haifeng; Qing Shangyu; Wang Liqiang

    2006-01-01

    The time response character for Kr and Xe high pressure gas ionization chamber is analyzed and deduced. Compared with the measure data of pulse rising time for three gas-filled ionization chambers, the calculated and experimental results are equal to each other. The rising time less than 10 ms for this kind of ionization chamber can be achieved, so this ionization chamber is able to meet the requirement for imaging detection. (authors)

  6. An analysis of the shielding gas flow from a coaxial conical nozzle during high power CO{sub 2} laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancona, Antonio [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sibillano, Teresa [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lugara, Pietro Mario [CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gonnella, Giuseppe [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Centro di Eccellenza in Meccanica Computazionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Maffione, Donato [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Centro di Eccellenza in Meccanica Computazionale, Politecnico di Bari, via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2006-02-07

    An experimental and theoretical study on the role of the nitrogen gas stream, exiting from a conventional conical nozzle tip during a laser welding process, has been carried out. A mathematical model has been used, based on the Navier-Stokes equations which express fundamental conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for a compressible fluid. Numerical simulations of the gas stream colliding onto a plane surface have been performed showing the effects of variations of inlet gas pressure, nozzle exit diameter and standoff distance on the density and Mach number contours, axis pressure of the gas jet and plate pressure produced on the workpiece surface. Laser welding experiments have been performed on carbon and stainless steel specimens, by varying the process parameters in the same range as in the simulations and keeping constant the incident power and the travel speed. Two different gas stream regimes were found, namely sonic and subsonic, which were experimentally verified to produce cutting and welding conditions, respectively. Weld performances have been evaluated in terms of bead width, penetration depth and melted area. Nozzle standoff distance was found to have a negligible influence, while the exit diameter and the flow rate significantly affect the weld results. The numerical predictions allowed an explanation of the experimental results yielding useful suggestions for enhancing the weld quality, acting simply on the shielding gas parameters.

  7. Numerical and experimental modelling of back stream flow during close-coupled gas atomization

    OpenAIRE

    Motaman, S; Mullis, AM; Borman, DJ; Cochrane, RF; McCarthy, IN

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the numerical and experimental investigation into the effects of different gas jet mis-match angles (for an external melt nozzle wall) on the back-stream flow in close coupled gas atomization. The Pulse Laser Imaging (PLI) technique was applied for visualising the back-stream melt flow phenomena with an analogue water atomizer and the associated PLI images compared with numerical results. In the investigation a Convergent–Divergent (C–D) discrete gas jet die at five differe...

  8. Development of a laser-induced plasma probe to measure gas phase plasma signals at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gounder, J.D.; Kutne, P.; Meier, W.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for on line simultaneous measurement of elemental concentrations has led to its application in a wide number of processes. The simplicity of the technique allows its application to harsh environments such as present in boilers, furnaces and gasifiers. This paper presents the design of a probe using a custom optic which transforms a round beam into a ring (Donut) beam, which is used for forming a plasma in an atmosphere of nitrogen at high pressure (20 bar) and temperature (200 °C). The LIBS experiments were performed using a high pressure cell to characterize and test the effectiveness of the donut beam transmitted through the LIBS probe and collect plasma signal in back scatter mode. The first tests used the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse width 7 ns, to form a plasma in nitrogen gas at five different pressures (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar) and three different gas temperatures (25, 100 and 200 °C). The uniqueness of this probe is the custom made optic used for reshaping the round laser beam into a ring (Donut) shaped laser beam, which is fed into the probe and focused to form a plasma at the measurement point. The plasma signal is collected and collimated using the laser focusing lens and is reflected from the laser beam axis onto an achromatic lens by a high reflection mirror mounted in the center section of the donut laser beam. The effect of gas pressure and temperature on N(I) lines in the high pressure cell experiment shows that the line intensity decreases with pressure and increases with temperature. Mean plasma temperature was calculated using the ratios of N(I) line intensities ranging from 7400 K to 8900 K at 1 bar and 2400 K to 3200 K at 20 bar for the three different gas temperatures. The results show that as a proof of principle the donut beam optics in combination with the LIBS probe can be used for performing extensive LIBS measurements in well controlled laboratory

  9. Development of a laser-induced plasma probe to measure gas phase plasma signals at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gounder, J.D., E-mail: James.Gounder@dlr.de; Kutne, P.; Meier, W.

    2012-08-15

    The ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for on line simultaneous measurement of elemental concentrations has led to its application in a wide number of processes. The simplicity of the technique allows its application to harsh environments such as present in boilers, furnaces and gasifiers. This paper presents the design of a probe using a custom optic which transforms a round beam into a ring (Donut) beam, which is used for forming a plasma in an atmosphere of nitrogen at high pressure (20 bar) and temperature (200 Degree-Sign C). The LIBS experiments were performed using a high pressure cell to characterize and test the effectiveness of the donut beam transmitted through the LIBS probe and collect plasma signal in back scatter mode. The first tests used the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse width 7 ns, to form a plasma in nitrogen gas at five different pressures (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar) and three different gas temperatures (25, 100 and 200 Degree-Sign C). The uniqueness of this probe is the custom made optic used for reshaping the round laser beam into a ring (Donut) shaped laser beam, which is fed into the probe and focused to form a plasma at the measurement point. The plasma signal is collected and collimated using the laser focusing lens and is reflected from the laser beam axis onto an achromatic lens by a high reflection mirror mounted in the center section of the donut laser beam. The effect of gas pressure and temperature on N(I) lines in the high pressure cell experiment shows that the line intensity decreases with pressure and increases with temperature. Mean plasma temperature was calculated using the ratios of N(I) line intensities ranging from 7400 K to 8900 K at 1 bar and 2400 K to 3200 K at 20 bar for the three different gas temperatures. The results show that as a proof of principle the donut beam optics in combination with the LIBS probe can be used for performing extensive LIBS measurements in well controlled

  10. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  11. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... the mean weight-specific respiratory rate of macroinvertebrates declined by only 50%, from 400 to 3800 m. We suggest that this disproportionately large gap between availability and demand of oxygen at high altitudes may imply a potential oxygen deficiency for the fauna, and we discuss how oxygen deficiency...

  12. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  13. Influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, S; Ayrault, C

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the influence of gas law on ultrasonic behaviour of porous media when the saturating fluid is high pressured. Previous works have demonstrated that ultrasonic transmission through a porous sample with variations of the static pressure (up to 18 bars) of the saturating fluid allows the characterization of high damping materials. In these studies, the perfect gas law was used to link static pressure and density, which is disputable for high pressures. This paper compares the effects of real and perfect gas laws on modeled transmission coefficient for porous foams at these pressures. Direct simulations and a mechanical parameters estimation from minimization show that results are very similar in both cases. The real gas law is thus not necessary to describe the acoustic behaviour of porous media at low ultrasonic frequencies (100 kHz) up to 20 bars. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  15. Opportunities and challenges in green house gases reduction using high pressure direct injection of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, P.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to reduce Greenhouse Gases, Westport Innovations is developing a high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology for gaseous fuels. This technology adapts the diesel cycle for gaseous fuels, since the diesel cycle provides high efficiency, high low-speed torque, fast transient capabilities and reliability. Because of their high efficiency, diesels are very favorable from a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) point of view, however they remain challenged by high nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. When directly injecting natural gas, NOx and PM emissions can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining the performance of the diesel engine. This allows the use of abundant and historically cheaper natural gas. Because of its lower carbon content per unit energy, natural gas also offers further GHG reduction over the diesel if the efficiency is preserved and if methane emissions are low. This paper discusses development efforts at Westport for several applications including on-highway trucks, light-duty delivery trucks and power generation

  16. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  17. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H [Downers Grove, IL; Livengood, C David [Lockport, IL

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  18. High pressure gas scintillation drift chambers with wave-shifter fiber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Edberg, T.K.; Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Wilkerson, J.; Hurley, K.; Lin, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present results from a prototype high pressure xenon gas scintillation drift chamber using a novel wave-shifter fiber readout scheme. They have measured the primary scintillation light yield to be one photon per 76 ± 12 eV deposited energy. They present initial results of our chamber for the two-interaction separation (< 4 mm in the drift direction, ∼ 7 mm orthogonal to the drift); for the position resolution (< 400 μm rms in the plane orthogonal to the drift direction); and for the energy resolution (ΔE/E < 6% FWHM at 122 keV)

  19. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  20. High-Temperature, High-Bandwidth Fiber Optic Pressure and Temperature Sensors for Gas Turbine Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fielder, Robert S; Palmer, Matthew E

    2003-01-01

    ..., and redesign compressor and turbine stages based on actual measurements. There currently exists no sensor technology capable of making pressure measurements in the critical hot regions of gas turbine engines...

  1. Production of liquid nitrogen using liquefied natural gas as sole refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.; Ayres, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the liquefaction of a nitrogen stream produced by a cryogenic air separation unit having at least one distillation column. It comprises compressing the nitrogen stream to a pressure of at least 350 psi in a multi-stage compressor wherein interstage cooling is provided by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; condensing the compressed nitrogen stream by heat exchange against vaporizing liquefied natural gas; reducing the pressure of the condensed, compressed nitrogen stream thereby producing a two phase nitrogen stream; phase separating the two phase nitrogen stream into a liquid nitrogen stream and a nitrogen vapor stream; and warming the nitrogen vapor stream to recover refrigeration

  2. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  3. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  4. A method for measuring the local gas pressure within a gas-flow stage in situ in the transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, R.; Alsem, D.H.; Liyu, A.; Kabius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has enabled in situ experiments in a gaseous environment with high resolution imaging and spectroscopy. Addressing scientific challenges in areas such as catalysis, corrosion, and geochemistry can require pressures much higher than the ∼20 mbar achievable with a differentially pumped environmental TEM. Gas flow stages, in which the environment is contained between two semi-transparent thin membrane windows, have been demonstrated at pressures of several atmospheres. However, the relationship between the pressure at the sample and the pressure drop across the system is not clear for some geometries. We demonstrate a method for measuring the gas pressure at the sample by measuring the ratio of elastic to inelastic scattering and the defocus of the pair of thin windows. This method requires two energy filtered high-resolution TEM images that can be performed during an ongoing experiment, at the region of interest. The approach is demonstrated to measure greater than atmosphere pressures of N 2 gas using a commercially available gas-flow stage. This technique provides a means to ensure reproducible sample pressures between different experiments, and even between very differently designed gas-flow stages. - Highlights: • Method developed for measuring gas pressure within a gas-flow stage in the TEM. • EFTEM and CTF-fitting used to calculate amount and volume of gas. • Requires only a pair of images without leaving region of interest. • Demonstrated for P > 1 atm with a common commercial gas-flow stage

  5. The Influence of Flow and Bed Slope on Gas Transfer in Steep Streams and Their Implications for Evasion of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Rawlins, B. G.; Farr, G.; Bell, R.; Gooddy, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The evasion of greenhouse gases (including CO2, CH4, and N2O) from streams and rivers to the atmosphere is an important process in global biogeochemical cycles, but our understanding of gas transfer in steep (>10%) streams, and under varying flows, is limited. We investigated gas transfer using combined tracer injections of SF6 and salt. We used a novel experimental design in which we compared four very steep (18.4-29.4%) and four moderately steep (3.7-7.6%) streams and conducted tests in each stream under low flow conditions and during a high-discharge event. Most dissolved gas evaded over short distances ( 100 and 200-400 m, respectively), so accurate estimates of evasion fluxes will require sampling of dissolved gases at these scales to account for local sources. We calculated CO2 gas transfer coefficients (KCO2) and found statistically significant differences between larger KCO2 values for steeper (mean 0.465 min-1) streams compared to those with shallower slopes (mean 0.109 min-1). Variations in flow had an even greater influence. KCO2 was substantially larger under high (mean 0.497 min-1) compared to low flow conditions (mean 0.077 min-1). We developed a statistical model to predict KCO2 using values of streambed slope × discharge which accounted for 94% of the variation. We show that two models using slope and velocity developed by Raymond et al. (2012) for streams and rivers with shallower slopes also provide reasonable estimates of our CO2 gas transfer velocities (kCO2; m d-1). We developed a robust field protocol which could be applied in future studies.

  6. Matrimid®/polysulfone blend mixed matrix membranes containing ZIF-8 nanoparticles for high pressure stability in natural gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticization is of important concern in high pressure natural gas separation. Majority of the pure polymers and MOF-MMM systems suffer from plasticization at low pressures. Combination of polymer blending and MMM approach could lead to plasticization resistant membranes with improved membrane

  7. A system for regulating the pressure of resuperheated steam in high temperature gas-cooled reactor power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegines, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for regulating steam-pressure in the re-superheating portion of a steam-boiler receiving heat from a gas-cooled high temperature nuclear reactor, provided with gas distributing pumps driven by steam-turbines. The system comprises means for generating a pressure signal of desired magnitude for the re-superheating portion, and means for providing a real pressure in the re-superheating portion, means (including a by-passing device) for generating steam-flow rate signal of desired magnitude, a turbine by-pass device comprising a by-pass tapping means for regulating the steam-flow-rate in said turbine according to the desired steam-flow rate signal and means for controlling said by-pass tapping means according to said desired steam-flow-rate signal [fr

  8. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  9. Measurement of percent hydrogen in the mechanical vacuum pump gas stream during BWR startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Odell, Andrew D.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2012-09-01

    All U.S BWRs use a Mechanical Vacuum Pump (MVP) to establish condenser vacuum during start-ups, normally from the initial heat-up to the point where sufficient reactor steam pressure and flow is available to place the Steam Jet Air Ejector (SJAE) and off-gas treatment system in service. MVP operation is restricted to <5% power and gas stream concentrations of <4% H 2 , the lower flammability limit (LFL) for hydrogen/air mixtures. For a particular plant startup prior to hydrogen injection for hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), the MVP %H 2 would depend on the air in-leakage rate, the H 2 gas generation rate from radiolysis and the gas/steam transport rate from the reactor vessel to the main condenser. The radiolysis rate at low power, which is not precisely known and has not been modeled for the BWR, is normally assumed to increase in proportion to thermal power. Two thirds of the radiolytic gas by volume would be H 2 and one third O 2 . The MVP is not equipped with %H 2 sampling and measurement capability, and many MVP systems include no flow measurement. No U.S plant or literature data on MVP %H 2 were found. The industry-first Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry (EHWC) demonstration at the Peach Bottom 3 nuclear power plant involved hydrogen gas injection into the reactor vessel during startup while the MVP was in service. To support the EHWC project, it was necessary to collect baseline MVP %H 2 data during a startup without hydrogen injection and to monitor MVP %H 2 during the startup with EHWC. The MVP system had no normal sample point, but included test taps in the suction and discharge piping. A sampling method and apparatus was invented (EPRI patent pending), designed, built and applied to obtain %H 2 measurements in the MVP gas stream. The apparatus allowed a gas sample stream to be taken from either the suction (vacuum) or discharge side of the MVP. The gas sample stream was preconditioned to remove moisture (the MVP uses water as a liquid compressant), flowed to

  10. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  11. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  12. The Interstellar Gas Dust Streams and Seeds of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Khavroshkin; Vladislav, Tsyplakov

    Gas dust Streams from Double Stars & Lunar Seismicity. The time series of seismic events were generated as follows: on the ordinate axis the peak amplitudes of events in standard units, on abscissa axis - seismogram durations of the same moonquakes and subsequent time intervals between them were used. Spectrum of the series disclosed time picks on hidden cosmological periodicities of lunar seismicity. A part of results (picks) presents orbital periods of double stars nearest to the Solar system. The explanation of that results is existing gas-dust streams from binary stars systems and interacting of it with lunar surface. Information content of the Nakamura`s Catalog of moonquakes is very rich: from solar-earth tides to clustering among the meteoroid streams [1, 2]. The histograms from meteoroid impacts seismic data revealed the seismic wave responses of the Moon to solar oscillations and the action on the lunar surface by dust-gas plasma of meteoroid streams [3]. The time series of seismic events were generated as follows: on an axis of ordinates - the peak amplitudes of events in standard units, on an abscissa - seismogram durations of the same moonquakes and subsequent time intervals between them were put aside [4]. Spectrum of the series of meteoroid streams seismicity disclosed time picks on orbital periods some planets and their satellites and solar oscillations [4, 5]. The research of peculiarities of histogram envelopes [3] and comparative common analysis solar bursts data and mass meteoroid distribution are confirmed [3, 4] and revealed Forbush`s effect for gas-dust plasma [6]. Hidden astrophysical periodicities of lunar seismicity were obtained early from an analysis of time series [7] which were similarity to series [4]. The path of results of [7] is presented in the Table where picks presents orbital periods of double stars nearest to the Solar system. Hypothesis for explanation of the Table results is existing gas-dust streams from binary stars near

  13. Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert B.; Yagiela, Anthony S.

    1990-12-25

    An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member.

  14. Foam glass obtained through high-pressure sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Foam glasses are usually prepared through a chemical approach, that is, by mixing glass powder with foaming agents, and heating the mixture to a temperature above the softening point (106.6 Pa s) of the glass. The foaming agents release gas, enabling expansion of the sintered glass. Here, we use...... a physical foaming approach to prepare foam glass. First, closed pores filled with inert gases (He, Ar, or N2) are physically introduced into a glass body by sintering cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass powder at high gas pressure (5‐25 MPa) at 640°C and, then cooled to room temperature. The sintered bodies...... are subjected to a second heat treatment above the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure. This heat treatment causes expansion of the pores due to high internal gas pressure. We found that the foaming ability strongly depends on the gas pressure applied during sintering, and on the kinetic...

  15. A Sensitive Method Approach for Chromatographic Analysis of Gas Streams in Separation Processes Based on Columns Packed with an Adsorbent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. A. C. Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive method was developed and experimentally validated for the in-line analysis and quantification of gaseous feed and product streams of separation processes under research and development based on column chromatography. The analysis uses a specific mass spectrometry method coupled to engineering processes, such as Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA and Simulated Moving Bed (SMB, which are examples of popular continuous separation technologies that can be used in applications such as natural gas and biogas purifications or carbon dioxide sequestration. These processes employ column adsorption equilibria on adsorbent materials, thus requiring real-time gas stream composition quantification. For this assay, an internal standard is assumed and a single-point calibration is used in a simple mixture-specific algorithm. The accuracy of the method was found to be between 0.01% and 0.25% (-mol for mixtures of CO2, CH4, and N2, tested as case-studies. This makes the method feasible for streams with quality control levels that can be used as a standard monitoring and analyzing procedure.

  16. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  17. Spray process for the recovery of CO.sub.2 from a gas stream and a related apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2014-02-11

    A method for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is disclosed. The method includes the step of reacting CO.sub.2 in the gas stream with fine droplets of a liquid absorbent, so as to form a solid material in which the CO.sub.2 is bound. The solid material is then transported to a desorption site, where it is heated, to release substantially pure CO.sub.2 gas. The CO.sub.2 gas can then be collected and used or transported in any desired way. A related apparatus for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is also described herein.

  18. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.-C.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.)

  19. Study of Electron Swarm in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Notani, M.; Oka, T.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed for use in the muon collection system for a muon collider. It allows for high electric field gradients in RF cavities located in strong magnetic fields, a condition frequently encountered in a muon cooling channel. In addition, an intense muon beam will generate an electron swarm via the ionization process in the cavity. A large amount of RF power will be consumed into the swarm. We show the results from our studies of the HV RF breakdown in a cavity without a beam and present some results on the resulting electron swarm dynamics. This is preliminary to actual beam tests which will take place late in 2010.

  20. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  1. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  2. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  3. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  4. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  5. Discharge runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of carbon: the effect of gas pressure, composition and target peak voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelaru, Catalin; Aijaz, Asim; Constantina Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian Emil; Sobetkii, Arcadie; Kubart, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    Pressure and target voltage driven discharge runaway from low to high discharge current density regimes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of carbon is investigated. The main purpose is to provide a meaningful insight of the discharge dynamics, with the ultimate goal to establish a correlation between discharge properties and process parameters to control the film growth. This is achieved by examining a wide range of pressures (2–20 mTorr) and target voltages (700–850 V) and measuring ion saturation current density at the substrate position. We show that the minimum plasma impedance is an important parameter identifying the discharge transition as well as establishing a stable operating condition. Using the formalism of generalized recycling model, we introduce a new parameter, ‘recycling ratio’, to quantify the process gas recycling for specific process conditions. The model takes into account the ion flux to the target, the amount of gas available, and the amount of gas required for sustaining the discharge. We show that this parameter describes the relation between the gas recycling and the discharge current density. As a test case, we discuss the pressure and voltage driven transitions by changing the gas composition when adding Ne into the discharge. We propose that standard Ar HiPIMS discharges operated with significant gas recycling do not require Ne to increase the carbon ionization.

  6. The deregulation of the Italian natural gas industry and diversification processes in the down-stream sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Quaglino, S.; Di Domenico, M.

    2000-01-01

    The opening of the italian gas market , due to the privatisation and liberalisation process, has been implemented by the important normative evolution of this sector both at european and national level. The debate following this process in the gas market has focussed, basically, on the up-stream sector leaving aside the important down-stream sector also concerning gas local distribution and sales. In this article it is paid more attention to the down-stream sector considering the firms' evolution from a basic mono utility to multi utility and multi services organisational structure. This potential firms' evolution in the italian gas market will be considered also referring to specific international experience in this market [it

  7. Method and apparatus for isotope separation from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for isotope separation and in particular for separating the desired isotope from the gas in which it is contained by irradiating it with a laser. The laser selectively provides kinetic energy to the isotope through inelastic events, monomolecular or bimolecular, in order to cause it to segregate within or fly out of the gas stream in which it is contained

  8. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.T.; Radwan, M.H.; Jones, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  9. Extremely-high vacuum pressure measurement by laser ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Kiyohide

    1991-01-01

    Laser ionization method has the very high sensitivity for detecting atoms and molecules. Hurst et al. successfully detected a single Cs atom by means of resonance ionization spectroscopy developed by them. Noting this high sensitivity, the authors have attempted to apply the laser ionization method to measure gas pressure, particularly in the range down to extremely high vacuum. At present, hot cathode ionization gauges are used for measuring gas pressure down to ultrahigh vacuum, however, those have a number of disadvantages. The pressure measurement using lasers does not have such disadvantages. The pressure measurement utilizing the laser ionization method is based on the principle that when laser beam is focused through a lens, the amount of atom or molecule ions generated in the focused space region is proportional to gas pressure. In this paper, the experimental results are presented on the nonresonant multiphoton ionization characteristics of various kinds of gases, the ion detection system with high sensitivity and an extremely high vacuum system prepared for the laser ionization experiment. (K.I.)

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  11. Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, P.M.; Higuchi, K.Y.; Abraham, L.

    1982-07-01

    General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO 2 /krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO 2 from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO 2 concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO 2 /krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO 2 was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO 2 and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N 2 or air. Gas streams rich in CO 2 were diluted with N 2 to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO 2 concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products

  12. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  13. Axial gas transport and loss of pressure after ballooning rupture of high burn-up fuel rods subjected to LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenack, Wolfgang; Oberlaender, Barbara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has implemented integral in-pile tests on issues related to fuel behaviour under LOCA conditions. In this test series, the interaction of bonded fuel and cladding, the behaviour of fragmented fuel around the ballooning area, and the axial gas communication in high burn-up rods as affected by gap closure and fuel-clad bonding are of major interest for the investigations. In the Halden reactor tests, the decay heat is simulated by a low level of nuclear heating, in contrast to the heating conditions implemented in hot laboratory set-ups, and the thermal expansion of fuel and cladding relative to each other is more similar to the real event. The paper deals with observations regarding the loss of rod pressure following the rupture of the cladding. In the majority of the tests conducted so far, the rod pressure dropped practically instantaneously as a consequence of ballooning rupture, while one test showed a remarkably slow pressure loss. The slow loss of pressure in this test was analysed, showing that the 'hydraulic diameter' of the rod over an un-distended upper part was about 30 - 35 μm which is typical of high burn-up fuel at hot-standby conditions. The 'plug' of fuel restricts the gas flow from the plenum through the fuel column and thus limits the availability of high pressure gas for driving the ballooning. This observation is relevant for the analysis of the behaviour of a full length fuel rod under LOCA conditions since restricted gas flow may influence bundle blockage and the number of failures. (authors)

  14. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  15. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  16. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  17. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  18. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  19. The deregulation of the Italian natural gas industry and diversification processes in the down-stream sector; I riflessi dell'apertura del mercato italiano del gas naturale sul riposizionamento strategico degli operatori nel settore down-stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazioli, R. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy); Quaglino, S. [Cap Gemini Ernst and Young, Energy Division, Milan (Italy); Di Domenico, M. [Milan Bocconi Univ., Milan (Italy). Istituto di Economia delle Fonti di Energia

    2000-07-01

    The opening of the italian gas market , due to the privatisation and liberalisation process, has been implemented by the important normative evolution of this sector both at european and national level. The debate following this process in the gas market has focussed, basically, on the up-stream sector leaving aside the important down-stream sector also concerning gas local distribution and sales. In this article it is paid more attention to the down-stream sector considering the firms' evolution from a basic mono utility to multi utility and multi services organisational structure. This potential firms' evolution in the italian gas market will be considered also referring to specific international experience in this market. [Italian] L'apertura del mercato italiano del gas naturale e' la conseguenza, principalmente, dei processi di privatizzazione e liberalizzazione che sono seguiti alla normativa europea e nazionale che disciplinano tale mercato. Il dibattito seguito a questo processo si e' essenzialmente focalizzato sul settore up-stream e poca attenzione e' stata invece rivolta all'importante settore down-stream, ossia la distribuzione locale e la vendita. Su tale settore si focalizza l'attenzione di questo articolo nell'intento di delineare i possibili scenari di sviluppo delle imprese operanti che, da una semplice strutura mono-utility, si evolvano verso una struttura multi-utility e multi-service.

  20. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The flip-over effect in PLD is observed up to high deposition pressures. • Consistent congruent transfer of the target composition is generally not correct. • The choice of deposition pressure can change the film composition strongly. • Large compositional changes appear at high off-axis angles and large spot sizes. - Abstract: In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La 0.4 Ca 0.6 MnO 3 target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10 −1 mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  1. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  2. 21 CFR 868.2610 - Gas pressure gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas pressure gauge. 868.2610 Section 868.2610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... to measure gas pressure in a medical gas delivery system. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. Construction and calibration of high time resolution gas pressure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.; Santos, C.; Ueda, M.

    1989-11-01

    In this report, the construction and calibration of a gas pressure meter with a time resolution better than 20 μs are described. The meter consists basically of a sensor of the FIG (Fast Ionization Gauge) type and an adequate electronic circuit. A 6AU6A pentode vacuum tube without the glass envelope is used as the sensor head. (author) [pt

  4. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  5. Source modulation-correlation measurement for fissile mass flow in gas or liquid fissile streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.; Abston, R.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The method of monitoring fissile mass flow on all three legs of a blending point, where the input is high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) and the product is PEU, can yield the fissile stream velocity and, with calibration, the [sup235]U content. The product of velocity and content integrated over the pipe gives the fissile mass flow in each leg. Also, the ratio of fissile contents in each pipe: HEU/LEU, HEU/PEU, and PEU/LEU, are obtained. By modulating the source on the input HEU pipe differently from that on the output pipe, the HEU gas can be tracked through the blend point. This method can be useful for monitoring flow velocity, fissile content, and fissile mass flow in HEU blenddown of UF[sub 6] if the pressures are high enough to contain some of the induced fission products. This method can also be used to monitor transfer of fissile liquids and other gases and liquids that emit radiation delayed from particle capture. These preliminary experiments with the Oak Ridge apparatus show that the method will work and the modeling is adequate

  6. Pressure transients analysis of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor with direct helium turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, M.; Dupont, J. F.; Jacquemoud, P.; Mylonas, R. [Eidgenoessisches Inst. fuer Reaktorforschung, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1981-01-15

    The direct coupling of a gas cooled reactor with a closed gas turbine cycle leads to a specific dynamic plant behaviour, which may be summarized as follows: a) any operational transient involving a variation of the core mass flow rate causes a variation of the pressure ratio of the turbomachines and leads unavoidably to pressure and temperature transients in the gas turbine cycle; and b) very severe pressure equalization transients initiated by unlikely events such as the deblading of one or more turbomachines must be taken into account. This behaviour is described and illustrated through results gained from computer analyses performed at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) in Wurenlingen within the scope of the Swiss-German HHT project.

  7. Properties of high pressure nitrogen-argon and nitrogen-xenon gas scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Huck, H.; Koeber, H.J.; Mertens, G.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of scintillation light output and energy resolution have been made at pressures up to 90 atm in gaseous mixtures of nitrogen with both argon and xenon by stopping of 210 Po-alpha particles. In the absence of a wavelength shifter, the N 2 -Ar mixtures gave a maximum pulse height at a ratio of nitrogen to argon partial pressures rsub(N 2 /Ar) approximately =0.2. However, when using the wavelength shifter diphenyl stilbene (DPS), the measured light output was much larger at lower values of rsub(N 2 /Ar), whereas for rsub(N 2 /Ar)>0.2 pulse height and energy resolution of the studied N 2 -Ar mixtures were roughly indentical with and without DPS. The N 2 -Xe gas mixtures exhibited a similar dependence of pulse height and energy resolution to that of the N 2 -Ar mixtures employing DPS, but the pulse height was larger by a factor of about 7. A 40 atm 50% N 2 -50% Xe gas scintillator showed an energy resolution ΔE/E=0.25, while an 80 atm 75% N 2 -25% Xe scintillator gave ΔE/E=0.6. The pulse height from the 80 atm N 2 -Xe scintillator was smaller by a factor of about 240 than the pulse height from a 20 atm pure Xe gas scintillator, but larger by a factor of about 20 than the pulse height from a 75 atm pure N 2 gas scintillator. The N 2 -Xe mixtures showed a remarkable increase of light output as the temperature of the gas was descreased. (Auth.)

  8. Research on natural gas fuel injection system. Development of high-performance pressure regulator; Tennen gas yo nenryo funsha system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1. Tennen gas nenryo funshayo no koseino regulator kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S; Ishii, M; Takigawa, B; Makabe, K; Harada, S; Ono, H [Nippon Carburetor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the aim of further reducing the exhaust emissions of natural-gas vehicles, vigorous research and development work is under way today on multi point gas injection (MPGI) system. In this studies, a high-performance pressure regulator, which is one of the main components of this MPGI system, has been newly developed. The results showed that a significantly better accuracy of the regulated pressure level using this regulator was obtained under the wide range of operating conditions, including instantaneously greater changes of fuel flow rate. In addition, the advanced studies of gaseous fuel injectors (GFIs) would be also conducted. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines; Lokale Wanddickenminderungen an in Betrieb befindlichen Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Georg [Netzdienste Rhein-Main GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoffmann, Ulrich [Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig (Germany); Konarske, Juergen [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Recklinghausen (Germany); Soppa, Thorsten [NG Netz Gas+Wasser (Germany); Steiner, Michael [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    TUeV Nord, Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung and DVGW investigated methods to assess local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines. Methods described in the relevant literature were reviewed with regard to the limiting criteria defined for maximum permissible wall thickness reductions. (orig./GL)

  10. Condensation heat transfer on natural convection at the high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Won, Kim; Hyoung-Kyoun, Ahn; Goon-Cherl, Park

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation is to develop a small scale electric power system driven by an environment-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. REX-10 has been developed to assure high system safety in order to be placed in densely populated region and island. REX-10 adopts the steam-gas pressurizer to assure the inherent safety. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam-gas pressurizer are very complex. Especially, the condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas on the natural convection is important to evaluate the pressurizer behavior. However, there have been few investigations on the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas at the high pressure. In this study, the theoretical model is developed to estimate the condensation heat transfer at the high pressure using heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis results show good agreement with correlations and experimental data. It is found that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases as the total pressure increases or the mass fraction of the non-condensable gas decreases. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient no more increases over the specific pressure

  11. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  12. Using Modelica to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the German national standard for high pressure natural gas flow metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von der Heyde, M; Schmitz, G; Mickan, B

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model written in Modelica for the high pressure piston prover (HPPP) used as the national primary standard for high pressure natural gas flow metering in Germany. With a piston prover the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the time a piston needs to displace a certain volume of gas in a cylinder. Fluctuating piston velocity during measurement can be a significant source of uncertainty if not considered in an appropriate way. The model was built to investigate measures for the reduction of this uncertainty. Validation shows a good compliance of the piston velocity in the model with measured data for certain volume flow rates. Reduction of the piston weight, variation of the start valve switching time and integration of a flow straightener were found to reduce the piston velocity fluctuations in the model significantly. The fast and cost effective generation of those results shows the strength of the used modelling approach. (paper)

  13. A Novel Method for Determining the Gas Transfer Velocity of Carbon Dioxide in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the global carbon cycle relies on the accurate quantification of carbon fluxes into and out of natural and human-dominated ecosystems. Among these fluxes, carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from surface water has received increasing attention in recent years. However, limitations of current methods, including determination of the gas transfer velocity (k), compromise our ability to evaluate the significance of CO2 fluxes between freshwater systems and the atmosphere. We developed an automated method to determine gas transfer velocities of CO2 (kCO2), and tested it under a range of flow conditions for a first-order stream of a headwater catchment in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Our method uses continuous in situ measurements of CO2 concentrations using two non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensors enclosed in water impermeable, gas permeable membranes (Johnson et al., 2010) downstream from a gas diffuser. CO2 was injected into the stream at regular intervals via a compressed gas tank connected to the diffuser. CO2 injections were controlled by a datalogger at fixed time intervals and in response to storm-induced changes in streamflow. Following the injection, differences in CO2 concentrations at known distances downstream from the diffuser relative to pre-injection baseline levels allowed us to calculate kCO2. Here we present relationships between kCO2 and hydro-geomorphologic (flow velocity, streambed slope, stream width, stream depth), atmospheric (wind speed and direction), and water quality (stream temperature, pH, electrical conductivity) variables. This method has advantages of being automatable and field-deployable, and it does not require supplemental gas chromatography, as is the case for propane injections typically used to determine k. The dataset presented suggests the potential role of this method to further elucidate the role that CO2 fluxes from headwater streams play in the global carbon cycle. Johnson, M. S., Billett, M. F

  14. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  15. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  16. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schneider, Christof W., E-mail: christof.schneider@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The flip-over effect in PLD is observed up to high deposition pressures. • Consistent congruent transfer of the target composition is generally not correct. • The choice of deposition pressure can change the film composition strongly. • Large compositional changes appear at high off-axis angles and large spot sizes. - Abstract: In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10{sup −1} mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  17. Real-Gas Correction Factors for Hypersonic Flow Parameters in Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wayne D.

    1960-01-01

    The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to 600 F and stagnation pressures up to 6,000 pounds per square inch absolute. The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters. It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. For example the ratio of the free-stream static to stagnation pressure as calculated from the thermodynamic properties of helium for a stagnation temperature of 80 F and pressure of 4,000 pounds per square inch absolute was found to be approximately 13 percent greater than that determined from the ideal-gas tabulation with a specific heat ratio of 5/3.

  18. Suppression of acoustic streaming in tapered pulse tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    In a pulse tube cryocooler, the gas in the pulse tube can be thought of as an insulating piston, transmitting pressure and velocity from the cold heat exchanger to the hot end of the pulse tube. Unfortunately, convective heat transfer can carry heat from the hot end to the cold end and reduce the net cooling power. Here, the authors discuss one driver of such convection: steady acoustic streaming as generated by interactions between the boundary and the oscillating pressure, velocity, and temperature. Using a perturbation method, they have derived an analytical expression for the streaming in a tapered pulse tube with axially varying mean temperature in the acoustic boundary layer limit. The calculations showed that the streaming depends strongly on the taper angle, the ratio of velocity and pressure amplitudes, and the phase between the velocity and pressure, but it depends only weakly on the mean temperature profile and is independent of the overall oscillatory amplitude. With the appropriate tapering of the tube, streaming can be eliminated for a particular operating condition. Experimentally, the authors have demonstrated that an orifice pulse tube cryocooler with the calculated zero-streaming taper has more cooling power than one with either a cylindrical tube or a tapered pulse tube with twice the optimum taper angle

  19. Modeling of leak detection system for high pressure transmission system of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.; Paracha, Z.J.; Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Gas Industry can be considered as one of the most important industries in the economy of any country. Safe Transportation of Gas is thus considered to be vital because interruption of Supply of Gas to consumers not only causes domestic problems but also loss of revenue to country. Now most of power generation Sector has switched over their system to Natural Gas. So, interruption of supply to this sector can cause a lot of problems. This paper has provided assessment of technology approach and formulated this approach for Leak Detection Model in High Pressure Transmission system for current and future operations, which will improve the efficiency of any transmission company to a great extent. This model can be extremely helpful in conditions of Rupture Emergencies or Leakage because of corrosive conditions of Pipeline to manage the situation of resources in pipeline network. Any exceptional readings or messages should alert the user to the fact that something is wrong with the system. Such a system helps a lot in the safe and efficient management of pipeline network. The data and information provided by the Leak Detection System applications will allow for efficient and safe pipeline operation maximizing profitability over the pipeline's service lifetime. (author)

  20. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H(sub 2) separation. These membranes consist of a thin ((approx)10(micro)m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H(sub 2) separation, and resist poisoning by H(sub 2)S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) alloy membranes on porous supports for H(sub 2) separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H(sub 2) flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H(sub 2) flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems

  1. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying

    2000-01-01

    A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects

  2. Pressure regulation system for modern gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A gas pressure and flow regulation system has been designed and constructed to service a wide variety of gas-filled detectors which operate at pressures of ∼2 to 1000 Torr and flow rate of ∼5 to 200 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm). Pressure regulation is done at the detector input by a pressure transducer linked to a solenoid leak valve via an electronic control system. Gas flow is controlled via a mechanical leak valve at the detector output. Interchangeable transducers, flowmeters, and leak valves allow for different pressure and flow ranges. The differential pressure transducer and control system provide automatic let-up of vacuum chambers to atmospheric pressure while maintaining a controlled overpressure in the detector. The gas system is constructed on a standard 19'' rack-mounted panel from commercially available parts. Five of these systems have been built and are routinely used for both ionization chambers and position-sensitive avalanche detectors

  3. A review of helium gas turbine technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min

    2007-01-01

    Current High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are based on a closed brayton cycle with helium gas as the working fluid. Thermodynamic performance of the axial-flow helium gas turbines is of critical concern as it considerably affects the overall cycle efficiency. Helium gas turbines pose some design challenges compared to steam or air turbomachinery because of the physical properties of helium and the uniqueness of the operating conditions at high pressure with low pressure ratio. This report present a review of the helium Brayton cycle experiences in Germany and in Japan. The design and availability of helium gas turbines for HTGR are also presented in this study. We have developed a new throughflow calculation code to calculate the design-point performance of helium gas turbines. Use of the method has been illustrated by applying it to the GTHTR300 reference

  4. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  5. EQUATIONS FOR GAS RELEASING PROCESS FROM PRESSURIZED VESSELS IN ODH EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JIA, L.X.; WANG, L.

    2001-01-01

    IN THE EVALUATION OF ODH, THE CALCULATION OF THE SPILL RATE FROM THE PRESSURIZED VESSEL IS THE CENTRAL TASK. THE ACCURACY OF THE ENGINEERING ESTIMATION BECOMES ONE OF THE SAFETY DESIGN ISSUES. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CALCULATION IN DIFFERENT CASES, AND DISCUSSES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE GAS RELEASE PROCESS CALCULATION BOTH FOR THE HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TANK AND THE LOW-TEMPERATURE LIQUID CONTAINER

  6. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  7. Application of quality assurance guidelines to the high pressure gas system, building 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.

    1976-01-01

    Major improvements have been made to decrease the tritium release potential for LLL's tritium-handling facilities in Bldg. 331. Some of the major problems and solutions in designing and building the High Pressure Gas System, which was the first system to be rebuilt are described. To increase system safety, it was necessary to specify material and processes used in component manufacture, to inspect all materials and processes to ensure compliance with specifications, to use proper joint design, to use secondary containment in cases where specifications could not be met, and to exercise tighter control of operating procedures

  8. A reliability analysis of a natural-gas pressure-regulating installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbec, Marko

    2010-01-01

    A case study involving analyses of the operability, reliability and availability was made for a selected, typical, high-pressure, natural-gas, pressure-regulating installation (PRI). The study was commissioned by the national operator of the natural-gas, transmission-pipeline network for the purpose of validating the existing operability and maintenance practices and policies. The study involved a failure-risk analysis (HAZOP) of the selected typical installation, retrieval and analysis of the available corrective maintenance data for the PRI's equipment at the network level in order to obtain the failure rates followed by an elaboration of the quantitative fault trees. Thus, both operator-specific and generic literature data on equipment failure rates were used. The results obtained show that two failure scenarios need to be considered: the first is related to the PRI's failure to provide gas to the consumer(s) due to a low-pressure state and the second is related to a failure of the gas pre-heating at the high-pressure reduction stage, leading to a low temperature (a non-critical, but unfavorable, PRI state). Related to the first scenario, the most important cause of failure was found to be a transient pressure disturbance back from the consumer side. The network's average PRI failure frequency was assessed to be about once per 32 years, and the average unavailability to be about 4 minutes per year (the confidence intervals were also assessed). Based on the results obtained, some improvements to the monitoring of the PRI are proposed.

  9. A reliability analysis of a natural-gas pressure-regulating installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbec, Marko, E-mail: marko.gerbec@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    A case study involving analyses of the operability, reliability and availability was made for a selected, typical, high-pressure, natural-gas, pressure-regulating installation (PRI). The study was commissioned by the national operator of the natural-gas, transmission-pipeline network for the purpose of validating the existing operability and maintenance practices and policies. The study involved a failure-risk analysis (HAZOP) of the selected typical installation, retrieval and analysis of the available corrective maintenance data for the PRI's equipment at the network level in order to obtain the failure rates followed by an elaboration of the quantitative fault trees. Thus, both operator-specific and generic literature data on equipment failure rates were used. The results obtained show that two failure scenarios need to be considered: the first is related to the PRI's failure to provide gas to the consumer(s) due to a low-pressure state and the second is related to a failure of the gas pre-heating at the high-pressure reduction stage, leading to a low temperature (a non-critical, but unfavorable, PRI state). Related to the first scenario, the most important cause of failure was found to be a transient pressure disturbance back from the consumer side. The network's average PRI failure frequency was assessed to be about once per 32 years, and the average unavailability to be about 4 minutes per year (the confidence intervals were also assessed). Based on the results obtained, some improvements to the monitoring of the PRI are proposed.

  10. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIANE, M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on "channel" approximation of the high pressure mercury (HPM gas-discharge lamp, is developed to determine the physical and electric magnitudes, which characterize the dynamic behavior of the couple "lamp-electrical power system". The evolution of the lamp properties when principal parameters of the discharge (pressure of mercury, voltage supply, frequency are varying were studied and analyzed. We show the concordance between simulation, calculations and measurements for electric, energetic or irradiative characteristics. The model reproduces well the evolution of properties of the supply when principal parameters of the discharge vary.

  11. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  12. Direct injection of high pressure gas : scaling properties of pulsed turbulent jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Klaassen, A.; Doosje, E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection

  13. Effect of feed-gas humidity on nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D; McLean, Robert J C; DeLeon, Gian; Melnikov, Vadim

    2016-11-14

    We investigate the effect of feed-gas humidity on the oxidative properties of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet using nitrogen gas. Plasma jets operating at atmospheric pressure are finding uses in medical and biological settings for sterilization and other applications involving oxidative stress applied to organisms. Most jets use noble gases, but some researchers use less expensive nitrogen gas. The feed-gas water content (humidity) has been found to influence the performance of noble-gas plasma jets, but has not yet been systematically investigated for jets using nitrogen gas. Low-humidity and high-humidity feed gases were used in a nitrogen plasma jet, and the oxidation effect of the jet was measured quantitatively using a chemical dosimeter known as FBX (ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange). The plasma jet using high humidity was found to have about ten times the oxidation effect of the low-humidity jet, as measured by comparison with the addition of measured amounts of hydrogen peroxide to the FBX dosimeter. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using nitrogen as a feed gas have a greater oxidizing effect with a high level of humidity added to the feed gas.

  14. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is specified for the operation of a gaseous diffusion cascade wherein electrically driven compressors circulate a process gas through a plurality of serially connected gaseous diffusion stages to establish first and second countercurrently flowing cascade streams of process gas, one of the streams being at a relatively low pressure and enriched in a component of the process gas and the other being at a higher pressure and depleted in the same, and wherein automatic control systems maintain the stage process gas pressures by positioning process gas flow control valve openings at values which are functions of the difference between reference-signal inputs to the systems, and signal inputs proportional to the process gas pressures in the gaseous diffusion stages associated with the systems, the cascade process gas inventory being altered, while the cascade is operating, by simultaneously directing into separate process-gas freezing zones a plurality of substreams derived from one of the first and second streams at different points along the lengths thereof to solidify approximately equal weights of process gas in the zone while reducing the reference-signal inputs to maintain the positions of the control valves substantially unchanged despite the removal of process gas inventory via the substreams. (author)

  15. Multiple scattering effects in fast neutron polarization experiments using high-pressure helium-xenon gas scintillators as analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  16. Oxidation and Condensation of Zinc Fume From Zn-CO2-CO-H2O Streams Relevant to Steelmaking Off-Gas Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, Tyler Mark; Ma, Naiyang; Zhu, Liang Zhu; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here the objective of this research was to study the condensation of zinc vapor to metallic zinc and zinc oxide solid under varying environments to investigate the feasibility of in-process separation of zinc from steelmaking off-gas dusts. Water vapor content, temperature, degree of cooling, gas composition, and initial zinc partial pressure were varied to simulate the possible conditions that can occur within steelmaking off-gas systems, limited to Zn-CO 2 -CO-H 2 O gas compositions. The temperature of deposition and the effect of rapidly quenching the gas were specifically studied. A homogeneous nucleation model for applicable experiments was applied to the analysis of the experimental data. It was determined that under the experimental conditions, oxidation of zinc vapor by H 2 O or CO 2 does not occur above 1108 K (835 °C) even for highly oxidizing streams (CO 2 /CO = 40/7). Rate expressions that correlate CO 2 and H 2 O oxidation rates to gas composition, partial pressure of water vapor, temperature, and zinc partial pressure were determined to be as follows: Rate ((mol)/(m 2 s)) = 406 exp ((−50.2kJ/mol)/(RT)) (pZnpCO 2 − PCO/K eq CO 2 ) ((mol)/(m 2 xs)) Rate (((mol)/(m 2 s))) = 32.9 exp (((−13.7kJ/mol)/(RT))) (pZnPH 2 O − PH 2 /K eq H 2 O) ((mol)/(m 2 xs)). It was proven that a rapid cooling rate (500 K/s) significantly increases the ratio of metallic zinc to zinc oxide as opposed to a slow cooling rate (250 K/s). SEM analysis found evidence of heterogeneous growth of ZnO as well as of homogeneous formation of metallic zinc. The homogeneous nucleation model fit well with experiments where only metallic zinc deposited. An expanded model with rates of oxidation by CO 2 and H 2 O as shown was combined with the homogenous nucleation model and then compared with experimental data. The calculated results based on the model gave a reasonable fit to the measured data. For the conditions used in this study, the rate equations for the oxidation of zinc by

  17. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  18. Compressed natural gas transportation by utilizing FRP composite pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S.C. [Trans Ocean Gas Inc., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discussed the Trans Ocean Gas (TOG) method for transporting compressed natural gas (CNG). As demand for natural gas increases and with half of the world's reserves considered stranded, a method to transport natural gas by ship is needed. CNG transportation is widely viewed as a viable method. Transported as CNG, stranded gas reserves can be delivered to existing markets or can create new natural gas markets not applicable to liquefied natural gas (LNG). In contrast to LNG, compressed gas requires no processing to offload. TOG proposes that CNG be transported using fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessels which overcome all the deficiencies of proposed steel-based systems. FRP pressure vessels have been proven safe and reliable through critical applications in the national defense, aerospace, and natural gas vehicle industries. They are light-weight, highly reliable, have very safe failure modes, are corrosion resistant, and have excellent low temperature characteristics. Under TOG's scheme, natural gas can be stored at two thirds the density of LNG without costly processing. TOG's proposed design and testing of a CNG system was reviewed in detail. 1 fig.

  19. Electro-scrubbing volatile organic carbons in the air stream with a gas diffusion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Kaichen; Jia Jinping; Cao Limei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-04-15

    It is demonstrated that exposing the VOC air streams to the electro-scrubbing reactor with a gas diffusion electrode leads to an efficient removal of organics. The importance order of the influence factors on the electro-scrubbing reactor performance is: conductivity, voltage and air stream flow-rate. The effective conductivity and high voltages generally are beneficial to the removal process and the air flow-rate is not a significant factor compared with the other two, indicating that the reactor might have a consistently satisfying performance within a wide range of gas volumetric load. The mass transfer of both organics and oxygen in the reactor is estimated by mathematical model, and the calculation determines the concentration boundary conditions for the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate removal: if the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate concentration in the inflow air stream holds C{sub G,i} {<=} 0.7198 % , the removal in the electro-scrubbing reactor is electrochemical reaction controlled; if C{sub G,i} > 0.7198 % , the controlling step will be the oxygen mass transfer from the air to the liquid in the electro-scrubbing reactor. The Apparent Current Efficiency of the electro-scrubbing reactor was also determined using COD data, which is significantly higher than some commercial metal oxide electrodes, showing that the reactor is energy efficient and has the promise for the future scale-up.

  20. Cryogenic and Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Russell A.

    2002-01-01

    This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note

  1. A technique to simulate a tube break in a high-pressure gas/cooling water heat exchanger - HTR2008-58161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antwerpen, H. J. V.; Mulder, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    The gas cycles of most High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR's) reject heat to water at some stage. In the helium/water heat exchangers of HTR's with direct Brayton cycles, the helium is usually at a much higher pressure than the water. If the pressure boundary between the helium and the water fails inside the heat exchanger. the effect on the rest of the water system has to be established in order to do a proper system design. This can be done most efficiently by using a system simulation code, however, very few system simulation codes has the capability to do gas/liquid interface tracking as required for this problem. This study describes a calculation method with which a gas/liquid heat exchanger tube rupture can be calculated in a simulation code without interface tracking. The course of events after tube rupture is described and appropriate calculation models derived. A mathematical model for a pressure relief valve (PRV) was also created. The calculation models were implemented in the system simulation software Flownex and used to study a tube rupture on a 5000 kPa helium/water heat exchanger. The assembled calculation network solved stable and within reasonable time. The simulation provided insight into the course of events following the tube break. It was shown that the acceleration of water out of the helium cooler, by choked-flow helium, caused the main pressure pulses during the event. The maximum pressure in the water loop occurs on the opposite side of the helium cooler due to constructive interference of the initial pressure wave with itself. It was also shown that by changing only pipe lengths, the system could become prone to severe oscillations after a tube rupture event. (authors)

  2. Adsorption removal of carbon dioxide from the helium coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varezhin, A.V.; Fedoseenkov, A.N.; Khrulev, A.A.; Metlik, I.V.; Zel venskii, Y.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper conducts experiments on the removal of CO 2 from helium by means of a Soviet-made adsorbent under the conditions characteristic of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cleaning systems. The adsorption of CO 2 from helium was studied under dynamic conditions with a fixed layer of adsorbent in a flow-through apparatus with an adsorber 16 mm in diameter. The analysis of the helium was carried out by means of a TVT chromatograph. In order to compare the adsorption of CO 2 on CaA zeolite under dynamic conditions from the helium stream under pressure with the equilibrium adsorption on the basis of pure CO 2 , the authors determined the adsorption isotherm at 293 K by the volumetric method over a range of CO 2 equilibrium pressures from 260 to 11,970 Pa. Reducing the adsorption temperature to 273 K leads to a considerable reduction in the energy costs for regeneration, owing to the increase in adsorption and the decrease in the number of regeneration cycles; the amount of the heating gas used is reduced to less than half

  3. Study on the effect of distance between the two nozzle holes on interaction of high pressure combustion-gas jets with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We design a five-stage cylindrical stepped-wall chamber to study twin combustion-gas jets. • We observe mixing processes of twin combustion-gases and liquid by high speed photographic system. • We discuss the influence of multiple parameters on expansion shape of the Taylor cavities. • The three-dimensional mathematics model is established to simulate the energy release process. • We obtain distribution characteristics of parameters under different nozzle distances. - Abstract: The combustion-gas generator and cylindrical stepped-wall observation chambers with five stages are designed to study the expansion characteristic of twin combustion-gas jets in liquid working medium under high temperature and high pressure. The expansion processes of Taylor cavities formed by combustion-gas jets and the mixing characteristics of gas–liquid are studied by means of high-speed digital camera system. The effects of the distance between the two nozzle holes, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on jet expansion processes are discussed. The experimental results indicate that, the velocity differences exist on the gas–liquid interface during expansion processes of twin combustion-gas jets, and the effect of Taylor–Helmholtz instability is intense, so interfaces between gas and liquid show turbulent folds and randomness. The strong turbulent mixing of gas and liquid leads to release of combustion-gas energy with the temperature decreasing. Moreover, the mixing effectiveness is obviously enhanced on the corners of each step of the cylindrical stepped-wall structure, forming radial expansion phenomenon. The reasonable matching of multi-parameter can restrain the jet instability and make the combustion-gas energy orderly release. Based on the experiments, the three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model of interaction of twin combustion-gas jets and liquid working medium is established to obtain the density, pressure, velocity and temperature

  4. Motion of gas in highly rarefied space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkunov, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    A model describing a motion of gas in a highly rarefied space received an unlucky number 13 in the list of the basic models of the motion of gas in the three-dimensional space obtained by L.V. Ovsyannikov. For a given initial pressure distribution, a special choice of mass Lagrangian variables leads to the system describing this motion for which the number of independent variables is less by one. Hence, there is a foliation of a highly rarefied gas with respect to pressure. In a strongly rarefied space for each given initial pressure distribution, all gas particles are localized on a two-dimensional surface that moves with time in this space We found some exact solutions of the obtained system that describe the processes taking place inside of the tornado. For this system we found all nontrivial conservation laws of the first order. In addition to the classical conservation laws the system has another conservation law, which generalizes the energy conservation law. With the additional condition we found another one generalized energy conservation law.

  5. Direct monitoring of wind-induced pressure-pumping on gas transport in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Mohr, Manuel; Schindler, Dirk; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is important for the biogeochemistry of soils and is commonly assumed to be governed by molecular diffusion. Yet a few previous field studies identified other gas transport processes such as wind-induced pressure-pumping to enhance soil-atmosphere fluxes significantly. However, since these wind-induced non-diffusive gas transport processes in soil often occur intermittently, the quantification of their contribution to soil gas emissions is challenging. To quantify the effects of wind-induced pressure-pumping on soil gas transport, we developed a method for in situ monitoring of soil gas transport. The method includes the use of Helium (He) as a tracer gas which was continuously injected into the soil. The resulting He steady-state concentration profile was monitored. Gas transport parameters of the soil were inversely modelled. We used our method during a field campaign in a well-aerated forest soil over three months. During periods of low wind speed, soil gas transport was modelled assuming diffusion as transport process. During periods of high wind speed, the previously steady diffusive He concentration profile showed temporary concentration decreases in the topsoil, indicating an increase of the effective gas transport rate in the topsoil up to 30%. The enhancement of effective topsoil soil gas diffusivity resulted from wind-induced air pressure fluctuations which are referred to as pressure-pumping. These air pressure fluctuations had frequencies between 0.1 and 0.01 Hz and amplitudes up to 10 Pa and occurred at above-canopy wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1. We could show the importance of the enhancement of the gas transport rate in relation with the wind intensity and corresponding air pressure fluctuations characteristics. We directly detected and quantified the pressure-pumping effect on gas transport in soil in a field study for the first time, and could thus validate and underpin the importance of this non

  6. Improving the natural gas transporting based on the steady state simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoplik, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The work presents an example of practical application of gas flow modeling results in the network, that was obtained for the existing gas network and for real data about network load depending on the time of day and air temperature. The gas network load in network connections was estimated based on real data concerning gas consumption by customers and weather data in 2010, based on two-parametric model based on the number of degree-days of heating. The aim of this study was to elaborate a relationship between pressure and gas stream introduced into the gas network. It was demonstrated that practical application of elaborated relationship in gas reduction station allows for the automatic adjustment of gas pressure in the network to the volume of network load and maintenance of gas pressure in the whole network at possibly the lowest level. It was concluded based on the results obtained that such an approach allows to reduce the amount of gas supplied to the network by 0.4% of the annual network load. - Highlights: • Determination of the hourly nodal demand for gas by the consumers. • Analysis of the results of gas flow simulation in pipeline network. • Elaboration of the relationship between gas pressure and gas stream feeding the network. • Automatic gas pressure steering in the network depending on the network load. • Comparison of input gas pressure in the system without and with pressure steering.

  7. Bioprocesses for the Removal of Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Gas Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; bosch, van den P.L.M.; Leerdam, van R.C.; Graaff, de C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the biological removal of sulphur compounds from gas streams. First, an overview is given of the toxicity of sulphur compounds to animals and humans whereafter biological and industrial formation routes for (organic) sulphur compounds are given. Microbial degradation routes of

  8. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-01

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K ⩽ T ⩽ 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P ⩽ 250 MPa. Helium (4He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P ≃ 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  9. Huff 'n puff to revaporize liquid dropout in an Omani gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wadhahi, M.; Boukadi, F.H.; Al-Bemani, A.; Al-Maamari, R.; Al-Hadrami, H. [Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khod 123 (Oman)

    2007-01-15

    In this study, Huff 'n Puff technique is used as a production mechanism to revaporize liquid dropout in the Saih Rawl retrograde condensate gas field, Oman. During the huff cycle, a number of wells were shut in to achieve revaporization. The same wells were put on stream, during the puff cycle. Liquid dropout induced a mechanical skin around the wellbore and hampered gas production capabilities but has been revaporized through pressurization. The pressure buildup in the rich-gas condensate reservoir was due to a cross flow originating from a deeper highly pressurized lean-gas bearing formation. The pressure communication was taking place through the wellbore during shut-in cycles. A compositional simulation model was used to confirm the theory of condensate revaporization. Simulation results indicated that Huff 'n Puff is a viable production technique. The technique improved gas deliverability and enhanced gas-liquid production by minimizing the skin caused by gas-liquid dropout. (author)

  10. Low temperature techniques for natural gas purification and LNG production: An energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccanelli, Margaret; Langé, Stefano; Rocco, Matteo V.; Pellegrini, Laura A.; Colombo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature processes for of high CO_2 content natural gas have been modelled. • Energy and exergy analyses have been performed. • The Dual Pressure distillation scheme has the best thermodynamic performances. • There is a synergy between cryogenic natural gas purification and LNG production. - Abstract: Due to the rapid increase of the World’s primary energy demand of the last decades, low-temperature processes for the purification of natural gas streams with high carbon dioxide content has gained interest, since they allow to make profitable exploitation of low-quality gas reserves. Low temperature purification processes allow the direct production of a methane stream at high purity and at low-temperature, suitable conditions for the direct synergistic integration with natural gas cryogenic liquefaction processes, while CO_2 is obtained in liquid phase and under pressure. In this way, it can be pumped for transportation, avoiding significant compression costs as for classical CO_2 capture units (where carbon dioxide is discharged in gas phase and at atmospheric pressure), and further uses such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or underground storage. In this paper, the three most common natural gas low-temperature purification techniques have been modelled and their performances have been evaluated through energy and exergy analyses. Specifically, the dual pressure low-temperature distillation process, the anti-sublimation process and a hybrid configuration have been considered. It is found that the dual pressure low-temperature distillation scheme reach the highest thermodynamic performances, resulting in the best values of exergy efficiency and equivalent methane requirements with respect to the other configurations. This is mainly due to the distributed temperature profile along a distillation column, resulting in a less irreversible heat exchanging process.

  11. High pressure apparatus for hydrogen isotopes to pressures of 345 MPa (50,000 psi) and temperatures of 12000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A functional new high pressure, high temperature apparatus for hydrogen isotopes uses an internally heated pressure vessel within a larger pressure vessel. The pressure capability is 345 MPa (50 K psi) at 1200 0 C. The gas pressure inside the internal vessel is balanced with gas pressure in the external vessel. The internal vessel is attached to a closure and is also the sample container. Our design allows thin-walled internal vessel construction and keeps the sample from ''seeing'' the furnace or other extraneous environment. The sample container together with the closure can easily be removed and loaded under argon using standard glove-box procedures. The small volume of the inner vessel permits small volumes of gas to be used, thus increasing the sensitivity during pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) work

  12. Extension of the thermal porosimetry method to high gas pressure for nanoporosimetry estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.; Camus, M.

    2018-04-01

    Standard pore size determination methods like mercury porosimetry, nitrogen sorption, microscopy, or X-ray tomography are not suited to highly porous, low density, and thus very fragile materials. For this kind of materials, a method based on thermal characterization has been developed in a previous study. This method has been used with air pressure varying from 10-1 to 105 Pa for materials having a thermal conductivity less than 0.05 W m-1 K-1 at atmospheric pressure. It enables the estimation of pore size distribution between 100 nm and 1 mm. In this paper, we present a new experimental device enabling thermal conductivity measurement under gas pressure up to 106 Pa, enabling the estimation of the volume fraction of pores having a 10 nm diameter. It is also demonstrated that the main thermal conductivity models (parallel, series, Maxwell, Bruggeman, self-consistent) lead to the same estimation of the pore size distribution as the extended parallel model (EPM) presented in this paper and then used to process the experimental data. Three materials with thermal conductivities at atmospheric pressure ranging from 0.014 W m-1 K-1 to 0.04 W m-1 K-1 are studied. The thermal conductivity measurement results obtained with the three materials are presented, and the corresponding pore size distributions between 10 nm and 1 mm are presented and discussed.

  13. General design and main problems of a gas-heavy-water power reactor contained in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.; Gaudez, J.C.

    1964-01-01

    In the framework of research carried out on a CO 2 -cooled power reactor moderated by heavy water, the so-called 'pressure vessel' solution involves the total integration of the core, of the primary circuit (exchanges and blowers) and of the fuel handling machine inside a single, strong, sealed vessel made of pre-stressed concrete. A vertical design has been chosen: the handling 'attic' is placed above the core, the exchanges being underneath. This solution makes it possible to standardize the type of reactor which is moderated by heavy-water or graphite and cooled by a downward stream of carbon dioxide gas; it has certain advantages and disadvantages with respect to the pressure tube solution and these are considered in detail in this report. Extrapolation presents in particular.problems due specifically to the heavy water (for example its cooling,its purification, the balancing of the pressures of the heavy water and of the gas, the assembling of the internal structures, the height of the attic, etc. (authors) [fr

  14. Opportunities of influence of plasma streams formed in IKA with continuos nor king gas filling en the surface of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useinov, B.M.; Useinova, A.M.; Amrenova, A.U.; Pusankov, S.A.; Sartin, S.A.; Virko, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the investigation of influence of plasma stream formed in IKA with continuous working gas filling on the surface of stainless steel 12X18H10T and aluminum are given in this article. It is shown here that the effect of influence of plasma stream on the surface of materials depends on the way of working gas filling. There is the comparison of influence of plasma stream formed in plasma accelerator with impulse and continuous working gas filling

  15. Effects of oxygen gas pressure on properties of iron oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qixin; Shi, Wangzhou; Liu, Feng; Arita, Makoto; Ikoma, Yoshifumi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pulsed laser deposition is a promising technique for growing iron oxide films. ► Crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depends on oxygen gas pressure. ► Optimum of the oxygen gas pressure leads single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality. -- Abstract: Iron oxide films were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition at oxygen gas pressures between 1 × 10 −5 and 1 × 10 −1 Pa with a substrate temperature of 600 °C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, and vibrational sample magnetometer analysis revealed that surface morphology and crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depend on the oxygen gas pressure during the growth and the optimum oxygen gas pressure range is very narrow around 1 × 10 −3 Pa for obtaining single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality

  16. Analysis of feed stream acid gas concentration effects on the transport properties and separation performance of polymeric membranes for natural gas sweetening: A comparison between a glassy and rubbery polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Vaughn, Justin T.

    2014-09-01

    A 6FDA based polyamide-imide, 6F-PAI-1, is compared to Pebax®, a commercially available rubbery polyether/polyamide block copolymer, for the simultaneous separation of CO2 and H2S from CH4. Feed streams of 20/20/60 and 5/45/50H2S/CO2/CH4 were used to compare the effect of acid gas concentration on the separation efficiency of 6F-PAI-1 and Pebax® under industrially relevant conditions. 6F-PAI-1 showed CO2/CH4 selectivities at 850psia total feed pressure of 30 and 40 for the 20/20/60 and 5/45/50 feed streams, respectively, while selectivity for H2S/CH4 was approximately 20 for both feeds. Pebax® showed selectivities of 40 and 10 for H2S/CH4 and CO2/CH4, respectively. Both selectivities were mostly independent of acid gas concentration in the feed, an unsurprising trend considering the non-glassy nature of this material. The selectivities in 6F-PAI-1 translated to less than 6% CH4 lost in the permeate stream for both feeds, while for the 5/45/50 feed, CH4 fraction in the permeate at 850psia was less than 4%. These promising results suggest that glassy polymers possessing favorable intrinsic plasticization resistance, such as 6F-PAI-1, may be appropriate for the typical case of natural gas sweetening where CO2 concentration in the feed is higher than it is for H2S. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Gas Hydrate-Sediment Morphologies Revealed by Pressure Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M.

    2006-12-01

    Analysis of HYACINTH pressure cores collected on IODP Expedition 311 and NGHP Expedition 1 showed gas hydrate layers, lenses, and veins contained in fine-grained sediments as well as gas hydrate contained in coarse-grained layers. Pressure cores were recovered from sediments on the Cascadia Margin off the North American West Coast and in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in the Western Bay of Bengal in water depths of 800- 1400 meters. Recovered cores were transferred to laboratory chambers without loss of pressure and nondestructive measurements were made at in situ pressures and controlled temperatures. Gamma density, P-wave velocity, and X-ray images showed evidence of grain-displacing and pore-filling gas hydrate in the cores. Data highlights include X-ray images of fine-grained sediment cores showing wispy subvertical veins of gas hydrate and P-wave velocity excursions corresponding to grain-displacing layers and pore-filling layers of gas hydrate. Most cores were subjected to controlled depressurization experiments, where expelled gas was collected, analyzed for composition, and used to calculate gas hydrate saturation within the core. Selected cores were stored under pressure for postcruise analysis and subsampling.

  18. High-pressure 3He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Esterline, J.H.; Leckey, C.A.; Weisel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on features of high-pressure 3 He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of γ-rays as well. Furthermore, 3 He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy γ-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the 3 He(n,p) 3 H reaction, neutron and γ-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  19. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  1. Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.M.; Cheh, C.H.; Glass, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T) 2 O and CO are converted to (H,D,T) 2 and CO 2 is a better method of (H,D,T) 2 O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H 2 O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H 2 O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO 2 , CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

  2. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  3. Inspection of the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield by cold neutron radiography at CMRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Huo, Heyong; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Yang; Yin, Wei; Sun, Yong; Liu, Bin; Tang, Bin [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China); Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2017-04-11

    The inspection of the process of gas pressure change is important for some applications (e.g. gas tank stockpile or two phase fluid model) which need quantitative and non-touchable measurement. Neutron radiography provides a suitable tool for such investigations with nice resolution. The quantitative cold neutron radiography (CNR) is developed at China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) to measure the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield. Because of the high sensitivity to hydrogen, even small change of the hydrogen pressure can be inspected by CNR. The dark background and scattering neutron effect are both corrected to promote measurement precision. The results show that CNR can measure the hydrogen gas pressure exactly and the pressure value average relative error between CNR and barometer is almost 1.9%.

  4. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  5. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Gas transport into a cavitation bubble during the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenziel, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    When considering cavitation bubbles exploding from small stream nuclei the surface tension plays an important role, and mostly negative pressures exist in the surroundings of such a bubble. During the short explosion time, the gas and vapor pressure in the bubble plays no important role in the dynamic process. The high radial velocity of the bubble wall introduces a steep gradient in the concentration of dissolved air near it, which results in some enforced gas transport into the bubble. During the bubble implosion it is necessary to take into account the amount of gas in the bubble, as it certainly plays an important role in exploring the cavitation erosion. In this survey the solution of a mathematical model for the gas diffusion process is compared with some experimental results

  8. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Static Bubble Point Pressure for Cryogenic LADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John; Chato, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen and nitrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device (LAD). Three fine mesh screen samples (325x2300, 450x2750, 510x3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen using cold and warm non-condensable (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen or nitrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0K - 90K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over non-condensable pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  9. A gas thermometer for vapor pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    The pressure of an inert gas over the range 400 1000 K was measured on a tensimetric unit with a quartz membrane pressure gauge of enhanced sensitivity. It was shown that a reactor with a membrane null gauge could be used as a gas thermometer. The experimental confidence pressure and temperature intervals were 0.07 torr and 0.1 K at a significance level of 0.05. A Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple was calibrated; the results were approximated by a polynomial of degree five. The error in temperature calculations was 0.25 K.

  10. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  11. Geosynchronous Relativistic Electron Events Associated with High-Speed Solar Wind Streams in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent enhancements of relativistic electron events at geosynchronous orbit (GREEs were observed in 2006. These GREE enhancements were associated with high-speed solar wind streams coming from the same coronal hole. For the first six months of 2006, the occurrence of GREEs has 27 day periodicity and the GREEs were enhanced with various flux levels. Several factors have been studied to be related to GREEs: (1 High speed stream, (2 Pc5 ULF wave activity, (3 Southward IMF Bz, (4 substorm occurrence, (5 Whistler mode chorus wave, and (6 Dynamic pressure. In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness about those parameters in selected periods.

  12. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  13. A Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Gas Pressure on the Water Saturation of Compacted Bentonite-Sand Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste, the generated gas can potentially affect the sealing ability of bentonite buffers. There is a competition between water and gas: the former provides sealing by swelling bentonite, and the latter attempts to desaturate the bentonite buffer. Thus, this study focused on numerically modelling the coupling effects of water and gas on the water saturation and sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand samples. Different gas pressures were applied to the top surface of an upper sample, whereas the water pressure on the bottom side of the lower sample was maintained at 4 MPa. The results indicated that gas pressure did not significantly affect the saturation of the bentonite-sand sample until 2 MPa. At 2 MPa, the degree of water saturation of the upper sample was close to 1.0. As the gas pressure increased, this influence was more apparent. When the gas pressure was 6 MPa or higher, it was difficult for the upper sample to become fully saturated. Additionally, the lower sample was desaturated due to the high gas pressure. This indicated that gas pressure played an important role in the water saturation process and can affect the sealing efficiency of bentonite-based buffer materials.

  14. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  15. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  16. Pitot-Pressure Measurements in Flow Fields Behind a Rectangular Nozzle with Exhaust Jet for Free-Stream Mach Numbers of 0.00, 0.60, and 1.20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, L. E.; Mercer, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to measure the flow field in and around the jet exhaust from a nonaxisymmetric nozzle configuration. The nozzle had a rectangular exit with a width-to-height ratio of 2.38. Pitot-pressure measurements were made at five longitudinal locations downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum distance downstream of the exit was about 5 nozzle heights. These measurements were made at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.00, 0.60, and 1.20 with the nozzle operating at a ratio of nozzle total pressure to free-stream static pressure of 4.0. The jet exhaust was simulated with high-pressure air that had an exit total temperature essentially equal to the free-stream total temperature.

  17. Risetime discrimination applied to pressurized Xe gas proportional counter for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    A high pressure Xe proportional counter has been developed for hard X-ray observation. This counter has better energy-resolving power than a NaI scintillation counter, and the realization of large area is relatively easy. This counter is constructed with a cylindrical aluminum tube, and this tube can be used at 40 atmospheric pressure. The detection efficiency curves were obtained in relation to gas pressure. It is necessary to reduce impurities in the Xe gas to increase the energy-resolving power of the counter. The increase of gas pressure made the resolving power worse. The characteristics of the counter were stable for at least a few months. The wave form discrimination was applied to reduce the background signals such as pulses caused by charged particles and gamma-ray. This method has been used for normal pressure counter, and in the present study, it was applied for the high pressure counter. It was found that the discrimination method was able to be applied to this case. (Kato, T.)

  18. SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IN A FIRST INFALL SCENARIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besla, G.; Hernquist, L.; Keres, D.; Kallivayalil, N.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Cox, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent high-precision proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope suggest that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) are either on their first passage or on an eccentric long period (>6 Gyr) orbit about the Milky Way (MW). This differs markedly from the canonical picture in which the Clouds travel on a quasi-periodic orbit about the MW (period of ∼2 Gyr). Without a short-period orbit about the MW, the origin of the Magellanic Stream, a young (1-2 Gyr old) coherent stream of H I gas that trails the Clouds ∼150 0 across the sky, can no longer be attributed to stripping by MW tides and/or ram pressure stripping by MW halo gas. We propose an alternative formation mechanism in which material is removed by LMC tides acting on the SMC before the system is accreted by the MW. We demonstrate the feasibility and generality of this scenario using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with cosmologically motivated initial conditions constrained by the observations. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that it is possible to explain the origin of the Magellanic Stream in a first infall scenario. This picture is generically applicable to any gas-rich dwarf galaxy pair infalling toward a massive host or interacting in isolation.

  19. Gas migration characteristics of highly compacted bentonite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2010-01-01

    In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Hydrogen gas can be generated inside the engineered barrier by anaerobic corrosion of metals used for containers, etc. If the gas generation rate exceeds the diffusion rate of dissolved gas inside of the engineered barrier, gas will accumulate in the void space inside of the engineered barrier until its pressure becomes large enough for it to enter the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase. It is expected to be not easy for gas to entering into the bentonite as a discrete gaseous phase because the pore of compacted bentonite is so minute. Gas migration characteristics of highly compacted powdered bentonite are already reported by CRIEPI. In this report, gas migration characteristics of bentonite ore, which is a candidate for construction material of repository for radioactive waste, is investigated. The following conclusions are obtained through the results of the gas migration tests which are conducted in this study: 1) When the total gas pressure exceeds the initial total axial stress, the total axial stress is always equal to the total gas pressure because specimens shrink in the axial direction with causing the clearance between the end of the specimen and porous metal. By increasing the gas pressure more, gas breakthrough, which defined as a sudden and sharp increase in gas flow rate out of the specimen, occurs. Therefore gas migration mechanism of compacted bentonite ore is basically identical to that of compacted powdered bentonite. 2) Hydraulic conductivity measured after the gas breakthrough is somewhat smaller than that measured before the gas migration test. This fact means that it might be possible to neglect decline of the function of bentonite as engineered barrier caused by the gas breakthrough. These characteristics of compacted bentonite ore are identical to those of

  20. A model for the origin of solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundhausen, A.J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    The basic variations in solar wind properties that have been observed at 'stream interfaces' near 1 AU are explained by a gas dynamic model in which a radially propagating stream, produced by a temperature variation in the solar envelope, steepens nonlinearly while moving through interplanetary space. The region thus identified with the stream interface separates the ambient solar wind from the fresh hot material originally in the stream. However, the interface regions given by the present model are thicker than most stream interfaces observed in the solar wind, a fact suggesting that some additional physical process may be important in determining that thickness. Variations in the density, speed, or Alfven pressure alone appear not to produce streams with such an interface

  1. Pressure-dependent pure- and mixed-gas permeation properties of Nafion®

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed

    2016-04-20

    The permeation properties of Nafion® at 35 °C are presented for pure gases H2, N2, O2, CH4, CO2, C2H6 and C3H8, as a function of pressure between 2 and 20 atm. The effect of pressure on permeability and selectivity is analyzed to understand two observed phenomena: compression and plasticization. In pure-gas experiments, at increasing feed pressure, compression of the polymer matrix reduced the permeability of low-sorbing penetrants H2, N2, O2, and CH4. In contrast, permeabilities of more soluble penetrants CO2 and C2H6 increased by 18% and 46% respectively, as plasticization effects overcame compression effects. Permeability of C3H8 decreased slightly with increasing pressure up to 4.6 atm as a result of compression, then increased by 3-fold at 9 atm as a result of plasticization associated with high C3H8 solubility. Binary CO2/CH4 (50:50) mixed-gas experiments at total feed pressures up to 36 atm quantified the effect of CO2 plasticization on separation performance. At 10 atm CO2 partial pressure, CH4 permeability increased by 23% relative to its pure-gas value of 0.078 Barrer, while CO2 permeability decreased by 28%. Consequently, CO2/CH4 selectivity decreased to 19, i.e., 42% below its pure-gas value of 32.

  2. Investigation of Raman bands vapour of contours of trichloroethylene at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleskaya, G.A.; Ikramov, M.; Shukurov, T.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of high-pressure extraneous gas on contour comb. band, spreading trichloroethylene steams are in given article. Increasing of extraneous gas pressure brings to decreasing free molecule circling time is shown

  3. Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  5. High-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Esterline, J.H. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Leckey, C.A. [Department of Physics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2011-08-11

    We report on features of high-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of {gamma}-rays as well. Furthermore, {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy {gamma}-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction, neutron and {gamma}-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  6. Flow induced vibrations in gas tube assembly of centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Atta, M.A.; Mirza, J.A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1986-01-01

    A centrifuge essentially consists of a rotor rotating at very high speed. Gas tube assembly, located at the center of the rotor, is used to introduce feed gas into the rotor and remove product and waste streams from it. The gas tube assembly is thus a static component, the product and waste scoops of which are lying in the high pressure region of a fluid rotating at very high speed. This can cause flow induced vibrations in the gas tube assembly. Such vibrations affect not only the mechanical stability of the gas tube assembly but may also reduce the separative power of the centrifuge. In a cascade, if some of the centrifuges have gas tube vibration, then cascade performance will be affected. A theoretical analysis of the effect of waste tube vibrations on product and waste flow rates and pressures in the centrifuge is presented. A simple stage consisting of two centrifuges, in which one has tube vibration, is considered for this purpose. The results are compared with experiment. It is shown that waste tube vibration generates oscillations in waste and product flow rates that are observable outside the centrifuge. (author)

  7. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-14

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm(2)/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites.

  8. Feasibility studies of high-pressure 4π proportional counter for absolute activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kawada, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure proportional counter system is constructed. The high pressure 4πβ counter system constructed is made of aluminum and is divided into two 2π counters. The gas pressure is controlled with a pressure regulator and very fine leak valves to keep the balance of a stable pressure and constant flow rate. Investigation of characteristics of th counter shows that there is an almost linear relation between voltage and pressure. The linearlity of gas gain of this counter to the electron energies is measured with different gas pressures. Quite good linear gas multiplication is obtained at 0.9 MPa. Another investigation is made of application of to activity measurement of 109 Cd. When the gas pressure is over 0.5 MPa, the proportion of collected conversion electrons to absolute activity comes to a constant value of 96 %. This is quite good agreement with the decay data of 96.4 % conversion electron emission rate. The study indicated many excellent features for activity measurement. Especially the efficiency variation technique is good for automatic data acquisition with a programmable high voltage supplier. Moreover, since it is possible to obtain absolute activity with only one sample, it will be quite useful for limited samples experiments. (N.K.)

  9. Air and gas pockets in sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to large centralised WWTPs by means of an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the past decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. For that reason, in practice their state of functioning is often not known. Failure of operation is only noticed when the capacity of the system proves to be insufficient to fulfil the minimum design capacity demand. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. Many causes may account for the reduction of the system's nominal capacity like an increased wall roughness, scaling or occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. The occurrence of free gas may be caused by degassing of dissolved (bio) gas or by air entrained at the pumps' inlet or at air valves. A research study is started that will focus on three main issues: The description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation and dynamic hydraulic behaviour, A method to diagnose gas problems, and To overcome future problems by either applying remedial measures or improving the design of wastewater pressure systems. For this study, two experimental facilities are constructed, a small circuit for the study of multi-phase flow and a second, larger one for the research into diagnostic methods. This paper describes the preliminary results of the experiments in the multi-phase circuit.

  10. Investigations of Pulsed Plasma Streams Generated by 'Prosvet' device Operated with Different Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrka, O.V.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V. and others

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the investigations of plasma streams generated by pulsed plasma gun 'Prosvet' operated with different gases: krypton (m=84) and helium (m=4). Contour parameters of working gas spectral lines (full intensities and half-widths) are used for determination of spatial distributions of the electron density and temperature. Temporal distributions of the spectral lines intensities (both neutrals and ions of working gas), impurity spectral lines and continuum intensities are analyzed. Plasma stream velocity was estimated by time-of-flight method between two monochromators (MUM) connected with photo-multiplier. longitudinal distributions of the plasma pressure for different time moments and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerator. Experiments show that operation regime of the accelerator and plasma stream parameters strongly depend on the gas atomic mass

  11. Very high-power electron-beam transport in long gas cells from 10-3 to 103 Torr N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements and analyses show that the 13-TW, pulsed Hermes-III electron beam, with current near the Alfven limit, has two regimes of stable transport: a low-pressure window (between ∼1 and ∼100 mTorr) that is dominated by propagation in the semi-collisionless IFR (ion-focused regime), and a high-pressure window (between ∼1 and ∼100 Torr) that is dominated by propagation in the resistive CDR (collision-dominated regime). Propagation in both regimes (the IFR at early time and the CDR at later time) is observed from ∼10 to ∼100 mTorr. Below ∼1 mTorr, there is insufficient ionization to confine the beam. As the pressure increases, two-stream instabilities terminate IFR propagation earlier in time. Above 10 mTorr, this instability is sufficiently quenched by gas collisions that CDR propagation in the beam body occurs. Above ∼100 mTorr, the gas breaks down too rapidly for a significant IFR pulse to form, and for higher pressures only a single pulse in the CDR is propagated. Between ∼100 mTorr and ∼1 Torr, however, the hollowing instability and lack of magnetic confinement limit CDR propagation, and above ∼100 Torr, the resistive hose instability again degrades propagation

  12. High-pressure test loop design and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Graves, J.N.; Blair, P.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-07-01

    A high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed for the purpose of performing a number of chemistry experiments at simulated HTGR conditions of temperature, pressure, flow, and impurity content. The HPTL can be used to develop, modify, and verify computer codes for a variety of chemical processes involving gas phase transport in the reactor. Processes such as graphite oxidation, fission product transport, fuel reactions, purification systems, and dust entrainment can be studied at high pressure, which would largely eliminate difficulties in correlating existing laboratory data and reactor conditions

  13. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  14. Gas turbine engine with three co-axial turbine rotors in the same gas-stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronogaard, S.O.

    1978-06-01

    A gas turbine engine with three coaxial rotors in the same gas passage designed for automative purposes is described. The first turbine rotor is rather small and does not supply all the power for compression at full load. It could be made from ceramic materials. The second rotor is mounted on a tubular axle and used for propulsion through a planetary gear. The third rotor is also mounted on a separate tubular axle and is used for driving auxillary machines pumps, i.e., generator, heat exchanger, etc.. It also delivers, through a thin shaft inside the second axle, extra power to the compressor, at full load. This turbine also rotates the vehicle stands still, if the second turbine is locked. The second and third turbines are rotating in opposite directions. Shaft bearings are air-stream supported. The turbine housing is made from light metal with internal surfaces in contact with gas or air and are covered with a layer of ceramics.

  15. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  16. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  17. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  18. Detection of solvent losses (entrainment) in gas streams of process vessels using radioisotope tracing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Juhari Mohd Yusof

    2002-01-01

    Liquid droplets (MDEA aqueous solution) entrained in the gas streams can cause severe problems on chemical plants. On-line detection of liquid entrainment (carry over) into gas streams from process vessel is investigated using radioisotope iodine ( 131 I). In order to obtain information on whether there is any carry-over of MDEA in the vapour space leaving from the process system, a number of test and calibration injections involving the released of certain amount of tracer activity (mCi) at the inlet and overhead lines of the process vessels were made using a special injection device. MDEA solvent- tagged tracer in the overhead line of the designated process vessels was monitored using radiation scintillation detectors mounted externally at specified locations of the vessels. Output pulses (response curves) with respect to time of measurements from all detectors were plotted and analysed for the finger prints of solvent losses leaving the vessels. From this study, no distinguishable peaks were detected at the outlet vessels of the overhead lines. Thus, no significant MDEA solvent losses in the form of vapour being discovered along the gas streams due to the process taking place in the system. (Author)

  19. An alternate mathematical approach to recover hydrogen with high permeate purity from gas streams of small-medium level oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M.; Hussain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas separation processes play a vital role in many industries like hydrogen recovery, air separation, natural gas dehydration. Membrane based gas separation processes offer a great potential for these industrial applications because of their environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and ease of scale up. Mathematical modeling of membrane based gas separation process can help to predict the performance of such separation processes. In this study, a numerical method is proposed by comparing different numerical techniques which are used to solve model equations of co-current flow. Numerical methods such as Bogacki-Shampine method, Dormand-Prince method, Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method, numerical differentiation formulas, modified Rosenbrock formula of order 2, Trapezoidal rule with free interpolant and Trapezoidal rule with backward difference formula of order 2 are used to solve the system of coupled nonlinear differential equations. This approach is used for the first time in a multicomponent membrane based gas separation process. This technique requires least computational time, improved solution stability and has been validated for the separation of hydrogen from multicomponent gas mixture. This numerical technique helps to predict the concentration of hydrogen in reject (retentate) and permeate streams. The simulation results show good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  20. Simulation of high consequence areas for gas pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz-Parra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas pipeline is used for the transport of natural gas at a great distance. Risks derived from the handling of a combustible material transported under high pressure, by pipelines that pass close to where people live, makes it necessary to adopt prevention, mitigation and control measures to reduce the effect in case of ignition of a gas leak. This work shows the development of a new mathematical model to determine areas of high consequence and their application, using widely available and easy to use software, such as Google Earth and Excel, to determine and visualize the area up to which the level of radiation can affect the integrity of people and buildings. The model takes into account the pressure drop into the gas pipeline from the compression station, the gas leakage rate and possible forms of gas ignition. This development is an alternative to the use of specialized software and highly trained personnel. The simulation is applied to a traced of the Miraflores-Tunja gas pipeline, using a macro developed in Excel to determine the impact area and compare it with the coordinates of the vulnerable areas. The zones where these areas intersect are constituted in high consequence areas and are identified along with the sections of the pipeline that affect them, to provide the operator with a risk analysis tool for the determination and visualization of the gas pipeline and its environment.

  1. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Joung, M. Ryan; Devriendt, Julien; Ceverino, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-07-01

    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ˜4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas (λ cold ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  2. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Maller, Ariyeh H. [Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Oñorbe, Jose [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Joung, M. Ryan [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Devriendt, Julien [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ceverino, Daniel [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kereš, Dušan [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ∼4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas ( λ {sub cold} ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  3. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  4. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  5. Atomic and molecular hydrogen gas temperatures in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuell, Cameron M.; Corr, Cormac S.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral gas temperatures in hydrogen plasmas are important for experimental and modelling efforts in fusion technology, plasma processing, and surface modification applications. To provide values relevant to these application areas, neutral gas temperatures were measured in a low pressure (radiofrequency helicon discharge using spectroscopic techniques. The atomic and molecular species were not found to be in thermal equilibrium with the atomic temperature being mostly larger then the molecular temperature. In low power operation (measurements near a graphite target demonstrated localised cooling near the sample surface. The temporal evolution of the molecular gas temperature during a high power 1.1 ms plasma pulse was also investigated and found to vary considerably as a function of pressure.

  6. Gas permeation measurement under defined humidity via constant volume/variable pressure method

    KAUST Repository

    Jan Roman, Pauls

    2012-02-01

    Many industrial gas separations in which membrane processes are feasible entail high water vapour contents, as in CO 2-separation from flue gas in carbon capture and storage (CCS), or in biogas/natural gas processing. Studying the effect of water vapour on gas permeability through polymeric membranes is essential for materials design and optimization of these membrane applications. In particular, for amine-based CO 2 selective facilitated transport membranes, water vapour is necessary for carrier-complex formation (Matsuyama et al., 1996; Deng and Hägg, 2010; Liu et al., 2008; Shishatskiy et al., 2010) [1-4]. But also conventional polymeric membrane materials can vary their permeation behaviour due to water-induced swelling (Potreck, 2009) [5]. Here we describe a simple approach to gas permeability measurement in the presence of water vapour, in the form of a modified constant volume/variable pressure method (pressure increase method). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Criteria of assessment for local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines; Beurteilungskriterien fuer lokale Wanddickenminderungen an in Betrieb befindlichen Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Georg [NetzDienste Rhein/Main GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoffman, Ulrich [VNG - Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany); Konarske, Juergen [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Recklinghausen (Germany); Soppa, Thorsten [NG Netz Gas+Wasser (Germany). Bau/Betrieb Hochdrucknetz; Steiner, Michael [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany). Integritaet/Werkstofftechnik

    2011-07-01

    TUeV Nord, Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung and DVGW investigated methods to assess local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines. Methods described in the relevant literature were reviewed with regard to the limiting criteria defined for maximum permissible wall thickness reductions. On the basis of this literature study and additional calculations, a comparative evaluation of the available methods was made. Several methods were identified that are compatible with the existing safety concept and general availability. It was found that - nearly independent of the method - burst safeties of 1.8 to 2.0 were used. The ultimate goal is the development of a German standard evaluation concept for local wall thickness reductions in high-pressure gas pipelines in order to avoid uncertainties and/or misinterpretations.

  8. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  9. Simulating security of supply effects of the Nabucco and South Stream projects for the European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2010-12-15

    Due to the increasing European import dependency, significant additional natural gas volumes will be required. In addition to the Nord Stream pipeline, the Nabucco and South Stream pipeline are projects planned for the next decade to provide further gas supplies to the European market. As one of the European Union's energy policies' foci is security of supply, the question can be raised if and how these projects contribute to this objective not only in terms of diversification but also in case of supply disruptions such as occurred in 2009 during the Russia-Ukraine gas crisis. This paper discusses the impact of these two major gas import pipeline projects on the South-Eastern Europe gas supply and analyzes their effects on gas flows and marginal cost prices in general and in case of gas supply disruptions via Ukraine in a model-based analysis with the European natural gas infrastructure and dispatch model TIGER. (orig.)

  10. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  11. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  12. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-10-31

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  13. ACOUSTIC DETECTING AND LOCATING GAS PIPE LINE INFRINGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-12-01

    The extensive network of high-pressure natural gas transmission pipelines covering the United States provides an important infrastructure for our energy independence. Early detection of pipeline leaks and infringements by construction equipment, resulting in corrosion fractures, presents an important aspect of our national security policy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCVG) is and has been funding research on various applicable techniques. The WVU research team has focused on monitoring pipeline background acoustic signals generated and transmitted by gas flowing through the gas inside the pipeline. In case of a pipeline infringement, any mechanical impact on the pipe wall, or escape of high-pressure gas, generates acoustic signals traveling both up and down stream through the gas. Sudden changes in flow noise are detectable with a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP), developed under this contract. It incorporates a pressure compensating microphone and a signal- recording device. Direct access to the gas inside the line is obtained by mounting such a PAMP, with a 1/2 inch NPT connection, to a pipeline pressure port found near most shut-off valves. An FFT of the recorded signal subtracted by that of the background noise recorded one-second earlier appears to sufficiently isolate the infringement signal to allow source interpretation. Using cell phones for data downloading might allow a network of such 1000-psi rated PAMP's to acoustically monitor a pipeline system and be trained by neural network software to positively identify and locate any pipeline infringement.

  14. Determination of mercury evasion in a contaminated headwater stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maprani, Antu C; Al, Tom A; Macquarrie, Kerry T; Dalziel, John A; Shaw, Sean A; Yeats, Phillip A

    2005-03-15

    Evasion from first- and second-order streams in a watershed may be a significant factor in the atmospheric recycling of volatile pollutants such as mercury; however, methods developed for the determination of Hg evasion rates from larger water bodies are not expected to provide satisfactory results in highly turbulent and morphologically complex first- and second-order streams. A new method for determining the Hg evasion rates from these streams, involving laboratory gas-indexing experiments and field tracer tests, was developed in this study to estimate the evasion rate of Hg from Gossan Creek, a first-order stream in the Upsalquitch River watershed in northern New Brunswick, Canada. Gossan Creek receives Hg-contaminated groundwater discharge from a gold mine tailings pile. Laboratory gas-indexing experiments provided the ratio of gas-exchange coefficients for zero-valent Hg to propane (tracer gas) of 0.81+/-0.16, suggesting that the evasion mechanism in highly turbulent systems can be described by the surface renewal model with an additional component of enhanced gas evasion probably related to the formation of bubbles. Deliberate field tracer tests with propane and chloride tracers were found to be a reliable and practical method for the determination of gas-exchange coefficients for small streams. Estimation of Hg evasion from the first 1 km of Gossan Creek indicates that about 6.4 kg of Hg per year is entering the atmosphere, which is a significant fraction of the regional sources of Hg to the atmosphere.

  15. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  16. A primary scintillation gated high pressure position sensitive gas scintillation proportional counter (HPGSPC) for applications to x-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giarrusso, S.; Manzo, G.; Re, S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe a new instrument for x-ray astronomy. The instrument, based on a high pressure (5 atm.), xenon filled, position sensitive Gas Scintillation Proportional counter (HPGSPC) is expected to feature an energy resolution better than 4% at 60 keV, an angular resolution of approximately 20 arc-minutes over the full energy range (4 to 100 keV) and a field of view (FOV) of up to 30x30 degrees. A prototype flight unit of the gas cell on which the instrument is based is presently under technological development in the framework of the SAX project

  17. Development of a facility for the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas by pressure swing adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Saida, K; Uenoyama, K; Sugishita, M; Imokawa, K

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports 1) a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system comprising three towers, each packed with three different adsorbents; and 2) studies of the application of this system to the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas. Running the adsorption plant at 35 C and 9.5 kg/cm/sup 2/ gives optimum operating stability and economy. In addition, an optimum time cycle for the three-tower system has been developed. Gas from the PSA equipment proper still contains traces of oxygen. This is removed in a further tower packed with Pd catalyst. The ultimate recovery of hydrogen is closely related to its concentration in the raw coke oven gas and to the degree of purity attained. 3 references.

  18. A new algorithm predicts pressure and temperature profiles of gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhatab, Saied [OIEC - Oil Industries' Engineering and Construction Group, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vatani, Ali [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of the present study has been the development of a relatively simple analytical algorithm for predicting flow temperature and pressure profiles along the two-phase, gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines. Results demonstrate the ability of the method to predict reasonably accurate pressure gradient and temperature gradient profiles under operating conditions. (author)

  19. Anomalous He-gas high-pressure studies on superconducting LaO1-xFxFeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, W; Banks, H B; Schilling, J S; Takahashi, H; Okada, H; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H

    2010-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements have been carried out on superconducting LaO 1-x F x FeAs for x=0.07 and 0.14 under He-gas pressures to ∼0.8 GPa. Not only do the measured values of dT c /dP differ substantially from those obtained in previous studies using other pressure media, but also the T c (P) dependences observed depend on the detailed pressure/temperature history of the sample. A sizeable sensitivity of T c (P) to shear stresses provides a possible explanation.

  20. Simulation of high consequence areas for gas pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Díaz-Parra; Enrique Vera-López

    2018-01-01

    The gas pipeline is used for the transport of natural gas at a great distance. Risks derived from the handling of a combustible material transported under high pressure, by pipelines that pass close to where people live, makes it necessary to adopt prevention, mitigation and control measures to reduce the effect in case of ignition of a gas leak. This work shows the development of a new mathematical model to determine areas of high consequence and their application, using widely available and...

  1. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  2. A pressure-amplifying framework material with negative gas adsorption transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Stoeck, Ulrich; Wallacher, Dirk; Többens, Daniel M; Zander, Stefan; Pillai, Renjith S; Maurin, Guillaume; Coudert, François-Xavier; Kaskel, Stefan

    2016-04-21

    Adsorption-based phenomena are important in gas separations, such as the treatment of greenhouse-gas and toxic-gas pollutants, and in water-adsorption-based heat pumps for solar cooling systems. The ability to tune the pore size, shape and functionality of crystalline porous coordination polymers--or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--has made them attractive materials for such adsorption-based applications. The flexibility and guest-molecule-dependent response of MOFs give rise to unexpected and often desirable adsorption phenomena. Common to all isothermal gas adsorption phenomena, however, is increased gas uptake with increased pressure. Here we report adsorption transitions in the isotherms of a MOF (DUT-49) that exhibits a negative gas adsorption; that is, spontaneous desorption of gas (methane and n-butane) occurs during pressure increase in a defined temperature and pressure range. A combination of in situ powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption experiments and simulations shows that this adsorption behaviour is controlled by a sudden hysteretic structural deformation and pore contraction of the MOF, which releases guest molecules. These findings may enable technologies using frameworks capable of negative gas adsorption for pressure amplification in micro- and macroscopic system engineering. Negative gas adsorption extends the series of counterintuitive phenomena such as negative thermal expansion and negative refractive indices and may be interpreted as an adsorptive analogue of force-amplifying negative compressibility transitions proposed for metamaterials.

  3. The influence of chemicals on water quality in a high pressure separation rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Einar E.; Hemmingsen, Paal V.; Mediaas, Heidi; Svarstad, May Britt E.; Westvik, Arild

    2006-03-15

    In the research laboratory of Statoil at Rotvoll, Trondheim, a high pressure experimental rig used for separation and foaming studies has been developed. There have been several studies to ensure that the high pressure separation rig produces reliable and consistent results with regard to the water-in-oil and oil-in-water contents. The results are consistent with available field data and, just as important, consistent when changing variables like temperature, pressure drop and water cut. The results are also consistent when changing hydrodynamic variables like flow velocity and mixing point (using different choke valves) and when using oil with and without gas saturation. At equal experimental conditions, the high pressure separation rig is able to differentiate between separation characteristics of oil and water from different fields and from different wells at the same field. The high pressure separation and foam rig can be used from -10 deg C to 175 deg C and at pressures up to 200 bar. Crude oil and water are studied under relevant process conditions with respect to temperature, pressure, shear, water cut and separation time. In the present work the influence of chemicals on the oil and water quality has been studied. Chemicals have been mixed into the oil and/or water beforehand or added in situ (on-stream; simulated well stream). The amount of oil in the water after a given residence time in the separation cell has been measured. The results from the high pressure rig show that some demulsifiers, with their primary purpose of giving less water in oil, also have influence on the water quality. Improvement of water quality has been observed as well as no effect or aggravation. The experimental results have been compared to results from bottle tests at the field. The results from the bottle tests and from the laboratory are not corresponding, and only a full-scale field test can tell which of them are the correct results, if any. (Experience from corresponding

  4. Efficient Total Nitrogen Removal in an Ammonia Gas Biofilter through High-Rate OLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Courtens, Emilie; Mosquera, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia gas is conventionally treated in nitrifying biofilters; however, addition of organic carbon to perform post-denitrification is required to obtain total nitrogen removal. Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), applied in full-scale for wastewater treatment, can...... offer a cost-effective alternative for gas treatment. In this study, the OLAND application thus was broadened toward ammonia loaded gaseous streams. A down flow, oxygen-saturated biofilter (height of 1.5 m; diameter of 0.11 m) was fed with an ammonia gas stream (248 ± 10 ppmv) at a loading rate of 0...... at water flow rates of 1.3 ± 0.4 m3 m–2 biofilter section d–1. Profile measurements revealed that 91% of the total nitrogen activity was taking place in the top 36% of the filter. This study demonstrated for the first time highly effective and sustainable autotrophic ammonia removal in a gas biofilter...

  5. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  6. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Can; Liu, Haixia

    2013-08-14

    Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  7. Solid-Gas Coupling Model for Coal-Rock Mass Deformation and Pressure Relief Gas Flow in Protection Layer Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhuohui; Feng, Tao; Yuan, Zhigang; Xie, Donghai; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solid-gas coupling model for mining coal-rock mass deformation and pressure relief gas flow in protection layer mining is the key to determine deformation of coal-rock mass and migration law of pressure relief gas of protection layer mining in outburst coal seams. Based on the physical coupling process between coal-rock mass deformation and pressure-relief gas migration, the coupling variable of mining coal-rock mass, a part of governing equations of gas seepage field and deformation fiel...

  8. Modeling beam-front dynamics at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Yu, S.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of space charge neutralization at the front of an intense self-focused electron beam pulse exhibits important differences in different gas pressure regimes. At very low pressures, the beam front is in the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) where all secondary electrons are expelled from the beam region by the radial electric field without causing significant additional ionization. We estimate the upper pressure boundary of this regime by considering the distance scale length for cascade (avalanche) ionization. Data from the FX-25 diode experiments indicate a critical transition pressure (P/sub c/) that agrees with this estimate and with its scaling among various gas types. Normal mobility-limited treatments (local conductivity models) of the secondary electrons at the beam front are not justified until the gas pressure is 10 to 50 times higher than P/sub c/, due to runaway of these secondary electrons in the strong space-charge electric field at the lower pressures. The main conclusion of this study is that a non-local phase space (Boltzmann) treatment of the secondary electrons is required to accurately describe these different beam front regimes and the transitions between them; such a code model is currently under development

  9. BLOSTREAM: A HIGH SPEED STREAM CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI H. KASHMAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although stream ciphers are widely utilized to encrypt sensitive data at fast speeds, security concerns have led to a shift from stream to block ciphers, judging that the current technology in stream cipher is inferior to the technology of block ciphers. This paper presents the design of an improved efficient and secure stream cipher called Blostream, which is more secure than conventional stream ciphers that use XOR for mixing. The proposed cipher comprises two major components: the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG using the Rabbit algorithm and a nonlinear invertible round function (combiner for encryption and decryption. We evaluate its performance in terms of implementation and security, presenting advantages and disadvantages, comparison of the proposed cipher with similar systems and a statistical test for randomness. The analysis shows that the proposed cipher is more efficient, high speed, and secure than current conventional stream ciphers.

  10. Influences of gas stream conditions on efficiency of tritiated moisture collection with P2O5-desiccant and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Miura, Katsuya; Kashio, Yousuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1991-01-01

    A method was proposed previously for collection and measurement of tritiated moisture in gas stream using P 2 O 5 -desiccant. Influences of the gas humidity, the gas flow rate and the distance between gas nozzle and P 2 O 5 -desiccant layer surface on the moisture collection efficiency have been examined through experiments, and the isotope effect on the collection has been investigated. The collection efficiency is the ratio of collected to supplied moisture, and the moisture supplying rate is in proportion to the humidity and flow rate of feed gas. The experiments show that; the collection efficiency dose not depend on the gas humidity, but is affected by the gas flow rate and by the nozzle-layer distance. The effects of the flow rate and the nozzle position are related to the mass transfer distance from the bulk of gas stream to the desiccant layer surface in the collection cell. The moisture collecting rate is promoted by the approach of the gas stream to the layer surface. An expression of effective separation factor has been derived to explain the isotope effect on the moisture collection. Experimental data distribution of the separation factor have been reasonably simulated by the analysis. (author)

  11. NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in controlled ratios, simulating combustion gas chemistries and temperatures that are realistic to those in gas turbine engines. In addition, the test section is capable of simulating the pressures and gas velocities representative of today's aircraft. The HPBR provides a relatively inexpensive. yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials. The facility has the unique capability of operating under both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. using a fume incinerator to eliminate any harmful byproduct emissions (CO, H2S) of rich-burn operation. Test samples are easily accessible for ongoing inspection and documentation of weight change, thickness, cracking, and other metrics. Temperature measurement is available in the form of both thermocouples and optical pyrometery. and the facility is equipped with quartz windows for observation and video taping. Operating conditions include: (1) 1.0 kg/sec (2.0 lbm/sec) combustion and secondary cooling airflow capability: (2) Equivalence ratios of 0.5- 1.0 (lean) to 1.5-2.0 (rich), with typically 10% H2O vapor pressure: (3) Gas temperatures ranging 700-1650 C (1300-3000 F): (4) Test pressures ranging 4-12 atmospheres: (5) Gas flow velocities ranging 10-30 m/s (50-100) ft/sec.: and (6) Cyclic and steady-state exposure capabilities. The facility has historically been used to test coupon-size materials. including metals and ceramics. However complex-shaped components have also been tested including cylinders, airfoils, and film-cooled end walls. The facility has also been used to develop thin-film temperature measurement sensors.

  12. Comparative measurements between a Li-6 glass and a He-3 high-pressure gas scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesmeyer, H.G.; Fischer, P.; Harz, U.; Soldner, B.

    1983-01-01

    The He-3 high-pressure gas scintillation neutron detector commercially available as LND 800, has been compated to a Li-6 glass scintillator type NE 912. (n,γ) pulse height discrimination capabilities and neutron detection efficiencies have been determined. The objective of these measurements was to try to improve the Kiel Fast-Chopper TOF detector system by using a gasscintillator, which could cover the neutron beam geometry and by which gamma ray background contributions could be reduced. The time response always meets the requirements of a chopper experiment, but the neutron detection efficiency of the Li-6 glasses now used had to be maintained. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Laser-produced dense plasma in extremely high pressure gas and its application to a plasma-bridged gap switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, J.; Okuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    When an extremely high pressure gas is irradiated by an intense laser light, a dense plasma produced at the focal spot moves towards the focusing lens with a high velocity. Making use of this phenomenon, a new plasma-bridged gap switch is proposed and its switching characteristics is experimentally examined. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the switching time is almost constant with the applied voltage only when the focal spot is just on the positive electrode, indicating that the bridging of gap is caused by the laser light. (author)

  14. Development of Probability Evaluation Methodology for High Pressure/Temperature Gas Induced RCS Boundary Failure and SG Creep Rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kuh Hyung [FNC Tech. Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Existing MELCOR 1.8.5 model was improved in view of severe accident natural circulation and MELCOR 1.8.6 input model was developed and calculation sheets for detailed MELCOR 1.8.6 model were produced. Effects of natural circulation modeling were found by simulating SBO accident by comparing existing model with detailed model. Major phenomenon and system operations which affect on natural circulation by high temperature and high pressure gas were investigated and representative accident sequences for creep rupture model of RCS pipeline and SG tube were selected.

  15. Gas dynamic virtual nozzle for generation of microscopic droplet streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePonte, D P; Weierstall, U; Schmidt, K; Warner, J; Starodub, D; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)], E-mail: dandeponte@gmail.com

    2008-10-07

    As shown by Ganan-Calvo (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 285-8), a free liquid jet can be compressed in diameter through gas dynamic forces exerted by a coaxially co-flowing gas, obviating the need for a solid nozzle to form a microscopic liquid jet and thereby alleviating the clogging problems that plague conventional droplet sources of small diameter. We describe in this paper a novel form of droplet beam source based on this principle. The source is miniature, robust, dependable, easily fabricated, essentially immune to clogging and eminently suitable for delivery of microscopic liquid droplets, including hydrated biological samples, into vacuum for analysis using vacuum instrumentation. Monodisperse, single-file droplet streams are generated by triggering the device with a piezoelectric actuator.

  16. Calculation of propellant gas pressure by simple extended corresponding state principle

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Xu; San-jiu Ying; Xin Liao

    2016-01-01

    The virial equation can well describe gas state at high temperature and pressure, but the difficulties in virial coefficient calculation limit the use of virial equation. Simple extended corresponding state principle (SE-CSP) is introduced in virial equation. Based on a corresponding state equation, including three characteristic parameters, an extended parameter is introduced to describe the second virial coefficient expressions of main products of propellant gas. The modified SE-CSP second ...

  17. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian; Koros, William J.; Johnson, J.R.; Karvan, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dense film polyimide membranes for aggressive sour gas feed separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kraftschik, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Dense film membranes of the copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2) are studied for simultaneous removal of CO2 and H2S from sour natural gas streams. Pure and mixed gas permeation as well as pure gas sorption data are reported at 35°C and pressures up to 62bar. The H2S partial pressures used are representative of highly aggressive field operations. Penetrant-induced plasticization effects are evident at feed pressures below 1bar in pure H2S feeds; sub-Tg thermal annealing is used to effectively mitigate this effect, and these annealed films are used throughout the study. Surprisingly, H2S/CH4 selectivity nearly doubles for mixed gas testing in comparison to the pure component ideal selectivity values and approaches the level of a state-of-the-art glassy polymer, cellulose acetate (CA), at H2S partial pressures above 2bar. Furthermore, permeation experiments using a 9.95% H2S, 19.9% CO2, 70.15% CH4 mixture at low feed pressures give CO2/CH4 selectivity of up to 49-over 30% greater than the pure component selectivity for 6FDA-DAM:DABA (3:2). The overall sour gas separation performance of this polyimide is comparable to high-performance rubbery polymer membranes, which have been reported for only moderate H2S partial pressure feeds, and is superior to that for CA based on a practical combined acid gas separation efficiency metric that we introduce. Finally, methods for continued development of the current polyimide membrane material for aggressive sour gas separations are presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Compact streak camera for the shock study of solids by using the high-pressure gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Mori, Yasuhito

    1993-01-01

    For the precise observation of high-speed impact phenomena, a compact high-speed streak camera recording system has been developed. The system consists of a high-pressure gas gun, a streak camera, and a long-pulse dye laser. The gas gun installed in our laboratory has a muzzle of 40 mm in diameter, and a launch tube of 2 m long. Projectile velocity is measured by the laser beam cut method. The gun is capable of accelerating a 27 g projectile up to 500 m/s, if helium gas is used as a driver. The system has been designed on the principal idea that the precise optical measurement methods developed in other areas of research can be applied to the gun study. The streak camera is 300 mm in diameter, with a rectangular rotating mirror which is driven by an air turbine spindle. The attainable streak velocity is 3 mm/microsecond(s) . The size of the camera is rather small aiming at the portability and economy. Therefore, the streak velocity is relatively slower than the fast cameras, but it is possible to use low-sensitivity but high-resolution film as a recording medium. We have also constructed a pulsed dye laser of 25 - 30 microsecond(s) in duration. The laser can be used as a light source of observation. The advantage for the use of the laser will be multi-fold, i.e., good directivity, almost single frequency, and so on. The feasibility of the system has been demonstrated by performing several experiments.

  20. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  1. Neutron streaming evaluation for the DREAM fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Nishio, Satoshi; Ueda, Shuzo; Kurihara, Ryoichi

    2000-01-01

    Aiming at high degree of safety and benign environmental effect, we have proposed a tokamak fusion reactor concept called DREAM, which stands for DRastically EAsy Maintenance Reactor. The blanket structure of the reactor is made from very low activation SiC/SiC composites and cooled by non-reactive helium gas. High net thermal efficiency of about 50% is realized by 900 C helium gas and high plant availability is possible with simple maintenance scheme. In the DREAM Reactor, neutron streaming is a big problem because cooling pipes with diameter larger than 80 cm are used for blanket heat removal. Neutron streaming through the cooling pipes could cause hot spots in the superconducting magnets adjacent to the cooling pipes to shorten the magnet lifetime or increase cryogenic cooling requirement. Neutron streaming could also activate components such as gas turbine further away from the fusion plasma. The effect of neutron streaming through the helium cooling pipes was evaluated for the two types of cooling pipe extraction scheme. The result of a preliminary calculation indicates the gas turbine activation prohibits personnel access in the case of inboard pipe extraction while with additional shielding measures, limited contact maintenance is possible in the case of outboard extraction. (author)

  2. Process for humidifying a gaseous fuel stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederquist, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A fuel gas stream for a fuel cell is humidified by a recirculating hot liquid water stream using the heat of condensation from the humidified stream as the heat to vaporize the liquid water. Humidification is accomplished by directly contacting the liquid water with the dry gas stream in a saturator to evaporate a small portion of water. The recirculating liquid water is reheated by direct contact with the humidified gas stream in a condenser, wherein water is condensed into the liquid stream. Between the steps of humidifying and condensing water from the gas stream it passes through the fuel cell and additional water, in the form of steam, is added thereto

  3. Feasibility, strategy, methodology, and analysis of probe measurements in plasma under high gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. I.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.; Malkov, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews existing theories for interpreting probe measurements of electron distribution functions (EDF) at high gas pressure when collisions of electrons with atoms and/or molecules near the probe are pervasive. An explanation of whether or not the measurements are realizable and reliable, an enumeration of the most common sources of measurement error, and an outline of proper probe-experiment design elements that inherently limit or avoid error is presented. Additionally, we describe recent expanded plasma-condition compatibility for EDF measurement, including in applications of large wall probe plasma diagnostics. This summary of the authors’ experiences gained over decades of practicing and developing probe diagnostics is intended to inform, guide, suggest, and detail the advantages and disadvantages of probe application in plasma research.

  4. Photo-preionization stabilized high-pressure glow-discharge lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bergmann, H.M.

    1980-07-01

    Simple nanosecond stabilization and pulsing techniques were developed to excite high-pressure gas-discharge lasers at high overvoltages and high specific power loadings. The techniques were applied to a variety of ultraviolet and visible laser systems employing fast transmission line pulsers and conventional LC generators. The stabilization procedures are evaluated and the parameters which control the geometry and uniformity of the high-pressure glow discharges are investigated. A detailed study of the formation, distribution and spectral characteristics of the fast surface corona discharges is provided. The stabilization and pulsing techniques were used for the corona and glow discharge excitation of high-pressure ultraviolet N 2 lasers. A detailed spectrally- and temporally-resolved study of the gain, fluorescence and energy extraction characteristics of the atmospheric pressure N 2 plasmas is provided

  5. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  6. An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Susana; Liu, Q.; Bacon, Diana H.; Maroto-Valer, M. M.

    2014-08-26

    Hematite deposit that is the main FeIII-bearing mineral in sedimentary red beds was proposed as a potential host repository for converting CO2 into carbonate minerals such as siderite (FeCO3), when CO2–SO2 gas mixtures are co-injected. This work investigated CO2 mineral trapping using hematite and sensitivity of the reactive systems to different parameters, including particle size, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and solid-to-liquid ratio. Experimental and modelling studies of hydrothermal experiments were conducted, which emulated a CO2 sequestration scenario by injecting CO2-SO2 gas streams into a NaCl-NaOH brine hosted in iron oxide-containing aquifer. This study provides novel information on the mineralogical changes and fluid chemistry derived from the co-injection of CO2-SO2 gas mixtures in hematite deposit. It can be concluded that the amount of siderite precipitate depends primarily on the SO2 content of the gas stream. Increasing SO2 content in the system could promote the reduction of Fe3+ from the hematite sample to Fe2+, which will be further available for its precipitation as siderite. Moreover, siderite precipitation is enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures. The influence of the solid to liquid ratio on the overall carbonation reaction suggests that the conversion increases if the system becomes more diluted.

  7. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n plu , which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v gas is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n plu ∝ log(v gas ). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity

  8. High-pressure turbine deposition in land-based gas turbines from various synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, J.P.; Crosby, J.; Wammack, J.E.; Bentley, B.I.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Ash deposits from four candidate power turbine synfuels were studied in an accelerated deposition test facility. The facility matches the gas temperature and velocity of modern first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes. A natural gas combustor was seeded with finely ground fuel ash particulate from four different fuels: straw, sawdust, coal, and petroleum coke. The entrained ash particles were accelerated to a combustor exit flow Mach number of 0.31 before impinging on a thermal barrier coating (TBC) target coupon at 1150{sup o}C. Postexposure analyses included surface topography, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy. Due to significant differences in the chemical composition of the various fuel ash samples, deposit thickness and structure vary considerably for fuel. Biomass products (e.g., sawdust and straw) are significantly less prone to deposition than coal and petcoke for the same particle loading conditions. In a test simulating one turbine operating year at a moderate particulate loading of 0.02 parts per million by weight, deposit thickness from coal and petcoke ash exceeded 1 and 2 mm, respectively. These large deposits from coal and petcoke were found to detach readily from the turbine material with thermal cycling and handling. The smaller biomass deposit samples showed greater tenacity, in adhering to the TBC surface. In all cases, corrosive elements (e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, S) were found to penetrate the TBC layer during the accelerated deposition test. Implications for the power generation goal of fuel flexibility are discussed.

  9. Stable propagation of an electron beam in gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Chambers, F.W.; Lodestro, L.L.; Yu, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conditions for the stable propagation of a pinched electron beam in low pressure gas (p approximately 0.1 to 100 torr) are described. The observed window of good propagation around p approximately 2 torr air is interpreted as the quenching of the two-stream mode by sufficiently high plasma density and collision frequency, and the simultaneous suppression of the resistive hose mode by sufficiently rapid generation of electrical conductivity from breakdown ionization

  10. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  11. Free microparticles—An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  12. Free microparticles-An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  13. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  14. Gas and Pressure Dependence for the Mean Size of Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Ablation of Flowing Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, William T.; Malyavanatham, Gokul; Henneke, Dale E.; Brock, James R.; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Glicksman, Howard D.

    2000-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation of a continuously flowing aerosol of microparticles entrained in argon, nitrogen and helium at a variety of gas pressures. Nanoparticles produced in this new, high-volume nanoparticle production technique are compared with our earlier experiments using laser ablation of static microparticles. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples show the nanoparticles to be spherical and highly non-agglomerated under all conditions tested. These micrographs were analyzed to determine the effect of carrier gas type and pressure on size distributions. We conclude that mean diameters can be controlled from 4 to 20 nm by the choice of gas type and pressure. The smallest nanoparticles were produced in helium, with mean sizes increasing with increasing molecular weight of the carrier gas. These results are discussed in terms of a model based on cooling via collisional interaction of the nanoparticles, produced in the laser exploded microparticle, with the ambient gas

  15. Effect of gas pressure on active screen plasma nitriding response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Akio; Nagatsuka, Kimiaki; Narita, Ryota; Nii, Hiroaki; Akamatsu, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was active screen plasma nitrided using a 304 steel screen to investigate the effect of the gas pressure on the ASPN response. The sample was treated for 18 ks at 723 K in 25% N2 + 75% H2 gases. The gas pressure was changed to 100, 600 and 1200 Pa. The distance between screen and sample was also changed to 10, 30 and 50 mm. The nitrided samples were characterized by appearance observation, surface roughness, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. After nitriding, polygonal particles with a normal distribution were observed at the center and edges of all the ASPN-treated sample surfaces. Particles on the sample surfaces were finer with an increase in the gas pressure. The nitrided layer with a greater and homogeneous thickness was obtained at a low gas pressure of 100 Pa. (author)

  16. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  17. H2 gas pressure calculation of FPM capsule failure at RSG-GAS reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastuti, Endiah Puji; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2002-01-01

    RSG-GAS has been irradiated FPM capsule for 236 times, one of those i.e. capsule number 228 has failure. The one of root cause of failure possibility is radiolysis reaction can be occurred in FPM capsule when it is filled with water during irradiation in the reactor core. The safety analysis of the radiolysis reaction in the capsule has been done. The oc cumulative hydrogen gas production can cause high pressure in the capsule then a mechanical damage occurred. The analysis was done at 10 MW of reactor power which equivalent with neutron flux of 0,6929 x 10 1 4 n/cm 2 sec and γ dose rate of 0,63x10 9 rad/hour. The assumption is the capsule is filled with water at maximum volume, i.e. 176.67 ml. The results of calculation showed that radiolysis reaction with γ and neutron produce hydrogen gas for nominal flow rate each are 494 atm and 19683 atm for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. H 2 gas pressure for 5% flow rate each are 723 atm. and 25772 atm., for γ and neutron radiolysis, respectively. The changing of the operation condition due to radiolysis together with one way valve' phenomena, can be produce hydrogen gas from water during irradiation in the reactor core and can be the one of root cause of capsule failure. This analysis recommended the FPM capsule preparation must be guaranteed no water or/and there is no possibility of water immersion in the capsule during irradiation in the core by more accurate leak test

  18. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  19. Switching strategy between HP (high pressure)- and LPEGR (low pressure exhaust gas recirculation) systems for reduced fuel consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luján, José Manuel; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) plays a major role in current Diesel internal combustion engines as a cost-effective solution to reduce NO_x emissions. EGR systems will suffer a significant evolution with the introduction of NO_x after-treatment and the proliferation of more complex EGR architectures such as low pressure EGR or dual EGR. In this paper the combination of HPEGR (high pressure EGR) LPEGR (low pressure EGR) is presented as a method to minimise fuel consumption with reduced NO_x emissions. Particularly, the paper proposes to switch between HPEGR and LPEGR architectures depending on the engine operating conditions in order to exploit the potential of both systems. In this sense, given a driving cycle, in the case at hand the NEDC, the proposed strategy seeks the EGR layout to use at each instant of the cycle to minimise the fuel consumption such that NO_x emissions are kept below a certain limit. The experimental results obtained show that combining both EGR systems sequentially along the NEDC allows to keep NO_x emission below a much lower limit with minimum fuel consumption. - Highlights: • The combination of HP–LPEGR reduces the NO_x with a small impact on consumption. • The switching strategy between HP – LPEGR is derived from Optimal Control Theory. • The proposed strategy is validated experimentally.

  20. Reduced-order modellin for high-pressure transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaie, Baba G.; Khan, Ilyas; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alqahtani, Aisha M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the transient flow of hydrogen compressed-natural gas (HCNG) mixture which is also referred to as hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a pipeline is numerically computed using the reduced-order modelling technique. The study on transient conditions is important because the pipeline flows are normally in the unsteady state due to the sudden opening and closure of control valves, but most of the existing studies only analyse the flow in the steady-state conditions. The mathematical model consists in a set of non-linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. The objective of this paper is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of the HCNG transient flow parameters using the Reduced-Order Modelling (ROM). The ROM technique has been successfully used in single-gas and aerodynamic flow problems, the gas mixture has not been done using the ROM. The study is based on the velocity change created by the operation of the valves upstream and downstream the pipeline. Results on the flow characteristics, namely the pressure, density, celerity and mass flux are based on variations of the mixing ratio and valve reaction and actuation time; the ROM computational time cost advantage are also presented.

  1. CNG transport by ship with FRP pressure vessels access to east coast gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [Trans Ocean Gas Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the Trans Ocean Gas (TOG) method for transporting compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets that are not feasible for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or pipelines. Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. FRP pressure vessels have been proven safe and reliable through critical applications in the national defense, aerospace, and natural gas vehicle industries. They are light-weight, highly reliable, have very safe failure modes, are corrosion resistant, and have excellent low temperature characteristics. Under TOG's scheme, natural gas can be stored at two thirds the density of LNG without costly processing. TOG's proposed design and testing of a CNG system was reviewed in detail. figs.

  2. Investigation of the on-axis atom number density in the supersonic gas jet under high gas backing pressure by simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized deq in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  3. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (pipeline cover, road cover and well pad cover metrics. We related this DII to three measures of high quality streams: Pennsylvania State Exceptional Value (EV) streams, Class A brook trout streams and Eastern Brook Trout Joint Venture brook trout patches. Overall only 3.8% of all catchments and 2.7% of EV stream length, 1.9% of Class A streams and 1.2% of patches were classified as having medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  4. Gas pressure and gas purity analyzing device in nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Chihiro; Hasegawa, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring and analyzing a pressure and a purity of a helium gas sealed in a BWR type nuclear fuel rod. Namely, a portion between a rotational shaft of an electromotive drill for perforating the fuel rod and a vacuum chamber is sealed with a magnetic fluid sealing material so that error factors can be recognized before and after the destruction detection (perforation) of a fuel rod. With such procedures, involving of an atmospheric air from the drill rotational shaft upon perforation can be eliminated. As a result, accuracy for the measurement can be improved. In addition, a filter is disposed to a pipeline connecting the vacuum chamber and the measuring system. With such a constitution, scattering of cutting dusts to the measuring system, troubles due to damages of a stop valve can be reduced. As a result, the efficiency of the measurement is improved. Further, a plurality kinds of gas collecting vessel having different capacities are connected in parallel to the pipeline of the measuring system. Then, the gas collecting vessels can be used selectively. As a result, the device can cope with a gas pressure over a wide range. (I.S.)

  5. Carbon-14 immobilization via the CO2-Ba(OH)2 hydrate gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although no restrictions have been placed on the release of carbon-14, it has been identified as a potential health hazard due to the ease in which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. The intent of the Carbon-14 Immobilization Program, funded through the Airborne Waste Program Management Office, is to develop and demonstrate a novel process for restricting off-gas releases of carbon-14 from various nuclear facilities. The process utilizes the CO 2 -Ba(OH) 2 hydrate gas-solid reaction to directly remove and immobilize carbon-14. The reaction product, BaCO 3 , possesses both the thermal and chemical stability desired for long-term waste disposal. The process is capable of providing decontamination factors in excess of 1000 and reactant utilization of greater than 99% in the treatment of high volumetric, airlike (330 ppM CO 2 ) gas streams. For the treatment of an air-based off-gas stream, the use of packed beds of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes to remove CO 2 has been demonstrated. However, the operating conditions must be maintained between certain upper and lower limits with respect to the partial pressure of water. If the water vapor pressure in the gas is less than the dissociation vapor pressure of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O, the bed will deactivate. If the vapor pressure is considerably greater, pressure drop problems will increase with increasing humidity as the particles curl and degrade. Results have indicated that when operated in the proper regime, the bulk of the increase in pressure drop results from the conversion of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O to BaCO 3 and not from the hydration of the commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O (i.e. Ba(OH) 2 .7.50H 2 O) to Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O

  6. Aeroacoustics of Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic measurements of noise radiated from a heated, three-stream, co-annular exhaust system operated at subsonic conditions are presented. The experiments were conducted for a range of core, bypass, and tertiary stream temperatures and pressures. The nozzle system had a fan-to-core area ratio of 2.92 and a tertiary-to-core area ratio of 0.96. The impact of introducing a third stream on the radiated noise for third-stream velocities below that of the bypass stream was to reduce high frequency noise levels at broadside and peak jet-noise angles. Mid-frequency noise radiation at aft observation angles was impacted by the conditions of the third stream. The core velocity had the greatest impact on peak noise levels and the bypass-to-core mass flow ratio had a slight impact on levels in the peak jet-noise direction. The third-stream jet conditions had no impact on peak noise levels. Introduction of a third jet stream in the presence of a simulated forward-flight stream limits the impact of the third stream on radiated noise. For equivalent ideal thrust conditions, two-stream and three-stream jets can produce similar acoustic spectra although high-frequency noise levels tend to be lower for the three-stream jet.

  7. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, 510 x 3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen using cold and warm noncondensible (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0 to 90 K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate a degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over noncondensible pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  8. A demonstration experiment of steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pitch, M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1990-08-01

    A steam blowdown test was performed at the Surtsey Direct Heating Test Facility to test the steam supply system and burst diaphragm arrangement that will be used in subsequent Surtsey Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments. Following successful completion of the steam blowdown test, the HIPS-10S (High-Pressure Melt Streaming) experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the technology to perform steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments has been successfully developed. In addition, the HIPS-10S experiment was used to assess techniques and instrumentation design to create the proper timing of events in HPME experiments. This document discusses the results of this test

  9. Temperature and pressure gas geoindicators at the Solfatara fumaroles (Campi Flegrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Minopoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Long time series of fluid pressure and temperature within a hydrothermal system feeding the Solfatara fumaroles are investigated here, on the basis of the chemical equilibria within the CO2–H2O–H2–CO gas system. The Pisciarelli fumarole external to Solfatara crater shows an annual cycle of CO contents that indicates the occurrence of shallow secondary processes that mask the deep signals. In contrast, the Bocca Grande and Bocca Nova fumaroles located inside Solfatara crater do not show evidence of secondary processes, and their compositional variations are linked to the temperature–pressure changes within the hydrothermal system. The agreement between geochemical signals and the ground movements of the area (bradyseismic phenomena suggests a direct relationship between the pressurization process and the ground uplift. Since 2007, the gas geoindicators have indicated pressurization of the system, which is most probably caused by the arrival of deep gases with high CO2 contents in the shallow parts of the hydrothermal system. This pressurization process causes critical conditions in the hydrothermal system, as highlighted by the increase in the fumarole temperature, the opening of new vents, and the localized seismic activity. If the pressurization process continues with time, it is not possible to rule out the occurrence of phreatic explosions.

  10. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  11. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  12. Recovery of perchloroethylene scrubbing medium generated in the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, M.S.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    During the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel, perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ) is used as the nonmoderating scrubbing medium to remove condensable hydrocarbons, carbon soot, and uranium-bearing particulates from the off-gas streams. The process by which the contaminated perchloroethylene is recycled is discussed

  13. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  14. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  15. Test Structures for Rapid Prototyping of Gas and Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Cheng, L. J.; Martin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-project ceramic substrate was used in developing a gas sensor and pressure sensor. The ceramic substrate cantained 36 chips with six variants including sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect ship. Tha gas sensor is being developed as an air quality monitor and the pressure gauge as a barometer.

  16. Generating of low energy intensive ion streams in conditions of low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, D.V.; Tseluyko, A.F.; Chunadra, A.G.; Yunakov, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the work the method of forming of low energy ion streams near the sample surface with separating the generation area of plasma and the acceleration area of ion is offered.It allows to lower pressure in acceleration area essentially (0.01 Pa and below).The separating of the areas takes place at the expense of vacuum resistance in a plasma generating device.The dependence of plasma parameters on exterior parameters of the device is determined and the way of the further decreasing of working pressure in the modification area up to 10 -3 - 10 -4 Pa are shown

  17. Effects of Xe Gas Content and Total Gas Pressure on the Discharge Characteristics of Colour Plasma Display Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wenbo; Han Mengju; Liang Zhihu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag (DTL), discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied. The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation. The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure

  18. Forecasting of reservoir pressures of oil and gas bearing complexes in northern part of West Siberia for safety oil and gas deposits exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, P. A.; Vorobyov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the features of reservoir pressures changes in the northern part of West Siberian oil-and gas province are described. This research is based on the results of hydrodynamic studies in prospecting and explorating wells in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. In the Cenomanian, Albian, Aptian and in the top of Neocomian deposits, according to the research, reservoir pressure is usually equal to hydrostatic pressure. At the bottom of the Neocomian and Jurassic deposits zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures (AHRP) are distinguished within Gydan and Yamal Peninsula and in the Nadym-Pur-Taz interfluve. Authors performed the unique zoning of the territory of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District according to the patterns of changes of reservoir pressures in the section of the sedimentary cover. The performed zoning and structural modeling allow authors to create a set of the initial reservoir pressures maps for the main oil and gas bearing complexes of the northern part of West Siberia. The results of the survey should improve the efficiency of exploration drilling by preventing complications and accidents during this operation in zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures. In addition, the results of the study can be used to estimate gas resources within prospective areas of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.

  19. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  20. Enhanced high harmonic generation driven by high-intensity laser in argon gas-filled hollow core waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, Kevin; Daboussi, Sameh; Hort, Ondrej; Descamps, Dominique; Petit, Stephane; Mevel, Eric; Constant, Eric; Guilbaud, Oilvier; Kazamias, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We show that a significant enhancement of the photon flux produced by high harmonic generation can be obtained through guided configuration at high laser intensity largely above the saturation intensity. We identify two regimes. At low pressure, we observe an intense second plateau in the high harmonic spectrum in argon. At relatively high pressure, complex interplay between strongly time-dependent ionization processes and propagation effects leads to important spectral broadening without loss of spectral brightness. We show that the relevant parameter for this physical process is the product of laser peak power by gas pressure. We compare source performances with high harmonic generation using a gas jet in loose focusing geometry and conclude that the source developed is a good candidate for injection devices such as seeded soft x-ray lasers or free electron lasers in the soft x-ray range. (authors)

  1. Forecasting the settlement of a bioreactor landfill based on gas pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Li, Liang; Sun, Hongjun

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the influence of settlement under gas pressure in bioreactor landfill, the landfill is simplified as a one-way gas seepage field, combining Darcy's Law, the gas equation of state, and the principle of effective stress and fluid dynamics of porous media theory. First assume that the bioreactor landfill leachate is fully recharged on the basis of gas mass conservation, then according to the changes in gas pressure (inside the landfill and surrounding atmosphere) during the gas leakage time and settlement in the landfill, establish a numerical model of bioreactor landfill settlement under the action of the gas pressure, and use the finite difference method to solve it. Through a case study, the model's improved prediction of the settlement of bioreactor landfill is demonstrated.

  2. Recovery of perchloroethylene scrubbing medium generated in the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, M.S.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    During the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel, perchloroethylene (C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/) is used as the nonmoderating scrubbing medium to remove condensable hydrocarbons, carbon soot, and uranium-bearing particulates from the off-gas streams. The process by which the contaminated perchloroethylene is recycled is discussed.

  3. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  4. Effect of Gas Pressure on Polarization of SOFC Cathode Prepared by Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Wang, Zhun-Zhun; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2013-06-01

    A cermet-supported tubular SOFC was fabricated using thermal spray. The cell performance was investigated at temperatures from 750 to 900 °C and pressures from 0.1 to 0.5 MPa to examine the effect of operating gas pressure on the cell performance. The influence of gas pressure on the cathodic polarization was studied through the electrochemical impedance approach to examine the controlling electrochemical processes during cell operation. Results show that increasing the operating gas pressure improves the power output performance significantly. When the gas pressure is increased from 0.1 to 0.3 MPa, the maximum power density is increased by a factor of 32% at a temperature of 800 °C. The cathode polarization decreases significantly with the increase of the gas pressure. The electrochemical analysis shows that the main control processes of the cathode reaction are the oxygen species transfer at the three-phase boundary and oxygen diffusion on the surface or in the bulk of the cathode, which are enhanced with increasing gas pressure.

  5. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital high-speed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  6. First proof of topological signature in high pressure xenon gas with electroluminescence amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, P.; López-March, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Borges, F.I.G.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Ferreira, A.L.; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R.M.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C.A.O.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Irastorza, I.G.; Labarga, L.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; Mora, F.J.; Moutinho, L.M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J.L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F.P.; dos Santos, J.M.F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J.F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Villar, J.A.; Webb, R.; White, J.T.; Yahlali, N.; Yepes-Ramírez, H.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon in a high-pressure Xe136 gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qbb. This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype. Single electrons resulting from the interactions of Na22 1275 keV gammas and electron-positron pairs produced by conversions of gammas from the Th228 decay chain were used to represent the background and the signal in a double beta decay. These data were used to develop algorithms for the reconstruction of tracks and the identification of the energy deposited at the end-points, providing an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 +- 1.4 (stat.)%, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 +- 0.6 (stat.)% for signal events.

  7. Pore Structure and Limit Pressure of Gas Slippage Effect in Tight Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lijun; Xue, Kunlin; Kang, Yili; Liao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Gas slip effect is an important mechanism that the gas flow is different from liquid flow in porous media. It is generally considered that the lower the permeability in porous media is, the more severe slip effect of gas flow will be. We design and then carry out experiments with the increase of backpressure at the outlet of the core samples based on the definition of gas slip effect and in view of different levels of permeability of tight sandstone reservoir. This study inspects a limit pressure of the gas slip effect in tight sandstones and analyzes the characteristic parameter of capillary pressure curves. The experimental results indicate that gas slip effect can be eliminated when the backpressure reaches a limit pressure. When the backpressure exceeds the limit pressure, the measured gas permeability is a relatively stable value whose range is less than 3% for a given core sample. It is also found that the limit pressure increases with the decreasing in permeability and has close relation with pore structure of the core samples. The results have an important influence on correlation study on gas flow in porous medium, and are beneficial to reduce the workload of laboratory experiment. PMID:24379747

  8. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  9. Measurement of pressure fluctuation in gas-liquid two-phase vortex street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiqiang; Sang Wenhui; Zhang Hongjian

    2009-01-01

    The pressure fluctuation in the wake is an important parameter to characterize the shedding process of gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street. This paper investigated such pressure fluctuations in a horizontal pipe using air and water as the tested fluid media. The dynamic signal representing the pressure fluctuation was acquired by the duct-wall differential pressure method. Results show that in the wake of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street, the frequency of the pressure fluctuation is linear with the Reynolds number when the volume void fraction is within the range of 18%. Moreover, the mean amplitude of the pressure fluctuation decreases with the volume void fraction, and the mean amplitude is larger at higher water flowrates under the same volume void fraction. These findings contribute to an in-depth understanding of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street.

  10. Simulation of temperature-pressure profiles and wax deposition in gas-lift wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevic Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-lift is an artificial lift method in which gas is injected down the tubing- -casing annulus and enters the production tubing through the gas-lift valves to reduce the hydrostatic pressure of the formation fluid column. The gas changes pressure, temperature and fluid composition profiles throughout the production tubing string. Temperature and pressure drop along with the fluid composition changes throughout the tubing string can lead to wax, asphaltenes and inorganic salts deposition, increased emulsion stability and hydrate formation. This paper presents a new model that can sucesfully simulate temperature and pressure profiles and fluid composition changes in oil well that operates by means of gas-lift. This new model includes a pipe-in-pipe segment (production tubing inside production casing, countercurrent flow of gas-lift gas and producing fluid, heat exchange between gas-lift gas and the surrounding ambient – ground; and gas-lift gas with the fluid in the tubing. The model enables a better understanding of the multiphase fluid flow up the production tubing. Model was used to get insight into severity and locations of wax deposition. The obtained information on wax deposition can be used to plan the frequency and depth of wax removing operations. Model was developed using Aspen HYSYS software.

  11. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  12. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  13. Cryogenic separation of krypton and xenon from dissolver off-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnenstingl, J.; Heidendael, M.; Laser, M.; Mastera, S.; Merz, E.

    1976-03-15

    Although the release of fission product noble gas Kr-85 has not posed a health problem to date, a process is being developed for the removal and storage of fission product noble gases from dissolution process stream of fuel reprocessing. The separation process described for noble gas in air being proved in semi-technical scale includes cryogenic distillation and consists of the following steps: (1) removal of 129 +131iodine on silver-coated silica gel; (2) deposition of particulate materials by HEPA-filters; (3) elimination of O2 and NOx by catalytic conversion with H2/ to N2 and H2O; (4) drying of the gas stream with molecular sieve; (5) deposition of xenon in solid form at about 80 K, while the remaining gas components are liquified; (6) enrichment of Kr by low temperature distillation of liquid-gas mixture; (7) withdrawal of the highly enriched Kr-fraction at the bottom of the still to be bottled in pressurized steel cylinders for final disposal; and (8) purification of Kr-85 contaminated Xe for further industrial reuse by batch distillation.

  14. Development and design of a UF6 gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF 6 -gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.)

  15. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelbaum, Richard [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kumfer, Benjamin [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Gopan, Akshay [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Yang, Zhiwei [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Phillips, Jeff [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pint, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The immediate need for a high efficiency, low cost carbon capture process has prompted the recent development of pressurized oxy-combustion. With a greater combustion pressure the dew point of the flue gas is increased, allowing for effective integration of the latent heat of flue gas moisture into the Rankine cycle. This increases the net plant efficiency and reduces costs. A novel, transformational process, named Staged, Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC), achieves additional step changes in efficiency and cost reduction by significantly reducing the recycle of flue gas. The research and development activities conducted under Phases I and II of this project (FE0009702) include: SPOC power plant cost and performance modeling, CFD-assisted design of pressurized SPOC boilers, theoretical analysis of radiant heat transfer and ash deposition, boiler materials corrosion testing, construction of a 100 kWth POC test facility, and experimental testing. The results of this project have advanced the technology readiness level (TRL) of the SPOC technology from 1 to 5.

  16. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-05-04

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  17. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  18. The steam pressure effect on high temperature corrosion of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. P.; Park, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    To find the effect of pressure on the high temperature oxidation of zircaloy-4, an autoclave capable of measuring the degree of oxidation at high temperatures and high pressure was manufactured. The degree of high temperature oxidation of zircaloy-4 was measured at three different conditions, high pressure steam, high pressure Ar gas with small amount of steam, and 1 atm steam. All the measurements were done at 750 deg C. The oxide thickness is much thicker in high pressure steam, comparing to that in the 1 atm steam. And, the higher is the steam pressure, the thicker becomes the oxide. No effect was observed in the case of high pressure Ar containing small amount of steam. Many cracks exist on the surface of specimens oxidized at high pressure steam, which come from the enhanced tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation due to high pressure steam. The enhanced oxidation seems to oxide cracking

  19. Gas Hydrate Investigations Using Pressure Core Analysis: Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, P.; Holland, M.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recently there have been a number of major gas hydrate expeditions, both academic and commercially oriented, that have benefited from advances in the practice of pressure coring and pressure core analysis, especially using the HYACINTH pressure coring systems. We report on the now mature process of pressure core acquisition, pressure core handling and pressure core analysis and the results from the analysis of pressure cores, which have revealed important in situ properties along with some remarkable views of gas hydrate morphologies. Pressure coring success rates have improved as the tools have been modified and adapted for use on different drilling platforms. To ensure that pressure cores remain within the hydrate stability zone, tool deployment, recovery and on-deck handling procedures now mitigate against unwanted temperature rises. Core analysis has been integrated into the core transfer protocol and automated nondestructive measurements, including P-wave velocity, gamma density, and X-ray imaging, are routinely made on cores. Pressure cores can be subjected to controlled depressurization experiments while nondestructive measurements are being made, or cores can be stored at in situ conditions for further analysis and subsampling.

  20. Equivalent effect of neutral gas pressure and transverse magnetic field in low-pressure glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.; Rusu, Ioana; Pohoata, V.; Mihaila, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper it is emphasized the equivalent effect of the neutral gas pressure and the action of a transverse magnetic field (TMF), respectively, on a striated positive plasma column. Experimental and theoretical results prove that the distance between striations has the same variation under the influence of both neutral gas pressure and the action of TMF. The pressure modification as well as the action of a TMF can induce ionization instability in the plasma column which explains the standing striation appearance. (authors)

  1. The Role of Free-Stream Turbulence on High Pressure Turbine Aero-Thermal Stage Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopriva, James Earl

    Turbulence plays an important role on the aero-thermal performance of modern aircraft engine High Pressure Turbines (HPT). The role of the vane wake and passage turbulence on the downstream blade flow field is an important consideration for both performance and durability. Obtaining measurements to fully characterize the flow field can be challenging and costly in an experimental facility. Advances in computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling and High Performance Computing (HPC) are providing opportunity to close these measurement gaps. In order for CFD to be adopted, methods need to be both accurate and efficient. Meshing approaches must also be able to resolve complex HPT geometry while maintaining quality adequate for scale-resolved simulations. Therefore, the accuracy of executing scale-resolved simulations with a second-order code on a mesh of prisms and tetrahedrals in Fluent is considered. Before execution of the HPT computational study, a building block approach is taken to gain quantified predictive performance in the modeling approach as well as understanding limitations in lower computational cost modeling approaches. The predictive capability for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Hybrid Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and wall-resolved LES turbulence modeling approaches are first assessed for a cylinder in cross-flow at a Reynolds number of 2580. The flow condition and simple geometry facilitate a quick turn-around for modeling assessment before moving the HPT vane study at high Reynolds and Mach number conditions. Modeling approaches are then assessed relative to the experimental measurements of Arts and Rouvroit (1992) on a pitch-line HPT uncooled vane at high Mach and Reynolds numbers conditions with low (0-6%) free-stream turbulence. The current unstructured second-order LES approach agrees with experimental data and is found to be within the equivalent experimental uncertainty when compared to the structured high-ordered solver FDL3DI. The

  2. Preliminary study on helium turbomachine for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yihua; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2003-01-01

    In the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), gas turbine cycle is a new concept in the field of nuclear power. It combines two technologies of HTGR and gas turbine cycle, which represent the state-of-the-art technologies of nuclear power and fossil fuel generation respectively. This approach is expected to improve safety and economy of nuclear power plant significantly. So it is a potential scheme with competitiveness. The heat-recuperated cycle is the main stream of gas turbine cycle. In this cycle, the work medium is helium, which is very different from the air, so that the design features of the helium turbomachine and combustion gas turbomachine are different. The paper shows the basic design consideration for the heat-recuperated cycle as well as helium turbomachine and highlights its main design features compared with combustion gas turbomachine

  3. Coupled Effect of Expansion Ratio and Blade Loading on the Aerodynamics of a High-Pressure Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gaetani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need of a continuous improvement in gas turbine efficiency for propulsion and power generation, as well as the more demanding operating conditions and power control required to these machines, still ask for great efforts in the design and analysis of the high pressure section of the turbo-expander. To get detailed insights and improve the comprehension of the flow physics, a wide experimental campaign has been performed in the last ten years at Politecnico di Milano on the unsteady aerodynamics of a high-pressure turbine stage considering several operating conditions. This paper presents and discusses the experimental results obtained for the stage operating with different expansion ratios and rotor loading. The turbine stage under study is representative of a modern high-pressure turbine and can be operated in both subsonic and transonic conditions. The experimental tools applied for the current research represents the state of the art when unsteady investigations are foreseen. The detailed flow field, the blade–rows interaction and the overall performance are described and discussed; efforts have been devoted to the discussion of the various contribution to the overall stage efficiency. The direct effects of the expansion ratio, affecting the Reynolds and the Mach numbers, have been highlighted and quantified; similarly, the indirect effects, accounting for a change in the rotor loading, have been commented and quantified as well, thanks to a dedicated set of experiments where different rotor loadings at the same expansion ratio have been prescribed.

  4. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  5. FORMATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT: COLD STREAMS, CLUMPY DISKS, AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Sari, Re'em; Ceverino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple theoretical framework for massive galaxies at high redshift, where the main assembly and star formation occurred, and report on the first cosmological simulations that reveal clumpy disks consistent with our analysis. The evolution is governed by the interplay between smooth and clumpy cold streams, disk instability, and bulge formation. Intense, relatively smooth streams maintain an unstable dense gas-rich disk. Instability with high turbulence and giant clumps, each a few percent of the disk mass, is self-regulated by gravitational interactions within the disk. The clumps migrate into a bulge in ∼ sun yr -1 , and each clump converts into stars in ∼0.5 Gyr. While the clumps coalesce dissipatively to a compact bulge, the star-forming disk is extended because the incoming streams keep the outer disk dense and susceptible to instability and because of angular momentum transport. Passive spheroid-dominated galaxies form when the streams are more clumpy: the external clumps merge into a massive bulge and stir up disk turbulence that stabilize the disk and suppress in situ clump and star formation. We predict a bimodality in galaxy type by z ∼ 3, involving giant-clump star-forming disks and spheroid-dominated galaxies of suppressed star formation. After z ∼ 1, the disks tend to be stabilized by the dominant stellar disks and bulges. Most of the high-z massive disks are likely to end up as today's early-type galaxies.

  6. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  7. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for control of NO.sub.x emissions in a sulfur-containing gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly

    2015-08-11

    An exhaust gas treatment process, apparatus, and system for reducing the concentration of NOx, CO and hydrocarbons in a gas stream, such as an exhaust stream (29), via selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is provided. The process, apparatus and system include a catalytic bed (32) having a reducing only catalyst portion (34) and a downstream reducing-plus-oxidizing portion (36). Each portion (34, 36) includes an amount of tungsten. The reducing-plus-oxidizing catalyst portion (36) advantageously includes a greater amount of tungsten than the reducing catalyst portion (36) to markedly limit ammonia salt formation.

  8. Coronal holes and high-speed wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Coronal holes low have been identified as Bartel's M regions, i.e., sources of high-speed wind streams that produce recurrent geomagnetic variations. Throughout the Skylab period the polar caps of the Sun were coronal holes, and at lower latitudes the most persistent and recurrent holes were equatorial extensions of the polar caps. The holes rotated 'rigidly' at the equatorial synodic rate. They formed in regions of unipolar photospheric magnetic field, and their internal magnetic fields diverged rapidly with increasing distance from the sun. The geometry of the magnetic field in the inner corona seems to control both the physical properties of the holes and the global distribution of high-speed wind streams in the heliosphere. The latitude variation of the divergence of the coronal magnetic field lines produces corresponding variations in wind speed.During the years of declining solar activity the global field of the corona approximates a perturbed dipole. The divergence of field lines in each hemisphere produces a high-speed wind near the poles and low-speed wind in a narrow belt that coincides with the magnetic neutral sheet. The analysis of electron density measurements within a polar hole indicates that solar wind is accelerated principally in the region between 2 and 5 R/sub s/ and that mechanical wave pressure (possibly Alfven wave) may be responsible for the accleration of the wind. Phenomenological models for the birth and decay of coronal holes have been proposed. Attempts to explain the birth and rigid rotation of holes through dynamo action have been only partially successful. The 11-year variation of cosmic ray intensities at the earth may result from cyclic variation of open field regions associated with coronal holes

  9. Method for improved gas-solids separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.

    1990-11-13

    Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.

  10. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  11. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  12. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  14. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  15. Changes of gas pressure in sand mould during cast iron pouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mocek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test method developed to measure changes of gas pressure in sand moulds during manufacture of iron castings. The pressure and temperature measurements were taken in the sand mould layers directly adjacent to the metal – mould interface. A test stand was described along with the measurement methodology. The sensors used allowed studying the fast-changing nature of the processes which give rise to the gas-originated casting defects. The study examined the influence of binders, clays and refining additives on the nature of the gas evolution process. The effect of the base sand type - quartz or olivine - on the nature of pressure changes was compared. The test stand design ensured the stability of technological parameters in the examined mould elements, and a repeatable process of making pilot castings. The main outcome was classification of sand mixtures in terms of pressure occurring during pouring of iron castings. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the described method for testing gas pressure occurrence in a sand mould.

  16. Diffuse interfacelets in transcritical flows of propellants into high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzay, Javier; Jofre, Lluis

    2017-11-01

    Rocket engines and new generations of high-power jet engines and diesel engines oftentimes involve the injection of one or more reactants at subcritical temperatures into combustor environments at high pressures, and more particularly, at pressures higher than those corresponding to the critical points of the individual components of the mixture, which typically range from 13 to 50 bars for most propellants. This class of trajectories in the thermodynamic space has been traditionally referred to as transcritical. Under particular conditions often found in hydrocarbon-fueled chemical propulsion systems, and despite the prevailing high pressures, the flow in the combustor may contain regions close to the injector where a diffuse interface is formed in between the fuel and oxidizer streams that is sustained by surface-tension forces as a result of the elevation of the critical pressure of the mixture. This talk describes progress towards modeling these effects in the conservation equations. Funded by the US Department of Energy.

  17. Increase in gas output by active modification of the water pressure regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakirov, S N; Gordon, V Y; Kondrat, R M; Kravtsov, N A; Somov, B Y

    1981-01-01

    Based on gas-hydrodynamic calculations made on a planar model formation, two variants of formation working are examined. In the first variant, the modern ideology of working gas fields with a water pressure regime are simulated. In the second variant, working of the formation is modeled according to the suggested ideology of active modification of the water-pressure regime by operating the flooded gas wells. The calculations made indicate the efficiency of active modification of the water pressure regime from the viewpoint of controlling the fund of E wells, and most important, maximizing the final coefficient of gas bed output.

  18. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of surface-gas interactions and catalyst restructuring at ambient pressure: mind the gap!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupprechter, Guenther; Weilach, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the application of surface vibrational spectroscopy at ambient pressure allows us to monitor surface-gas interactions and heterogeneous catalytic reactions under conditions approaching those of technical catalysis. The surface specificity of photon-based methods such as polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is utilized to monitor catalytically active surfaces while they function at high pressure and high temperature. Together with complementary information from high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HP-XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), reaction mechanisms can be deduced on a molecular level. Well defined model catalysts, prepared under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), are typically employed in such studies, including smooth and stepped single crystals, thin oxide films, and oxide-supported nanoparticles. A number of studies on unsupported and supported noble metal (Pd, Rh) catalysts are presented, focusing on the transformation of the catalysts from the 'as-prepared' to the 'active state'. This often involves pronounced alterations in catalyst structure and composition, for example the creation of surface carbon phases, surface oxides or surface alloys, as well as nanoparticle restructuring. The reactivity studies include CH 3 OH, CH 4 and CO oxidation with gas phase analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Differing results between studies under ultrahigh vacuum and ambient pressure, and between studies on single crystals and supported nanoparticles, demonstrate the importance of 'minding the gap' between idealized and realistic conditions

  20. Pressure calculations in nanochannel gas flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.H.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Nedea, S.V.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Valougeorgis, D.; Colin, S.; Baldas, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this research, pressure driven flow within a nanochannel is studied for argon in rarefied gas states. A Molecular Dynamics simulation is used to resolve the density and stress variations. Normal stress calculations are based on Irving-Kirkwood method, which divides the stress tensor into its

  1. Impact of gas pressure on fission chamber sensitivity in Campbelling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslot, B.; Blaise, P.; Loiseau, P.; Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Villard, J-F.; Blanc-de-Lanaute, N.

    2013-06-01

    The study presented in this paper is based on measurements conducted in the MINERVE zero power reactor operated at CEA Cadarache with a CEA-made U-235 miniature fission chamber (8 mm in diameter) and obtained in both pulse and Campbelling modes. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the filling gas mixture and pressure on each operating mode, using the capacity of the chamber to be refilled with gas. Three gas mixtures were tested (pure Ar, Ar+4%N 2 and Ar+10%CH 4 ) with pressure ranging from 1 to 9 bars. The Mean Fission Product Charge (MFPC), which is the mean charge deposited in the gas by fission products, was obtained from pulse mode signals for each detector setting. It is shown the MFPC is another key parameter to optimize the detector neutron sensitivity, after the fissile coating cross section. Campbelling mode signal was acquired with the Fast Neutron Detector System (FNDS) recently developed by CEA and SCK·CEN. Interesting results were obtained which improve our knowledge of the detector operation. Firstly, it was found that the measurements obtained in both modes are very consistent. The MFPC as a function of the gas pressure was found to be not monotonic. Instead, it features a maximum between 3 and 4 bars. This behavior is expected if the detector does not operate in saturation regime. Indeed, our standard voltage bias of 300 V appeared to be not high enough so that the saturation regime is established. Saturation curves measured in Campbelling mode were fitted using a detector modeling in order to extrapolate the saturation regime MFPC, which came to be independent from the gas. Secondly, obtained results show that the measuring range in Campbelling mode with this detector starts from fission rates as low as a few thousand counts per second. So the so called overlapping range, in which both pulse and Campbelling modes are usable, is about one decade with our spectroscopy modules and more than two decades with fast counting electronic

  2. Measuring and understanding total dissolved gas pressure in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C.; Roy, J. W.; Randell, J.; Castellon, L.

    2009-05-01

    Since dissolved gases are important to a number of aspects of groundwater (e.g. age dating, active or passive bioremediation, greenhouse gas fluxes, understanding biogeochemical processes involving gases, assessing potential impacts of coal bed methane activities), accurate concentration measurements, and understanding of their subsurface behaviour are important. Researchers have recently begun using total dissolved gas pressure (TGP) sensor measurements, more commonly applied for surface water monitoring, in concert with gas composition analyses to estimate more accurate groundwater gas concentrations in wells. We have used hydraulic packers to isolate the well screens where TDP is being measured, and pump tests to indicate that in-well degassing may reduce TDG below background groundwater levels. Thus, in gas-charged groundwater zones, TGPs can be considerably underestimated in the absence of pumping or screen isolation. We have also observed transient decreased TGPs during pumping that are thought to result from ebullition induced when the water table or water level in the well is lowered below a critical hydrostatic pressure.

  3. Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Takizuka, Takakazu

    2003-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been designing a Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled reactor) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a high efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) and fossil gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original features of this system are core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 Yen/kWh. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design except PCU design. Also, R and D for developing the power conversion unit is briefly described. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  4. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  5. Design of a high-pressure single pulse shock tube for chemical kinetic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, R. S.; Brezinsky, K.; Fulle, D.

    2001-01-01

    A single pulse shock tube has been designed and constructed in order to achieve extremely high pressures and temperatures to facilitate gas-phase chemical kinetic experiments. Postshock pressures of greater than 1000 atmospheres have been obtained. Temperatures greater than 1400 K have been achieved and, in principle, temperatures greater than 2000 K are easily attainable. These high temperatures and pressures permit the investigation of hydrocarbon species pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. Since these reactions occur on the time scale of 0.5--2 ms the shock tube has been constructed with an adjustable length driven section that permits variation of reaction viewing times. For any given reaction viewing time, samples can be withdrawn through a specially constructed automated sampling apparatus for subsequent species analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The details of the design and construction that have permitted the successful generation of very high-pressure shocks in this unique apparatus are described. Additional information is provided concerning the diaphragms used in the high-pressure shock tube

  6. EEC-sponsored theoretical studies of gas cloud explosion pressure loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, F.; Curtress, N.; Farmer, C.L.; Fogg, G.J.; Vaughan, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the pressure loadings produced by unconfined gas cloud explosions on the surface of structures are required to assist the design of strong secondary containments in countries where the protection of nuclear installations against these events is considered to be necessary. At the present time, one difficulty in the specification of occurate pressure loadings arises from our lack of knowledge concerning the interaction between the incident pressure waves produced by unconfined gas cloud explosions and large structures. Preliminary theoretical studies include (i) general theoretical considerations, especially with regard to scaling (ii) investigations of the deflagration wave interaction with a wall based on an analytic solution for situations with planar symmetry and the application of an SRD gas cloud explosion code (GASEX 1) for situations with planar and spherical symmetry, and (iii) investigations of the interaction between shock waves and structures for situations with two-dimensional symmetry based on the application of another SRD gas cloud explosion code (GASEX 2)

  7. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  8. Some interesting developments relating to gas dynamics in the application of the UCOR process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alant, T.G.; Schumann, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The separating element employed in the UCOR process for uranium enrichment has a very small cut, i.e. is highly asymmetrical with respect to the UF 6 flow in the enriched and depleted streams. For the commercial exploitation of the process, the so-called helikon technique of cascading was developed. The process is dependent on the transmission of parallel streams of diffferent isotopic composition through an axial compressor without significant mixing between them. A light gas (H 2 ), which is present in large molar excess, increases the flow velocity of the process gas (UF 6 ) and hence adds to improved separation performance. The separating element not only separates isotopes but also causes appreciable separation between the process gas and the light carrier gas. The paper consists of a brief description of the helikon cascading technique followed by a comprehensive assessment of the various aspects of gas mixing in an axial compressor. Phenomena of mole mass and pressure transients which occur in the module during run-up of the compressors are also discussed. The operating characteristics of axial compressors and of the separating element produce a driving force which tends to cause mole mass and associated pressure gradients to occur circumferentially in a helikon module under static conditions. The paper includes 5 references and 10 figures

  9. Russian Gas for Europe. Creating Access and Choice. Underpinning Russia's gas export strategy with Gazprom's infrastructure investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeenk, T.

    2010-07-01

    This study deals with Gazprom's investment strategy regarding Russia's gas exports and export market behaviour, with a focus on European infrastructure projects, in a the geopolitical context. Because of its large gas reserves, Russia is well-positioned to take advantage of gas exports even as it faces possible competition from other gas suppliers and uncertain gas demand. Gas export earnings are an important source of income for Russia. As a government-controlled firm, Gazprom depends to a large extent on Europe for its hard-currency income. For Russia and Gazprom, the stream of income from gas exports and its expansion are economically vital. In this regard, gas export infrastructures such as Nord and South Stream could act as important instruments to expand Gazprom's market share in current markets and in growth markets. This study uses a real-option game model to assess the overall value of gas infrastructures in the face of demand uncertainties and potential competition. The result of this approach illustrates the strategic-economic character of Gazprom's infrastructure investments in possibly creating a first-mover's advantage. Yet, the model is of a highly stylised nature. Therefore, other aspects should be taken into account in assessing gas infrastructure investments. Besides the goal of possibly expanding Gazprom's market share, infrastructure investments could serve to mitigate overall transit risks. However, Gazprom's organisational constraints in realising gas infrastructures could put into question the rationale of such investments. In addition, Gazprom's position as well as that of Russian gas may be pressured by European (regulatory) policy in favour of alternative gas and other energy sources. The desired market outcomes for Gazprom have an impact on the prioritisation of Russian investments in the gas value chain.

  10. Hydrodynamics in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle bed at elevated pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Wammes, W.J.A.; Middelkamp, J.; Huisman, W.J.; Huisman, W.J.; de Baas, C.M.; de Baas, C.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Data on design and operation of trickle beds at elevated pressures are scarce. In this study the influence of the gas density on the liquid holdup, the pressure drop, and the transition between trickle and pulse flow has been investigated in a tricklebed reactor operating up to 7.5 MPa and with nitrogen or helium as the gas phase. Gas-liquid interfacial areas have been determined up to 5.0 MPa by means of CO2 absorption from CO2/N2 gas mixtures into amine solutions. A comparison of the result...

  11. Variations of free gas content in water during pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, A.; Zielke, W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper an experimental programme is described in order to determine the influence of the cavitation nuclei distribution on cavitation inception. This programme has been used to measure air bubbles dimensions and number and particularly to determine the influence of quick pressure variations on the size on the number of bubbles in a pipe. An optical device counting scattered light is used as a measuring technique. Gas bubbles go through an optical control volume where they receive a high intensity light beam and scatter the light, then led to a photomultiplier; the signals are sorted and counted according to their size. If the number of nuclei, the dimensions of the control volume and the velocity of the water are known, it is possible to determine bubbles concentrations and the bulk modulus of the water. This measuring technique has been applied to a flow in a 140 mm diameter pipe with quick pressure variations from 2 bar to 0-10 bar. During the variations, the void fraction depends on the Reynolds number of the flow and on the gas content of the water. The bulk modulus has been computed with different conditions. Most results concern pressures slightly over the vapor pressure. Air content has a strong influence on cavitation and on water compressibility after a vapor cavity collapse

  12. Survey on the feasibility of high-efficiency gas turbine power generation system; Kokoritsu gas turbine hatsuden system ni kansuru jitsuyo kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For higher-efficiency power generation cycle plants with less restrained conditions for a location, the conceptual design of an inter-cooled regenerative two-fluid cycle plant (ISTIG) was attempted using a modified aircraft gas turbine. A high-performance turbo fan engine is used for middle-class power generation. The first stage combustion gas drives the first stage turbine, and its exhaust gas is used for the second stage combustion. Because of two-axial type of high and low pressure, improvement of thermal efficiency is expected by easy-to-install inter-cooler. ISTIG superior in operability is suitable for medium load or distributed power generation facilities, and aims at higher efficiency of a 60% level. ISTIG includes a large amount of water vapor in combustion air by adopting a diffusion type combustor eliminating back fire, and can reduce exergy loss by preheating fuel gas. Since load of the high-pressure turbine shifts toward low-pressure one by the inter-cooler, some considerations are necessary for low-pressure side cooling together with reheating cycle. Because of unnecessary steam turbine, the construction cost per kW can be reduced by 20%. 41 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Calculation of propellant gas pressure by simple extended corresponding state principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The virial equation can well describe gas state at high temperature and pressure, but the difficulties in virial coefficient calculation limit the use of virial equation. Simple extended corresponding state principle (SE-CSP is introduced in virial equation. Based on a corresponding state equation, including three characteristic parameters, an extended parameter is introduced to describe the second virial coefficient expressions of main products of propellant gas. The modified SE-CSP second virial coefficient expression was extrapolated based on the virial coefficients experimental temperature, and the second virial coefficients obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data at a low temperature and the theoretical values at high temperature. The maximum pressure in the closed bomb test was calculated with modified SE-CSP virial coefficient expressions with the calculated error of less than 2%, and the error was smaller than the result calculated with the reported values under the same calculation conditions. The modified SE-CSP virial coefficient expression provides a convenient and efficient method for practical virial coefficient calculation without resorting to complicated molecular model design and integral calculation.

  14. Investigation of the Neutral Gas Pressure Effect on the Metal Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Giannone, L.; Piechotka, M.; Windisch, T.; Klinger, T.; Grulke, O.; Stark, A.

    2008-01-01

    The bolometer system planned for W7-X consists mainly of metal (Au) resistive detector arrays. All the detectors are exposed to neutral gas environment. The thin bolometer foil used for detecting the radiated power loss may be sensitive to the neutral gas pressure due to the strain gauge effect. Recently, a prototype of this kind of bolometer camera consisting of 12 channels has been installed on the cylindrical plasma device VINETA in order to investigate the influences of the neutral gas pressure on the bolometer signals. Experiments are carried out for Ar-discharges under different gas pressure conditions. It is found that the pressure effect of the neutral gas can make considerable contributions, thus inducing non-negligible errors of the results in most of the investigated cases. Using the VINETA plasmas (Ar, T e e -19 m -3 ) as examples, the paper demonstrates and discusses how to minimize the neutral gas effects, especially in the data analysis process. The radiated power and the radiation intensity profile obtained in helicon discharges are presented

  15. Investigation of the Neutral Gas Pressure Effect on the Metal Resistive Bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Giannone, L.; Grulke, O.; Piechotka, M.; Windisch, T.; Stark, A.; Klinger, T.

    2008-03-01

    The bolometer system planned for W7-X consists mainly of metal (Au) resistive detector arrays. All the detectors are exposed to neutral gas environment. The thin bolometer foil used for detecting the radiated power loss may be sensitive to the neutral gas pressure due to the strain gauge effect. Recently, a prototype of this kind of bolometer camera consisting of 12 channels has been installed on the cylindrical plasma device VINETA in order to investigate the influences of the neutral gas pressure on the bolometer signals. Experiments are carried out for Ar-discharges under different gas pressure conditions. It is found that the pressure effect of the neutral gas can make considerable contributions, thus inducing non-negligible errors of the results in most of the investigated cases. Using the VINETA plasmas (Ar, Te<10 eV, ne<10-19 m-3) as examples, the paper demonstrates and discusses how to minimize the neutral gas effects, especially in the data analysis process. The radiated power and the radiation intensity profile obtained in helicon discharges are presented.

  16. Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF6 mass flow in UF6 streams diluted with H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF 6 streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF 6 concentration in a UF 6 - H 2 process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF 6 environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement

  17. Dynamic pressure as a measure of gas turbine engine (GTE) performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, G; Stiharu, I; Packirisamy, M; Nerguizian, V; Landry, R Jr; Raskin, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing in situ dynamic pressure measurement is a promising novel approach with applications for both control and condition monitoring of gas turbine-based propulsion systems. The dynamic pressure created by rotating components within the engine presents a unique opportunity for controlling the operation of the engine and for evaluating the condition of a specific component through interpretation of the dynamic pressure signal. Preliminary bench-top experiments are conducted with dc axial fans for measuring fan RPM, blade condition, surge and dynamic temperature variation. Also, a method, based on standing wave physics, is presented for measuring the dynamic temperature simultaneously with the dynamic pressure. These tests are implemented in order to demonstrate the versatility of dynamic pressure-based diagnostics for monitoring several different parameters, and two physical quantities, dynamic pressure and dynamic temperature, with a single sensor. In this work, the development of a dynamic pressure sensor based on micro-electro-mechanical system technology for in situ gas turbine engine condition monitoring is presented. The dynamic pressure sensor performance is evaluated on two different gas turbine engines, one having a fan and the other without

  18. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells...... and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures...

  19. Wing pressure distributions from subsonic tests of a high-wing transport model. [in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted on a generic, high-wing transport model in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This report contains pressure data that document effects of various model configurations and free-stream conditions on wing pressure distributions. The untwisted wing incorporated a full-span, leading-edge Krueger flap and a part-span, double-slotted trailing-edge flap system. The trailing-edge flap was tested at four different deflection angles (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, and 60 deg). Four wing configurations were tested: cruise, flaps only, Krueger flap only, and high lift (Krueger flap and flaps deployed). Tests were conducted at free-stream dynamic pressures of 20 psf to 60 psf with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.22 x 10(exp 6) to 2.11 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20. The angles of attack presented range from 0 deg to 20 deg and were determined by wing configuration. The angle of sideslip ranged from minus 20 deg to 20 deg. In general, pressure distributions were relatively insensitive to free-stream speed with exceptions primarily at high angles of attack or high flap deflections. Increasing trailing-edge Krueger flap significantly reduced peak suction pressures and steep gradients on the wing at high angles of attack. Installation of the empennage had no effect on wing pressure distributions. Unpowered engine nacelles reduced suction pressures on the wing and the flaps.

  20. When immiscible becomes miscible-Methane in water at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruteanu, Ciprian G; Ackland, Graeme J; Poon, Wilson C K; Loveday, John S

    2017-08-01

    At low pressures, the solubility of gases in liquids is governed by Henry's law, which states that the saturated solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. As the pressure increases, most gases depart from this ideal behavior in a sublinear fashion, leveling off at pressures in the 1- to 5-kbar (0.1 to 0.5 GPa) range with solubilities of less than 1 mole percent (mol %). This contrasts strikingly with the well-known marked increase in solubility of simple gases in water at high temperature associated with the critical point (647 K and 212 bar). The solubility of the smallest hydrocarbon, the simple gas methane, in water under a range of pressure and temperature is of widespread importance, because it is a paradigmatic hydrophobe and occurs widely in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geology. We report measurements up to 3.5 GPa of the pressure dependence of the solubility of methane in water at 100°C-well below the latter's critical temperature. Our results reveal a marked increase in solubility between 1 and 2 GPa, leading to a state above 2 GPa where the maximum solubility of methane in water exceeds 35 mol %.

  1. Development and design of a UF{sub 6} gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF{sub 6}-gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.).

  2. Gas phase adsorption technology for nitrogen isotope separation and its feasibility for highly enriched nitrogen gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Asaga, Takeo

    2000-04-01

    Highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas is favorable to reduce radioactive carbon-14 production in reactor. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production is one of the most important subject in nitride fuel option in 'Feasibility Study for FBR and Related Fuel Cycle'. In this work gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation and feasible to produce highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in commercial. Nitrogen isotopes were separated while ammonia gas flows through sodium-A type zeolite column using pressure swing adsorption process. The isotopic ratio of eight samples were measured by high resolution mass spectrometry and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation, since the isotopic ratio of nitrogen-15 and nitrogen-14 in samples were more than six times as high as in natural. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production were estimated by the factor method. It revealed that highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas could be supplied in a few hundred yen per gram in mass production. (author)

  3. Vapour Pressure and Adiabatic Cooling from Champagne: Slow-Motion Visualization of Gas Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The recent introduction of inexpensive high-speed cameras offers a new experimental approach to many simple but fast-occurring events in physics. In this paper, the authors present two simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the fields of gas dynamics and thermal physics. The experiments feature vapour pressure effects…

  4. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function on two-stream instability in low-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from discharge chamber walls is important for plasma maintenance in many low-pressure discharges. The electrons emitted from the walls are accelerated by the sheath electric field and are injected into the plasma as an electron beam. Penetration of this beam through the plasma is subject to the two-stream instability, which tends to slow down the beam electrons and heat the plasma electrons. In the present paper, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to simulate these effects both in a collisionless plasma slab with immobile ions and in a cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster. The two-stream instability occurs if the total electron velocity distribution function of the plasma-beam system is a nonmonotonic function of electron speed. Low-pressure plasmas can be depleted of electrons with energy above the plasma potential. This study reveals that under such conditions the two-stream instability depends crucially on the velocity distribution function of electron emission. It is shown that propagation of the secondary electron beams in Hall thrusters may be free of the two-stream instability if the velocity distribution of secondary electron emission is a monotonically decaying function of speed. In this case, the beams propagate between the walls with minimal loss of the beam current and the secondary electron emission does not affect the thruster plasma properties

  5. Achieving uniform layer deposition by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woo Seok, E-mail: kang@kimm.re.kr [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min; Lee, Jin Young [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young-Hoon [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-31

    This work investigates the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure for achieving uniform layer formation. Electrical and optical measurements demonstrated that the counterbalance between oxygen and precursors maintained the homogeneous discharge mode, while creating intermediate species for layer deposition. Several steps of the deposition process of the layers, which were processed on a stationary stage, were affected by flow stream and precursor depletion. This study showed that by changing the flow streamlines using substrate stage motion uniform layer deposition under atmospheric pressure can be achieved. - Highlights: • Zirconium oxide was deposited by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • Homogeneous plasma was maintained by counterbalancing between discharge gas and precursors. • Several deposition steps were observed affected by the gas flow stream and precursor depletion. • Thin film layer was uniformly grown when the substrate underwent a sweeping motion.

  6. SILP catalysis in gas-phase hydroformylation and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riisager, A.; Fehrmann, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Haumann, M.; Wasserscheid, P. [Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2006-07-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts are new materials consisting of an ionic liquid-metal catalyst solution highly dispersed on a porous support. The use of a non-volatile, ionic liquid catalyst phase in SILP catalysts results in a stable heterogeneous-type material with selectivity and efficiency like homogeneous catalysts. The silica-supported SILP Rh-bisphosphine hydroformylation catalyst exhibited good activities and excellent selectivities in gas phase hydroformylation with stability exceeding 700 hours time-on-stream. Spectroscopic and kinetic data confirmed the homogeneous nature of the catalyst. In the Rh- SILP catalysed carbonylation of methanol the formation of undesired by-products could be suppressed by variation of residence time and gas pressure. (orig.)

  7. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T [Austin, TX; Oyenekan, Babatunde A [Katy, TX

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  8. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  9. Pitot pressure measurements in flow fields behind circular-arc nozzles with exhaust jets at subsonic free-stream Mach numbers. [langley 16 foot transonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, M. L.; Putnam, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The flow field behind a circular arc nozzle with exhaust jet was studied at subsonic free stream Mach numbers. A conical probe was used to measure the pitot pressure in the jet and free stream regions. Pressure data were recorded for two nozzle configurations at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0, 2.9, and 5.0. At each set of test conditions, the probe was traversed from the jet center line into the free stream region at seven data acquisition stations. The survey began at the nozzle exit and extended downstream at intervals. The pitot pressure data may be applied to the evaluation of computational flow field models, as illustrated by a comparison of the flow field data with results of inviscid jet plume theory.

  10. Diagnostics of high-speed streams and coronal holes using geomagnetic pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakova, O.V.; Troitskaya, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the relations of high-speed solar wind streams and coronal holes analyzed are the parameters of geomagnetic pulsations of the Rs3 type and of high-speed streams at the decrease branch and in the minimum of solar activity. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation regime determined are the differences in characteristics of high-speed stream properties. Presented are the graphical distributions of a number of occurrances of high-speed streams, coronal holes and pure regimes of Rs3R pulsations in several sections of 1973 in the Sun rotations of N1903-1919 and of the change of solar wind velocity while passing through the high-speed streams. It is found that Rs3R occurrance can serve an indicator of the high-speed flux connection with the large equatorial coronal hole. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation properties determined are the differences in the stream characteristics. However the preliminary estimates permit to adopt neither the first nor the second of the existing hypotheses on the sourse of formation of high-speed streams

  11. Evidence of refilled chamber gas pressure enhancing cooling rate during melt spinning of a Zr50Cu40Al10 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wang Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the refilled gas pressure on the glass forming behaviour of one of the best ternary glass forming alloys Zr50Cu40Al10 was studied for the melt spinning process. The amorphicity of as-quenched ribbons was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The refilled chamber atmospheric pressure is crucial to the cooling rate of melt spinning. At high vacuum, at pressure less than 0.0001 atm, fully crystalline fragments are obtained. Monolithic amorphous ribbons were only obtained at a gas pressure of 0.1 atm or higher. The extended contact length between thecribbons and the copper wheel contributes to the high cooling rate of melt spinning. Higher chamber gas pressure leads to more turbulence of liquid metal beneath the nozzle; therefore, lower pressure is preferable at practical melt spinning processes once glass forming conditions are fulfilled.

  12. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  13. Demographic response of Louisiana Waterthrush, a stream obligate songbird of conservation concern, to shale gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Mack W.; Wood, Petra B.; Sheehan, James; George, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Shale gas development continues to outpace the implementation of best management practices for wildlife affected by development. We examined demographic responses of the Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) to shale gas development during 2009–2011 and 2013–2015 in a predominantly forested landscape in West Virginia, USA. Forest cover across the study area decreased from 95% in 2008 to 91% in 2015, while the area affected by shale gas development increased from 0.4% to 3.9%. We quantified nest survival and productivity, a source–sink threshold, riparian habitat quality, territory density, and territory length by monitoring 58.1 km of forested headwater streams (n = 14 streams). Across years, we saw annual variability in nest survival, with a general declining trend over time. Of 11 a priori models tested to explain nest survival (n = 280 nests), 4 models that included temporal, habitat, and shale gas covariates were supported, and 2 of these models accounted for most of the variation in daily nest survival rate. After accounting for temporal effects (rainfall, nest age, and time within season), shale gas development had negative effects on nest survival. Population-level nest productivity declined and individual productivity was lower in areas disturbed by shale gas development than in undisturbed areas, and a source–sink threshold suggested that disturbed areas were more at risk of being sink habitat. Riparian habitat quality scores, as measured by a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency index and a waterthrush-specific habitat suitability index, differed by year and were negatively related to the amount of each territory disturbed by shale gas development. Territory density was not related to the amount of shale gas disturbance, but decreased over time as territory lengths increased. Overall, our results suggest a decline in waterthrush site quality as shale gas development increases, despite relatively small site-wide forest loss.

  14. The pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Hai; Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the pressure exerted by a confined ideal gas on the container boundary and we introduce a surface force in gases. First, the general expression for the local surface pressure tensor is obtained. We find, by examples, that the pressure vanishes at the edges of a box, peaks at the middle of the surface and its magnitude for different statistics satisfies p Fermi > p classical > p Bose on every boundary point. Then, the relation between the surface pressure tensor and generalized forces is studied. Based on the relation, we find that a confined ideal gas can exert forces whose effect is to reduce the total surface area of the boundary of an incompressible object. The force provides mechanisms for several mechanical effects. (1) The force contributes to the adhesion of two thin films in contact with each other. We derive an expression for the adhesion force between two square sheets, estimate its magnitude, and also give a method for distinguishing it from other adhesion forces. (2) The force can lead to the recoiling of a DNA-like column. We study the recoiling process using a simple model and find a deviation from the result given in the thermodynamic limit, which is in accordance with experiments. (3) An open container immersed in a gas can be compressed by this force like the Casimir effect. We discuss the effect for various geometries. (paper)

  15. Stream vulnerability to widespread and emergent stressors: a focus on unconventional oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Maloney, Kelly O.; Katherine E. Kapo,; Walters, Annika W.; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  16. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally A; Maloney, Kelly O; Kapo, Katherine E; Walters, Annika W; Evans-White, Michelle A; Klemow, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  17. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  18. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10-1 mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  19. Pressure recovery in a diffuser for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Masatoshi; Takashima, Yoichi; Mikami, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    The pressure recovery of supersonic flow at very low density was studied in a vane-island type diffuser for gas centrifuge. A tester of diffuser with a rapidly rotating cylinder was used in experiments. Wall static pressures were measured at many points in the diffuser to observe the static pressure distribution. The change of pressure distribution with back pressure and the effect of flow rate were investigated. Pressure distribution showed that the pressure recovery occurred in the converging section. The pressure ratio increased linearly with the back pressure in this experimental range and the effect of flow rate was not observed. A numerical analysis of the pressure recovery in the channel section of the diffuser was made by applying the finite difference method to the slender-channel equations. The pressure distribution obtained in experiments could be explained as a result of supersonic compression with reverse flow. (auth.)

  20. Stability analysis of confined V-shaped flames in high-velocity streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabii, Hazem; Joulin, Guy; Kazakov, Kirill A

    2010-06-01

    The problem of linear stability of confined V-shaped flames with arbitrary gas expansion is addressed. Using the on-shell description of flame dynamics, a general equation governing propagation of disturbances of an anchored flame is obtained. This equation is solved analytically for V-flames anchored in high-velocity channel streams. It is demonstrated that dynamics of the flame disturbances in this case is controlled by the memory effects associated with vorticity generated by the perturbed flame. The perturbation growth rate spectrum is determined, and explicit analytical expressions for the eigenfunctions are given. It is found that the piecewise linear V structure is unstable for all values of the gas expansion coefficient. Despite the linearity of the basic pattern, however, evolutions of the V-flame disturbances are completely different from those found for freely propagating planar flames or open anchored flames. The obtained results reveal strong influence of the basic flow and the channel walls on the stability properties of confined V-flames.

  1. Study of gas holdup and pressure characteristics in a column flotation cell using coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.C.; Kundu, G.; Mukherjee, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-15

    Present work has been carried out to observe the effect of process variables (gas flow rate, feed flow rate, solid concentration and frother concentration) on gas holdup and pressure characteristics in flotation column using coal. Gas holdup has been estimated using phase separation method while piezometers have been used to obtain column's axial pressure profile. It was observed that gas holdup in collection zone was affected by both air as well as feed flow rates. Up to 6% change in gas holdup may occur when the feed flow rate changes from 1-2 cm/s. It was also observed that addition of coal decreased the gas holdup while addition of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) had opposite effect. Almost linear variation in columns axial pressure characteristics has been observed with gas flow rate. An empirical relationship between gas holdup in the flotation column with column's axial pressure difference was developed.

  2. Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.

  3. The energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Walker, Ben; Masanet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of streaming video entertainment has recently received attention as a possibly less energy intensive alternative to the manufacturing and transportation of digital video discs (DVDs). This study utilizes a life-cycle assessment approach to estimate the primary energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with video viewing through both traditional DVD methods and online video streaming. Base-case estimates for 2011 video viewing energy and CO 2 (e) emission intensities indicate video streaming can be more efficient than DVDs, depending on DVD viewing method. Video streaming benefits from relatively more efficient end-user devices than DVD viewing, though much of that savings is lost when accounting for the additional energy from network data transmission. Video streaming appears distinctly favorable when compared against any DVD viewing that includes consumer driving, which significantly increases the energy and CO 2 (e) emissions per viewing hour. Total US 2011 video viewing required about 192 PJ of primary energy and emitted about 10.5 billion kg of CO 2 (e). Shifting all 2011 DVD viewing to video streaming reduces the total primary energy use to about 162 PJ and the CO 2 (e) emissions to about 8.6 billion kg, representing a savings equivalent to the primary energy used to meet the electricity demand of nearly 200 000 US households each year. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results are most influenced by the end-user DVD player power demand, data transmission energy, and consumer travel for store DVDs. Data center energy use—both operational and embodied within the IT equipment—account for <1% of the total video streaming energy use. Results from this study indicate that designers and policy makers should focus on the efficiency of end-user devices and network transmission energy to curb future increases in energy use from the proliferation of video streaming. (letters)

  4. Parametric studies on different gas turbine cycles for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Gu Yihua

    2005-01-01

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with turbine cycle is considered as one of the leading candidates for future nuclear power plants. In this paper, the various types of HTGR gas turbine cycles are concluded as three typical cycles of direct cycle, closed indirect cycle and open indirect cycle. Furthermore they are theoretically converted to three Brayton cycles of helium, nitrogen and air. Those three types of Brayton cycles are thermodynamically analyzed and optimized. The results show that the variety of gas affects the cycle pressure ratio more significantly than other cycle parameters, however, the optimized cycle efficiencies of the three Brayton cycles are almost the same. In addition, the turbomachines which are required for the three optimized Brayton cycles are aerodynamically analyzed and compared and their fundamental characteristics are obtained. Helium turbocompressor has lower stage pressure ratio and more stage number than those for nitrogen and air machines, while helium and nitrogen turbocompressors have shorter blade length than that for air machine

  5. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  6. Hydrodynamics in a pressurized cocurrent gas-liquid trickle bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, Wino J.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of gas density on total external liquid hold-up, pressure drop and gas-liquid interfacial area, under trickle-flow conditions, and the transition to pulse flow have been investigated with nitrogen or helium as the gas phase up to 7.5 MPa. It is concluded that the hydrodynamics depends

  7. Automated mini-column solid-phase extraction cleanup for high-throughput analysis of chemical contaminants in foods by low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated the application of an automated high-throughput mini-cartridge solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) cleanup for the rapid low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in QuEChERS extracts of foods. ...

  8. Piezoelectric microvalve for precise control of gas flow at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    We present a normally open piezoelectric actuated micro valve, based on the novel concept of micro and fine machining technology. This new design allows a wide controllable range for high flow at a high pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This promising combination of micro and fine

  9. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  10. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.

  11. High-pressure resistivity technique for quasi-hydrostatic compression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundu, C R; Ćuk, T; Greene, R L; Shen, Z-X; Hemley, Russell J; Struzhkin, V V

    2013-06-01

    Diamond anvil cell techniques are now well established and powerful methods for measuring materials properties to very high pressure. However, high pressure resistivity measurements are challenging because the electrical contacts attached to the sample have to survive to extreme stress conditions. Until recently, experiments in a diamond anvil cell were mostly limited to non-hydrostatic or quasi-hydrostatic pressure media other than inert gases. We present here a solution to the problem by using focused ion beam ultrathin lithography for a diamond anvil cell loaded with inert gas (Ne) and show typical resistivity data. These ultrathin leads are deposited on the culet of the diamond and are attaching the sample to the anvil mechanically, therefore allowing for measurements in hydrostatic or nearly hydrostatic conditions of pressure using noble gases like Ne or He as pressure transmitting media.

  12. Leak detection of SF6 gas pressure vessel safety devices at BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninawe, N.G.; Sharma, S.C.; Nair, J.P.; Sparrow, H.; Bolar, P.C.; Gudekar, P.V.; Mahapatra, S.; Vishwakarma, R.S.; Ramjilal; Matkar, U.V.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Pelletron accelerator is in operation since last more than 26 years. To achieve desired voltage gradient SF6 gas of about 20 tons is used to have 75-80 psig pressure in main accelerator tank. During accelerator tank maintenance gas is transferred to four storage tanks, kept in open space in the vicinity of sea. Recently refurbishment and retrofitting of four storage tanks was carried out which includes the installation of new drift space, rupture disc assembly, relief valves and manual valves along with civil and painting work. All components to be installed were tested for high pressure. Helium gas sniffer technique was used to check micro leaks for new joints for all components before installing for storage tanks. Subsequently, the tanks were tested up to 90 psig SF6 gradually in succession. No pressure drop was observed in storage tanks. This work was carried out as per recommendation of the then particle accelerator committee (PASC). (author)

  13. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  14. Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plants with Chemical Looping Reforming of Natural Gas and Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareq Mohd Nazir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gas-fired combined cycle power plant subjected to a pre-combustion CO2 capture method has been analysed under different design conditions and different heat integration options. The power plant configuration includes the chemical looping reforming (CLR of natural gas (NG, water gas shift (WGS process, CO2 capture and compression, and a hydrogen fuelled combined cycle to produce power. The process is denoted as a CLR-CC process. One of the main parameters that affects the performance of the process is the pressure for the CLR. The process is analysed at different design pressures for the CLR, i.e., 5, 10, 15, 18, 25 and 30 bar. It is observed that the net electrical efficiency increases with an increase in the design pressure in the CLR. Secondly, the type of steam generated from the cooling of process streams also effects the net electrical efficiency of the process. Out of the five different cases including the base case presented in this study, it is observed that the net electrical efficiency of CLR-CCs can be improved to 46.5% (lower heating value of NG basis by producing high-pressure steam through heat recovery from the pre-combustion process streams and sending it to the Heat Recovery Steam Generator in the power plant.

  15. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionized gas towards three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is towards the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is towards the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is towards the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionized gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only towards LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities towards the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionized gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02, and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of ultraviolet photons ionizing the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionized by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  16. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  17. Empirical Method to Estimate Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals as a Function of Hydrogen Gas Pressure at Constant Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure Hydrogen (H) gas has been known to have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties of certain metals, particularly, the notched tensile strength, fracture toughness and ductility. The ratio of these properties in Hydrogen as compared to Helium or Air is called the Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) Index, which is a useful method to classify the severity of H embrittlement and to aid in the material screening and selection for safety usage H gas environment. A comprehensive world-wide database compilation, in the past 50 years, has shown that the HEE index is mostly collected at two conveniently high H pressure points of 5 ksi and 10 ksi near room temperature. Since H embrittlement is directly related to pressure, the lack of HEE index at other pressure points has posed a technical problem for the designers to select appropriate materials at a specific H pressure for various applications in aerospace, alternate and renewable energy sectors for an emerging hydrogen economy. Based on the Power-Law mathematical relationship, an empirical method to accurately predict the HEE index, as a function of H pressure at constant temperature, is presented with a brief review on Sievert's law for gas-metal absorption.

  18. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions. Novel Design of an Ultra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope System for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope's (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pr