WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-pressure gas laser

  1. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  2. Development of a laser-induced plasma probe to measure gas phase plasma signals at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gounder, J.D.; Kutne, P.; Meier, W.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for on line simultaneous measurement of elemental concentrations has led to its application in a wide number of processes. The simplicity of the technique allows its application to harsh environments such as present in boilers, furnaces and gasifiers. This paper presents the design of a probe using a custom optic which transforms a round beam into a ring (Donut) beam, which is used for forming a plasma in an atmosphere of nitrogen at high pressure (20 bar) and temperature (200 °C). The LIBS experiments were performed using a high pressure cell to characterize and test the effectiveness of the donut beam transmitted through the LIBS probe and collect plasma signal in back scatter mode. The first tests used the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse width 7 ns, to form a plasma in nitrogen gas at five different pressures (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar) and three different gas temperatures (25, 100 and 200 °C). The uniqueness of this probe is the custom made optic used for reshaping the round laser beam into a ring (Donut) shaped laser beam, which is fed into the probe and focused to form a plasma at the measurement point. The plasma signal is collected and collimated using the laser focusing lens and is reflected from the laser beam axis onto an achromatic lens by a high reflection mirror mounted in the center section of the donut laser beam. The effect of gas pressure and temperature on N(I) lines in the high pressure cell experiment shows that the line intensity decreases with pressure and increases with temperature. Mean plasma temperature was calculated using the ratios of N(I) line intensities ranging from 7400 K to 8900 K at 1 bar and 2400 K to 3200 K at 20 bar for the three different gas temperatures. The results show that as a proof of principle the donut beam optics in combination with the LIBS probe can be used for performing extensive LIBS measurements in well controlled laboratory

  3. Development of a laser-induced plasma probe to measure gas phase plasma signals at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gounder, J.D., E-mail: James.Gounder@dlr.de; Kutne, P.; Meier, W.

    2012-08-15

    The ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for on line simultaneous measurement of elemental concentrations has led to its application in a wide number of processes. The simplicity of the technique allows its application to harsh environments such as present in boilers, furnaces and gasifiers. This paper presents the design of a probe using a custom optic which transforms a round beam into a ring (Donut) beam, which is used for forming a plasma in an atmosphere of nitrogen at high pressure (20 bar) and temperature (200 Degree-Sign C). The LIBS experiments were performed using a high pressure cell to characterize and test the effectiveness of the donut beam transmitted through the LIBS probe and collect plasma signal in back scatter mode. The first tests used the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse width 7 ns, to form a plasma in nitrogen gas at five different pressures (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 bar) and three different gas temperatures (25, 100 and 200 Degree-Sign C). The uniqueness of this probe is the custom made optic used for reshaping the round laser beam into a ring (Donut) shaped laser beam, which is fed into the probe and focused to form a plasma at the measurement point. The plasma signal is collected and collimated using the laser focusing lens and is reflected from the laser beam axis onto an achromatic lens by a high reflection mirror mounted in the center section of the donut laser beam. The effect of gas pressure and temperature on N(I) lines in the high pressure cell experiment shows that the line intensity decreases with pressure and increases with temperature. Mean plasma temperature was calculated using the ratios of N(I) line intensities ranging from 7400 K to 8900 K at 1 bar and 2400 K to 3200 K at 20 bar for the three different gas temperatures. The results show that as a proof of principle the donut beam optics in combination with the LIBS probe can be used for performing extensive LIBS measurements in well controlled

  4. Laser-produced dense plasma in extremely high pressure gas and its application to a plasma-bridged gap switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, J.; Okuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    When an extremely high pressure gas is irradiated by an intense laser light, a dense plasma produced at the focal spot moves towards the focusing lens with a high velocity. Making use of this phenomenon, a new plasma-bridged gap switch is proposed and its switching characteristics is experimentally examined. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the switching time is almost constant with the applied voltage only when the focal spot is just on the positive electrode, indicating that the bridging of gap is caused by the laser light. (author)

  5. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  6. High pressure gas reinjection unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    Nuovo Pignone has built for gas reinjection at Ekofisk the highest pressure injection unit to date: suction pressure 246 bar, discharge 647 bar, for 5.7 million cu m/day of natural gas, and driven by a GE MS 5001 gas turbine of 24,000 hp. The barrel-type compressor has been used already in Algeria at Hassi Messaoud. Full scale tests have shown that the unit is satisfactory; special attention being paid to the stability of the rotor. Air cooled heat exchangers were used in the test loop to cool the discharge gas; at Ekofisk, heat exchangers with sea water will be used. The valves in the test loop were of a special, low- noise type. Vibrations of the rotor system and changes in gas pressure monitored, showing that a pressure of 680 bars can be achieved without instability. Economic considerations lead to preference for rotary compressors driven by gas turbines for similar applications in the exploitation of oil fields. A graph of the characteristics of the unit is given.

  7. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  8. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  9. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  10. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  11. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  12. Measurement of the parameters of non-stationary gas flows by diode laser absorption spectroscopy in case of high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, M.A.; Liger, V.V.; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Mironenko, V.R.; Ponurovskii, Ya.Ya.; Kolesnikov, O.M.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental version of diode laser absorption spectrometer (DLAS) for contactless measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration in supersonic gas flows is developed. The spectrometer can be used for the measurements of temperature up to 2500 K and total pressure up to 3 atm. The technique is based on the registration of the transient absorption spectra of a target molecules and fitting of the experimental spectra by the simulated ones constructed using the spectroscopic databases. The temperature is inferred from the ratio of the intensities of the absorption lines with different low energy levels. In gas media with the above parameters the absorption lines are broadened which demands the use of two diode lasers (DL) working in different spectral ranges. The software for selection of the optimal line combinations was developed. The combination of two strong lines in the spectral ranges 1.39 μ and 1.34 μ was selected as the optimal one. The efficiency of the developed technique was exemplified in the first set of the experiments in conditions of real propulsion in Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) for the temperatures within 500-2200 K range and total pressure up to 3 atm.

  13. Photo-preionization stabilized high-pressure glow-discharge lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bergmann, H.M.

    1980-07-01

    Simple nanosecond stabilization and pulsing techniques were developed to excite high-pressure gas-discharge lasers at high overvoltages and high specific power loadings. The techniques were applied to a variety of ultraviolet and visible laser systems employing fast transmission line pulsers and conventional LC generators. The stabilization procedures are evaluated and the parameters which control the geometry and uniformity of the high-pressure glow discharges are investigated. A detailed study of the formation, distribution and spectral characteristics of the fast surface corona discharges is provided. The stabilization and pulsing techniques were used for the corona and glow discharge excitation of high-pressure ultraviolet N 2 lasers. A detailed spectrally- and temporally-resolved study of the gain, fluorescence and energy extraction characteristics of the atmospheric pressure N 2 plasmas is provided

  14. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  15. High pressure gas spheres for neutron and photon experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, G.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.; Kaltenbaek, J.; Leugers, B.; Reifarth, R.

    2009-09-01

    High pressure gas spheres have been designed and successfully used in several nuclear physics experiments on noble gases. The pros and cons of this solution are the simple design and the high reliability versus the fact that the density is limited to 40-60% of liquid or solid gas samples. Originally produced for neutron capture studies at keV energies, the comparably small mass of the gas spheres were an important advantage, which turned out to be of relevance for other applications as well. The construction, performance, and operation of the spheres are described and examples for their use are presented.

  16. Excited Atoms and Molecules in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of high-pressure non-thermal discharges are increasingly drawing attention in view of many interesting applications. These, partially ionized media in non-equilibrium state, tend to generate complex effects that are difficult to interpret without a detailed knowledge of elementary processes involved. Electronically excited molecules and atoms may play an important role as intermediate states in a wide range of atomic and molecular processes, many of which are important in high-pressure discharges. They can serve also as reservoirs of energy or as sources of high energy electrons either through the energy pooling or through superelastic collisions. By presenting the analysis of current situation on the processes involving excited atoms and molecules of interest for high-pressure gas discharges, we will attempt to draw attention on the insufficiency of available data. In the same time we will show how to circumvent this situation and still be able to develop accurate models and interpretations of the observed phenomena

  17. High-pressure 3He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, 3 He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10 -3 (n/cm 2 ) -1 . The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector

  18. Radiofrequency initiation and radiofrequency sustainment of laser initiated seeded high pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Eric S.; Scharer, John E.; Akhtar, Kamran; Kelly, Kurt; Ding, Guowen

    2001-01-01

    We examine radiofrequency initiation of high pressure(1-70 Torr) inductive plasma discharges in argon, nitrogen, air and organic seed gas mixtures. Millimeter wave interferometry, optical emission and antenna wave impedance measurements for double half-turn helix and helical inductive antennas are used to interpret the rf/plasma coupling, measure the densities in the range of 10 12 cm -3 and analyze the ionization and excited states of the gas mixtures. We have also carried out 193 nm excimer laser initiation of an organic gas seed plasma which is sustained at higher pressures(150 Torr) by radiofrequency coupling at 2.8 kW power levels

  19. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Boothroyd, Ian; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The impact of unconventional natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing methods from shale gas basins has been assessed using life-cycle emissions inventories, covering areas such as pre-production, production and transmission processes. The transmission of natural gas from well pad to processing plants and its transport to domestic sites is an important source of fugitive CH4, yet emissions factors and fluxes from transmission processes are often based upon ver out of date measurements. It is important to determine accurate measurements of natural gas losses when compressed and transported between production and processing facilities so as to accurately determine life-cycle CH4 emissions. This study considers CH4 emissions from the UK National Transmission System (NTS) of high pressure natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions using a Picarro Surveyor cavity-ring-down spectrometer were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high pressure pipelines and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from these joints. When scaled up to the UK's National Transmission System pipeline length of 7600 km gives a fugitive CH4 flux of 4700 ± 2864 kt CH4/yr - this fugitive emission from high pressure pipelines is 0.016% of the annual gas supply.

  20. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  1. Laser Thomson Scattering, Raman Scattering and laser-absorption diagnostics of high pressure microdischarges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M; Belostotskiy, Sergey G; Economou, Demetre J; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (n e ) and electron temperature (T e ). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded T e = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and n e = (6 ± 3)·10 13 cm -3 , in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (T g ) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with T g values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  2. Gas dynamic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.; Jewell, N.T.

    1975-01-01

    In a high powered laser system it is proposed that combustion gases be bled off from a gas turbine engine and their composition adjusted by burning extra fuel in the bleed gases or adding extra substances. Suitable aerodynamic expansion produces a population inversion resulting in laser action in the CO 2 species. Alternatively, bleed gases may be taken from the high pressure compressor of the gas turbine engine and an appropriate fuel burned therein. If required, other adjustments may also be made to the composition and the resulting gaseous mixture subjected to aerodynamic expansion to induce laser action as before. (auth)

  3. Elevated temperature and high pressure large helium gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, Minoru; Midoriyama, Shigeru; Miyata, Toyohiko; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Izaki, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    The development of high temperature gas-cooled reactors especially aiming at the multi-purpose utilization of nuclear heat energy is carried out actively in Japan and West Germany. In Japan, the experimental HTGR of 50 MWt and 1000 deg C outlet temperature is being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and others since 1969, and the development of direct iron-making technology utilizing high temperature reducing gas was started in 1973 as the large project of Ministry of Internalional Trade and Industry. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Has taken part in these development projects, and has developed many softwares for nuclear heat design, system design and safety design of nuclear reactor system and heat utilization system. In hardwares also, efforts have been exerted to develop the technologies of design and manufacture of high temperature machinery and equipments. The high temperature, high pressure, large helium gas loop is under construction in the technical research institute of the company, and it is expected to be completed in December, 1979. The tests planned are that of proving the dynamic performances of the loop and its machinery and equipments and the verification of analysis codes. The loop is composed of the main circulation system, the objects of testing, the helium gas purifying system, the helium supplying and evacuating system, instruments and others. (Kako, I.)

  4. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Almond, S.; Boothroyd, I.

    2016-12-01

    Concern over the greenhouse gas impact of the exploitation of unconventional natural gas from shale deposits has caused a spotlight to be shone on to the entire hydrocarbon industry. Numerous studies have developed life-cycle emissions inventories to assess the impact that hydraulic fracturing has upon greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporated within life-cycle assessments are transmission and distribution losses, including infrastructure such as pipelines and compressor stations that pressurise natural gas for transport along pipelines. Estimates of fugitive emissions from transmission, storage and distribution have been criticized for reliance on old data from inappropriate sources (1970s Russian gas pipelines). In this study, we investigate fugitive emissions of CH4 from the UK high pressure national transmission system. The study took two approaches. Firstly, CH4 concentration is detected by driving along roads bisecting high pressure gas pipelines and also along an equivalent distance along a route where no high pressure gas pipeline was nearby. Five pipelines and five equivalent control routes were driven and the test was that CH4 measurements, when adjusted for distance and wind speed, should be greater on any route with a pipe than any route without a pipe. Secondly, 5 km of a high pressure gas pipeline and 5 km of equivalent farmland, were walked and soil gas (above the pipeline where present) was analysed every 7 m using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from

  5. Performance of microstrip and microgap gas detectors at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, F.A.F.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Marques, R.F.; Margato, L.M.S.; Goncalo, J.R.; Policarpo, A.J.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the operation of microstrip and microgap detectors at various gas pressures up to 6 bar with Kr-CO 2 , Xe-CO 2 and Xe-CH 4 is presented. The data were collected with a microstrip (1000 μm pitch) and a microgap (200 μm pitch) detector using a clean chamber and gas system. It is shown that maximum gain is strongly dependent on pressure and gains as high as 9 x 10 3 were obtained with Kr-CO 2 at 6 bar with a MSGC. With the smaller-pitch MGC we could get a gain of 180 with Xe-CH 4 at 6 bar; the typical energy resolution at 22 keV being about 15%. From the present work one can conclude that microstructures can operate at high pressure and that their application in high-efficiency, low-granularity X-ray detectors with an energy range up to a few tens of keV can be seriously considered. (orig.)

  6. Dynamics of ZnO laser produced plasma in high pressure argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaydashev, V.E.; Lunney, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of ZnO in high pressure gas offers a route for the catalyst-free preparation of ZnO nanorods less than 10 nm in diameter. This paper describes the results of some experiments to investigate the laser plume dynamics in the high gas pressure (5 x 10 3 -10 4 Pa) regime used for PLD of ZnO nanorods. In this regime the ablation plume is strongly coupled to the gas and the plume expansion is brought to a halt within about 1 cm from the target. A 248 nm excimer laser was used to ablate a ceramic ZnO target in various pressures of argon. Time- and space-resolved UV/vis emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements were used to diagnose the plasma and follow the plume dynamics. By measuring the spatial profiles of Zn I and Zn II spectral lines it was possible to follow the propagation of the external and internal shock waves associated with the interaction of the ablation plume with the gas. The Langmuir probe measurements showed that the electron density was 10 9 -10 10 cm -3 and the electron temperature was several eV. At these conditions the ionization equilibrium is described by the collisional-radiative model. The plume dynamics was also studied for ZnO targets doped with elements which are lighter (Mg), comparable to (Ga), and heavier (Er) than Zn, to see if there is any elemental segregation in the plume.

  7. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnie, R.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5–20

  8. Blackbody Emission from Laser Breakdown in High-Pressure Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, A.; Plateau, G. R.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S.

    2014-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities—in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  9. High pressure X-ray preionized TEMA-CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, R. J. M.; Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    The construction of a high-pressure (up to 20 atm) transversely excited CO2 laser using transverse X-ray preionization is described. High pressure operation was found to be greatly improved in comparison to UV-preionized systems. Homogeneous discharges have been achieved in the pressure range 5-20 atm, yielding a specific laser output in the order of 35 J/l.

  10. Metallurgical analysis of high pressure gas pipelines rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    On 6 July 2004, two parallel-running gas pipelines (18-inch and 24-inch diameters), in the main transmission network of SNGPL (a gas company in Pakistan) were ruptured. The ruptures occurred in the early hours of the morning about 8 miles downstream of the compressor station AC-4. The ruptures were indicated by the increased gas flow at the outlet of AC-4 (1), first at about 0648 hours and then again about 20 minutes later. The gas escaping from the ruptured lines had caught fire, and the flames had also 'affected' a third parallel-running pipeline of 30-inch diameter, lying next to the 24-inch line. The metallurgical examination of the two ruptured lines showed that the 24-inch line was ruptured with the help of an explosive device that had been placed on the underside of the pipe. An examination of the 18-inch line showed that this pipe had failed as a result of the heating of the pipe-wall, presumably, by the flame emanating from the 24-inch line. These two observations clearly suggested that the 24-inch line was the first to rupture (by explosives), and the fire following this rupture had heated the 18-inch pipe to a temperature where its yield strength was unable to support the inside gas pressure. The 20 minutes time interval between the two ruptures was obviously the time taken by the 18 inch pipe to be heated upto the level where it started to yield. The 30-inch line lying next to the 24-inch line was affected to the extent that its coating had been burnt-off over a length of about 40-50 feet. However, the pipe did not exhibit any signs of deshaping or deformation what-so-ever. A replica metallographic examination indicated that the microstructure of the pipe was not measurably affected by the heat. It was thus decided not to replace the affected part of the 30-inch pipe, but only to re-coat this affected portion. (author)

  11. Modeling of high-pressure generation using the laser colliding foil technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1989-03-01

    An analytical model describing the collision of two foils is presented and applied to the collision of laser-accelerated foils. Numerical simulations have been made to verify this model and to compare its results in the case of laser-accelerated foils. Scaling laws relating the different parameters (shock pressure, laser intensity, target material, etc.) have been established. The application of this technique to high-pressure equation of state experiments is then discussed.

  12. Modeling of high-pressure generation using the laser colliding foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical model describing the collision of two foils is presented and applied to the collision of laser-accelerated foils. Numerical simulations have been made to verify this model and to compare its results in the case of laser-accelerated foils. Scaling laws relating the different parameters (shock pressure, laser intensity, target material, etc.) have been established. The application of this technique to high-pressure equation of state experiments is then discussed

  13. High pressure gas-filled cermet spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, Eh.A.; Yur'ev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of modernization of the R-48 and R-49 spark gaps making it possible to improve their electrical characteristics are presented. The design is described and characteristics of gas-filled cermet spark gaps are presented. By the voltage rise time of 5-6 μs in the Marx generator scheme they provide for the pulse break-through voltage of 120 and 150 kV. By the voltage rise time of 0.5-1 μs the break-through voltage of these spark gaps may be increased up to 130 and 220 kV. The proper commutation time is equal to ≤ 0.5 ns. Practical recommendations relative to designing cermet spark gaps are given [ru

  14. Multiparameter Flowfield Measurements in High-Pressure, Cryogenic Environments Using Femtosecond Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Peters, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) and Rayleigh scattering (RS) from a femtosecond laser are demonstrated in the NASA Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). The measured signals from these techniques are examined for their thermodynamic dependencies in pure nitrogen. The FLEET signal intensity and signal lifetimes are found to scale primarily with the gas density, as does the RS signal. Several models are developed, which capture these physical behaviors. Notably, the FLEET and Rayleigh scattering intensities scale linearly with the flow density, while the FLEET signal decay rates are a more complex function of the thermodynamic state of the gas. The measurement of various flow properties are demonstrated using these techniques. While density was directly measured from the signal intensities and FLEET signal lifetime, temperature and pressure were measured using the simultaneous FLEET velocity measurements while assuming the flow had a constant total enthalpy. Measurements of density, temperature, and pressure from the FLEET signal are made with accuracies as high as 5.3 percent, 0.62 percent, and 6.2 percent, respectively, while precisions were approximately 10 percent, 0.26 percent, and 11 percent for these same quantities. Similar measurements of density from Rayleigh scattering showed an overall accuracy of 3.5 percent and a precision of 10.2 percent over a limited temperature range (T greater than 195 K). These measurements suggest a high degree of utility at using the femtosecond-laser based diagnostics for making multiparameter measurements in high-pressure, cryogenic environments such as large-scale TCT facilities.

  15. Gas lasers applied atomic collision physics, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, E W

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 3: Gas Lasers describes the applications of atomic collision physics in the development of many types of gas lasers. Topics covered range from negative ion formation in gas lasers to high-pressure ion kinetics and relaxation of molecules exchanging vibrational energy. Ion-ion recombination in high-pressure plasmas is also discussed, along with electron-ion recombination in gas lasers and collision processes in chemical lasers.Comprised of 14 chapters, this volume begins with a historical summary of gas laser developments and an overview of the basic ope

  16. Gas-ion laser with gas pressure maintenance means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A gas-ion laser is described including means to maintain the ionizable gas in the laser cavity at a rather constant pressure over an extended period of time to significantly increase the useful life of the gas-ion laser. The gas laser includes a gas makeup system having a high pressure source or storage container and a regulating valve. The valve has a permeable solid state orifice member through which the gas flows from the high pressure source to the laser cavity to replenish the gas in the laser cavity and maintain the gas pressure in the cavity rather constant. The permeable orifice member is selected from a solid state material having a permeability that is variable in relation to the magnitude of the energy applied to the orifice member. The gas-ion laser has a valve operating means such as a heater for varying the applied energy such as thermal energy to the member to regulate the gas flow. Additionally, the gas-ion laser has a valve control means that is responsive to the gas pressure in the laser cavity for controlling the valve control means to maintain the pressure at a desired level. (U.S.)

  17. Medium- and high-pressure gauges and transducers produced by laser welding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Nenci, Fabio; Cinquepalmi, Massimo; Chita, Giuseppe

    1998-07-01

    Industrial manufacturers produce many types of pressure gauges and transducers according to the applications, for gas or liquid, for high-medium and low pressure ranges. Nowadays the current production technology generally prefers to weld by micro TIG source the metallic corrugated membranes to the gauge or transducer bodies for the products, operating on the low pressure or medium pressure ranges. For the other ones, operating to high pressure range, generally the two components of the transducers are both threaded only and threaded and then circularly welded by micro TIG for the other higher range, till to 1000 bar. In this work the products, operating on the approximately equals 30 divided by 200 bar, are considered. These, when assembled on industrial plants, as an outcome of a non-correct operating sequence, give a 'shifted' electrical signal. This is due to a shift of the 'zero electrical signal' that unbalances the electrical bridge - thin layer sensor - that is the sensitive part of the product. Moreover, for the same problem, often some mechanical settlings of the transducer happen during the first pressure semi-components, with an increasing of the product manufacturing costs. In light of all this, the above referred, in this work the whole transducer has been re-designed according to the specific laser welding technology requirements. On the new product no threaded parts exist but only a circular laser welding with a full penetration depth about 2.5 divided by 3 mm high. Three different alloys have been tested according to the applications and the mechanical properties requested to the transducer. By using a 1.5 KW CO2 laser system many different working parameters have been evaluated for correlating laser parameters to the penetration depths, crown wides, interaction laser-materia times, mechanical and metallurgical properties. Moreover during the laser welding process the measurements of the maximum temperature, reached by the transducer top, has been

  18. Laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for sodium atoms and compounds in high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J. R.; Wise, Michael L.; Smith, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of laser-induced fluorescence schemes were examined experimentally in atmospheric pressure flames to determine their use for sodium atom and salt detection in high-pressure, optically thick environments. Collisional energy transfer plays a large role in fluorescence detection. Optimum sensitivity, at the parts in 10 exp 9 level for a single laser pulse, was obtained with the excitation of the 4p-3s transition at 330 nm and the detection of the 3d-3p fluorescence at 818 nm. Fluorescence loss processes, such as ionization and amplified spontaneous emission, were examined. A new laser-induced atomization/laser-induced fluorescence detection technique was demonstrated for NaOH and NaCl. A 248-nm excimer laser photodissociates the salt molecules present in the seeded flames prior to atom detection by laser-induced fluorescence.

  19. Study on time response character for high pressure gas ionization chamber of krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chunming; Wu Haifeng; Qing Shangyu; Wang Liqiang

    2006-01-01

    The time response character for Kr and Xe high pressure gas ionization chamber is analyzed and deduced. Compared with the measure data of pulse rising time for three gas-filled ionization chambers, the calculated and experimental results are equal to each other. The rising time less than 10 ms for this kind of ionization chamber can be achieved, so this ionization chamber is able to meet the requirement for imaging detection. (authors)

  20. Modern high pressure gas injection centrifugal compressor for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin [Worley Parsons Services Pty Ltd, Brisbane, NSW (Australia). Mechanical Dept.

    2011-12-15

    This article covers different design, manufacturing, performance and reliability aspects of modern high pressure gas re-injection centrifugal compressor units. Advances and recent technologies on critical areas such as rotor dynamics, anti-surge system, rotating stall prevention, auxiliary systems, material selection, shop performance tests and gas sealing are studied. Three different case studies for modern re-injection machines including 12 MW, 15 MW and 32 MW trains are presented. (orig.)

  1. Specific features of an interaction between laser radiation and matter at high pressures of an ambient medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykalin, N N; Uglov, A A; Nizametdinov, M M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Metallurgii

    1975-08-01

    Study of the development of a plasma cloud in the vicinity of the target in nitrogen has been performed. The mechanism of discharge propagation is discussed. Variations of physical characteristics of targets exposed to radiation are considered. Experimental data concerning interaction of a neodymium laser radiation with materials (metals, dielectrics) under high pressure are given. It is demonstrated that the environmental pressure increase over the range 30-100 atm with the flux density 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ w/cm/sup 2/ results in a nearly complete screening of the target by the plasma cloud. The primary mechanism of zone formation of the laser radiation absorption in a cold gas under high pressures near the target is thermal emission (when the evaporation is insignificant) and the breakdown in the vapours of the evaporated substance. The major mechanism of sustaining the plasma cloud at flux densities of 1-10 Mw/cm/sup 2/ is slow burning. It is noted that the periodic variation of brightness of plasma after the radiation effect on dielectrics has terminated can be associated with the energy production in a chemical reaction, the development of which is determined by the time of reaching the temperature that depends on the particle size. The target characteristics in the interaction zone are considered, which depend on the radiation flux density and the gas pressure in the chamber.

  2. Image simulation of high-speed imaging by high-pressure gas ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Liu Ximing; Wu Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The signal of the neighbor pixels is cumulated in Freight Train Inspection System because data fetch time is shorter than ion excursion time. This paper analyzes the pertinency of neighbor pixels and designs computer simulation method to generate some emulate images such as indicator image. The result indicates the high-pressure gas ionization detector can be used in high-speed digital radiography field. (authors)

  3. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  4. Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed

  5. Sound produced by an oscillating arc in a high-pressure gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Fedor K.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    We suggest a simple theory to describe the sound generated by small periodic perturbations of a cylindrical arc in a dense gas. Theoretical analysis was done within the framework of the non-self-consistent channel arc model and supplemented with time-dependent gas dynamic equations. It is shown that an arc with power amplitude oscillations on the order of several percent is a source of sound whose intensity is comparable with external ultrasound sources used in experiments to increase the yield of nanoparticles in the high pressure arc systems for nanoparticle synthesis.

  6. Compact streak camera for the shock study of solids by using the high-pressure gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Mori, Yasuhito

    1993-01-01

    For the precise observation of high-speed impact phenomena, a compact high-speed streak camera recording system has been developed. The system consists of a high-pressure gas gun, a streak camera, and a long-pulse dye laser. The gas gun installed in our laboratory has a muzzle of 40 mm in diameter, and a launch tube of 2 m long. Projectile velocity is measured by the laser beam cut method. The gun is capable of accelerating a 27 g projectile up to 500 m/s, if helium gas is used as a driver. The system has been designed on the principal idea that the precise optical measurement methods developed in other areas of research can be applied to the gun study. The streak camera is 300 mm in diameter, with a rectangular rotating mirror which is driven by an air turbine spindle. The attainable streak velocity is 3 mm/microsecond(s) . The size of the camera is rather small aiming at the portability and economy. Therefore, the streak velocity is relatively slower than the fast cameras, but it is possible to use low-sensitivity but high-resolution film as a recording medium. We have also constructed a pulsed dye laser of 25 - 30 microsecond(s) in duration. The laser can be used as a light source of observation. The advantage for the use of the laser will be multi-fold, i.e., good directivity, almost single frequency, and so on. The feasibility of the system has been demonstrated by performing several experiments.

  7. High temperature, high pressure gas loop - the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Sanders, J.P.; Young, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature, gas-circulating Component Flow Test Loop located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was designed and constructed utilizing Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The quality assurance program for operating and testing is also based on applicable ASME standards. Power to a total of 5 MW is available to the test section, and an air-cooled heat exchanger rated at 4.4 MW serves as heat sink. The three gas-bearing, completely enclosed gas circulators provide a maximum flow of 0.47 m 3 /s at pressures to 10.7 MPa. The control system allows for fast transients in pressure, power, temperature, and flow; it also supports prolonged unattended steady-state operation. The data acquisition system can access and process 10,000 data points per second. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor components are being tested

  8. High-pressure measuring cell for Raman spectroscopic studies of natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    A system for obtaining Raman spectra of gases at high pressure has been constructed. In order to ensure that a natural gas sample is totally representative, a high-pressure gas-measuring cell has been developed, built up by stainless steel fittings and a sapphire tube. The design and construction...... of this cell are described. A perfect pressure seal has been demonstrated up to 15.0 MPaA (MPa absolute). The cell has been successfully used to obtain Raman spectra of natural gas samples. Some of these spectra are presented and assigned. The most remarkable observation in the spectra is that it is possible...... to detect hydrogen sulfide at concentrations of 1-3 mg H2S/Nm(3). An attempt to make a quantitative analysis of natural gas by the so-called "ratio method" is presented. In addition to this, the relative normalized differential Raman scattering cross sections for ethane and i-butane molecules at 8.0 MPa...

  9. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1–200 bar and temperature range 300–1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients of a CO_2–N_2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated spectra, as well as published experimental data. - Highlights: • A ceramic gas cell designed for gas measurements up to 1300 K and 200 bar. • The first recorded absorption spectrum of CO_2 at 1000 K and 101 bar is presented. • Voigt profiles might suffice in the modeling of radiation from CO_2 in combustion.

  10. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  11. High pressure gas scintillation drift chambers with wave-shifter fiber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Edberg, T.K.; Sadoulet, B.; Weiss, S.; Wilkerson, J.; Hurley, K.; Lin, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present results from a prototype high pressure xenon gas scintillation drift chamber using a novel wave-shifter fiber readout scheme. They have measured the primary scintillation light yield to be one photon per 76 ± 12 eV deposited energy. They present initial results of our chamber for the two-interaction separation (< 4 mm in the drift direction, ∼ 7 mm orthogonal to the drift); for the position resolution (< 400 μm rms in the plane orthogonal to the drift direction); and for the energy resolution (ΔE/E < 6% FWHM at 122 keV)

  12. Application of quality assurance guidelines to the high pressure gas system, building 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.

    1976-01-01

    Major improvements have been made to decrease the tritium release potential for LLL's tritium-handling facilities in Bldg. 331. Some of the major problems and solutions in designing and building the High Pressure Gas System, which was the first system to be rebuilt are described. To increase system safety, it was necessary to specify material and processes used in component manufacture, to inspect all materials and processes to ensure compliance with specifications, to use proper joint design, to use secondary containment in cases where specifications could not be met, and to exercise tighter control of operating procedures

  13. High temperature and high pressure gas cell for quantitative spectroscopic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A high temperature and high pressure gas cell (HTPGC) has been manufactured for quantitative spectroscopic measurements in the pressure range 1-200 bar and temperature range 300-1300 K. In the present work the cell was employed at up to 100 bar and 1000 K, and measured absorption coefficients...... of a CO2-N2 mixture at 100 bar and 1000 K are revealed for the first time, exceeding the high temperature and pressure combinations previously reported. This paper discusses the design considerations involved in the construction of the cell and presents validation measurements compared against simulated...

  14. Comparative measurements between a Li-6 glass and a He-3 high-pressure gas scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesmeyer, H.G.; Fischer, P.; Harz, U.; Soldner, B.

    1983-01-01

    The He-3 high-pressure gas scintillation neutron detector commercially available as LND 800, has been compated to a Li-6 glass scintillator type NE 912. (n,γ) pulse height discrimination capabilities and neutron detection efficiencies have been determined. The objective of these measurements was to try to improve the Kiel Fast-Chopper TOF detector system by using a gasscintillator, which could cover the neutron beam geometry and by which gamma ray background contributions could be reduced. The time response always meets the requirements of a chopper experiment, but the neutron detection efficiency of the Li-6 glasses now used had to be maintained. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Disruption mitigation with high-pressure helium gas injection on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Qian, J. P.; Zhuang, H. D.; Zeng, L.; Duan, Y.; Shi, T.; Wang, H.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2018-03-01

    High pressure noble gas injection is a promising technique to mitigate the effect of disruptions in tokamaks. In this paper, results of mitigation experiments with low-Z massive gas injection (helium) on the EAST tokamak are reported. A fast valve has been developed and successfully implemented on EAST, with valve response time  ⩽150 μs, capable of injecting up to 7 × 1022 particles, corresponding to 300 times the plasma inventory. Different amounts of helium gas were injected into stable plasmas in the preliminary experiments. It is seen that a small amount of helium gas (N_He≃ N_plasma ) can not terminate a discharge, but can trigger MHD activity. Injection of 40 times the plasma inventory impurity (N_He≃ 40× N_plasma ) can effectively radiate away part of the thermal energy and make the electron density increase rapidly. The mitigation result is that the current quench time and vertical displacement can both be reduced significantly, without resulting in significantly higher loop voltage. This also reduces the risk of runaway electron generation. As the amount of injected impurity gas increases, the gas penetration time decreases slowly and asymptotes to (˜7 ms). In addition, the impurity gas jet has also been injected into VDEs, which are more challenging to mitigate that stable plasmas.

  16. High-pressure gas-breakthrough apparatus and a procedure for determining the gas-breakthrough pressure of compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.

    1997-08-01

    Gas may be produced in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Given that the vault will be sealed with clay-based materials, the fate of the gas is uncertain. Therefore, an instrument was previously built to measure the pressure required to pass gas through compacted clay materials (a gas-breakthrough apparatus). However, the 10 MPa pressure limit of the apparatus was insufficient to test compacted buffer material at the density proposed in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Therefore, a high-pressure (50 Wa) gas-breakthrough apparatus was designed, constructed and installed. This report describes the components of the apparatus and the materials and procedures that are used for the gas-breakthrough tests. (author)

  17. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  18. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.T.; Radwan, M.H.; Jones, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  19. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, L.M.C.; Henriques, J.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas

  20. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: lgato@mail.ist.utl.pt; Henriques, J.C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: jcch@mail.ist.utl.pt

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas.

  1. Beam tests of 'SPACAL' type modules for a high pressure gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, V.F.; Krasnokutskij, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Solodkov, A.A.; Starchenko, E.A.; Sushkov, V.V.; Zajtsev, A.M.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Kopikov, S.V.; Solov'yanov, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    High-pressure gas modules with cylindrical ionization chambers for a Very Forward Calorimeter are constructed and tested in the IHEP U-70 electron beam. The amplifiers are used in a remote mode (3 m long cables). The module performance at small angles is tested in the energy range of 10-30 GeV using different gas mixtures like Ar + CH 4 , Ar + CF 4 and pure CF 4 at the pressure of 20-40 Atm. The best value of energy resolution equal to 18% is reached at the angle of 5.7 deg for 30 GeV electrons. The design is found to be adequate for future use in ATLAS/LHC. 24 refs., 10 figs

  2. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Ran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  3. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  4. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Opportunities and challenges in green house gases reduction using high pressure direct injection of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, P.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to reduce Greenhouse Gases, Westport Innovations is developing a high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology for gaseous fuels. This technology adapts the diesel cycle for gaseous fuels, since the diesel cycle provides high efficiency, high low-speed torque, fast transient capabilities and reliability. Because of their high efficiency, diesels are very favorable from a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) point of view, however they remain challenged by high nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. When directly injecting natural gas, NOx and PM emissions can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining the performance of the diesel engine. This allows the use of abundant and historically cheaper natural gas. Because of its lower carbon content per unit energy, natural gas also offers further GHG reduction over the diesel if the efficiency is preserved and if methane emissions are low. This paper discusses development efforts at Westport for several applications including on-highway trucks, light-duty delivery trucks and power generation

  6. Modeling of leak detection system for high pressure transmission system of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.; Paracha, Z.J.; Ali, A.

    2005-01-01

    Gas Industry can be considered as one of the most important industries in the economy of any country. Safe Transportation of Gas is thus considered to be vital because interruption of Supply of Gas to consumers not only causes domestic problems but also loss of revenue to country. Now most of power generation Sector has switched over their system to Natural Gas. So, interruption of supply to this sector can cause a lot of problems. This paper has provided assessment of technology approach and formulated this approach for Leak Detection Model in High Pressure Transmission system for current and future operations, which will improve the efficiency of any transmission company to a great extent. This model can be extremely helpful in conditions of Rupture Emergencies or Leakage because of corrosive conditions of Pipeline to manage the situation of resources in pipeline network. Any exceptional readings or messages should alert the user to the fact that something is wrong with the system. Such a system helps a lot in the safe and efficient management of pipeline network. The data and information provided by the Leak Detection System applications will allow for efficient and safe pipeline operation maximizing profitability over the pipeline's service lifetime. (author)

  7. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Krouský, Eduard; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 032709. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * ultra-high-pressure shocks * laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015

  8. Study of Electron Swarm in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Notani, M.; Oka, T.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed for use in the muon collection system for a muon collider. It allows for high electric field gradients in RF cavities located in strong magnetic fields, a condition frequently encountered in a muon cooling channel. In addition, an intense muon beam will generate an electron swarm via the ionization process in the cavity. A large amount of RF power will be consumed into the swarm. We show the results from our studies of the HV RF breakdown in a cavity without a beam and present some results on the resulting electron swarm dynamics. This is preliminary to actual beam tests which will take place late in 2010.

  9. Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Gat, U.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1,000 deg. C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Three gas-bearing circulators, mounted in series, provide a maximum volumetric flow of 0.47 m 3 /s and a maximum head of 78 kJ/kg at operating pressures from 0.1 to 10.7 MPa. Control of gaseous impurities in the circulating gas was the significant operating requirement that dictated the choice of a circulator that is lubricated by the circulating gas. The motor for each circulator is contained within the pressure boundary, and it is cooled by circulating the gas in the motor cavity over water-cooled coils. Each motor is rated at 200 kW at a speed of 23,500 rpm. The circulators have been operated in the loop for more than 5,000 h. The flow of the gas in the loop is controlled by varying the speed of the circulators through the use of individual 250-kVA, solid state power supplies that can be continuously varied in frequency from 50 to 400 Hz. To prevent excessive wear on the gas bearings during startup, the circulator motor accelerates the rotor to 3,000 rpm in less than one second. During operation, no problems associated with the gas bearings, per se, were encountered; however, related problems pointed to design considerations that should be included in future applications of circulators of this type. The primary test that has been conducted in this loop required sustained operation for several weeks without interruption. After a number of unscheduled interruptions, the operating goals were attained. During part of this period, the loop was operated with only two circulators installed in the pressure vessels with a guard installed in the third vessel to protect the closure flange from the gas temperatures. Unattended

  10. 49 CFR 192.197 - Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high-pressure distribution systems. 192.197 Section 192.197 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.197 Control of the pressure of gas delivered from high...

  11. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIANE, M.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on "channel" approximation of the high pressure mercury (HPM gas-discharge lamp, is developed to determine the physical and electric magnitudes, which characterize the dynamic behavior of the couple "lamp-electrical power system". The evolution of the lamp properties when principal parameters of the discharge (pressure of mercury, voltage supply, frequency are varying were studied and analyzed. We show the concordance between simulation, calculations and measurements for electric, energetic or irradiative characteristics. The model reproduces well the evolution of properties of the supply when principal parameters of the discharge vary.

  12. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  13. High-pressure turbine deposition in land-based gas turbines from various synfuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, J.P.; Crosby, J.; Wammack, J.E.; Bentley, B.I.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Ash deposits from four candidate power turbine synfuels were studied in an accelerated deposition test facility. The facility matches the gas temperature and velocity of modern first-stage high-pressure turbine vanes. A natural gas combustor was seeded with finely ground fuel ash particulate from four different fuels: straw, sawdust, coal, and petroleum coke. The entrained ash particles were accelerated to a combustor exit flow Mach number of 0.31 before impinging on a thermal barrier coating (TBC) target coupon at 1150{sup o}C. Postexposure analyses included surface topography, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy. Due to significant differences in the chemical composition of the various fuel ash samples, deposit thickness and structure vary considerably for fuel. Biomass products (e.g., sawdust and straw) are significantly less prone to deposition than coal and petcoke for the same particle loading conditions. In a test simulating one turbine operating year at a moderate particulate loading of 0.02 parts per million by weight, deposit thickness from coal and petcoke ash exceeded 1 and 2 mm, respectively. These large deposits from coal and petcoke were found to detach readily from the turbine material with thermal cycling and handling. The smaller biomass deposit samples showed greater tenacity, in adhering to the TBC surface. In all cases, corrosive elements (e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, S) were found to penetrate the TBC layer during the accelerated deposition test. Implications for the power generation goal of fuel flexibility are discussed.

  14. Free microparticles—An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  15. Free microparticles-An inducing mechanism of pre-firing in high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-03-01

    Microparticle initiated pre-firing of high pressure gas switches for fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) is experimentally and theoretically verified. First, a dual-electrode gas switch equipped with poly-methyl methacrylate baffles is used to capture and collect the microparticles. By analyzing the electrode surfaces and the collecting baffles by a laser scanning confocal microscope, microparticles ranging in size from tens of micrometers to over 100 μm are observed under the typical working conditions of FLTDs. The charging and movement of free microparticles in switch cavity are studied, and the strong DC electric field drives the microparticles to bounce off the electrode. Three different modes of free microparticle motion appear to be responsible for switch pre-firing. (i) Microparticles adhere to the electrode surface and act as a fixed protrusion which distorts the local electric field and initiates the breakdown in the gap. (ii) One particle escapes toward the opposite electrode and causes a near-electrode microdischarge, inducing the breakdown of the residual gap. (iii) Multiple moving microparticles are occasionally in cascade, leading to pre-firing. Finally, as experimental verification, repetitive discharges at ±90 kV are conducted in a three-electrode field-distortion gas switch, with two 8 mm gaps and pressurized with nitrogen. An ultrasonic probe is employed to monitor the bounce signals. In pre-firing incidents, the bounce is detected shortly before the collapse of the voltage waveform, which demonstrates that free microparticles contribute significantly to the mechanism that induces pre-firing in FLTD gas switches.

  16. Comparative study on laser welding and TIG welding of semi-solid high pressure die cast A356 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available components. The low porosity levels in SSM high pressure die castings (HPDC) improves the weldability of these components. The aim of the current research was to perform a comparative study of laser and TIG welding of SSM HPDC aluminium alloy A356. SSM...

  17. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  18. Recognition and measurement gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical concentric annulus at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin

    2018-02-01

    The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.

  19. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  20. First proof of topological signature in high pressure xenon gas with electroluminescence amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, P.; López-March, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Borges, F.I.G.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C.A.N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L.M.P.; Ferreira, A.L.; Freitas, E.D.C.; Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R.M.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C.A.O.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Irastorza, I.G.; Labarga, L.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C.M.B.; Mora, F.J.; Moutinho, L.M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J.L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F.P.; dos Santos, J.M.F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J.F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Villar, J.A.; Webb, R.; White, J.T.; Yahlali, N.; Yepes-Ramírez, H.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon in a high-pressure Xe136 gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qbb. This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype. Single electrons resulting from the interactions of Na22 1275 keV gammas and electron-positron pairs produced by conversions of gammas from the Th228 decay chain were used to represent the background and the signal in a double beta decay. These data were used to develop algorithms for the reconstruction of tracks and the identification of the energy deposited at the end-points, providing an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 +- 1.4 (stat.)%, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 +- 0.6 (stat.)% for signal events.

  1. Comparison of various droplet breakup models in gas-liquid flows in high-pressure environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleghi, H.; Ganji, D. D.; Omidvar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Droplet breakup affects spray penetration and evaporation, and plays a critical role in engine efficiency. The purpose of this research was to examine the rate of penetration and evaporation of droplets in a combustion chamber, and the efficiency of the engine when liquid jet is injected into the compressed gas chamber in an axi-symmetrical fashion leading to a turbulent and unsteady flow. As a result of interaction with the highly compressed air in the chamber, the liquid jet breaks up and forms minute droplets. These particles will in turn breakup because of aerodynamic forces, producing even smaller droplets. A number of models are available for analyzing the breakup of droplets; however, each model is typically reliable only over a limited parameter range. In this research three well-known models are applied for droplet breakup modeling and their results are compared. To obtain the details of the flow field, the Eulerian gas phase mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as equations governing the transport of turbulence and fuel vapor mass fraction are solved together with equations of trajectory, momentum, mass and energy conservation for liquid droplets in Lagrangian form. The numerical solution is performed using the finite volume method and EPISO (Engine-PISO) algorithm. The results obtained from the models show that the breakup process in a high pressure environment significantly affects the penetration and evaporation rates of the spray, and the droplet size is determined by the balance between breakup and coalescence processes. It is also shown that the details of atomization in the nozzle do not significantly influence the ultimate size of droplets. It should be mentioned that droplet collision modeling has been taken into account in the computer code and is activated wherever necessary

  2. A Novel Temperature Measurement Approach for a High Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leiweke, R. J; Ganguly, B. N

    2006-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopic technique is used to measure both electronically excited state production efficiency and gas temperature rise in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon...

  3. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  4. Matrimid®/polysulfone blend mixed matrix membranes containing ZIF-8 nanoparticles for high pressure stability in natural gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2017-01-01

    Plasticization is of important concern in high pressure natural gas separation. Majority of the pure polymers and MOF-MMM systems suffer from plasticization at low pressures. Combination of polymer blending and MMM approach could lead to plasticization resistant membranes with improved membrane

  5. Local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines; Lokale Wanddickenminderungen an in Betrieb befindlichen Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Georg [Netzdienste Rhein-Main GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoffmann, Ulrich [Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig (Germany); Konarske, Juergen [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Recklinghausen (Germany); Soppa, Thorsten [NG Netz Gas+Wasser (Germany); Steiner, Michael [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    TUeV Nord, Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung and DVGW investigated methods to assess local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines. Methods described in the relevant literature were reviewed with regard to the limiting criteria defined for maximum permissible wall thickness reductions. (orig./GL)

  6. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  7. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  8. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here

  9. Using Modelica to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the German national standard for high pressure natural gas flow metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von der Heyde, M; Schmitz, G; Mickan, B

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model written in Modelica for the high pressure piston prover (HPPP) used as the national primary standard for high pressure natural gas flow metering in Germany. With a piston prover the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the time a piston needs to displace a certain volume of gas in a cylinder. Fluctuating piston velocity during measurement can be a significant source of uncertainty if not considered in an appropriate way. The model was built to investigate measures for the reduction of this uncertainty. Validation shows a good compliance of the piston velocity in the model with measured data for certain volume flow rates. Reduction of the piston weight, variation of the start valve switching time and integration of a flow straightener were found to reduce the piston velocity fluctuations in the model significantly. The fast and cost effective generation of those results shows the strength of the used modelling approach. (paper)

  10. A method for simulating the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Hu, Hongbing; Yu, Bo; Sun, Dongliang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Yongtu

    2018-01-15

    The rupture of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline can pose a serious threat to human life and environment. In this research, a method has been proposed to simulate the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain. The process of gas releases from the rupture of a high-pressure pipeline is divided into three stages, namely the discharge, jet, and dispersion stages. Firstly, a discharge model is established to calculate the release rate of the orifice. Secondly, an improved jet model is proposed to obtain the parameters of the pseudo source. Thirdly, a fast-modeling method applicable to any terrain is introduced. Finally, based upon these three steps, a dispersion model, which can take any terrain into account, is established. Then, the dispersion scenarios of released gas in four different terrains are studied. Moreover, the effects of pipeline pressure, pipeline diameter, wind speed and concentration of hydrogen sulfide on the dispersion scenario in real terrain are systematically analyzed. The results provide significant guidance for risk assessment and contingency planning of a ruptured natural gas pipeline. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Piezoelectric microvalve for precise control of gas flow at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    We present a normally open piezoelectric actuated micro valve, based on the novel concept of micro and fine machining technology. This new design allows a wide controllable range for high flow at a high pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This promising combination of micro and fine

  12. Application of water-insoluble polymers to orally disintegrating tablets treated by high-pressure carbon dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-09-10

    The phase transition of pharmaceutical excipients that can be induced by humidifying or heating is well-known to increase the hardness of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). However, these conditions are not applicable to drug substances that are chemically unstable against such stressors. Here, we describe a system which enhances the hardness of tablets containing water-insoluble polymers by using high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2). On screening of 26 polymeric excipients, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) markedly increased tablet hardness (+155N) when maintained in a high-pressure CO2 environment. ODTs containing 10% AMCE were prepared and treatment with 4.0MPa CO2 gas at 25°C for 10min increased the hardness to +30N, whose level corresponded to heating at 70°C for 720min. In addition, we confirmed the effects of CO2 pressure, temperature, treatment time, and AMCE content on the physical properties of ODTs. Optimal pressure of CO2 gas was considered to be approximately 3.5MPa for an AMCE formula, as excessive pressure delayed the disintegration of ODTs. Combination of high-pressure CO2 gas and AMCE is a prospective approach for increasing the tablet hardness for ODTs, and can be conducted without additional heat or moisture stress using a simple apparatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A primary scintillation gated high pressure position sensitive gas scintillation proportional counter (HPGSPC) for applications to x-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giarrusso, S.; Manzo, G.; Re, S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe a new instrument for x-ray astronomy. The instrument, based on a high pressure (5 atm.), xenon filled, position sensitive Gas Scintillation Proportional counter (HPGSPC) is expected to feature an energy resolution better than 4% at 60 keV, an angular resolution of approximately 20 arc-minutes over the full energy range (4 to 100 keV) and a field of view (FOV) of up to 30x30 degrees. A prototype flight unit of the gas cell on which the instrument is based is presently under technological development in the framework of the SAX project

  14. Multiple scattering effects in fast neutron polarization experiments using high-pressure helium-xenon gas scintillators as analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  15. Creation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by the collision of laser-accelerated disks: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.; Phillion, D.W.; Price, R.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Obenschain, S.P.; Whitlock, R.R.; McLean, E.A.; Ripin, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have used the SHIVA laser system to accelerate carbon disks to speeds in excess of 100 km/sec. The 3KJ/3 ns pulse, on a 1 mm diameter spot of a single disk produced a conventional shock of about 5 MB. The laser energy can, however, be stored in kinetic motion of this accelerated disk and delivered (reconverted to thermal energy) upon impact with another carbon disk. This collision occurs in a time much shorter than the 3 ns pulse, thus acting as a power amplifier. The shock pressures measured upon impact are estimated to be in the 20 MB range, thus demonstrating the amplification power of this colliding disk technique in creating ultra-high pressures. Theory and computer simulations of this process will be discussed, and compared with the experiment

  16. A radiotracer technique for testing a high pressure gas compressor for oil leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Kirti; Jain, S.K.; Gupta, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radiotracer investigations carried out at NOCIL, Bombay, to measure the amount of lubrication oil present in the gas being compressed in a 1000 H.P. centrifugal compressor are described. By injecting a few mCi 131 I labelled glyceryl trioleate tracer and monitoring the radioactivity of the outlet gas for about 20 hours, the extent of the oil present in the gas could be determined. (auth.)

  17. Coupled Effect of Expansion Ratio and Blade Loading on the Aerodynamics of a High-Pressure Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gaetani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The need of a continuous improvement in gas turbine efficiency for propulsion and power generation, as well as the more demanding operating conditions and power control required to these machines, still ask for great efforts in the design and analysis of the high pressure section of the turbo-expander. To get detailed insights and improve the comprehension of the flow physics, a wide experimental campaign has been performed in the last ten years at Politecnico di Milano on the unsteady aerodynamics of a high-pressure turbine stage considering several operating conditions. This paper presents and discusses the experimental results obtained for the stage operating with different expansion ratios and rotor loading. The turbine stage under study is representative of a modern high-pressure turbine and can be operated in both subsonic and transonic conditions. The experimental tools applied for the current research represents the state of the art when unsteady investigations are foreseen. The detailed flow field, the blade–rows interaction and the overall performance are described and discussed; efforts have been devoted to the discussion of the various contribution to the overall stage efficiency. The direct effects of the expansion ratio, affecting the Reynolds and the Mach numbers, have been highlighted and quantified; similarly, the indirect effects, accounting for a change in the rotor loading, have been commented and quantified as well, thanks to a dedicated set of experiments where different rotor loadings at the same expansion ratio have been prescribed.

  18. Development of Probability Evaluation Methodology for High Pressure/Temperature Gas Induced RCS Boundary Failure and SG Creep Rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kuh Hyung [FNC Tech. Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Existing MELCOR 1.8.5 model was improved in view of severe accident natural circulation and MELCOR 1.8.6 input model was developed and calculation sheets for detailed MELCOR 1.8.6 model were produced. Effects of natural circulation modeling were found by simulating SBO accident by comparing existing model with detailed model. Major phenomenon and system operations which affect on natural circulation by high temperature and high pressure gas were investigated and representative accident sequences for creep rupture model of RCS pipeline and SG tube were selected.

  19. MgxZn1-xO(0≤x<0.2) nanowire arrays on sapphire grown by high-pressure pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, M.; Kaidashev, E.M.; Rahm, A.; Nobis, Th.; Lenzner, J.; Wagner, G.; Spemann, D.; Hochmuth, H.; Grundmann, M.

    2005-01-01

    Mg x Zn 1-x O nanowires with Mg-content x from 0 to 0.2 have been grown by high-pressure pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on gold-covered sapphire single crystals. The PLD process allows for a unique wide-range control of morphology, diameter, and composition of the Mg x Zn 1-x O nanowires. The diameter of single ZnO wires could be varied between about 50 and 3000 nm, and the Mg content x of Mg x Zn 1-x O wire arrays was controlled via the PLD gas pressure. The microscopic homogeneity of Mg content is displayed by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of the excitonic peak energy. The fluctuation of CL peak energy between individual wires is about an order of magnitude smaller than the alloy broadening

  20. Computational analysis of transient gas release from a high pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, G.; Oshkai, P.; Djilali, N. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Penau, F. [CERAM Euro-American Inst. of Technology, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2006-07-01

    Gas jets exiting from compressed vessels can undergo several regimes as the pressure in the vessel decreases, and a greater understanding of the characteristics of gas jets is needed to determine safety requirements in the transport, distribution, and use of hydrogen. This paper provided a study of the bow shock waves that typically occur during the initial stage of a gas jet incident. The transient behaviour of an initiated jet was investigated using unsteady, compressible flow simulations. The gas was considered to be ideal, and the domain was considered to be axisymmetric. Tank pressure for the analysis was set at a value of 100 atm. Jet structure was examined, as well as the shock structures and separation due to adverse pressure gradients at the nozzle. Shock structure displacement was also characterized.

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of deepwater natural gas mixtures with heavy hydrocarbon content at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago; Ejaz, Saquib; Zhou, Jingjun; Al-Marri, Mohammed; Holste, James J.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes high-accuracy density measurements and phase envelopes for deepwater natural gas mixtures. Mixtures primarily consist of (0.88 and 0.94) mole fraction methane and both mixtures includes heavy components (C 6+ ) more than 0.002 mole fraction. Experimental density and phase envelope data for deep and ultra-deep reservoir mixtures are scarce in literature and high accuracy measurements for such parameters for such natural gas-like mixtures are essential to validate the benchmark equations for custody transfer such as AGA8-DC92 and GERG-2008 equation of states (EOS). Thus, in this paper we report density and phase envelope experimental data via compact single-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter and isochoric apparatuses. Such data help gas industry to avoid retrograde condensation in natural gas pipelines

  2. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  3. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... conclusion is that GERG-water must be used with caution outside its specified working range. For some selected natural gas mixtures the two models also perform very much alike. The water content of the mixtures decreases with increasing amount of heavier components, and it seems that both models slightly...

  4. Prediction and correlation of high-pressure gas solubility in polymers with simplified PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In general the results are satisf......Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In general the results...

  5. Ultrahigh gas storage both at low and high pressures in KOH-activated carbonized porous aromatic frameworks.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanqiang; Ben, Teng; Zhang, Bingyao; Fu, Yao; Qiu, Shilun

    2013-01-01

    The carbonized PAF-1 derivatives formed by high-temperature KOH activation showed a unique bimodal microporous structure located at 0.6 nm and 1.2 nm and high surface area. These robust micropores were confirmed by nitrogen sorption experiment and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sorption experiments indicated that these novel porous carbon materials have significant gas sorption abilities in both low-pressure and high-pressure environments. Moreover the methane storage ability of K-PAF-1-750 is among the best at 35 bars, and its low-pressure gas adsorption abilities are also comparable to the best porous materials in the world. Combined with excellent physicochemical stability, these materials are very promising for industrial applications such as carbon dioxide capture and high-density clean energy storage.

  6. Direct injection of high pressure gas : scaling properties of pulsed turbulent jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Klaassen, A.; Doosje, E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection

  7. Reduced-order modellin for high-pressure transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaie, Baba G.; Khan, Ilyas; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alqahtani, Aisha M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the transient flow of hydrogen compressed-natural gas (HCNG) mixture which is also referred to as hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a pipeline is numerically computed using the reduced-order modelling technique. The study on transient conditions is important because the pipeline flows are normally in the unsteady state due to the sudden opening and closure of control valves, but most of the existing studies only analyse the flow in the steady-state conditions. The mathematical model consists in a set of non-linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. The objective of this paper is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of the HCNG transient flow parameters using the Reduced-Order Modelling (ROM). The ROM technique has been successfully used in single-gas and aerodynamic flow problems, the gas mixture has not been done using the ROM. The study is based on the velocity change created by the operation of the valves upstream and downstream the pipeline. Results on the flow characteristics, namely the pressure, density, celerity and mass flux are based on variations of the mixing ratio and valve reaction and actuation time; the ROM computational time cost advantage are also presented.

  8. Two dimensional gas temperature measurements of fuel sprays in a high pressure cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is a promising low-emission combustion concept. By partially mixing the fuel, air and exhaust gas before auto-ignition, the soot and NOx emissions are lower than for conventional diesel combustion. However, the fundamental aspects of the mixing process of

  9. On the impact of the ideal gas assumption to high-pressure combustion phenomena in engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evlampiev, A.V.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the ideal gas law assumption on auto-ignition and NOx-formation in a rapid compression machine is studied. For both processes the simulations are compared to a reference simulation using a Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state based on the critical properties of all constituents.

  10. Properties of high pressure nitrogen-argon and nitrogen-xenon gas scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Huck, H.; Koeber, H.J.; Mertens, G.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of scintillation light output and energy resolution have been made at pressures up to 90 atm in gaseous mixtures of nitrogen with both argon and xenon by stopping of 210 Po-alpha particles. In the absence of a wavelength shifter, the N 2 -Ar mixtures gave a maximum pulse height at a ratio of nitrogen to argon partial pressures rsub(N 2 /Ar) approximately =0.2. However, when using the wavelength shifter diphenyl stilbene (DPS), the measured light output was much larger at lower values of rsub(N 2 /Ar), whereas for rsub(N 2 /Ar)>0.2 pulse height and energy resolution of the studied N 2 -Ar mixtures were roughly indentical with and without DPS. The N 2 -Xe gas mixtures exhibited a similar dependence of pulse height and energy resolution to that of the N 2 -Ar mixtures employing DPS, but the pulse height was larger by a factor of about 7. A 40 atm 50% N 2 -50% Xe gas scintillator showed an energy resolution ΔE/E=0.25, while an 80 atm 75% N 2 -25% Xe scintillator gave ΔE/E=0.6. The pulse height from the 80 atm N 2 -Xe scintillator was smaller by a factor of about 240 than the pulse height from a 20 atm pure Xe gas scintillator, but larger by a factor of about 20 than the pulse height from a 75 atm pure N 2 gas scintillator. The N 2 -Xe mixtures showed a remarkable increase of light output as the temperature of the gas was descreased. (Auth.)

  11. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, Eric [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miller, Scott [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ku, Anthony [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Polishchuk, Kimberly [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wei, Wei [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shisler, Roger [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Wickersham, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McEvoy, Kevin [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Alberts, William [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Barton, Thomas [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200°C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (α = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (α = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200°C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  12. Steady State Structural Analysis of High Pressure Gas Turbine Blade using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarbhuiya, Hussain Mahamed Sahed Mostafa; Murari Pandey, Krishna

    2017-08-01

    In gas turbines the major portion of performance dependency lies upon turbine blade design. Turbine blades experience very high centrifugal, axial and tangential force during power generation. While withstanding these forces blades undergo elongation. Different methods have proposed for better enhancement of the mechanical properties of blade to withstand in extreme condition. Present paper describes the stress and elongation for blades having properties of different materials. Steady state structural analysis have performed in the present work for different materials (In 625, In 718, In 738, In 738 LC, MAR M246, Ni-Cr, Ti-alloy, Ti-Al, Ti-T6, U500). Remarkable finding is that the root of the blade is subjected to maximum stress for all blade materials and the blade made of MAR M246 has less stress and deformation among all other blade materials which can be selected as a suitable material for gas turbine blade.

  13. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  14. Modelling the Dynamic Interaction Power System Lamp - Application to High Pressure Mercury Gas Discharge Lamps

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANE, M.; MEDLES, K.; ADJOUDJ, M.; MILOUA, F.; DAMELINCOURT, J. J.; TILMATINE, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behaviour of a plant constituted by an electrical power system and a gas discharge lamp, this latter, increasingly used in street lighting, remains a nonlinear load element. Various approaches are used to represent it, one is the approximation of the discharge represented by a hot "channel", which verifies the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium [LTE] or the polynomial form of the conductance variation. A calculation procedure, based on ...

  15. High-pressure water electrolysis: Electrochemical mitigation of product gas crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, Maximilian; Stolten, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New technique to reduce gas crossover during water electrolysis • Increase of the efficiency of pressurized water electrolysis • Prevention of safety hazards due to explosive gas mixtures caused by crossover • Experimental realization for a polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer • Discussion of electrochemical crossover mitigation for alkaline water electrolysis - Abstract: Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis can be used as an energy carrier storing electricity generated from renewables. During water electrolysis hydrogen can be evolved under pressure at isothermal conditions, enabling highly efficient compression. However, the permeation of hydrogen through the electrolyte increases with operating pressure and leads to efficiency loss and safety hazards. In this study, we report on an innovative concept, where the hydrogen crossover is electrochemically mitigated by an additional electrode between the anode and the cathode of the electrolysis cell. Experimentally, the technique was applied to a proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer operated at a hydrogen pressure that was fifty times larger than the oxygen pressure. Therewith, the hydrogen crossover was reduced and the current efficiency during partial load operation was increased. The concept is also discussed for water electrolysis that is operated at balanced pressures, where the crossover of hydrogen and oxygen is mitigated using two additional electrodes

  16. A possible origin of EL6 chondrites from a high temperature-high pressure solar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blander, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Unger, L. [Purdue Univ., Westiville, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pelton, A.; Eriksson, G. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-05-01

    Condensates from a gas of ``solar`` composition were calculated to investigate the origins of EL6 chondrites using a free energy minimization program with a data base for the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent molten silicates as well as for other liquids solids, solid solutions and gaseous species. Because of high volatility of silicon and silica, the high silicon content of metal (2.6 mole %) can only be produced at pressures 10{sup {minus}2} atm at temperatures above 1475 K. At 100--500 atm, a liquid silicate phase crystallizes at a temperature where the silicon content of the metal, ferrosilite content of the enstatite and albite concentration in the plagioclase are close to measured values. In pyrometallurgy, liquid silicates are catalysts for reactions in which Si-O-Si bridging bonds are broken or formed. Thus, one attractive mode for freezing in the compositions of these three phases is disappearance of fluxing liquid. If the plagioclase can continue to react with the nebula without a liquid phase, lower pressures of 10{sup {minus}1} to 1 atm might be possible. Even if the nebula is more reducing than a solar gas, the measured properties of EL6 chondrites might be reconciled with only slightly lower pressures (less than 3X lower). The temperatures would be about the same as indicated in our calculations since the product of the silicon content of the metal and the square of the ferrosilite content of the enstatite constitute a cosmothermometer for the mineral assemblage in EL6 chondrites.

  17. Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions and high-pressure mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the fact that the research in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, to which wide interest is shown, have greatly contributed to the physical and chemical fields are that, first it is essential in understanding general phenomena concerning ions, second, it can furnish many unique informations in the dynamics of chemical reactions, and third, usefulness of '' chemical ionization'' methods has been established as its application to chemical analysis. In this review, the history and trend of studies and equipments in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions are surveyed. The survey includes the chemical ionization mass spectrometer for simultaneously measuring the positive and negative ions utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer presented by Hunt and others, flowing afterglow method derived from the flowing method which traces neutral chemical species mainly optically, ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, trapped ion mass spectrometer and others. Number of reports referred to ion-molecule reactions issued during the last one year well exceeds the total number of reports concerning mass spectrometers presented before 1955. This truly shows how active the research and development are in this field. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  19. Concerning the generation of very high pressures for EOS studies with ultra-high power laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.L.; Keeler, R.N.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1977-07-01

    The use of basic physical and geometric principles, coupled with current laser technology, seems likely to extend experimental hyperbaric physics investigations from the megabar region into the portions of parameter space in which the ideal (degenerate) Fermi gas approximation is valid for even the highest Z materials. Implosions and speed-multiplying rectilinear stacks of flat plates seem particularly apt techniques for the near-term, transient attainment of pressure of 10 9 atmospheres in the laboratory, and laser-energized pulsed x-ray ''cameras'' appear suitable for analyzing the basic properties of matter under such conditions

  20. Development of high pressure-high vacuum-high conductance piston valve for gas-filled radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, D N; Ayyappan, R; Kamble, L P; Singh, J P; Muralikrishna, L V; Alex, M; Balagi, V; Mukhopadhyay, P K

    2008-01-01

    Gas-filled radiation detectors need gas filling at pressures that range from few cms of mercury to as high as 25kg/cm 2 at room temperature. Before gas-filling these detectors require evacuation to a vacuum of the order of ∼1 x 10 -5 mbar. For these operations of evacuation and gas filling a system consisting of a vacuum pump with a high vacuum gauge, gas cylinder with a pressure gauge and a valve is used. The valve has to meet the three requirements of compatibility with high-pressure and high vacuum and high conductance. A piston valve suitable for the evacuation and gas filling of radiation detectors has been designed and fabricated to meet the above requirements. The stainless steel body (80mmx160mm overall dimensions) valve with a piston arrangement has a 1/2 inch inlet/outlet opening, neoprene/viton O-ring at piston face and diameter for sealing and a knob for opening and closing the valve. The piston movement mechanism is designed to have minimum wear of sealing O-rings. The valve has been hydrostatic pressure tested up to 75bars and has Helium leak rate of less than 9.6x10 -9 m bar ltr/sec in vacuum mode and 2x10 -7 mbar ltr/sec in pressure mode. As compared to a commercial diaphragm valve, which needed 3 hours to evacuate a 7 litre chamber to 2.5x10 -5 mbar, the new valve achieved vacuum 7.4x10 -6 mbar in the same time under the same conditions

  1. High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps. [tapered bore seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated.

  2. PandaX-III: Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay with high pressure 136Xe gas time projection chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Fu, ChangBo; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, LingHui; Han, Ke; Ji, XiangDong; Lin, Heng; Liu, JiangLai; Ni, KaiXiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, XiangXiang; Wang, ShaoBo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, XiangMing; Hu, ShouYang; Jian, SiYu; Li, XingLong; Li, XiaoMei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, HuanQiao; Zhao, MingRui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, YaJun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, SiGuang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N.; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, JiaNing; Feng, ChangQing; Li, Cheng; Liu, JianBei; Liu, ShuBin; Wang, XiaoLian; Zhu, DanYang; Castel, Juan F.; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G.; Irastorza, Igor G.; Iguaz, Francisco J.; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, AnDi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (particle and astrophysical xenon experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of 136Xe at the China Jin Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90% 136Xe enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct the electron tracks of the NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better control over backgrounds.

  3. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  4. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  5. Radial flow gas dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    The unique gas dynamic laser provides outward radial supersonic flow from a toroidal shaped stacked array of a plurality of nozzles, through a diffuser having ring shaped and/or linear shaped vanes, and through a cavity which is cylindrical and concentric with the stacked array, with the resultant laser beam passing through the housing parallel to the central axis of the diffuser which is coincident with the axis of the gas dynamic laser. Therefore, greater beam extraction flexibility is attainable, because of fewer flow shock disturbances, as compared to the conventional unidirectional flow gas dynamic laser in which unidirectional supersonic flow sweeps through a rectangular cavity and is exhausted through a two-dimensional diffuser. (auth)

  6. Influence of water–air ratio on the heat transfer and creep life of a high pressure gas turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshati, S.; Abu, A.; Laskaridis, P.; Khan, F.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model to investigate the influence of Water–Air Ratio (WAR) on turbine blade heat transfer and cooling processes (and thus the blade creep life) of industrial gas turbines is presented. The effects of WAR are emphasised for the modelling of the gas properties and the subsequent heat transfer process. The approach considers convective/film cooling and includes the influence of a thermal barrier coating. In addition, the approach is based on the thermodynamic outputs of a gas turbine performance simulation, heat transfer model, as well as a method that accounts for the changes in the properties of moist air as a function of WAR. For a given off-design point, the variation of WAR (0.0–0.10) was investigated using the heat transfer model. Results showed that with increasing WAR the blade inlet coolant temperature reduced along the blade span. The blade metal temperature at each section was reduced as WAR increased, which in turn increased the blade creep life. The increase in WAR increased the specific heat of the coolant and increased the heat transfer capacity of the coolant air flow. The model can be implemented by using the thermodynamic cycle of the engine, without knowing the turbine cooling details in the conceptual design stage. Also, this generic method assists the end user to understand the effect of operating conditions and design parameter on the creep life of a high pressure turbine blade. -- Highlights: • The influence of WAR on gas turbine blade heat transfer and creep life is examined. • Coolant specific heat capacity is the key property affected by changes in WAR. • Increase in WAR reduces the coolant and metal temperature along the blade span. • Creep life increases with increase in WAR even if ambient temperature is increased

  7. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 0 C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 0 C. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat treating it to form an adherent stable oxide, and bolting it in place in the cavity

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for quantitative temperature and concentration measurements in a high-pressure gas turbine combustor rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariyan, Mathew Paul

    Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (DP-CARS) temperature and major species (CO2/N2) concentration measurements have been performed in an optically-accessible high-pressure gas turbine combustor facility (GTCF) and for partially-premixed and non-premixed flames in a laminar counter-flow burner. A window assembly incorporating pairs of thin and thick fused silica windows on three sides was designed, fabricated, and assembled in the GTCF for advanced laser diagnostic studies. An injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was used as a narrowband pump laser source in the dual-pump CARS system. Large prisms on computer-controlled translation stages were used to direct the CARS beams either into the main optics leg for measurements in the GTCF or to a reference optics leg for measurements of the nonresonant CARS spectrum and for aligning the CARS system. Combusting flows were stabilized with liquid fuel injection only for the central injector of a 9-element lean direct injection (LDI) device developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The combustor was operated using Jet A fuel at inlet air temperatures up to 725 K and combustor pressures up to 1.03 MPa. Single-shot DP-CARS spectra were analyzed using the Sandia CARSFT code in the batch operation mode to yield instantaneous temperature and CO2/N2 concentration ratio values. Spatial maps of mean and standard deviations of temperature and CO2/N2 concentrations were obtained in the high-pressure LDI flames by translating the CARS probe volume in axial and vertical directions inside the combustor rig. The mean temperature fields demonstrate the effect of the combustor conditions on the overall flame length and the average flame structure. The temperature relative standard deviation values indicate thermal fluctuations due to the presence of recirculation zones and/or flame brush fluctuations. The correlation between the temperature and relative CO 2 concentration data has been studied at various combustor

  9. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 deg. C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 deg. C. The 200-kW motor for each circulator is enclosed in the pressure boundary, and the motor is cooled by circulating the gas within the cavity over a water-cooled coil. The full operating speed is 23,500 rpm. A full-flow filter, absolute for particulate above 10 μm, is installed upstream of the circulator to protect the gas bearing surfaces. The minimum clearances between these surfaces during operation are in the range of 15 to 30 μm. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat

  10. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  11. Switching strategy between HP (high pressure)- and LPEGR (low pressure exhaust gas recirculation) systems for reduced fuel consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luján, José Manuel; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) plays a major role in current Diesel internal combustion engines as a cost-effective solution to reduce NO_x emissions. EGR systems will suffer a significant evolution with the introduction of NO_x after-treatment and the proliferation of more complex EGR architectures such as low pressure EGR or dual EGR. In this paper the combination of HPEGR (high pressure EGR) LPEGR (low pressure EGR) is presented as a method to minimise fuel consumption with reduced NO_x emissions. Particularly, the paper proposes to switch between HPEGR and LPEGR architectures depending on the engine operating conditions in order to exploit the potential of both systems. In this sense, given a driving cycle, in the case at hand the NEDC, the proposed strategy seeks the EGR layout to use at each instant of the cycle to minimise the fuel consumption such that NO_x emissions are kept below a certain limit. The experimental results obtained show that combining both EGR systems sequentially along the NEDC allows to keep NO_x emission below a much lower limit with minimum fuel consumption. - Highlights: • The combination of HP–LPEGR reduces the NO_x with a small impact on consumption. • The switching strategy between HP – LPEGR is derived from Optimal Control Theory. • The proposed strategy is validated experimentally.

  12. High-current electron accelerator for gas-laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badaliants, G R; Mamikonian, V A; Nersisian, G Ts; Papanian, V O

    1978-11-26

    A high-current source of pulsed electron beams has been developed for the pumping of UV gas lasers. The parameters of the device are: energy of 0.3-0.7 MeV pulse duration of 30 ns and current density (in a high-pressure laser chamber) of 40-100 A/sq cm. The principal feature of the device is the use of a rectangular cold cathode with incomplete discharge along the surface of the high-permittivity dielectric. Cathodes made of stainless steel, copper, and graphite were investigated.

  13. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  14. Evaluation and compensation of steady gas flow force on the high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve direct-driven by voice coil motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoren; Gao, Longlong; Yang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel energy saving high-pressure electro-pneumatic servo valve is presented. ► An evaluated method for steady gas flow forces on pneumatic valves is proposed. ► Gas jet angles at the orifices for the valve are larger than 69° commonly used. ► The steady gas flow force is strongly nonlinear with valve opening. ► The steady gas flow force is compensated and the aim at energy saving is realized. - Abstract: A novel voice coil motor (VCM) direct drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve is designed, and then the steady gas flow force acting on the spool of the servo valve is investigated by numerical simulation and experimental methods in this paper. At present, many studies about flow force are concentrated mainly on hydraulic valves, but rarely on pneumatic valves. However, the velocity of gas is up to sonic when high-pressure gas flows through the servo valve orifice. And therefore, the steady gas flow force, generated by high pressure and high speed gas flow, cannot be neglected and is an important disturbance for the VCM direct-drive single stage high-pressure pneumatic servo valve. Consequently, the numerical simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is adopted to analyze the flow filed, jet angles, and steady gas flow forces for the servo valve with different valve openings and inlet pressures. The experimental study is performed to evaluate and confirm the numerical analysis. Then the compensated approach is proposed to reduce the steady gas flow force for the servo valve, changing the angle of non-metering port designed in the valve sleeve to the spool axis. The results demonstrate that the presented numerical analysis method is validated, the gas jet angle for the servo valve orifice is more than 69° and varies with different spool openings, and the steady gas flow force is nonlinear with valve opening and linear with inlet pressure when the outlet boundary is atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the steady gas

  15. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei

    2009-05-01

    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  16. [Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Gas Hydrate Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wu, Neng-you; Lu, Hai-long; Wu, Dai-dai; Su, Qiu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Gas hydrates are important potential energy resources. Microstructural characterization of gas hydrate can provide information to study the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and to support the exploitation and application of gas hydrate technology. This article systemly introduces the basic principle of laser Raman spectroscopy and summarizes its application in gas hydrate studies. Based on Raman results, not only can the information about gas composition and structural type be deduced, but also the occupancies of large and small cages and even hydration number can be calculated from the relative intensities of Raman peaks. By using the in-situ analytical technology, laser Raman specstropy can be applied to characterize the formation and decomposition processes of gas hydrate at microscale, for example the enclathration and leaving of gas molecules into/from its cages, to monitor the changes in gas concentration and gas solubility during hydrate formation and decomposition, and to identify phase changes in the study system. Laser Raman in-situ analytical technology has also been used in determination of hydrate structure and understanding its changing process under the conditions of ultra high pressure. Deep-sea in-situ Raman spectrometer can be employed for the in-situ analysis of the structures of natural gas hydrate and their formation environment. Raman imaging technology can be applied to specify the characteristics of crystallization and gas distribution over hydrate surface. With the development of laser Raman technology and its combination with other instruments, it will become more powerful and play a more significant role in the microscopic study of gas hydrate.

  17. Laser-induced gas plasma machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, Selim; Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-10-17

    Techniques for removing material from a substrate are provided. A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. A gas is provided at the focus point. The gas is dissociated using the laser energy to generate gas plasma. The substrate is then brought in contact with the gas plasma to enable material removal.

  18. Rupture of a high pressure gas or steam pipe in a tunnel: a preliminary investigation of the jet thrust exerted on a tunnel barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1988-04-01

    On power plant, if a high pressure pipe containing high temperature gas or steam were to rupture, sensitive equipment necessary for safety shutdown of the plant could possibly be incapacitated if exposed to the subsequent high temperature environment. In many plant configurations the high pressure pipework is contained in tunnels where it is possible to construct barriers which isolate one section of the plant from another, thereby restricting the spread of the high temperature fluid/air mixture. This paper describes a preliminary experimental investigation of the magnitude of the thrust likely to be exerted on such barriers by a gas jet issuing from the failed pipe. Measurements of the thrust exerted on a flat plate by normal impingement of a highly underexpanded gas jet are in agreement with a semi-quantitative analysis assuming conservation of the axial momentum of the jet. (author)

  19. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  20. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  1. Design and test of a new high pressure phase equlibrium apparatus for highly corrosive mixtures of importance for natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota Martinez, M.; Samdani, S.; Berrouk, A.S.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Elhseinat, E.Y.; Banat, F.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    A new static analytical apparatus for high-pressure phase equilibrium measurements has been designed and built. The new apparatus enables the measurement of vapor–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibria, which can operate at temperatures ranging from 225 K to 475 K and pressures up to 20 MPa. It is

  2. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic for in situ monitoring of nanoparticle synthesis in a high-pressure arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Vekselman, Vladislav; Mitrani, James; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny; LaboratoryPlasma Nanosynthesis Team

    2016-10-01

    A DC arc discharge is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, including buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, and graphene flakes. In this work we show the first results of nanoparticles monitored during the arc discharge. The graphite electrode is vaporized by high current (60 A) in a buffer Helium gas leading to nanoparticle synthesis in a low temperature plasma. The arc was shown to oscillate, which can possibly influence the nano-synthesis. To visualize the nanoparticles in-situ we employ the LII technique. The nanoparticles with radii >50 nm, emerging from the arc area are heated with a short laser pulse and incandesce. The resulting radiation is captured with an ICCD camera, showing the location of the generated nanoparticles. The images of incandescence are studied together with temporally synchronized fast-framing imaging of C2 emission, to connect the dynamics of arc instabilities, C2 molecules concentration and nanoparticles. The time-resolved incandescence signal is analyzed with combination of ex-situ measurements of the synthesized nanoparticles and LII modeling, to provide the size distribution of produced nanoparticles. This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  3. Criteria of assessment for local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines; Beurteilungskriterien fuer lokale Wanddickenminderungen an in Betrieb befindlichen Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hass, Georg [NetzDienste Rhein/Main GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoffman, Ulrich [VNG - Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany); Konarske, Juergen [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Recklinghausen (Germany); Soppa, Thorsten [NG Netz Gas+Wasser (Germany). Bau/Betrieb Hochdrucknetz; Steiner, Michael [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany). Integritaet/Werkstofftechnik

    2011-07-01

    TUeV Nord, Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung and DVGW investigated methods to assess local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines. Methods described in the relevant literature were reviewed with regard to the limiting criteria defined for maximum permissible wall thickness reductions. On the basis of this literature study and additional calculations, a comparative evaluation of the available methods was made. Several methods were identified that are compatible with the existing safety concept and general availability. It was found that - nearly independent of the method - burst safeties of 1.8 to 2.0 were used. The ultimate goal is the development of a German standard evaluation concept for local wall thickness reductions in high-pressure gas pipelines in order to avoid uncertainties and/or misinterpretations.

  4. Diatomic infrared gas-dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckenzie, R.L.

    1971-01-01

    A laser is provided which utilizes the infrared vibration rotation transitions of a diatomic gas such as carbon monoxide. The laser action is produced by an active diatomic gas such as carbon monoxide mixed with a vibrationally resonant pumping gas such as nitrogen. In addition, a noble gas such as argon may be employed as a third gas in the mixture. The gas mixture contains from 1 to 80 vol percent of the active gas based on the pumping gas, and the third gas, if used, can constitute up to 90 percent of the total gas volume. A number of significantly different wavelengths can be produced by the laser. A single laser may contain several optical resonators at different locations, so that the desired wave length can be selected at will

  5. Investigation into the effects of operating conditions and design parameters on the creep life of high pressure turbine blades in a stationary gas turbine engine

    OpenAIRE

    Eshati, Samir; Abu, Abdullahi; Laskaridis, Panagiotis; Haslam, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A physics–based model is used to investigate the relationship between operating conditions and design parameters on the creep life of a stationary gas turbine high pressure turbine (HPT) blade. A performance model is used to size the blade and to determine its stresses. The effects of radial temperature distortion, turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature and compressor degradation on creep life are then examined. The results show variations in creep life and failure locat...

  6. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  7. Combined resistive and laser heating technique for in situ radial X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Lowell [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Kaercher, Pamela; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Alarcon, Eloisa Zepeda [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Raju, Selva Vennila [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); HiPSEC, Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Knight, Jason; MacDowell, Alastair [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Williams, Quentin [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To extend the range of high-temperature, high-pressure studies within the diamond anvil cell, a Liermann-type diamond anvil cell with radial diffraction geometry (rDAC) was redesigned and developed for synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source. The rDAC, equipped with graphite heating arrays, allows simultaneous resistive and laser heating while the material is subjected to high pressure. The goals are both to extend the temperature range of external (resistive) heating and to produce environments with lower temperature gradients in a simultaneously resistive- and laser-heated rDAC. Three different geomaterials were used as pilot samples to calibrate and optimize conditions for combined resistive and laser heating. For example, in Run1, FeO was loaded in a boron-mica gasket and compressed to 11 GPa then gradually resistively heated to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side). The laser heating was further applied to FeO to raise temperature to 2273 K. In Run2, Fe-Ni alloy was compressed to 18 GPa and resistively heated to 1785 K (1973 K at the diamond side). The combined resistive and laser heating was successfully performed again on (Mg{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})O in Run3. In this instance, the sample was loaded in a boron-kapton gasket, compressed to 29 GPa, resistive-heated up to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side), and further simultaneously laser-heated to achieve a temperature in excess of 2273 K at the sample position. Diffraction patterns obtained from the experiments were deconvoluted using the Rietveld method and quantified for lattice preferred orientation of each material under extreme conditions and during phase transformation.

  8. The effect of pressurization path on high pressure gas forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V at elevated temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Gang; Wang Jianlong; Dang Kexin; Yuan Shijian

    2015-01-01

    High pressure gas forming is a tubular component forming technology with pressurized gas at elevated temperature, based on QPF, HMGF and Hydroforming. This process can be used to form tube blank at lower temperatures with high energy efficiency and also at higher strain rates. With Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-alloy tube, the potential of HPGF was studied further through experiments at the elevated temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C. In order to know the formability of the Ti-alloy tube, tensile tests were ...

  9. Experimental issues in in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction at high pressure and temperature by using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated technique of diamond-anvil cell, laser-heating and synchrotron x-ray diffraction technologies is capable of structural investigation of condensed matter in an extended region of high pressures and temperatures above 100 GPa and 3000 K. The feasibility of this technique to obtain reliable data, however, strongly depends on several experimental issues, including optical and x-ray setups, thermal gradients, pressure homogeneity, preferred orientation, and chemical reaction. In this paper, we discuss about these experimental issues together with future perspectives of this technique for obtaining accurate data

  10. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  11. Cell formation effects on the burning speeds and flame front area of synthetic gas at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Omid; Elia, Mimmo; Ferrari, Matthew; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cell formation on burning speed and flame surface area is investigated. • A new developed non-dimensional number called cellularity factor is introduced. • Cellular burning speed and mass burning rate are calculated using differential based multi-shell model. • Flame instability is studied using thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamics effects. • Power law correlations are developed for cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates. - Abstract: Cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates of premixed syngas/oxidizer/diluent (H_2/CO/O_2/He) have been determined at high pressures and temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios which are at engine-relevant conditions. Working on high pressure combustion helps to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency in combustion devices. The experimental facilities consisted of two spherical and cylindrical chambers. The spherical chamber, which can withstand high pressures up to 400 atm, was used to collect pressure rise data due to combustion, to calculate cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. For flame structure and instability analysis the cylindrical chamber was used to take pictures of propagating flame using a high speed CMOS camera and a schlieren photography system. A new differential based multi-shell model based on pressure rise data was used to determine the cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. In this paper, cellular burning speed and mass burning rate of H_2/CO/O_2/He mixture have been measured for a wide range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 2, temperatures from 400 to 750 K and pressures from 2 to 50 atm for three hydrogen concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in the syngas. The power law correlations for cellular burning speed and mass burning rate were developed as a function of equivalence ratio, temperature and pressure. In this study a new developed parameter, called cellularity factor, which indicates the cell formation effect on flame

  12. Electron-beam-excited gas laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.W.; Gerardo, J.B.; Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.; Rice, J.K.; Bingham, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe 2 / sup *(1)/, Kr:O(2 1 S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)

  13. Characterization of a plasma produced using a high power laser with a gas puff target for x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Gac, K.; Parys, P.; Szczurek, M.; Tyl, J.

    1995-01-01

    A high temperature, high density plasma can be produced by using a nanosecond, high-power laser with a gas puff target. The gas puff target is formed by puffing a small amount of gas from a high-pressure reservoir through a nozzle into a vacuum chamber. In this paper we present the gas puff target specially designed for x-ray laser experiments. The solenoid valve with the nozzle in the form of a slit 0.3-mm wide and up to 40-mm long, allows to form an elongated gas puff suitable for the creation of an x-ray laser active medium by its perpendicular irradiation with the use of a laser beam focused to a line. Preliminary results of the experiments on the laser irradiation of the gas puff targets, produced by the new valve, show that hot plasma suitable for x-ray lasers is created

  14. Reactor for tracking catalyst nanoparticles in liquid at high temperature under a high-pressure gas phase with X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2018-02-01

    Structure of catalyst nanoparticles dispersed in liquid phase at high temperature under gas phase of reactant(s) at higher pressure (≥5 bars) is important for fundamental understanding of catalytic reactions performed on these catalyst nanoparticles. Most structural characterizations of a catalyst performing catalysis in liquid at high temperature under gas phase at high pressure were performed in an ex situ condition in terms of characterizations before or after catalysis since, from technical point of view, access to the catalyst nanoparticles during catalysis in liquid phase at high temperature under high pressure reactant gas is challenging. Here we designed a reactor which allows us to perform structural characterization using X-ray absorption spectroscopy including X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to study catalyst nanoparticles under harsh catalysis conditions in terms of liquid up to 350 °C under gas phase with a pressure up to 50 bars. This reactor remains nanoparticles of a catalyst homogeneously dispersed in liquid during catalysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization.

  15. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  16. Melting of tantalum at high pressure determined by angle dispersive x-ray diffraction in a double-sided laser-heated diamond-anvil cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errandonea, D; Somayazulu, M; Haeusermann, D; Mao, H K

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure and high-temperature phase diagram of Ta has been studied in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC) using x-ray diffraction measurements up to 52 deg. GPa and 3800 deg. K. The melting was observed at nine different pressures, the melting temperature being in good agreement with previous laser-heated DAC experiments, but in contradiction with several theoretical calculations and previous piston-cylinder apparatus experiments. A small slope for the melting curve of Ta is estimated (dT m /dP ≅ 24 GPa -1 at 1 deg. bar) and a possible explanation for this behaviour is given. Finally, a P-V -T equation of states is obtained, the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient and the bulk modulus being estimated

  17. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  18. A numerical study of the gas-liquid, two-phase flow maldistribution in the anode of a high pressure PEM water electrolysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Rømer, Carsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the use of a circular-planar, interdigitated flow field for the anode of a high pressure proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis cell is investigated in a numerical study. While PEM fuel cells have separated flow fields for reactant transport and coolant, it is possible...... causes maldistribution, if land areas of equal width are applied. Moreover, below a water stoichiometry of 350, and at a current density of 1 A/cm2, flow and temperature maldistribution is adversely affected by the presence of the gas phase; particularly gas hold-up near outlet channels can cause......-phase flow model for establishing the effect of geometry and a two-phase flow model for studying the effect of dispersed gas bubbles. Both models account for turbulence and heat transport. By means of the developed models, it is elucidated that the circular-planar shape of the interdigitated flow field...

  19. High-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Esterline, J.H. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Leckey, C.A. [Department of Physics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2011-08-11

    We report on features of high-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of {gamma}-rays as well. Furthermore, {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy {gamma}-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction, neutron and {gamma}-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  20. High-pressure 3He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Esterline, J.H.; Leckey, C.A.; Weisel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on features of high-pressure 3 He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of γ-rays as well. Furthermore, 3 He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy γ-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the 3 He(n,p) 3 H reaction, neutron and γ-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  1. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-14

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm(2)/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites.

  2. Closed cycle gas dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsley, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The device includes a closed cycle gasdynamic laser wherein the lasing fluid is recirculated in a closed loop. The closed loop includes a nozzle array, a lasing cavity and a diffuser. The exit of the diffuser is connected to the inlet to the nozzle array with a fuel heat exchanger located in the lasing flow and a pumping means located between the heat exchanger and the nozzle array. To provide for cooling of the pumping means and to improve diffuser performance, gas bled from the diffuser is cooled by two heat exchangers and pumped into cooling passages in the pumping means. The heat exchangers for cooling the flow to the pumping means are located in series and carry fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor and the heat exchanger in the lasing flow cools the fluid and carries the fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor. (U.S.)

  3. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Colin S

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  4. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, James B. (Inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  5. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  6. Reactive pulsed laser deposition with gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, R.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.

    2001-01-01

    Different metal (Sn, Al, steel, Cu, W) thin films were synthesized by reactive pulsed laser deposition on steel, copper and glass wafers. In our work pulsed Nd:glass (10 J, 800μs) laser system was used. Jet of gas was created by electromagnetic valve perpendicularly to the laser beam. Nitrogen, oxygen and argon were used. We used several to tens laser shots to obtain visible with the naked eye layers. Thin layers were observed under an optical microscope. (author)

  7. High pressure flow reactor for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of catalysts in gas-liquid mixtures—A case study on gas and liquid phase activation of a Co-Mo/Al2O3 hydrodesulfurization catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haandel, L.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Weber, Th.

    2017-01-01

    An in situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts under industrial operating conditions may involve high pressure and reactants in both the gas and the liquid phase. In this paper, we describe an in situ XAS flow reactor, which is suitable to operate under such conditions (pmax 20 bar, Tmax 350

  8. Novel gas target for laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniculaesei, C.; Kim, Hyung Taek; Yoo, Byung Ju; Oh, Kyung Hwan; Nam, Chang Hee

    2018-02-01

    A novel gas target for interactions between high power lasers and gaseous medium, especially for laser wakefield accelerators, has been designed, manufactured, and characterized. The gas target has been designed to provide a uniform density profile along the central gas cell axis by combining a gas cell and slit nozzle. The gas density has been tuned from ˜1017 atoms/cm3 to ˜1019 atoms/cm3 and the gas target length can be varied from 0 to 10 cm; both changes can be made simultaneously while keeping the uniform gas profile. The gas density profile inside the gas cell has been measured using interferometry and validated using computational fluid dynamics.

  9. The effect of pressurization path on high pressure gas forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure gas forming is a tubular component forming technology with pressurized gas at elevated temperature, based on QPF, HMGF and Hydroforming. This process can be used to form tube blank at lower temperatures with high energy efficiency and also at higher strain rates. With Ti-3Al-2.5V Ti-alloy tube, the potential of HPGF was studied further through experiments at the elevated temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C. In order to know the formability of the Ti-alloy tube, tensile tests were also carried out. The results show that: at the temperatures of 650 ∘C and 700 ∘C, the flow curves exhibit the power-law constitutive relation until peak stress is reached and the deformability is suitable for the HPGF process of Ti-3Al-2.5V alloy tube. The effects of pressurization path on the corner filling process and thickness profile are obvious. The high pressure inflow process can result in temperature difference between the straight wall area and corner area, which makes the thickness profile special. Besides, with the stepped pressurization path, the more constant filling rate and better thickness profile can be obtained.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of a high pressure subcritical UF6He gas volume (irradiated by an external source)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterritt, D.E.; Lalos, G.T.; Schneider, R.T.

    1976-12-01

    A computer simulation study concerning a compressed fissioning UF 6 gas is presented. The compression is to be achieved by a ballistic piston compressor. Data on UF 6 obtained with this compressor were incorporated in the simulation study. As a neutron source to create the fission events in the compressed gas, a fast burst reactor was considered. The conclusion is that it takes a neutron flux in excess of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s to produce measurable increases in pressure and temperature, while a flux in excess of 10 19 n/cm 2 -s would probably damage the compressor

  11. Experimental Study on Hydrate Induction Time of Gas-Saturated Water-in-Oil Emulsion using a High-Pressure Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate is one of the critical precipitates which have to be controlled for subsea flow assurance. The induction time of hydrate is therefore a significant parameter. However, there have been few studies on the induction time of the natural gas hydrate formation in a flow loop system. Consequently, a series of experiments were firstly performed, including water, natural gas and Diesel oil, on the hydrate induction time under various conditions such as the supercooling and supersaturation degree, water cut, anti-agglomerant dosage, etc. The experiments were conducted in a high-pressure hydrate flow loop newly constructed in the China University of Petroleum (Beijing, and dedicated to flow assurance studies. Then, based on previous research, this study puts forward a method for induction time, which is characterized by clear definition, convenient measurement and good generality. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of the experimental parameters and analyzed the experimental phenomena for the hydrate induction time in a flowing system.

  12. Multitube coaxial closed cycle gas laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A gas laser design capable of long term reliable operation in a commercial environment is disclosed. Various construction details which insulate the laser optics from mechanical distortions and vibrations inevitably present in the environment are developed. Also, a versatile optical cavity made up of modular units which render the basic laser configuration adaptable to alternate designs with different output capabilities is shown in detail. The system built around a convection laser operated in a closed cycle and the working medium is a gas which is excited by direct current electric discharges. (auth)

  13. Importance of two-dimensional effects for the generation of ultra high pressures obtained in laser colliding foil experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faral, B.; Fabbro, R. (Laboratoire d' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, (France)); Virmont, J. (Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, (France)); Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P. (Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Detonique, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique, 86034 Poitiers, (France)); Pepin, H. (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Energie, Montreal, (Canada))

    1990-02-01

    A 12 {mu}m polyester foil is accelerated by a 0.26 {mu}m wavelength laser and collides with a 15 {mu}m thick molybdenum foil. The accelerating pressure is 45 Mbar (laser intensity{approx}3-- 4{times}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) and gives to the polyester foil a velocity of about 160 km/sec. The measurement of the shock pressure induced in the impacted foil is made with an improved step technique. When the initial spacing between the two foils is too large compared to the focal spot radius, i.e., larger than 20--30 {mu}m, the different experimental results cannot be reproduced with one-dimensional simulations; this is only possible by using a two-dimensional Lagrangian code that has been developed and that takes into account the strong deformation of the accelerated foil. Finally, even with the low level of x-ray heating due to the ablation plasma, multihundred megabar pressures can be obtained within a very short time.

  14. Importance of two-dimensional effects for the generation of ultra high pressures obtained in laser colliding foil experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faral, B.; Fabbro, R.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.; Pepin, H.

    1990-01-01

    A 12 μm polyester foil is accelerated by a 0.26 μm wavelength laser and collides with a 15 μm thick molybdenum foil. The accelerating pressure is 45 Mbar (laser intensity∼3-- 4x10 14 W/cm 2 ) and gives to the polyester foil a velocity of about 160 km/sec. The measurement of the shock pressure induced in the impacted foil is made with an improved step technique. When the initial spacing between the two foils is too large compared to the focal spot radius, i.e., larger than 20--30 μm, the different experimental results cannot be reproduced with one-dimensional simulations; this is only possible by using a two-dimensional Lagrangian code that has been developed and that takes into account the strong deformation of the accelerated foil. Finally, even with the low level of x-ray heating due to the ablation plasma, multihundred megabar pressures can be obtained within a very short time

  15. Generation of InN nanocrystals in organic solution through laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkis, Sabri; Alevli, Mustafa; Burzhuev, Salamat; Vural, Hüseyin Avni; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Ortaç, Bülend

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) in organic solution through nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film on GaN/sapphire template substrate. The size, the structural, the optical, and the chemical characteristics of InN-NCs demonstrate that the colloidal InN crystalline nanostructures in ethanol are synthesized with spherical shape within 5.9–25.3, 5.45–34.8, 3.24–36 nm particle-size distributions, increasing the pulse energy value. The colloidal InN-NCs solutions present strong absorption edge tailoring from NIR region to UV region.

  16. Measurement and modelling of high pressure density and interfacial tension of (gas + n-alkane) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luís M.C.; Chapoy, Antonin; Burgass, Rod; Tohidi, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Density + IFT) measurements are performed in synthetic reservoir fluids. • Measured systems include CO_2, CH_4 and N_2 with n-decane. • Novel data are reported for temperatures up to 443 K and pressures up to 69 MPa. • Predictive models are tested in 16 (gas + n-alkane) systems. • Best modelling results are achieved with the Density Gradient Theory. - Abstract: The deployment of more efficient and economical extraction methods and processing facilities of oil and gas requires the accurate knowledge of the interfacial tension (IFT) of fluid phases in contact. In this work, the capillary constant a of binary mixtures containing n-decane and common gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen was measured. Experimental measurements were carried at four temperatures (313, 343, 393 and 442 K) and pressures up to 69 MPa, or near the complete vaporisation of the organic phase into the gas-rich phase. To determine accurate IFT values, the capillary constants were combined with saturated phase density data measured with an Anton Paar densitometer and correlated with a model based on the Peng–Robinson 1978 equation of state (PR78 EoS). Correlated density showed an overall percentage absolute deviation (%AAD) to measured data of (0.2 to 0.5)% for the liquid phase and (1.5 to 2.5)% for the vapour phase of the studied systems and P–T conditions. The predictive capability of models to accurately describe both the temperature and pressure dependence of the saturated phase density and IFT of 16 (gas + n-alkane) binary mixtures was assessed in this work by comparison with data gathered from the literature and measured in this work. The IFT models considered include the Parachor, the Linear Gradient Theory (LGT) and the Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approaches combined with the Volume-Translated Predictive Peng–Robinson 1978 EoS (VT-PPR78 EoS). With no adjustable parameters, the VT-PPR78 EoS allowed a good description of both solubility and

  17. Compact electron accelerator for pumping gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.V.; Bradley, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the design and application of a simple e-beam generator for the repetitive pulse pumping of gas lasers. The circuit uses a low inductance Marx and series tuned pulse forming elements

  18. Anomalous He-gas high-pressure studies on superconducting LaO1-xFxFeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, W; Banks, H B; Schilling, J S; Takahashi, H; Okada, H; Kamihara, Y; Hirano, M; Hosono, H

    2010-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements have been carried out on superconducting LaO 1-x F x FeAs for x=0.07 and 0.14 under He-gas pressures to ∼0.8 GPa. Not only do the measured values of dT c /dP differ substantially from those obtained in previous studies using other pressure media, but also the T c (P) dependences observed depend on the detailed pressure/temperature history of the sample. A sizeable sensitivity of T c (P) to shear stresses provides a possible explanation.

  19. Double-Sided Laser Heating in Radial Diffraction Geometry for Diamond Anvil Cell Deformation Experiments at Simultaneous High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, L. M.; Kunz, M.; Couper, S.; Lin, F.; Yan, J.; Doran, A.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The rheology of rocks and minerals in the Earth's deep interior plays a primary role in controlling large scale geodynamic processes such as mantle convection and slab subduction. Plastic deformation resulting from these processes can lead to texture development and associated seismic anisotropy. If a detailed understanding of the link between deformation and seismic anisotropy is established, observations of seismic anisotropy can be used to understand the dynamic state in the deep Earth. However, performing deformation experiments at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions are extremely challenging. Thus most deformation studies have been performed either at room temperature and high pressure or at reduced pressures and high temperature. Only a few extraordinary efforts have attained pressures and temperatures relevant to lower mantle. Therefore our ability to interpret observations of lower mantle seismic anisotropy in terms of mantle flow models remains limited. In order to expand the pressure and temperature range available for deformation of deep Earth relevant mineral phases, we have developed a laser heating system for in-situ double-sided heating in radial diffraction geometry at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This allows texture and lattice strain measurements to be recorded at simultaneous high pressures and temperatures in the diamond anvil cell. This new system is integrated into the newly built axial laser heating system to allow for rapid and reliable transitioning between double-sided laser heating in axial and radial geometries. Transitioning to radial geometry is accomplished by redirecting the laser and imaging paths from 0° and 180° to 90° and 270°. To redirect the 90° path, a motorized periscope mirror pair with an objective lens can be inserted into the downstream axial beam path. The 270° redirection is accomplished by removing the upstream axial objective lens and

  20. Demonstration of a neonlike argon soft-x-ray laser with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A L; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2001-09-15

    We demonstrate a neonlike argon-ion x-ray laser, using a short-pulse laser-irradiated gas puff target. The gas puff target was formed by pulsed injection of gas from a high-pressure solenoid valve through a nozzle in the form of a narrow slit and irradiated with a combination of long, 600-ps and short, 6-ps high-power laser pulses with a total of 10 J of energy in a traveling-wave excitation scheme. Lasing was observed on the 3p (1)S(0)?3s (1)P(1) transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d (1)P(1)?3p (1)P(1) transition at 45.1 nm. A gain of 11 cm(-1) was measured on these transitions for targets up to 0.9 cm long.

  1. Gas ionization by focused laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of line broadening by focusing may considerably contribute to the observed laser-induced ionization of gases when the ionization energy of the gas molecules is well above the mean photon energy of the laser radiation. (Author) [pt

  2. Periodic motions and chaos for a damped mobile piston system in a high pressure gas cylinder with P control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Donghua; Huang, Jianzhe

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the complex motions for a moving piston in a closed gas cylinder will be analyzed using the discrete implicit maps method. The strong nonlinearity of such system will be observed due to the large quadratic and cubic stiffness. Period-1 motions which contain high order of harmonic components will be presented. The periodic motions will be discretized into multiple continuous mappings, and such mapping can be analyzed via Newton–Raphson iteration. The stability analysis will be given and the analytic conditions for the saddle-node and period-doubling bifurcation will be determined. From the semi-analytic solution route, the possible motions without considering the impact of the piston with the end wall of the cylinder will be obtained analytically. The scheme to reduce the vibration of the piston can be obtained through the parameter studies.

  3. Changes in structure and preferential cage occupancy of ethane hydrate and ethane-methane mixed gas hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Takahara, N; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    Structural changes and preferential cage occupancies were examined for ethane hydrate and ethane-methane mixed gas hydrates with five compositions in a pressure range of 0.2 to 2.8 GPa at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy showed the following structural changes. The initial structure, structure I (sI), of ethane hydrate was retained up to 2.1 GPa without any structural change. For the mixed hydrates, sI was widely distributed throughout the region examined except for the methane-rich and lower pressure regions, where sII and sH appeared. Above 2.1 GPa ethane hydrate and all of the mixed hydrates decomposed into ice VI and ethane fluid or methane-ethane fluid, respectively. The Raman study revealed that occupation of the small cages by ethane molecules occurred above 0.1 GPa in ethane hydrate and continued up to decomposition at 2.1 GPa, although it was thought that ethane molecules were contained only in the large cage.

  4. Synthesis gas generation by high pressure partial oxidation (HP POX {sup registered}); Synthesegaserzeugung durch Hochdruck-Partialoxidation (HP POX {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B.; Seifert, P.; Zeissler, R. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen; Walter, St. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The high pressure synthesis gas process HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) is a thermal conversion process, which converts e.g. natural gas or heavy residue oil with oxygen to fuel or synthesis gas. Innovative burner technologies allow autothermal catalytic or non-catalytic reforming of gaseous feedstock and gasification of liquid feed streams. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide rich synthesis gases with low methane content (particularly suitable as feed gas for methanol synthesis) can be generated. The technology represents a new generation of entrained flow gasification characterized by the new developed equipment and a design pressure of 100 bar. According to the feeds, the HP POX gasification process is the link between the downstream synthesis chemistry (use of gaseous and liquid feeds) and the power plant process (liquid or solid fuels as suspension or slurry). The HP POX development is carried out together with the Lurgi AG at the Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering (IEC). The 5 MW HP POX test plant built in Freiberg by Lurgi is core of the joint research project, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA), the Saxon Ministry of Science and the Fine Arts (SMWK), and the mg technologies ag (parent company of Lurgi). The conducted sets of experiments indicate that the unit can be operated in a safe, smooth and stable manner. During this periods of operation, which included nine test campaigns for autothermal reforming (ATR), the maximum pressure for ATR amounted to 70 bar which exceeds the current benchmark in industry for 30 bar. Main objective of R and D work is the development of modelling tools for extreme gasification conditions and different gasification principles of up to 100 bar. These tools are supposed to improve the understanding of the entire gasification process. Their development requires a systematic investigation of the reaction mechanisms and the interactions with the process

  5. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  6. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  7. High-pressure crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  8. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  9. Size-controlled growth of ZnO nanowires by catalyst-free high-pressure pulsed laser deposition and their optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Liu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Single crystalline ZnO nanowires were fabricated on Si (100 substrates by catalyst-free high-pressure pulsed laser deposition. It is found that the nanowires start to form when the substrate temperature and growth pressure exceed the critical values of 700 oC and 700 Pa, and their size strongly depends on these growth conditions. That is, the aspect ratio of the nanowires decreases with increasing temperature or decreasing pressure. Such a size dependence on growth conditions was discussed in terms of surface migration and scattering of ablated atoms. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanowires shows a dominant near-band-edge emission peak at 3.28 eV and a visible emission band centered at 2.39 eV. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies reveal that the former consists of the acceptor-bound exciton and free exciton emissions; while the latter varies in intensity with the aspect ratio of the nanowires and is attributed to the surface-mediated deep level emission.

  10. Source strength and dispersion of CO2 releases from high-pressure pipelines: CFD model using real gas equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Godbole, Ajit; Lu, Cheng; Michal, Guillaume; Venton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Validated CFD models for decompression and dispersion of CO 2 releases from pipelines. • Incorporation of real gas EOS into CFD code for source strength estimation. • Demonstration of better performance of SST k–ω turbulence model for jet flow. • Demonstration of better performance of real gas EOS compared to ideal gas EOS. • Demonstration of superiority of CFD models over a commercial risk assessment package. - Abstract: Transportation of CO 2 in high-pressure pipelines forms a crucial link in the ever-increasing application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. An unplanned release of CO 2 from a pipeline presents a risk to human and animal populations and the environment. Therefore it is very important to develop a deeper understanding of the atmospheric dispersion of CO 2 before the deployment of CO 2 pipelines, to allow the appropriate safety precautions to be taken. This paper presents a two-stage Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study developed (1) to estimate the source strength, and (2) to simulate the subsequent dispersion of CO 2 in the atmosphere, using the source strength estimated in stage (1). The Peng–Robinson (PR) EOS was incorporated into the CFD code. This enabled accurate modelling of the CO 2 jet to achieve more precise source strength estimates. The two-stage simulation approach also resulted in a reduction in the overall computing time. The CFD models were validated against experimental results from the British Petroleum (BP) CO 2 dispersion trials, and also against results produced by the risk management package Phast. Compared with the measurements, the CFD simulation results showed good agreement in both source strength and dispersion profile predictions. Furthermore, the effect of release direction on the dispersion was studied. The presented research provides a viable method for the assessment of risks associated with CCS

  11. Study on the effect of distance between the two nozzle holes on interaction of high pressure combustion-gas jets with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We design a five-stage cylindrical stepped-wall chamber to study twin combustion-gas jets. • We observe mixing processes of twin combustion-gases and liquid by high speed photographic system. • We discuss the influence of multiple parameters on expansion shape of the Taylor cavities. • The three-dimensional mathematics model is established to simulate the energy release process. • We obtain distribution characteristics of parameters under different nozzle distances. - Abstract: The combustion-gas generator and cylindrical stepped-wall observation chambers with five stages are designed to study the expansion characteristic of twin combustion-gas jets in liquid working medium under high temperature and high pressure. The expansion processes of Taylor cavities formed by combustion-gas jets and the mixing characteristics of gas–liquid are studied by means of high-speed digital camera system. The effects of the distance between the two nozzle holes, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on jet expansion processes are discussed. The experimental results indicate that, the velocity differences exist on the gas–liquid interface during expansion processes of twin combustion-gas jets, and the effect of Taylor–Helmholtz instability is intense, so interfaces between gas and liquid show turbulent folds and randomness. The strong turbulent mixing of gas and liquid leads to release of combustion-gas energy with the temperature decreasing. Moreover, the mixing effectiveness is obviously enhanced on the corners of each step of the cylindrical stepped-wall structure, forming radial expansion phenomenon. The reasonable matching of multi-parameter can restrain the jet instability and make the combustion-gas energy orderly release. Based on the experiments, the three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model of interaction of twin combustion-gas jets and liquid working medium is established to obtain the density, pressure, velocity and temperature

  12. Experimental screening of porous materials for high pressure gas adsorption and evaluation in gas separations: application to MOFs (MIL-100 and CAU-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum, Andrew D; Giovannangeli, Christophe; Vincent, Dominique; Bloch, Emily; Reinsch, Helge; Stock, Norbert; Lee, Ji Sun; Chang, Jong-San; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2013-02-11

    A high-throughput gas adsorption apparatus is presented for the evaluation of adsorbents of interest in gas storage and separation applications. This instrument is capable of measuring complete adsorption isotherms up to 40 bar on six samples in parallel using as little as 60 mg of material. Multiple adsorption cycles can be carried out and four gases can be used sequentially, giving as many as 24 adsorption isotherms in 24 h. The apparatus has been used to investigate the effect of metal center (MIL-100) and functional groups (CAU-10) on the adsorption of N(2), CO(2), and light hydrocarbons on MOFs. This demonstrates how it can serve to evaluate sample quality and adsorption reversibility, to determine optimum activation conditions and to estimate separation properties. As such it is a useful tool for the screening of novel adsorbents for different applications in gas separation, providing significant time savings in identifying potentially interesting materials.

  13. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  14. Conditions of the optimum development of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline system regarding up-to-date gas economy. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csako, D.; Torok, A.; Vasvari, V.

    1980-03-01

    Hungarian engineers enumerate the factors to consider in the planning, construction, and expansion of gas pipeline systems to obtain an optimum solution, both technically and economically. Future development of pipeline systems in Hungary will place equal emphasis on system quality and network expansion.

  15. Rotational temperature determinations in molecular gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.A.; Taylor, L.H.; Denes, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The small-signal gain expressions for vibrational-rotational transitions are examined in detail to determine possible methods of extracting the rotational temperature from experimental gain measurements in molecular gas lasers. Approximate values of T/subr/ can be deduced from the rotational quantum numbers for which the P- and R-branch gains are maximum. Quite accurate values of T/subr/ and the population inversion density (n/subv//sub prime/-n/subv//sub double-prime/) can be determined by fitting data to suitably linearized gain relationships, or by performing least-squares fits of the P- and R-branch experimental data to the full gain expressions. Experimental gain measurements for 15 P-branch and 12 R-branch transitions in the 10.4-μm CO 2 band have been performed for pulsed uv-preionized laser discharges in CO 2 : N 2 : He=1 : 2 : 3 mixtures at 600 Torr. These data are subjected to the several gain analyses described herein, yielding a rotational temperature of 401plus-or-minus10 degreeK and an inversion density of (3.77plus-or-minus0.07) times10 17 cm -3 for conditions of maximum gain. These techniques provide accurate values of the gas temperature in molecular gas lasers with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, and should be useful in extending the conversion efficiency and arcing limits of high-energy electrically exc []ted lasers

  16. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  17. Feasibility of generating a useful laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plasma on rocks at high pressure: preliminary study for a Venus mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, Zane A.; Cremers, David A.; Harris, Ronny D.; Oschwald, David M.; Parker, Gary R.; Wayne, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is being developed for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. The method also has potential for use on probes to other planets, the Moon, asteroids and comets. Like Mars, Venus is of strong interest because of its proximity to earth, but unlike Mars, conditions at the surface are far more hostile with temperatures in excess of 700 K and pressures on the order of 9.1 MPa (90 atm). These conditions present a significant challenge to spacecraft design and demand that rapid methods of chemical data gathering be implemented. The advantages of LIBS (e.g. stand-off and very rapid analysis) make the method particularly attractive for Venus exploration because of the expected short operational lifetimes (∼2 h) of surface instrumentation. Although the high temperature of Venus should pose no problem to the analytical capabilities of the LIBS spark, the demonstrated strong dependence of laser plasma characteristics on ambient gas pressures below earth atmospheric pressure requires that LIBS measurements be evaluated at the high Venus surface pressures. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of LIBS at 9.1 MPa for application to the analysis of a basalt rock sample. The results suggest the feasibility of the method for a Venus surface probe and that further study is justified

  18. Feasibility of generating a useful laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plasma on rocks at high pressure: preliminary study for a Venus mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, Zane A.; Cremers, David A. E-mail: cremers_david@lanl.gov; Harris, Ronny D.; Oschwald, David M.; Parker, Gary R.; Wayne, David M

    2004-07-30

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is being developed for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. The method also has potential for use on probes to other planets, the Moon, asteroids and comets. Like Mars, Venus is of strong interest because of its proximity to earth, but unlike Mars, conditions at the surface are far more hostile with temperatures in excess of 700 K and pressures on the order of 9.1 MPa (90 atm). These conditions present a significant challenge to spacecraft design and demand that rapid methods of chemical data gathering be implemented. The advantages of LIBS (e.g. stand-off and very rapid analysis) make the method particularly attractive for Venus exploration because of the expected short operational lifetimes ({approx}2 h) of surface instrumentation. Although the high temperature of Venus should pose no problem to the analytical capabilities of the LIBS spark, the demonstrated strong dependence of laser plasma characteristics on ambient gas pressures below earth atmospheric pressure requires that LIBS measurements be evaluated at the high Venus surface pressures. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of LIBS at 9.1 MPa for application to the analysis of a basalt rock sample. The results suggest the feasibility of the method for a Venus surface probe and that further study is justified.

  19. Fascination at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Laser heating of a molecular gas channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.N.; Baker, L.

    1980-02-01

    The first steps toward laser-initiated discharge channels are outlined, wherein we determine the temperature and density changes which are to be expected with reasonable laser energies. To this end, absorption cross sections were measured as a function of gas pressure, line tuning, and laser energy for NH 3 and C 2 H 4 gases. Based on these values a number of hydrodynamic simulations were performed with the CHARTB hydrocode which show that an efficient conversion of initial vibrational temperature into translational temperature occurs. Moreover, it is seen that the hydrodynamic motion is slow compared to reasonable relaxation times so that this efficiency is not unique to NH 3 with its anomalously fast relaxation time

  1. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  2. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  3. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  4. Gas detectors for x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedtke, K.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Nunez, T.; Tschentscher, T.; Bobashev, S. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Hastings, J. B.; Moeller, S.; Cibik, L.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Krumrey, M.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed different types of photodetectors that are based on the photoionization of a gas at a low target density. The almost transparent devices were optimized and tested for online photon diagnostics at current and future x-ray free-electron laser facilities on a shot-to-shot basis with a temporal resolution of better than 100 ns. Characterization and calibration measurements were performed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin. As a result, measurement uncertainties of better than 10% for the photon-pulse energy and below 20 μm for the photon-beam position were achieved at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). An upgrade for the detection of hard x-rays was tested at the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source in Stanford

  5. Gas detectors for x-ray lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, K.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Nunez, T.; Tschentscher, T.; Bobashev, S. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Hastings, J. B.; Möller, S.; Cibik, L.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Krumrey, M.; Schöppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed different types of photodetectors that are based on the photoionization of a gas at a low target density. The almost transparent devices were optimized and tested for online photon diagnostics at current and future x-ray free-electron laser facilities on a shot-to-shot basis with a temporal resolution of better than 100 ns. Characterization and calibration measurements were performed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin. As a result, measurement uncertainties of better than 10% for the photon-pulse energy and below 20 μm for the photon-beam position were achieved at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). An upgrade for the detection of hard x-rays was tested at the Sub-Picosecond Photon Source in Stanford.

  6. Solar-pumped gas laser development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The direct conversion of solar radiation into an inverted population for extraction in an optical cavity holds promise as a relatively simple system design. Broad-band photoabsorption in the visible or near-UV range is required to excite large volumes of gas and to ensure good solar absorption efficiency. The state excited must be a metastable state which is not quenched by the parent gas. The emission bandwidth must be less than approximately 10 A. The system should show chemical reversibility and an insensitivity to increasing temperature. Other properties such as good quantum efficiency and kinetic efficiency are also implied. A search of electronic-vibrational transitions in diatomic molecules satisfying these conditions is now in progress. A photodissociation-pumped atomic iodine laser is now being tested under solar pumping conditions. Photodissociation studies for thallium spin-flip metastable formation will begin in the near future.

  7. Gas dynamic laser having shutter doors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, J.B. Jr.; Wahl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A gas dynamic laser is shown wherein gases containing constituents necessary to obtain a lasing action are passed through a nozzle array and directed into a lasing cavity and through a diffuser to an exit. An opening is located on each side of said lasing cavity with a shutter box outside of said cavity having a shutter door for opening or closing said opening. A mirror box is located behind each shutter box and contains a mirror. These mirrors are aligned with the openings in the lasing cavity with each door positioned between an opening and a mirror. Another outlet opening is positioned downstream of the first opening which provides an outlet opening for a laser beam. A shutter box is located around this opening and also houses a shutter door for opening and closing said opening. The mirror box which extends behind this shutter box includes opening means for permitting the output beam to pass through an aerodynamic window to atmosphere. Actuating means are provided for rapidly opening and closing said shutter doors. Bearing means including recirculating balls are located on the top and bottom of each shutter door to ride in tracks at an angle to the sealing surface on the laser device. Vacuum means are provided to reduce the pressure in the shutter box and mirror box independently of the pressure in the lasing cavity

  8. Long life gas laser system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochuli, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    A long life gas discharge laser having an improved self-repairing cathode system is described. In a specific embodiment, water vapor having a partial pressure below about 10 -5 torr incorporated in a molecular sieve is used to provide impurities (in this case water vapor) for repairing the cathode surface by regenerating the oxide surface and/or preventing same from deteriorating. Other impurities may be incorporated in the molecular sieve such as hydrogen, oxygen, for example. In some cases CO 2 may be used. This application includes material disclosed in a paper entitled ''Continuation of the Investigation into Material Properties Affecting the Frequency Stability and Reliability of He-Ne Laser Structures'' submitted to the Office of Naval Research dated June 1972 by the inventor hereof and also a paper entitled ''Investigations of the Long Term Frequency Stability of Stable Laser Structures'' Progress Report for ONR Contract N00014-67-A-D239-0016 July 1972 by the inventor hereof. A royalty free license is hereby granted to the United States for use of the invention for all government purposes. (auth)

  9. Enhanced high harmonic generation driven by high-intensity laser in argon gas-filled hollow core waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, Kevin; Daboussi, Sameh; Hort, Ondrej; Descamps, Dominique; Petit, Stephane; Mevel, Eric; Constant, Eric; Guilbaud, Oilvier; Kazamias, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We show that a significant enhancement of the photon flux produced by high harmonic generation can be obtained through guided configuration at high laser intensity largely above the saturation intensity. We identify two regimes. At low pressure, we observe an intense second plateau in the high harmonic spectrum in argon. At relatively high pressure, complex interplay between strongly time-dependent ionization processes and propagation effects leads to important spectral broadening without loss of spectral brightness. We show that the relevant parameter for this physical process is the product of laser peak power by gas pressure. We compare source performances with high harmonic generation using a gas jet in loose focusing geometry and conclude that the source developed is a good candidate for injection devices such as seeded soft x-ray lasers or free electron lasers in the soft x-ray range. (authors)

  10. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  11. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  12. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  13. Molecular gas analysis by Raman scattering in intracavity laser configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.E.; Andrade, J.D.; Van Wagenen, R.A.; Westenskow, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for the near simultaneous analysis and quantitation of selected multiple polyatomic gases in a gas sample by Raman light scattering comprising in combination: (a) laser means capable of producing a polarized laser beam of a selected wavelength containing a laser cavity the laser cavity containing a plasma tube and wherein one end of the laser cavity contains a high reflectivity output coupler mirror; (b) a gas sampling cell located within the laser cavity between the plasma tube and the output coupler mirror, the cell having opposing parallel end windows interconnected by a continuous sidewall. The end windows and sidewall define a longitudinal gas chamber oriented such that, when the laser beam is activated, the laser beam is coincident with and traverses the axis of the longitudinal gas chamber, the end windows being positioned to be substantially normal to the axis of the longitudinal gas cell chamber. The cell also has opposing, aligned side windows in the sidewall parallel to and on either side of the axis of the longitudinal gas chamber. The gas cell further contains inlet and outlet means communicating with the chamber to pass a sample gas through the cell

  14. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  15. A cylindrical multiwire high-pressure gas proportional chamber surrounding a gaseous $_{2} target with a mylar separation foil $6 \\mu m thick

    CERN Document Server

    Gastaldi, Ugo; Averdung, H; Bailey, J; Beer, G A; Dreher, B; Erdman, K L; Klempt, E; Merle, K; Neubecker, K; Sabev, C; Schwenk, H; Wendling, R D; White, B L; Wodrich, R

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics and performances of a cylindrical multiwire proportional chamber built and used at CERN in experiment S142 for the study of the pp atom spectroscopy are presented. The chamber surrounds a high-pressure gaseous H/sub 2/ target, from which it is separated by a very thin window (6 mu m mylar foil). The active volume (90 cm long; 2 cm thick, internal diameter=30 cm) is divided into 36 equal and independent cells each covering 10 degrees in azimuth. At 4 abs. atm the detection efficiency for X-rays is higher than 20% in the whole energy range 1.5-15 keV. Typical resolutions are 35% fwhm for the 3 ke V Ar fluorescence line and 25% fwhm for the 5.5 keV /sup 54/Mn line. Working pressures from 0.5 to 16 abs. atm have been used. (8 refs).

  16. Laser interferometry of radiation driven gas jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2017-06-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the 1MA Zebra pulsed power accelerator of the Nevada Terawatt Facility nitrogen gas jets were driven with the broadband x-ray flux produced during the collapse of a wire-array z-pinch implosion. The wire arrays were comprised of 4 and 8, 10μm-thick gold wires and 17μm-thick nickel wires, 2cm and 3cm tall, and 0.3cm in diameter. They radiated 12kJ to 16kJ of x-ray energy, most of it in soft x-ray photons of less than 1keV of energy, in a time interval of 30ns. This x-ray flux was used to drive a nitrogen gas jet located at 0.8cm from the axis of the z-pinch radiation source and produced with a supersonic nozzle. The x-ray flux ionizes the nitrogen gas thus turning it into a photoionized plasma. We used laser interferometry to probe the ionization of the plasma. To this end, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the wavelength of 266 nm was set up to extract the atom number density profile of the gas jet just before the Zebra shot, and air-wedge interferometers at 266 and 532 nm were used to determine the electron number density of the plasma right during the Zebra shot. The ratio of electron to atom number densities gives the distribution of average ionization state of the plasma. A python code was developed to perform the image data processing, extract phase shift spatial maps, and obtain the atom and electron number densities via Abel inversion. Preliminary results from the experiment are promising and do show that a plasma has been created in the gas jet driven by the x-ray flux, thus demonstrating the feasibility of a new experimental platform to study photoionized plasmas in the laboratory. These plasmas are found in astrophysical scenarios including x-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, and the accretion disks surrounding black holes1. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.1R. C. Mancini et al, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041001 (2009)

  17. Assisting Gas Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1996-01-01

    High quality laser welding is achieved under the condition of optimizing all process parameters. Assisting gas plays an important role for sound welds. In the conventional welding process assisting gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent that the weld seam oxidates. In the laser welding process...... assisting gas is also needed to control the laser induced plasma.Assisting gas is one of the most important parameters in the laser welding process. It is responsible for obtaining a quality weld which is characterized by deep penetration, no interior imperfections, i.e. porosity, no crack, homogeneous seam...... surface, etc. In this work a specially designed flexible off-axis nozzle capable of adjusting the angle of the nozzle, the diameter of the nozzle, and the distance between the nozzle end and the welding zone is tested. In addition to the nozzle parameters three gases, Nitrogen, Argon, and Helium...

  18. High pressure research at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  19. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  20. Uv laser triggering of high-voltage gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Frost, C.A.; Green, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two different techniques are discussed for uv laser triggering of high-voltage gas switches using a KrF laser (248 nm) to create an ionized channel through the dielectric gas in a spark gap. One technique uses an uv laser to induce breakdown in SF 6 . For this technique, we present data that demonstrate a 1-sigma jitter of +- 150 ps for a 0.5-MV switch at 80% of its self-breakdown voltage using a low-divergence KrF laser. The other scheme uses additives to the normal dielectric gas, such as tripropylamine, which are selected to undergo resonant two-step ionization in the uv laser field

  1. Testing antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle Rhagium mordax as a kinetic gas hydrate inhibitor using a high-pressure micro differential scanning calorimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Low dosage kinetic hydrate inhibitors are employed as alternatives to expensive thermodynamic inhibitors to manage the risk of hydrate formation inside oil and gas pipelines. These chemicals need to be tested at appropriate conditions in the laboratory before deployment in the field. A high press...

  2. Investigations of Laser Pumped Gas Cell Atomic Frequency Standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volk, C. H; Camparo, J. C; Frueholz, R. P

    1981-01-01

    Recently it has been suggested that the performance characteristics of a rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standard might be improved by replacing the standard rubidium discharge lamp with a single mode laser diode...

  3. Plasma wave detection in laser spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Irmer, A. von; Veza, D.; Niemax, K.

    1995-01-01

    Frequency changes of plasma oscillations in low-pressure discharges are used for sensitive detection of atomic or molecular trace gases. Analyte selectivity can be either obtained by resonant laser excitation or by gas chromatography

  4. Electron-beam pumping of visible and ultraviolet gas lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    Several techniques for using direct electron-pumping of gas lasers are reviewed. The primary objective is to categorize pump geometries and to give guidelines for gun selection and pulser design. Examples and application of pump technology are given

  5. Diode Laser Raman Scattering Prototype Gas-Phase Environmental Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benner, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We proposed developing a diode-laser-based, full spectrum Raman scattering instrument incorporating a multipass, external cavity enhancement cell for full spectrum, gas phase analysis of environmental pollutants...

  6. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  7. Laser spectroscopy and gas-phase chemistry in CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental work involves the use of laser spectroscopic techniques for in situ measurements on the gas phase in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The theoretical part of the program consists of a computer model of the coupled fluid mechanics and gas-phase chemical kinetics of silane decomposition and subsequent reactions of intermediate species. The laser measurements provide extensive data for thoroughly testing the predictive capabilities of the model

  8. Design, Construction and Calibration of a Near-Infrared Four-Color Pyrometry System for Laser-Driven High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. J.; Jeanloz, R.; Collins, G.; Spaulding, D. K.

    2010-12-01

    Current dynamic compression experiments, using both quasi-isentropic and shock-compression, allow access to pressure-temperature states both on and off the principle Hugoniot and over a wide range of conditions of direct relevance to planetary interiors. Such studies necessitate reliable temperature measurements below 4000-5000 K. Such relatively low temperature states are also of particular interest for materials such as methane and water that do not experience much heating under shock compression. In order to measure these temperatures as a function of time across the sample, a four-color, near-infrared pyrometry system is being developed for use at the Janus laser facility (LLNL) with channels at wavelengths of 932nm-1008nm, 1008nm-1108nm, 1108nm-1208nm, and 1208nm-1300nm. Each color band is fiber-coupled to an InGaAs PIN photodiode with a rise time of less than 60 ps, read using an 18 GHz oscilloscope in order to ensure time resolutions of under 200 ps. This will allow for high temporal resolution measurements of laser-driven shock compression experiments with total durations of 5-15 ns as well as correlation with simultaneous time-resolved velocity interferometry and visual-wavelength pyrometry. Calibration of the system is being accomplished using quartz targets, as the EOS for quartz is well known, along with a calibrated integrating sphere of known spectral radiance.

  9. A technique to simulate a tube break in a high-pressure gas/cooling water heat exchanger - HTR2008-58161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antwerpen, H. J. V.; Mulder, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    The gas cycles of most High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTR's) reject heat to water at some stage. In the helium/water heat exchangers of HTR's with direct Brayton cycles, the helium is usually at a much higher pressure than the water. If the pressure boundary between the helium and the water fails inside the heat exchanger. the effect on the rest of the water system has to be established in order to do a proper system design. This can be done most efficiently by using a system simulation code, however, very few system simulation codes has the capability to do gas/liquid interface tracking as required for this problem. This study describes a calculation method with which a gas/liquid heat exchanger tube rupture can be calculated in a simulation code without interface tracking. The course of events after tube rupture is described and appropriate calculation models derived. A mathematical model for a pressure relief valve (PRV) was also created. The calculation models were implemented in the system simulation software Flownex and used to study a tube rupture on a 5000 kPa helium/water heat exchanger. The assembled calculation network solved stable and within reasonable time. The simulation provided insight into the course of events following the tube break. It was shown that the acceleration of water out of the helium cooler, by choked-flow helium, caused the main pressure pulses during the event. The maximum pressure in the water loop occurs on the opposite side of the helium cooler due to constructive interference of the initial pressure wave with itself. It was also shown that by changing only pipe lengths, the system could become prone to severe oscillations after a tube rupture event. (authors)

  10. Development of accurate dimethyl sulphide primary standard gas mixtures at low nanomole per mole levels in high-pressure aluminium cylinders for ambient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eon Kim, Mi; Kang, Ji Hwan; Doo Kim, Yong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Ambient DMS is monitored in a global network and reported at sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) levels. Developing traceable, accurate DMS standards at ambient levels is essential for tracking the long-term trends and understanding the role of DMS in the atmosphere. Gravimetrically prepared gas standards in cylinders are widely used for calibrating instruments. Therefore, a stable primary standard gas mixture (PSM) is required for traceable ambient DMS measurement at remote sites. In this study, to evaluate adsorption loss on the internal surface of the gas cylinder, 6 nmol mol-1 DMS gas mixtures were prepared in three types of aluminium cylinders: a cylinder without a special coating on its internal surface (AL), an Aculife IV  +  III-treated cylinder (AC), and an Experis-treated cylinder (EX). There was little adsorption loss on the EX cylinder, whereas there was substantial adsorption loss on the other two cylinders. The EX cylinder was used to prepare 0.5, 2, 5, and 7 nmol mol-1 DMS PSMs with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 0.4%. The DMS PSMs were analytically verified and consistent within a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 1.2%. The long-term stability of the 7 nmol mol-1 DMS PSM was assessed by tracking the ratio of the DMS to the internal standard, benzene. The results showed that the DMS was stable for about seven months and it was projected to be stable for more than 60 months within a relative expanded uncertainty of 3%.

  11. Windage Power Loss in Gas Foil Bearings and the Rotor-Stator Clearance of High Speed Generators Operating in High Pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) and Closed Supercritical Cycle (CSC) engines are prime candidates to convert heat from a reactor into electric power for robotic space exploration and habitation. These engine concepts incorporate a permanent magnet starter/generator mounted on the engine shaft along with the requisite turbomachinery. Successful completion of the long-duration missions currently anticipated for these engines will require designs that adequately address all losses within the machine. The preliminary thermal management concept for these engine types is to use the cycle working fluid to provide the required cooling. In addition to providing cooling, the working fluid will also serve as the bearing lubricant. Additional requirements, due to the unique application of these microturbines, are zero contamination of the working fluid and entirely maintenance-free operation for many years. Losses in the gas foil bearings and within the rotor-stator gap of the generator become increasingly important as both rotational speed and mean operating pressure are increased. This paper presents the results of an experimental study, which obtained direct torque measurements on gas foil bearings and generator rotor-stator gaps. Test conditions for these measurements included rotational speeds up to 42,000 revolutions per minute, pressures up to 45 atmospheres, and test gases of nitrogen, helium, and carbon dioxide. These conditions provided a maximum test Taylor number of nearly one million. The results show an exponential rise in power loss as mean operating density is increased for both the gas foil bearing and generator windage. These typical "secondary" losses can become larger than the total system output power if conventional design paradigms are followed. A nondimensional analysis is presented to extend the experimental results into the CSC range for the generator windage.

  12. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  13. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  14. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  15. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, J.; Bruneau, S.; Sentis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma generated by the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse with gas has been analyzed using time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The laser beam has been focused with a microscope objective into different gases (air, Ar, He) at pressures ranging from 10 2 to 10 5 Pa. From the analysis of spectral line emission from ions and neutral atoms, the plasma parameters and the plasma composition have been determined as a function of time and space. Furthermore, the generation of fast electrons and/or VUV radiation by the femtosecond laser interaction with the gas was brought to the fore. From the time- and space-evolution of the plasma parameters, a rough estimation of initial values of electron density and refraction index in the focal volume has been performed. These results are compared to analysis of the laser beam transmitted by the plasma. The latter show that only a small fraction of the laser energy is absorbed by the plasma while the spatial distribution of the transmitted laser beam is strongly perturbed by the plasma, which acts like a defocusing lens. However, in ambient helium, the plasma defocusing is weak due to the high ionization potential of helium. The understanding of femtosecond laser-induced gas breakdown is useful for process optimization in femtosecond laser applications like micromachining or surface microanalysis, etc

  17. Influence of fillers on hydrogen penetration properties and blister fracture of rubber composites for O-ring exposed to high-pressure hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Junichiro; Nishimura, Shin [Department of Mechanical Science Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage (HYDROGENIUS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites having carbon black, silica, and no fillers were exposed to hydrogen gas at a maximum pressure of 10 MPa; then, blister tests and the measurement of hydrogen content were conducted. The hydrogen contents of the composites were proportional to the hydrogen pressure, i.e., the behavior of their hydrogen contents follows Henry's law. This implies that hydrogen penetrates into the composite as a hydrogen molecule. The addition of carbon black raised the hydrogen content of the composite, while the addition of silica did not. Based on observations, the blister damages of composites with silica were less pronounced, irrespective of the hydrogen pressures. This may be attributed to their lower hydrogen content and relatively better tensile properties than the others. (author)

  18. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. A concept for evaluation of hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion cracking in cathodically protected high-pressure gas transmission pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    An effort has been undertaken in order to develop a concept for evaluation of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking in cathodically protected gas transmission pipelines. The effort was divided into the following subtasks: A. Establish a correlation between the fracture mechanical properties...... crack propagation. This resulted in threshold curves that can be used for assessment of the risk of hydrogen-assisted cracking as a function of operating pressure and hydrogen content - having the flaw size as discrete parameter. The results are to be used mainly on a conceptual basis......, but it was indicated that the requirements for crack propagation include an overprotective CP-condition, a severe sulphate-reducing environment, as well as a large flaw (8 mm or a leak in the present case). A 1 mm flaw (which may be the maximum realistic flaw size) is believed to be unable to provoke crack propagation...

  19. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  20. Gas-phase thermal dissociation of uranium hexafluoride: Investigation by the technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1987-04-01

    In the gas-phase, uranium hexafluoride decomposes thermally in a quasi-unimolecular reaction to yield uranium pentafluoride and atomic fluorine. We have investigated this reaction using the relatively new technique of laser-powered homogeneous pyrolysis, in which a megawatt infrared laser is used to generate short pulses of high gas temperatures under strictly homogeneous conditions. In our investigation, SiF 4 is used as the sensitizer to absorb energy from a pulsed CO 2 laser and to transfer this energy by collisions with the reactant gas. Ethyl chloride is used as an external standard ''thermometer'' gas to permit estimation of the unimolecular reaction rate constants by a relative rate approach. When UF 6 is the reactant, CF 3 Cl is used as reagent to trap atomic fluorine reaction product, forming CF 4 as a stable indicator which is easily detected by infrared spectroscopy. Using these techniques, we estimate the UF 6 unimolecular reaction rate constant near the high-pressure limit. In the Appendix, we describe a computer program, written for the IBM PC, which predicts unimolecular rate constants based on the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory. Parameterization of the theoretical model is discussed, and recommendations are made for ''appropriate'' input parameters for use in predicting the gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate for UF 6 as a function of temperature and gas composition and total pressure. 85 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  2. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  3. High Pressure Research on Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  4. Gas detection by correlation spectroscopy employing a multimode diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2008-05-01

    A gas sensor based on the gas-correlation technique has been developed using a multimode diode laser (MDL) in a dual-beam detection scheme. Measurement of CO(2) mixed with CO as an interfering gas is successfully demonstrated using a 1570 nm tunable MDL. Despite overlapping absorption spectra and occasional mode hops, the interfering signals can be effectively excluded by a statistical procedure including correlation analysis and outlier identification. The gas concentration is retrieved from several pair-correlated signals by a linear-regression scheme, yielding a reliable and accurate measurement. This demonstrates the utility of the unsophisticated MDLs as novel light sources for gas detection applications.

  5. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Dudžák, Roman; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Koester, P.; Krouský, Eduard; Krůs, Miroslav; Labate, L.; Levato, Tadzio; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Margarone, Daniele; Marocchino, A.; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Nicolai, Ph.; O’Dell, T.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, Oldřich; Rhee, Y.-J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Sawicka, Magdalena; Schiavi, A.; Skála, Jiří; Šmíd, Michal; Spindloe, Ch.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy; Vinci, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), 032710-032710 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : High-pressure shocks * shock ignition * inertial confinement fusion * PALS laser Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869715

  6. A new in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy laboratory for off-line studies at KU Leuven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Creemers, P.; Ferrer, R.; Granados, C.; Gaffney, L.P.; Huyse, M.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Raeder, S.; Sels, S.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-01-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique is used to produce and to investigate short-lived radioactive isotopes at on-line ion beam facilities. In this technique, the nuclear reaction products recoiling out of a thin target are thermalized and neutralized in a high-pressure noble gas, resonantly ionized by the laser beams in a two-step process, and then extracted from the ion source to be finally accelerated and mass separated. Resonant ionization of radioactive species in the supersonic gas jet ensures very high spectral resolution because of essential reduction of broadening mechanisms. To obtain the maximum efficiency and the best spectral resolution, properties of the supersonic jet and the laser beams must be optimized. To perform these studies a new off-line IGLIS laboratory, including a new high-repetition-rate laser system and a dedicated off-line mass separator, has been commissioned. In this article, the specifications of the different components necessary to achieve optimum conditions in laser-spectroscopy studies of radioactive beams using IGLIS are discussed and the results of simulations are presented.

  7. Gas-laser behavior in a low-gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with several experiments proposed for flight on the Space Shuttle, which involve the use of gas lasers, the behavior of a He-Ne laser in a low-gravity environment has been studied theoretically and experimentally in a series of flight tests using a low-gravity-simulation aircraft. No fluctuation in laser output above the noise level of the meter (1 part in 1000 for 1 hr) was observed during the low-gravity portion of the flight tests. The laser output gradually increased by 1.4% during a 1.5-hr test; at no time were rapid variations observed in the laser output. A maximum laser instability of 1 part in 100 was observed during forty low-gravity parabolic maneuvers. The beam remained Gaussian throughout the tests and no lobe patterns were observed.

  8. Preformed transient gas channels for laser wakefield particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Acceleration of electrons by laser-driven plasma wake fields is limited by the range over which a laser pulse can maintain its intensity. This distance is typically given by the Rayleigh range for the focused laser beam, usually on the order of 0.1 mm to 1 mm. For practical particle acceleration, interaction distances on the order of centimeters are required. Therefore, some means of guiding high intensity laser pulses is necessary. Light intensities on the order of a few times 10 17 W/cm 2 are required for laser wakefield acceleration schemes using near IR radiation. Gas densities on the order of or greater than 10 17 cm -3 are also needed. Laser-atom interaction studies in this density and intensity regime are generally limited by the concomitant problems in beam propagation introduced by the creation of a plasma. In addition to the interaction distance limit imposed by the Rayleigh range, defocusing of the high intensity laser pulse further limits the peak intensity which can be achieved. To solve the problem of beam propagation limitations in laser-plasma wakefield experiments, two potential methods for creating transient propagation channels in gaseous targets are investigated. The first involves creation of a charge-neutral channel in a gas by an initial laser pulse, which then is ionized by a second, ultrashort, high-intensity pulse to create a waveguide. The second method involves the ionization of a gas column by an ultrashort pulse; a transient waveguide is formed by the subsequent expansion of the heated plasma into the neutral gas

  9. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  10. Selective gas sensing for photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Buss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk.......We facilitate photonic crystal lasers to sense gases via an additional swelling polymer film. We describe the transduction transfer function and experimentally demonstrate an enhanced ethanol vapor sensitivity over 15 dB with low humidity crosstalk....

  11. Fluorescence-pumped photolytic gas laser system for a commercial laser fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The first results are given for the conceptual design of a short-wavelength gas laser system suitable for use as a driver (high average power ignition source) for a commercial laser fusion power plant. A comparison of projected overall system efficiencies of photolytically excited oxygen, sulfur, selenium and iodine lasers is described, using a unique windowless laser cavity geometry which will allow scaling of single amplifier modules to 125 kJ per aperture for 1 ns pulses. On the basis of highest projected overall efficiency, a selenium laser is chosen for a conceptual power plant fusion laser system. This laser operates on the 489 nm transauroral transition of selenium, excited by photolytic dissociation of COSe by ultraviolet fluorescence radiation. Power balances and relative costs for optics, electrical power conditioning and flow conditioning of both the laser and fluorescer gas streams are discussed for a system with the following characteristics: 8 operating modules, 2 standby modules, 125 kJ per module, 1.4 pulses per second, 1.4 MW total average power. The technical issues of scaling visible and near-infrared photolytic gas laser systems to this size are discussed

  12. Laser assisted tunneling in a Tonks–Girardeau gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelas, Karlo; Drpić, Nikola; Dubček, Tena; Buljan, Hrvoje; Jukić, Dario; Pezer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the applicability of laser assisted tunneling in a strongly interacting one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas (the Tonks–Girardeau gas) in optical lattices. We find that the stroboscopic dynamics of the Tonks–Girardeau gas in a continuous Wannier–Stark-ladder potential, supplemented with laser assisted tunneling, effectively realizes the ground state of 1D hard-core bosons in a discrete lattice with nontrivial hopping phases. We compare observables that are affected by the interactions, such as the momentum distribution, natural orbitals and their occupancies, in the time-dependent continuous system, to those of the ground state of the discrete system. Stroboscopically, we find an excellent agreement, indicating that laser assisted tunneling is a viable technique for realizing novel ground states and phases with hard-core 1D Bose gases. (paper)

  13. Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tomas; Shen, Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    We show that high-resolution laser spectroscopy can probe surface interactions of gas confined in nanocavities of porous materials. We report on strong line broadening and unfamiliar line shapes due to tight confinement, as well as signal enhancement due to multiple photon scattering. This new domain of laser spectroscopy constitute a challenge for the theory of collisions and spectroscopic line shapes, and open for new ways of analyzing porous materials and processes taking place therein.

  14. Laser deposition of sulfonated phthalocyanines for gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, Přemysl; Vrňata, M.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Škodová, J.; Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Pokorný, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 302, MAY (2014), s. 37-41 ISSN 0169-4332. [European-Materials-Research-Society Symposium on Laser Material Interactions for Micro- and Nano- Applications /5./. Strasbourg, 27.05.2013-31.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation * substituted phthalocyanine s * gas sensors * impedance measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  15. Laser-Irradiated Gas Puff Target Plasma Modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2014), s. 2600-2601 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2043 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0092 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Gas puff laser plasma * water window radiation source * RHMD code Z* Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.101, year: 2014 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org

  16. Laser Gas-Analyser for Monitoring a Source of Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of growing air pollution of the Earth is of relevance. Many countries have taken measures to protect the environment in order to limit the negative anthropogenic impacts.In such a situation an objective information on the actual content of pollutants in the atmosphere is of importance. For operational inspection of the pollutant concentrations and for monitoring pollution sources, it is necessary to create high-speed high-sensitivity gas analysers.Laser meters are the most effective to provide operational remote and local inspection of gas pollution of the Earth atmosphere.Laser meter for routine gas analysis should conduct operational analysis of the gas mixture (air. For this a development of appropriate information support is required.Such information support should include a database with absorption coefficients of pollutants (specific to potential sources of pollution at possible measuring wavelengths (holding data for a particular emitter of the laser meter and an efficient algorithms to search the measuring wavelengths and conduct a quantitative analysis of gas mixtures.Currently, the issues, important for practice and related to the development of information support for the laser gas analyzer to conduct important for practice routine measurements remain unclear.In this paper we develop an algorithm to provide an operational search of the measuring wavelengths of laser gas analyser and an algorithm to recover quantitively the gaseous component concentrations of controlled gas mixture from the laser multi-spectral measurements that take into account a priori information about the source-controlled gas pollution and do not require a large amount of computation. The method of mathematical simulation shows the effectiveness of the algorithms described both for seach of measuring wavelengths and for quantitative analysis of gas releases.

  17. Gas laser tube and method of fabricating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garman, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved gas laser tube is fabricated by counter boring the ends of a tubular aluminum extrusion having an inner tubular portion supported from an outer tubular portion via the intermediary of a plurality of radially directed support vanes or legs. Metallic transverse walls are sealed across the ends of the tubular extrusion to define the ends of a gas tight metallic envelope. An electrically insulative glow discharge tube is axially disposed within and supported by the inner tubular portion of the extrusion in axial alignment with an optical resonator of the laser tube. (U.S.)

  18. Smart pigging - a contribution to the monitoring of the anti-corrosion protection systems on pig-inspectable high-pressure gas transmission pipelines; Intelligente Molchung - ein Beitrag zur Ueberwachung des Korrosionsschutzes molchbarer Gashochdruckleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.; Schoeneich, H.G. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany). Kompetenz-Center Korrosionsschutz

    2000-07-01

    High-pressure gas transmission pipelines installed underground are exposed to the risk of external corrosion. The application of a sheathing (passive protection) and, since the 1950s, the installation of a cathodic anti-corrosion protection system, provide pipelines with effective protection against this danger. In the past, the effectiveness of cathodic anti-corrosion protection systems was verified by means of intensive measuring and re-measuring cycles. It became apparent that points of damage to the sheathing were protected in the majority of cases against corrosion by the cathodic anti-corrosion protection system. There are, however, particular design circumstances and ambient conditions which can make this anti-corrosion protection concept either partially or completely ineffective. The use of smart pigs for inspection of pig-inspectable gas transmission pipelines makes it possible to detect and eliminate these weak points. (orig.) [German] Gashochdruckleitungen, die im Erdboden verlegt werden, unterliegen einer Gefaehrdung durch Aussenkorrosion. Durch eine Umhuellung (passiver Schutz) und seit den 50er Jahren durch die Einrichtung des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes (aktiver Schutz) sind die Leitungen gegen diese Gefaehrdung wirkungsvoll geschuetzt. In der Vergangenheit wurde die Ueberpruefung der Wirksamkeit des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes durch Intensivmessungen und Nachmessungen sichergestellt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass in der ueberwiegenden Zahl Umhuellungsbeschaedigungen durch den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz gegen Korrosion geschuetzt sind. Es gibt jedoch besondere konstruktive oder Umgebungsbedingungen, die dieses Korrosionsschuzkonzept teilweise oder vollstaendig unwirksam werden lassen. Mit dem Einsatz von intelligenten Molchen zur Inspektion molchbarer Gastransportleitungen koennen diese Schwachstellen erkannt und beseitigt werden. (orig.)

  19. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan; Yao, Kexin; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Baiyan; Shi, Zhan; Krishna, Rajamani A A; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan

    2012-08-09

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Frequency stabilization of a He-Ne gas laser by controlling refractive index of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Wu Yizun

    1991-01-01

    A new way to stabilize the frequency of a Zeeman He-Ne gas laser is described. The laser frequency is stabilized by controlling the refractive index of the laser plasma. It does not need a gas laser tube with a piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) made by special technology. As the phase-locking technology is used in the laser servo system, the self-beat frequency is a constant and the frequency stability is better than 2.2 x 10 -11 (averaging time = 10 sec.). The long term frequency fluctuation never exceeded 2 x 10 -8 during two months. The frequency of the locked point can be adjusted continuously in the range of over 200 MHz

  2. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  3. High-pressure water facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  4. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  5. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  6. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  7. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  8. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Scamarcio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, noninvasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selectivedetection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb and sub-ppb range.The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs has given a new aspect toinfrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLsare attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent properties in terms of narrowlinewidth, average power and room temperature operation. In combination with these lasersources, photoacoustic spectroscopy offers the advantage of high sensitivity and selectivity,compact sensor platform, fast time-response and user friendly operation. This paper reportsrecent developments on quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for tracegas detection. In particular, different applications of a photoacoustic trace gas sensoremploying a longitudinal resonant cell with a detection limit on the order of hundred ppb ofozone and ammonia are discussed. We also report two QC laser-based photoacousticsensors for the detection of nitric oxide, for environmental pollution monitoring andmedical diagnostics, and hexamethyldisilazane, for applications in semiconductormanufacturing process.

  9. High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Rare Gas Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚风; 钟钦; 曾淳; 陈哲

    2001-01-01

    With a 45 fs multiterawatt 790 nm laser system and jets of argon and krypton atomic clusters, a study of the interaction of fs intense laser pulses with large size rare gas dusters was conducted. The maximum laser intensity of about 7 × 1016 W/cm2 and dusters composed of thousands of atoms which were determined through Rayleigh scattering measurements were involved inthe experiments. On the one hand, the results indicate that the interaction is strongly cluster size dependent. The stronger the interaction, the larger the clusters are. On the other hand, a saturation followed by a drop of the energy of ions ejected from the interaction will occur when the laser intensity exceeds a definite value for clusters of a certain size.

  10. Modelling and interpretation of gas detection using remote laser pointers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, J; van Well, B; Padgett, M; Pride, R D

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a quantitative model of the performance of laser pointer style gas leak detectors, which are based on remote detection of backscattered radiation. The model incorporates instrumental noise limits, the reflectivity of the target background surface and a mathematical description of gas leak dispersion in constant wind speed and turbulence conditions. We have investigated optimum instrument performance and limits of detection in simulated leak detection situations. We predict that the optimum height for instruments is at eye level or above, giving an operating range of 10 m or more for most background surfaces, in wind speeds of up to 2.5 ms(-1). For ground based leak sources, we find laser pointer measurements are dominated by gas concentrations over a short distance close to the target surface, making their readings intuitive to end users in most cases. This finding is consistent with the results of field trials.

  11. Computer simulation at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  12. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  13. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  14. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  15. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  16. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, D. L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2007-05-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling

  17. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Application of additive laser technologies in the gas turbine blades design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Osipov, S. K.; Bychkov, N. M.; Komarov, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    An emergence of modern innovative technologies requires delivering new and modernization existing design and production processes. It is especially relevant for designing the high-temperature turbines of gas turbine engines, development of which is characterized by a transition to higher parameters of working medium in order to improve their efficient performance. A design technique for gas turbine blades based on predictive verification of thermal and hydraulic models of their cooling systems by testing of a blade prototype fabricated using the selective laser melting technology was presented in this article. Technique was proven at the time of development of the first stage blade cooling system for the high-pressure turbine. An experimental procedure for verification of a thermal model of the blades with convective cooling systems based on the comparison of heat-flux density obtained from the numerical simulation data and results of tests in a liquid-metal thermostat was developed. The techniques makes it possible to obtain an experimentally tested blade version and to exclude its experimental adjustment after the start of mass production.

  19. Remote laser detection of natural gas leakages from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V O; Gorobets, V A; Andreev, Yu M; Lanskii, G V

    2010-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO 2 laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 01 1 1 - 11 1 0 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 μm is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h -1 and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  1. Efficiency of laser beam utilization in gas laser cutting of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushkin, M. G.; Grishaev, R. V.

    2018-02-01

    Relying on the condition of dynamic matching of the process parameters in gas laser cutting, the dependence of the beam utilization factor on the cutting speed and the beam power has been determined. An energy balance equation has been derived for a wide range of cutting speed values.

  2. Reaction between laser ablation plume and ambient gas studied by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K; Watarai, H

    2007-01-01

    We visualized the density distributions of C 2 (plume), NO (ambient gas), and CN (reaction product) when a graphite target was ablated by irradiating YAG laser pulses at wavelengths of 1064 and 355 nm in ambient gas mixture of NO and He. It has been shown by the density distributions of C 2 and NO that the expansion of the plume removes the ambient gas and the plume and the ambient gas locate exclusively in both the cases at 1064 and 355 nm. A high CN density was observed at the interface between the plume and the ambient gas at 1064 nm, which is reasonable since chemical reactions between the plume and the ambient gas may occur only at their interface. On the other hand, in the case at 355 nm, we observed considerable CN inside the plume, indicating that the chemical reaction processes in the laser ablation at 355 nm is different from that expected from the density distributions of the plume and the ambient gas

  3. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang [Keio University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN. (orig.)

  4. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang

    2016-10-01

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  5. High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement; Generation de hautes pressions par choc laser: application a la mesure d'equations d'etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benuzzi, A

    1997-12-15

    This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 {mu}m. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)

  6. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  7. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jonathan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Pickett, Lyle M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Bisson, Scott E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Dept.; Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). combustion Chemistry Dept.; Ruggles, Adam J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Skeen, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Manin, Julien Luc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Huang, Erxiong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Cicone, Dave J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Sphicas, Panos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  8. Attosecond pulse trains from long laser-gas interaction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, C.P.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Varju, K.; Ruchon, T.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Huillier, A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Many experiments in attosecond physics require high XUV photon flux as well as a clean attosecond pulse train (APT) temporal structure. Temporal characterization of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in long interaction targets is thus of high interest. HHG being a very inefficient process, a large effort has been made to increase the amount of XUV photons emitted per infrared laser pulse. Besides quasi phase-matching in a modulated capillary, loose driving laser focusing conditions and subsequent self-channeling have shown to significantly increase the conversion efficiency. We characterized the temporal structure of APTs generated during the self-channeling of an intense IR driving laser pulse. Our first results indicate, however, that the temporal structure of the APT generated during the HHG process might be affected by quantum path interference and spectral phase distortion due to the self-channeling process itself. In particular, our measurements show that the relative spectral phase between consecutive harmonics can strongly vary depending on the target length and the position of the laser focus with respect to the target. In general for short gas targets, no clean APT structure can be expected since the individual attosecond pulses carry significant chirp. For longer targets, however, we observe a flattening of the harmonic spectral phase, resulting in near-transform-limited attosecond pulse trains. A complete analysis of the process is complex and involves detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal evolution of the self-channeling driver laser pulse throughout the gas target.

  9. Development of dispersion interferometer for magnetic confinement plasmas and high-pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.; Urabe, K.; Terashima, K.; Shirai, N.

    2015-09-01

    A CO2 laser dispersion interferometer (DI) has been developed for both magnetically fusion plasmas and high pressure industrial plasmas. The DI measures the phase shift caused by dispersion in a medium. Therefore, it is insensitive to the mechanical vibrations and changes in the neutral gas density, which degrade the resolution of the electron density measurement. We installed the DI on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and demonstrated a high density resolution of 2× 1017 m-3 without any vibration-free bench. The measured electron density with the DI shows good agreement with results of the existing far infrared laser (a wavelength of 119 μ m) interferometer. The DI system is also applied to the electron density measurement of high-pressure small-scale plasmas. The significant suppression of the phase shift caused by the neutral gas is proven. The achieved density resolution was 1.5× 1019 m-3 with a response time of 100 μ s. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  10. Computer simulations of high pressure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given

  11. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  12. On the possibility of developing quasi-CW high-power high-pressure laser on 4p-4s transition of ArI with electron beam—optical pumping: quenching of 4s (3P2) lower laser level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kholin, I. V.; L'dov, A. Yu; Seleznev, L. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    A new electron beam-optical procedure is proposed for quasi-cw pumping of high-pressure large-volume He-Ar laser on the 4p[1/2]1-4s[3/2]20 argon atom transition at the wavelength of 912.5 nm. It consists of creation and maintenance of a necessary density of the 4s[3/2]20 metastable state in the gain medium by a fast electron beam and subsequent optical pumping of the upper laser level via the classical three-level scheme using a laser diode. Absorption probing is used to study collisional quenching of Ar* metastable in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He-Ar mixtures with a low content of argon. The rate constants for plasma-chemical reactions Ar*  +  He  +  Ar  >  Ar2*   +  He (3.6  ±  0.4)  ×  10-33 cm6 s-1, Ar*  +  2He  >  HeAr*  +  He (4.4  ±  0.9)  ×  10-36 cm6 s-1 and Ar*  +  He  >  Products  +  He (2.4  ±  0.3)  ×  10-15 cm3 s-1 were for the first time measured.

  13. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-05-01

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H 2 O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO 2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H 2 O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H 2 O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H 2 O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol -1 ·m Hz -1/2 . The relative combined uncertainty of H 2 O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  14. Computational and experimental progress on laser-activated gas avalanche switches for broadband, high-power electromagnetic pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.; Villa, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the gas avalanche switch, a high-voltage, picosecond-speed switch, which has been proposed. The basic switch consists of pulse-charged electrodes, immersed in a high-pressure gas. An avalanche discharge is induced in the gas between the electrodes by ionization from a picosecond-scale laser pulse. The avalanching electrons move toward the anode, causing the applied voltage to collapse in picoseconds. This voltage collapse, if rapid enough, generates electromagnetic waves. A two-dimensional (2D), finite difference computer code solves Maxwell's equations for transverse magnetic modes for rectilinear electrodes between parallel plate conductors, along with electron conservation equations for continuity, momentum, and energy. Collision frequencies for ionization and momentum and energy transfer to neutral molecules are assumed to scale linearly with neutral pressure. Electrode charging and laser-driven electron deposition are assumed to be instantaneous. Code calculations are done for a pulse generator geometry, consisting of an 0.7 mm wide by 0.8 mm high, beveled, rectangular center electrode between grounded parallel plates at 2 mm spacing in air

  15. Velocimetry using scintillation of a laser beam for a laser-based gas-flux monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Naoki; Wada, Osami; Koga, Ryuji

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a velocimetry system using scintillation of a laser-beam with spatial filters based on sensor arrays for a laser- based gas flux monitor. In the eddy correlation method, gas flux is obtained by mutual relation between the gas density and the flow velocity. The velocimetry system is developed to support the flow velocity monitor portion of the laser-based gas flux monitor with a long span for measurement. In order to sense not only the flow velocity but also the flow direction, two photo diode arrays are arranged with difference of a quarter period of the weighting function between them; the two output signals from the sensor arrays have phase difference of either (pi) /2 or -(pi) /2 depending on the sense of flow direction. In order to obtain the flow velocity and the flow direction instantly, an electronic apparatus built by the authors extracts frequency and phase from crude outputs of the pair of sensors. A feasibility of the velocimetry was confirmed indoors by measurement of the flow- velocity vector of the convection. Measured flow-velocity vector of the upward flow agreed comparatively with results of an ultrasonic anemometer.

  16. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  17. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  19. Absorption of the laser radiation by the laser plasma with gas microjet targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevichus, D. A.; Zabrodskii, V. V.; Kalmykov, S. G.; Sasin, M. E.; Seisyan, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    An upper limit of absorption of the laser radiation in the plasma produced in a gas jet Xe target with the average density of (3-6) × 1018 cm-3 and the effective diameter of 0.7 mm is found. It is equal to ≈50% and remains constant under any variation in this range of densities. This result contradicts both theoretical assessments that have predicted virtually complete absorption and results of earlier experiments with the laser spark in an unlimited stationary Xe gas with the same density, where the upper limit of absorption was close to 100%. An analysis shows that nonlinearity of absorption and plasma nonequilibrium lead to the reduction of the absorption coefficient that, along with the limited size of plasma, can explain the experimental results.

  20. Pneumomediastinum following high pressure air injection to the hand.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, J

    2012-02-01

    We present the case of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum after high pressure air injection to the hand. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of pneumomediastinum where the gas injection site was the thenar eminence. Fortunately the patient recovered with conservative management.

  1. Pneumomediastinum following high pressure air injection to the hand.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, J

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum after high pressure air injection to the hand. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of pneumomediastinum where the gas injection site was the thenar eminence. Fortunately the patient recovered with conservative management.

  2. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  3. Low pressure gas filling of laser fusion microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    In our laser fusion microsphere production, large, thin gel-microspheres are formed before the chemicals are fused into glass. In this transient stage,, the gel-microspheres are found to be highly permeable to argon and many other inert gases. When the gel transforms to glass, the argon gas, for example, is trapped within to form argon filled, fusion target quality, glass microspheres. On the average, the partial pressure of the argon fills attained in this process is around 2 x 10 4 Pa at room temperature

  4. High-pressure phase transition in Ho2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Ravindran, T.R.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on holmium sesquioxide (Ho 2 O 3 ) have been carried out up to a pressure of ∼17 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Holmium oxide, which has a cubic or bixbyite structure under ambient conditions, undergoes an irreversible structural phase transition at around 9.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase has been identified to be low symmetry monoclinic type. The two phases coexist to up to about 16 GPa, above which the parent phase disappears. The high-pressure laser-Raman studies have revealed that the prominent Raman band ∼370 cm -1 disappears around the similar transition pressure. The bulk modulus of the parent phase is reported.

  5. Investigation of Raman bands vapour of contours of trichloroethylene at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleskaya, G.A.; Ikramov, M.; Shukurov, T.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of high-pressure extraneous gas on contour comb. band, spreading trichloroethylene steams are in given article. Increasing of extraneous gas pressure brings to decreasing free molecule circling time is shown

  6. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  7. Hybrid laser-gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of high strength steel gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Ian D.; Norfolk, Mark I. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid Laser/arc welding process (HLAW) can complete 5G welds, assure weld soundness, material properties, and an acceptable geometric profile. Combining new lasers and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) has led to important innovations in the HLAW process, increasing travel speed for successful root pass welding. High power Yb fiber lasers allow a 10 kW laser to be built the size of a refrigerator, allowing portability for use on the pipeline right-of-way. The objective was to develop and apply an innovative HLAW system for mechanized welding of high strength, high integrity, pipelines and develop 5G welding procedures for X80 and X100 pipe, including mechanical testing to API 1104. A cost-matched JIP developed a prototype HLAW head based on a commercially available bug and band system (CRC-Evans P450). Under the US Department of Transportation (DOT) project, the subject of this paper, the system was used to advance pipeline girth welding productivity. External hybrid root pass welding achieved full penetration welds with a 4-mm root at a travel speed of 2.3-m/min. Welds were made 'double down' using laser powers up to 10 kW and travel speeds up to 3-m/min. The final objective of the project was to demonstrate the hybrid LBW/GMAW system under simulated field conditions. (author)

  8. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  9. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  10. On the Gas Dynamics of Inert-Gas-Assisted Laser Cutting of Steel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A. D.; Settles, G. S.; Scroggs, S. D.

    1996-11-01

    Laser beam cutting of sheet metal requires an assist gas to blow away the molten material. Since the assist-gas dynamics influences the quality and speed of the cut, the orientation of the gas nozzle with respect to the kerf is also expected to be important. A 1 kW cw CO2 laser with nitrogen assist gas was used to cut mild steel sheet of 1 to 4 mm thickness, using a sonic coaxial nozzle as a baseline. Off-axis nozzles were oriented from 20 deg to 60 deg from normal with exit Mach numbers from 1 to 2.4. Results showed maximum cutting speed at a 40 deg nozzle orientation. Shadowgrams of a geometrically-similar model kerf then revealed a separated shock wave-boundary layer interaction within the kerf for the (untilted) coaxial nozzle case. This was alleviated, resulting in a uniform supersonic flow throughout the kerf and consequent higher cutting speeds, by tilting the nozzle between 20 deg and 45 deg from the normal. This result did not depend upon the exit Mach number of the nozzle. (Research supported by NSF Grant DMI-9400119.)

  11. High-pressure test loop design and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Graves, J.N.; Blair, P.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-07-01

    A high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed for the purpose of performing a number of chemistry experiments at simulated HTGR conditions of temperature, pressure, flow, and impurity content. The HPTL can be used to develop, modify, and verify computer codes for a variety of chemical processes involving gas phase transport in the reactor. Processes such as graphite oxidation, fission product transport, fuel reactions, purification systems, and dust entrainment can be studied at high pressure, which would largely eliminate difficulties in correlating existing laboratory data and reactor conditions

  12. Intensity dependence of electron gas kinetics in a laser corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašek Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In various experimental situations relevant to the laser fusion, such as plasma near the light entrance holes of hohlraum in the indirect drive experiments or more recently in the shock ignition direct drive a relatively long underdense plasma of corona type is encountered, which is subject to an intense nanosecond laser beam. The plasma is only weakly collisional and thus in the electron phase space a complicated kinetic evolution is going on, which is taking the electron gas fairly far from the thermal equilibrium and contributes to its unstable behaviour. These phenomena impede the absorption and thermalization of the incoming laser energy, create groups of fast electrons and also may lead to a non-linear reflection of the heating laser beam. One of the key processes leading to the electron acceleration is the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS in its non-linear phase. The SRS in the presence of electron-ion collisions requires a certain threshold intensity above which the mentioned non-dissipative phenomena can occur and develop to the stage, where they may become unpleasant for the fusion experiments. To assess this intensity limit a computational model has been developed based on the Vlasov-Maxwell kinetics describing such a plasma in 1D geometry. At a relatively high intensity of 1016 W/cm2 a number of non-linear phenomena are predicted by the code such as a saturation of Landau damping, which is then translated in an unfavourable time dependence of the reflected light intensity and formation of accelerated electron groups due to the electron trapping. The purpose of the present contribution is to map the intensity dependence of this non-linear development with the aim of assessing its weight in fusion relevant situations.

  13. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  14. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  15. Diagnostics and modeling of high pressure streamer induced discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marode, E.; Dessante, P.; Deschamps, N.; Deniset, C.

    2001-01-01

    A great variety of diagnostic has been applied to gain information on basic parameter governing high pressure nonthermal filamentary plasmas (and namely streamer induced filamentary discharges). Apart from electrical diagnostics, gas discharge, in contrast with solid state physics, can greatly benefit from all optical techniques owing to its ''transparent'' state. Emission and absorption spectroscopy, as well as LIF or CARS (talk are given during this meeting on these two techniques) are among such specific possibilities. The figures gained from these diagnostic measurements has generally no meaning by itself. They must be worked out, by means of calibrated former results, and/or by using them as input in high pressure plasma modeling. Mixing experimental and modeling approach is necessary for reaching relevant physical knowledge of the high pressure filamentary discharges processes. It is shown that diffusion, and thermal space and time distribution, must fully be taken into account

  16. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  17. Temporal and spatial dynamics of laser-induced aluminum plasma in argon background at atmospheric pressure: Interplay with the ambient gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Q.L.; Motto-Ros, V.; Lei, W.Q.; Boueri, M.; Bai, X.S.; Zheng, L.J.; Zeng, H.P.; Yu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation in background gas implies supplementary complexities with respect to what happens in the vacuum. It is however essential to understand in detail the involved mechanisms for a number of applications requiring the ablation to be performed in an ambient gas at relative high pressure, such as pulsed-laser deposition, or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. In this paper, the expansion of a vapor plume ablated from an aluminum target into an argon gas at atmospheric pressure is experimentally investigated using time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The obtained results provide a detailed description of the interplay between the vapor and the gas. The electron density, the temperature and the number densities (and therefore the partial pressures) of aluminum vapor and argon gas have been measured in and surrounding the vapor plume. Our observations show a confinement of the vapor plume by the gas, which is expected as predicted by the usual hydrodynamics models. The result is a plasma core with quite uniform distributions in electron density, temperature and number densities. Such plasma core presents an ideal emission source for spectroscopic applications. It is however evidenced by our observations that a large amount of argon is mixed into the aluminum plume in the plasma core, which invalidates in the experimental conditions that we used, the hydrodynamic 'piston' model where the background gas is pushed out by the shock wave surrounding the vapor plume. Instead, other mechanisms such as laser-supported detonation wave should play important roles in the early stage of the expansion of the plasma for the determination of its morphology at longer delays.

  18. Investigation on gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser through orthogonal experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingliang; Sha, Pengfei; Fan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, R.; Zhao, Jiangshan; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Junhong; Xiong, Guangliang; Wang, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Due to complex kinetics of formation and loss mechanisms, such as ion-ion recombination reaction, neutral species harpoon reaction, excited state quenching and photon absorption, as well as their interactions, the performance behavior of different laser gas medium parameters for excimer laser varies greatly. Therefore, the effects of gas composition and total gas pressure on excimer laser performance attract continual research studies. In this work, orthogonal experimental design (OED) is used to investigate quantitative and qualitative correlations between output laser energy characteristics and gas medium parameters for an ArF excimer laser with plano-plano optical resonator operation. Optimized output laser energy with good pulse to pulse stability can be obtained effectively by proper selection of the gas medium parameters, which makes the most of the ArF excimer laser device. Simple and efficient method for gas medium optimization is proposed and demonstrated experimentally, which provides a global and systematic solution. By detailed statistical analysis, the significance sequence of relevant parameter factors and the optimized composition for gas medium parameters are obtained. Compared with conventional route of varying single gas parameter factor sequentially, this paper presents a more comprehensive way of considering multivariables simultaneously, which seems promising in striking an appropriate balance among various complicated parameters for power scaling study of an excimer laser.

  19. Holographic interferometry of high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlwain, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods. Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma. Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry, and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained. This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented

  20. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Laser (COIL), Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser (EOIL), Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL), and Exciplex Alkali Laser (XPAL). The papers at this Symposium... exciplex -assisted absorption and laser-induced fluorescence, and multi-photon excitation of infrared atomic alkali transitions.11,12 In this paper... EXCIPLEX LASER SYSTEMS Proper review and discussion of the DPAL and XPAL laser systems can be found elsewhere,11,12 and in the paper by Carroll and

  1. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Ferrer, Rafael; Huyse, Mark; Van den Bergh, Paul; Van Duppen, Piet; Vermeeren, L.

    2014-01-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Pulsed laser facilities operating from UV to IR at the Gas Laser Lab of the Lebedev Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrei; Kholin, Igor; Vasil'Ev, Boris; Zvorykin, Vladimir

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed laser facilities developed at the Gas Lasers Lab of the Lebedev Physics Institute and their applications for different laser-matter interactions are discussed. The lasers operating from UV to mid-IR spectral region are as follows: e-beam pumped KrF laser (λ= 0.248 μm) with output energy 100 J; e-beam sustained discharge CO2(10.6 μm) and fundamental band CO (5-6 μm) lasers with output energy up to ~1 kJ; overtone CO laser (2.5-4.2 μm) with output energy ~ 50 J and N2O laser (10.9 μm) with output energy of 100 J; optically pumped NH3 laser (11-14 μm). Special attention is paid to an e-beam sustained discharge Ar-Xe laser (1.73 μm ~ 100 J) as a potential candidate for a laser-propulsion facility. The high energy laser facilities are used for interaction of laser radiation with polymer materials, metals, graphite, rocks, etc.

  3. Measurements of gas velocity in supersonic flow using a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Santos, R. dos

    1982-01-01

    A study of measurements of supersonic velocities in a wind tunnel using a laser beam was performed. Techniques using lasers are most suitable because they do not disturb the gas flow. This work presents the technique entitled as fringe technique. It works using interference patterns due to two perpendicular laser beams crossing the sample (i.e. the gas flow). Experimental results are compared with other usual techniques. (R.S.)

  4. Hollow Core Optical Fiber Gas Lasers: Toward Novel and Practical Systems in Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Hollow core Optically pumped Fiber Gas LASer’s (HOFGLAS’s) based on population inversion combine advantages of fiber lasers such as long interaction...polarization dependent fiber properties. Preliminary experiments were performed toward simultaneous lasing in the visible and near infrared; lasing in...words) Hollow core Optically pumped Fiber Gas LASer’s (HOFGLAS’s) based on population inversion combine advantages of fiber lasers such as long

  5. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  6. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-05-01

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (ne) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d104d1 2D3/2-3d104p1 2P3/2 at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (Te) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ˜590 nm.

  7. Ignition parameters and early flame kernel development of laser-ignited combustible gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecek, H.; Wintner, E.; Ruedisser, D.; Iskra, K.; Neger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Laser induced breakdown of focused pulsed laser radiation, the subsequent plasma formation and thermalization offers a possibility of ignition of combustible gas mixtures free from electrode interferences, an arbitrary choice of the location within the medium and exact timing regardless of the degree of turbulence. The development and the decreasing costs of solid state laser technologies approach the pay-off for the higher complexity of such an ignition system due to several features unique to laser ignition. The feasability of laser ignition was demonstrated in an 1.5 MW(?) natural gas engine, and several investigations were performed to determine optimal ignition energies, focus shapes and laser wavelengths. The early flame kernel development was investigated by time resolved planar laser induced fluorescence of the OH-radical which occurs predominantly in the flame front. The flame front propagation showed typical features like toroidal initial flame development, flame front return and highly increased flame speed along the laser focus axis. (author)

  8. Laser-based investigations in gas turbine model combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W.; Boxx, I.; Stöhr, M.; Carter, C. D.

    2010-10-01

    Dynamic processes in gas turbine (GT) combustors play a key role in flame stabilization and extinction, combustion instabilities and pollutant formation, and present a challenge for experimental as well as numerical investigations. These phenomena were investigated in two gas turbine model combustors for premixed and partially premixed CH4/air swirl flames at atmospheric pressure. Optical access through large quartz windows enabled the application of laser Raman scattering, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV) at repetition rates up to 10 kHz and the simultaneous application of OH PLIF and PIV at a repetition rate of 5 kHz. Effects of unmixedness and reaction progress in lean premixed GT flames were revealed and quantified by Raman scattering. In a thermo-acoustically unstable flame, the cyclic variation in mixture fraction and its role for the feedback mechanism of the instability are addressed. In a partially premixed oscillating swirl flame, the cyclic variations of the heat release and the flow field were characterized by chemiluminescence imaging and PIV, respectively. Using phase-correlated Raman scattering measurements, significant phase-dependent variations of the mixture fraction and fuel distributions were revealed. The flame structures and the shape of the reaction zones were visualized by planar imaging of OH distribution. The simultaneous OH PLIF/PIV high-speed measurements revealed the time history of the flow field-flame interaction and demonstrated the development of a local flame extinction event. Further, the influence of a precessing vortex core on the flame topology and its dynamics is discussed.

  9. High pressure pure- and mixed-gas separation of CO2/CH4 by thermally-rearranged and carbon molecular sieve membranes derived from a polyimide of intrinsic microporosity

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja; Ma, Xiaohua; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas sweetening, one of the most promising venues for the growth of the membrane gas separation industry, is dominated by polymeric materials with relatively low permeabilities and moderate selectivities. One strategy towards improving

  10. Quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic detection of methane emitted from natural gas powered engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M. V.; Sthel, M. S.; Silva, M. G.; Paiva, L. B.; Pinheiro, F. W.; Miklòs, A.; Vargas, H.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we present a laser photoacoustic arrangement for the detection of the important greenhouse gas methane. A quantum-cascade laser and a differential photoacoustic cell were employed. A detection limit of 45 ppbv in nitrogen was achieved as well as a great selectivity. The same methodology was also tested in the detection of methane issued from natural gas powered vehicles (VNG) in Brazil, which demonstrates the excellent potential of this arrangement for greenhouse gas detection emitted from real sources.

  11. Performance of a high repetition pulse rate laser system for in-gas-jet laser ionization studies with the Leuven laser ion source LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Sonnenschein, V.T.; Bastin, B.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Kron, T.; Lecesne, N.; Moore, I.D.; Osmond, B.; Pauwels, D.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The laser ionization efficiency of the Leuven gas cell-based laser ion source was investigated under on- and off-line conditions using two distinctly different laser setups: a low-repetition rate dye laser system and a high-repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A systematic study of the ion signal dependence on repetition rate and laser pulse energy was performed in off-line tests using stable cobalt and copper isotopes. These studies also included in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy measurements on the hyperfine structure of 63 Cu. A final run under on-line conditions in which the radioactive isotope 59 Cu (T 1/2 = 81.5 s) was produced, showed a comparable yield of the two laser systems for in-gas-cell ionization. However, a significantly improved time overlap by using the high-repetition rate laser system for in-gas-jet ionization was demonstrated by an increase of the overall duty cycle, and at the same time, pointed to the need for a better shaped atomic jet to reach higher ionization efficiencies.

  12. Interaction of rare gas clusters in intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobosz, Sandrine

    1998-01-01

    Rare gas cluster jet targets have only been scarcely studied in strong laser fields. This is surprising since their properties are particularly appealing. Although considered as a gas phase target, the local density within clusters is comparable to that of the bulk. Intense irradiation of clusters produces a plasma thereby giving rise to strong collisional heating. This explains, in particular, the observation of very high fragment charge states and the generation of X-rays in the keV energy range. The complete set of our experimental results shows that the intra-cluster atoms are first ionised by tunnel ionisation followed by massive electron impact ionisation. Thus, for Xenon clusters, we have observed up to 30-fold charged. The most energetic electrons leave the cluster which contributes to a positive charge build-up on the cluster surface. The plasma expands under the combined action of the Coulomb and kinetic pressures. The contribution of each pressure depends on the cluster size and we show that the Coulomb pressure is prevailing for the smallest sizes. This scenario explains the ejection of fragments with energies of up to lMeV. We have also performed a high resolution X-ray study to explore in situ the properties of the plasma. These studies underline the importance of electron-ion collisions and allow to deterrnine the mean charge states of the emitting ions. Finally, we have developed a model, describing the cluster expansion, which confirms our experimental observations. (author) [fr

  13. Laser-driven nuclear-polarized hydrogen internal gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.; Crawford, C.; Clasie, B.; Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of a laser-driven polarized internal hydrogen gas target (LDT) in a configuration similar to that used in scattering experiments. This target used the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping to produce nuclear spin polarized hydrogen gas that was fed into a cylindrical storage (target) cell. We present in this paper the performance of the target, methods that were tried to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the target, and a Monte Carlo simulation of spin-exchange optical pumping. The dimensions of the apparatus were optimized using the simulation and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results from the simulation. The best experimental result achieved was at a hydrogen flow rate of 1.1x10 18 atoms/s, where the sample beam exiting the storage cell had 58.2% degree of dissociation and 50.5% polarization. Based on this measurement, the atomic fraction in the storage cell was 49.6% and the density averaged nuclear polarization was 25.0%. This represents the highest FOM for hydrogen from an LDT and is higher than the best FOM reported by atomic beam sources that used storage cells

  14. High pressure pure- and mixed-gas separation of CO2/CH4 by thermally-rearranged and carbon molecular sieve membranes derived from a polyimide of intrinsic microporosity

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2013-11-01

    Natural gas sweetening, one of the most promising venues for the growth of the membrane gas separation industry, is dominated by polymeric materials with relatively low permeabilities and moderate selectivities. One strategy towards improving the gas transport properties of a polymer is enhancement of microporosity either by design of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) or by thermal treatment of polymeric precursors. For the first time, the mixed-gas CO2/CH4 transport properties are investigated for a complete series of thermally-rearranged (TR) (440°C) and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes (600, 630 and 800°C) derived from a polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-6FDA-OH). The pressure dependence of permeability and selectivity is reported up to 30bar for 1:1, CO2:CH4 mixed-gas feeds at 35°C. The TR membrane exhibited ~15% higher CO2/CH4 selectivity relative to pure-gas feeds due to reductions in mixed-gas CH4 permeability reaching 27% at 30bar. This is attributed to increased hindrance of CH4 transport by co-permeation of CO2. Interestingly, unusual increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeabilities relative to pure-gas values were observed for the CMS membranes, resulting in up to 50% losses in mixed-gas selectivity over the applied pressure range. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  16. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  17. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  18. Cyclotron resonant gas breakdown with a 1.22-nm 13CH3F laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Lax, B.; Metz, R.N.; Temkin, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclotron-resonant laser-induced gas breakdown has been studied for the first time in the transverse geometry, using 1.222-nm 13 CH 3 F laser radiation propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field axis. The line shape of absorbed laser radiation versus magnetic field near electron cyclotron resonance (87.75 kG) indicates a strong dependence of the line shape on the focused laser intensity. This dependence is not predicted by the standard equilibrium theory of high-frequency gas breakdown in a magnetic field. We have developed an analytic theory to explain the observed line shapes. The theory takes into account the laser propagation characteristics, in particular that there is nonuniform ionization due to strong resonant absorption of the laser radiation in a length comparable to or shorter than that of the laser focal volume. The transverse geometry simplifies the theoretical analysis because the observed line shapes are not significantly affected by Doppler broadening. Extensive data have been obtained on the fraction of laser pulse energy absorbed in the gas breakdown volume as a function of magnetic field, helium gas pressure, and incident laser pulse energy. Good quantitative agreement is obtained between the observed laser pulse absorption line shapes and the nonuniform ionization theory

  19. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  20. Radio frequency energy coupling to high-pressure optically pumped nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an experimental demonstration of a high-pressure unconditionally stable nonequilibrium molecular plasma sustained by a combination of a continuous wave CO laser and a sub-breakdown radio frequency (rf) electric field. The plasma is sustained in a CO/N 2 mixture containing trace amounts of NO or O 2 at pressures of P=0.4 - 1.2atm. The initial ionization of the gases is produced by an associative ionization mechanism in collisions of two CO molecules excited to high vibrational levels by resonance absorption of the CO laser radiation with subsequent vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Further vibrational excitation of both CO and N 2 is produced by free electrons heated by the applied rf field, which in turn produces additional ionization of these species by the associative ionization mechanism. In the present experiments, the reduced electric field, E/N, is sufficiently low to preclude field-induced electron impact ionization. Unconditional stability of the resultant cold molecular plasma is enabled by the negative feedback between gas heating and the associative ionization rate. Trace amounts of nitric oxide or oxygen added to the baseline CO/N 2 gas mixture considerably reduce the electron - ion dissociative recombination rate and thereby significantly increase the initial electron density. This allows triggering of the rf power coupling to the vibrational energy modes of the gas mixture. Vibrational level populations of CO and N 2 are monitored by infrared emission spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the use of a sub-breakdown rf field in addition to the CO laser allows an increase of the plasma volume by about an order of magnitude. Also, CO infrared emission spectra show that with the rf voltage turned on the number of vibrationally excited CO molecules along the line of sight increase by a factor of 3 - 7. Finally, spontaneous Raman spectra of N 2 show that with the rf voltage the vibrational

  1. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  2. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  3. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Zaccheo, T. Scott [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Blume, Nathan [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Pernini, Timothy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Braun, Michael [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Botos, Christopher [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  4. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  5. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  6. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  7. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  9. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  10. High pressure X-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  11. New method for 3-dimensional visualization of distributed gas using laser ultrasonic technique; Laser choonpaho ni yoru gas no 3 jigen kukan bunpu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, M.; Kubo, K.; Kanemoto, S. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kokubo, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1998-11-30

    In case that detection of gas leak is performed applying gas sensors, not only sensing for extremely small amount of gas but also measurement of spatial distribution state from the viewpoint of identification of leaking places are important. Meanwhile, it is known that the methane, main component in fuel gas, has characters which absorbs ray having certain specific wavelength and in addition emits its absorbed energy acoustically. As to a photo-acoustic effect in an open space, it is newly found that the signal has a frequency of about 40 kHz and a propagation directivity which is perpendicular to the laser axis. In the feasibility test based on this property, methane molecules are excited by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) type laser source which has a wavelength of 1330 micron and an output power of about 5 mJ/pulse. Array microphones and 2-dimensional laser scanning system are used for detecting the gas distribution. In the next place, owing to analyzing phase differences of sound wave on the basis of oscillation time of pulse laser, it was verified that the 3-dimensional distribution of gas was measurable. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  13. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.

    2016-01-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  14. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  15. The final status of a metal surface after multipulse laser irradiation in an ambient gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulmer Leborgne, C.; Hermann, J.; Dubreuil, B.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the role of the ambient gas nature and pressure, and the influence of the laser pulse total duration and temporal shape in the coupling of the incident laser light of λ = 10.6μm wavelength to a metallic surface at intermediate laser intensities of 10 7 - 10 8 W/cm 2 . A plasma is accompanying then the action of the laser pulse. It is acting as an active moderator among laser beam and target thus determining the final status of the contact surface. (author). 11 refs, 6 figs

  16. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (n{sub e}) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d{sup 10}4d{sup 1} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3d{sup 10}4p{sup 1} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ∼590 nm.

  17. Gas monitoring in human sinuses using tunable diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Linda; Andersson, Mats; Cassel-Engquist, Märta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel nonintrusive technique based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to investigate human sinuses in vivo. The technique relies on the fact that free gases have spectral imprints that are about 10.000 times sharper than spectral structures of the surrounding tissue. Two gases are detected; molecular oxygen at 760 nm and water vapor at 935 nm. Light is launched fiber optically into the tissue in close proximity to the particular maxillary sinus under study. When investigating the frontal sinuses, the fiber is positioned onto the caudal part of the frontal bone. Multiply scattered light in both cases is detected externally by a handheld probe. Molecular oxygen is detected in the maxillary sinuses on 11 volunteers, of which one had constantly recurring sinus problems. Significant oxygen absorption imprint differences can be observed between different volunteers and also left-right asymmetries. Water vapor can also be detected, and by normalizing the oxygen signal on the water vapor signal, the sinus oxygen concentration can be assessed. Gas exchange between the sinuses and the nasal cavity is also successfully demonstrated by flushing nitrogen through the nostril. Advantages over current ventilation assessment methods using ionizing radiation are pointed out.

  18. Applications of laser-photoacoustic gas analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Stenberg, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) was studied using two high speed gas analysis systems during combustion of coal, peat and wood chips. Time resolved concentrations of some pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S) were measured using laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPS). A zirkonia cell based probe (lambda-probe) was used in synchronization with the LIPS-probe to measure fluctuations between reducing and oxidizing conditions. The two probes were positioned in the same measurement volume on the center-line of the combustion chamber of the CFB. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the behavior of the LIPS in a combustion chamber containing large amounts of other unburnt hydrocarbons. The correlations between oxidizing and reducing conditions and concentrations at three locations in the combustion chamber are presented. The best correlations were found in the upper part of the CFB combustion chamber. In some cases the correlations between reducing conditions and the LIPS signal were caused by hydrocarbons. Comparison of the average values obtained by the LIPS-system for NO and SO{sub 2} with the result from a sampling probe system connected to on-line analysers was also carried out. (author)

  19. Condensation heat transfer on natural convection at the high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Won, Kim; Hyoung-Kyoun, Ahn; Goon-Cherl, Park

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation is to develop a small scale electric power system driven by an environment-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. REX-10 has been developed to assure high system safety in order to be placed in densely populated region and island. REX-10 adopts the steam-gas pressurizer to assure the inherent safety. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam-gas pressurizer are very complex. Especially, the condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas on the natural convection is important to evaluate the pressurizer behavior. However, there have been few investigations on the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas at the high pressure. In this study, the theoretical model is developed to estimate the condensation heat transfer at the high pressure using heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis results show good agreement with correlations and experimental data. It is found that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases as the total pressure increases or the mass fraction of the non-condensable gas decreases. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient no more increases over the specific pressure

  20. Conformational reduction of DOPA in the gas phase studied by laser desorption supersonic jet laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Mitsuda, Haruhiko; Asakawa, Toshiro; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki

    2011-05-07

    The conformational reduction in catecholamine neurotransmitters was studied by resonance enhanced multi photon ionization (REMPI), ultraviolet-ultraviolet (UV-UV) hole burning and infrared (IR) dip spectroscopy with applying a laser desorption supersonic jet technique to DOPA, which is one of the catecholamine neurotransmitters and has one more phenolic OH group than tyrosine. It is concluded that DOPA has a single observable conformer in the gas phase at low temperature. Quantum chemical calculations at several levels with or without the dispersion correction were also carried out to study stable conformations. From the comparison between the computational IR spectra and the experimental ones, the most stable structure was determined. It is strongly suggested that the conformational reduction is caused by electrostatic interactions, such as a dipole-dipole interaction, between the chain and OH groups. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann constant

    OpenAIRE

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; Di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) $\

  2. Gas flow parameters in laser cutting of wood- nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali Mukherjee; Tom Grendzwell; Parwaiz A.A. Khan; Charles McMillin

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) is an ongoing team research effort to optimize the yield of parts in a furniture rough mill. The process is designed to couple aspects of computer vision, computer optimization of yield, and laser cutting. This research is focused on optimizing laser wood cutting. Laser machining of lumber has the advantage over...

  3. Effects of hydroxyl-functionalization and sub-Tg thermal annealing on high pressure pure- and mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separation by polyimide membranes based on 6FDA and triptycene-containing dianhydrides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-02-01

    A sub-Tg thermally-annealed (250°C, 24h) ultra-microporous PIM-polyimide bearing a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene contortion center and hydroxyl-functionalized diamine (2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane, APAF) exhibited plasticization resistance up to 50bar for a 1:1 CO2/CH4 feed mixture, with a 9-fold higher CO2 permeability (30Barrer) and 2-fold increase in CO2/CH4 permselectivity (~50) over conventional dense cellulose acetate membranes at 10bar CO2 partial pressure. Interestingly, mixed-gas CO2/CH4 permselectivities were 10-20% higher than those evaluated under pure-gas conditions due to reduction of mixed-gas CH4 permeability by co-permeation of CO2. Gas transport, physisorption and fluorescence studies indicated a sieving pore-structure engaged in inter-chain charge transfer complexes (CTCs), similar to that of low-free-volume 6FDA-APAF polyimide. The isosteric heat of adsorption of CO2 as well as CO2/CH4 solubility selectivities varied negligibly upon replacement of OH with CH3 but CTC formation was hindered, CO2 sorption increased, CO2 permeability increased ~3-fold, CO2/CH4 permselectivity dropped to ~30 and CH4 mixed-gas co-permeation increased. These results suggest that hydroxyl-functionalization did not cause preferential polymer-gas interactions but primarily elicited diffusion-dominated changes owing to a tightened microstructure more resistant to CO2-induced dilations. Solution-processable hydroxyl-functionalized PIM-type polyimides provide a new platform of advanced materials that unites the high selectivities of low-free-volume polymers with the high permeabilities of PIM-type materials particularly for natural gas sweetening applications.

  4. Ignition during hydrogen release from high pressure into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczak, P.; Wolanski, P.

    2010-12-01

    The first investigations concerned with a problem of hydrogen jet ignition, during outflow from a high-pressure vessel were carried out nearly 40 years ago by Wolanski and Wojcicki. The research resulted from a dramatic accident in the Chorzow Chemical Plant Azoty, where the explosion of a synthesis gas made up of a mixture composed of three moles of hydrogen per mole of nitrogen, at 300°C and 30 MPa killed four people. Initial investigation had excluded potential external ignition sources and the main aim of the research was to determine the cause of ignition. Hydrogen is currently considered as a potential fuel for various vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc. Crucial safety issues are of potential concern, associated with the storage of hydrogen at a very high pressure. Indeed, the evidence obtained nearly 40 years ago shows that sudden rupture of a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank or other component can result in ignition and potentially explosion. The aim of the present research is identification of the conditions under which hydrogen ignition occurs as a result of compression and heating of the air by the shock wave generated by discharge of high-pressure hydrogen. Experiments have been conducted using a facility constructed in the Combustion Laboratory of the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. Tests under various configurations have been performed to determine critical conditions for occurrence of high-pressure hydrogen ignition. The results show that a critical pressure exists, leading to ignition, which depends mainly on the geometric configuration of the outflow system, such as tube diameter, and on the presence of obstacles.

  5. Thermally induced coloration of KBr at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveson, Sarah M.; Kiefer, Boris; Deng, Jie; Liu, Zhenxian; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) experiments reveal electronic changes in KBr at pressures between ˜13 -81 GPa when heated to high temperatures that cause runaway heating to temperatures in excess of ˜5000 K . The drastic changes in absorption behavior of KBr are interpreted as rapid formation of high-pressure F-center defects. The defects are localized to the heated region and thus do not change the long-range crystalline order of KBr. The results have significant consequences for temperature measurements in LHDAC experiments and extend the persistence of F centers in alkali halides to at least 81 GPa.

  6. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  7. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  8. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  9. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  11. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  12. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  13. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  14. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  15. Laser triggering of a 500-kV gas-filled switch: A parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Pitchford, L.C.; Hamil, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser triggering of a 500-kV, SF 6 -insulated gas switch for a range of laser parameters. Laser wavelengths of 266 nm and 1064 nm with nominal pulse lengths of 2- and 4-nsec full width at half maximum (FWHM) were used to trigger the switch. The switch was triggered by focusing the laser to form a breakdown arc in the gas between the electrodes. Subnanosecond jitter in the operation of the switch was obtained for 266-nm laser pulse energies as low as 5 mJ. Results obtained with the Nd:YAG laser are compared to earlier data in which the switch was triggered with a krypton-fluoride laser operating at 248 nm with a pulse length of 20-nsec FWHM. Our experimental results show that ultraviolet laser triggering gives results which are a dramatic improvement over infrared laser triggering in terms of lower jitter and smaller change in delay time with variations in applied voltage. We also see indications that the optimum laser pulse length is equal to or greater than the closure time of the switch

  16. Optically pumped alkali laser and amplifier using helium-3 buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Page, Ralph; Soules, Thomas; Stappaerts, Eddy; Wu, Sheldon Shao Quan

    2010-09-28

    In one embodiment, a laser oscillator is provided comprising an optical cavity, the optical cavity including a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas, the buffer gas including .sup.3He gas, wherein if .sup.4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the .sup.3He gas to the .sup.4He gas is greater than 1.37.times.10.sup.-6. Additionally, an optical excitation source is provided. Furthermore, the laser oscillator is capable of outputting radiation at a first frequency. In another embodiment, an apparatus is provided comprising a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas including .sup.3He gas, wherein if .sup.4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the .sup.3He gas to the .sup.4He gas is greater than 1.37.times.10.sup.-6. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  17. Synthesis and properties of selenium trihydride at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Wan; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Shuqing; Gorelli, Federico A.; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2018-02-01

    The chemical reaction products of molecular hydrogen (H2) with selenium (Se) are studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy at high pressures. We find that a common H2Se is synthesized at 0.3 GPa using laser heating. Upon compression at 300 K, a crystal of the theoretically predicted Cccm H3Se has been grown at 4.6 GPa. At room temperature, H3Se shows a reversible phase decomposition after laser irradiation above 8.6 GPa, but remains stable up to 21 GPa. However, at 170 K Cccm H3Se persists up to 39.5 GPa based on XRD measurements, while low-temperature Raman spectra weaken and broaden above 23.1 GPa. At these conditions, the sample is visually nontransparent and shiny suggesting that metallization occurred.

  18. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS, all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  19. Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, T.; Braun, M.; Lambrecht, A.

    2003-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has found many industrial applications, e.g., control of automotive exhaust and process monitoring. The midinfrared region is of special interest because it has stronger absorption lines compared to the near infrared (NIR). However, in the NIR high quality reliable laser sources, detectors, and passive optical components are available. A quantum cascade laser could change this situation if fundamental advantages can be exploited with compact and reliable systems. It will be shown that, using pulsed lasers and available fast detectors, lower residual sensitivity levels than in corresponding NIR systems can be achieved. The stability is sufficient for industrial applications.

  20. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  1. 3D printing of gas jet nozzles for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döpp, A.; Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Gautier, J.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2016-07-15

    Recent results on laser wakefield acceleration in tailored plasma channels have underlined the importance of controlling the density profile of the gas target. In particular, it was reported that the appropriate density tailoring can result in improved injection, acceleration, and collimation of laser-accelerated electron beams. To achieve such profiles, innovative target designs are required. For this purpose, we have reviewed the usage of additive layer manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, in order to produce gas jet nozzles. Notably we have compared the performance of two industry standard techniques, namely, selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereolithography (SLA). Furthermore we have used the common fused deposition modeling to reproduce basic gas jet designs and used SLA and SLS for more sophisticated nozzle designs. The nozzles are characterized interferometrically and used for electron acceleration experiments with the SALLE JAUNE terawatt laser at Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée.

  2. Resonance ionization in a gas cell: a feasibility study for a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamhieh, Z.N.; Vandeweert, E.; Silverans, R.E.; Duppen, P. van; Huyse, M.; Vermeeren, L.

    1992-01-01

    A laser ion source based on resonance photo-ionization in a gas cell is proposed. The gas cell, filled with helium, consists of a target chamber in which the recoil products are stopped and neutralized, and an ionization chamber where the atoms of interest are selectively ionized by the laser light. The extraction of the ions from the ionization chamber through the exit hole-skimmer setup is similar to the ion-guide system. The conditions to obtain an optimal system are given. The results of a two-step one-laser resonance photo-ionization of nickel and the first results of laser ionization in a helium buffer gas cell are presented. (orig.)

  3. PREFACE: 23rd International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (AIRAPT-23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish C.

    2012-07-01

    The 23rd AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology was held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, from 25-30 September 2011. This conference is part of the series of AIRAPT International Conferences which are held biennially. AIRAPT is an acronym for the French title which translates as 'International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science and Technology'. This was the second time the AIRAPT Conference was organized in India. The first was held 20 years ago at the National Aeronautical Laboratory, Bangalore in 1991. The 23rd Conference covered many important topics in the area of both static and dynamic high pressures including theoretical and experimental investigations on the response of materials under high pressures, new developments using neutron and synchrotron sources, investigations on superconductivity under high pressure, studies of geophysical and planetary sciences, biosciences, and the synthesis of new materials. The conference program included Bridgman award lecture, Jemieson award lecture, seven plenary talks, 85 invited talks, 83 oral presentations and about 195 posters. In all there were 372 presentations. 285 scientists from 19 countries participated in the conference. The countries represented included Austria, Canada, China, Estonia, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. Many new developments were presented, for example, measurement techniques using the new generation synchrotron sources, more powerful neutron sources and much brighter laser sources; integration of gas-gun with synchrotron source; the achievement of multi-megabar pressures in shock-less dynamic compressions; and capabilities to synthesize centimeter size diamonds with better quality. All these developments have opened up new opportunities for understanding the physics of materials under high pressures. I would like

  4. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  5. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  6. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  7. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  8. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  9. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  10. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  11. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  12. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  13. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  14. Spectral blueshifts in laser light scattered from argon-gas-cluster plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Arora, V.; Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study is presented on scattering of laser light from argon gas clusters irradiated by multipicosecond Nd:glass laser pulses at moderate intensity of 10 15 W/cm 2 . Space-resolved side-scattered laser light has a predominantly blueshifted and broadened spectrum (up to ∼8 nm). The scattered signal intensity and average blueshift exhibit a marked dependence on the backing pressure of the gas. The results are explained by self-phase modulation of the laser radiation due to changing polarizability as the heated clusters pass through resonance at 3 times the critical density during which intense absorption and scattering occurs. The observed blueshift may be useful in diagnostics of this important phase of laser-cluster interactions

  15. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  16. Optimization of Cutting Parameters of the Haynes 718 Nickel Alloy With Gas CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana PETRŮ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of laser technology and the optimization of parameters in the area of nickel alloy laser cutting intended for application in the aircraft industry. The main goal is to outline possibilities of use of the laser technology, primarily its application in the area of 3D material cutting. This experiment is focused on the optimization of cutting parameters of the Haynes 718 alloy with a gas CO2 laser. Originating cuts are evaluated primarily from the point of view of cut quality and accompanying undesirable phenomena occurring in the process of cutting. In conclusion the results achieved in the metallographic laboratory are described and analyzed.

  17. Technical measurement of small fission gas inventory in fuel rod with laser puncturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Kim, Sung Ryul; Lee, Byoung Oon; Yang, Yong Sik; Baek, Sang Ryul; Song, Ung Sup

    2012-01-01

    The fission gas release cause degradation of fuel rod. It influences fuel temperature and internal pressure due to low thermal conductivity. Therefore, fission gas released to internal void of fuel rod must be measured with burnup. To measure amount of fission gas, fuel rod must be punctured by a steel needle in a closed chamber. Ideal gas law(PV=nRT) is applied to obtain atomic concentration(mole). Steel needle type is good for large amount of fission gas such as commercial spent fuel rod. But, some cases with small fuel rig in research reactor for R/D program are not available to use needle type because of large chamber volume. The laser puncturing technique was developed to solve measurement of small amount of fission gas. This system was very rare equipment in other countries. Fine pressure gage and strong vacuum system were installed, and the chamber volume was reduced at least. Fiber laser was used for easy operation

  18. Gas discharge laser and method of manufacturing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haans, P.F.A.

    1975-01-01

    On a thick-walled capillary tube rounded edges are pressed at either end. Double-conical surfaces are ground on the rounded edges so that a fitting edge which is very obtuse in cross-section is obtained for laser mirrors of a He-Ne laser of an economic construction

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of gas-phase clusters using a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnsbergen, D. van; Helden, G. von; Meijer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Most clusters produced in the gas phase, especially those containing metals, remain largely uncharaterized, among these are transition metal - carbide, -oxide and -nitride clusters. A method for recording IR spectra of strongly bound gas-phase clusters is presented. It is based on a free-electron laser called Felix, characterized by wide wavelength tuning range, covering almost the full 'molecular finger print' region, high power and fluence which make it suited to excite gas-phase species i.e. gas -phase clusters. Neutral clusters were generated by laser vaporization technique, ions that were created after the interaction with the free-electron laser were analyzed in a flight mass spectrometer. Experiments were run with titanium carbide clusters and their IR spectra given. It was shown that this method is suited to strongly bound clusters with low ionization energies, a condition met for many pure metal clusters and metal compound clusters. (nevyjel)

  20. Foundations of High-Pressure Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anthony B.; Uhrlandt, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    An introduction to the main methods used to produce, model and measure thermal plasmas is provided, with emphasis on the differences between thermal plasmas and other types of processing plasmas. The critical properties of thermal plasmas are explained in physical terms and their importance in different applications is considered. The characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages, of the different main types of thermal plasmas (transferred and non-transferred arcs, radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasmas and microwave plasmas) are discussed. The methods by which flow is stabilized in arc plasmas are considered. The important concept of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is explained, leading into a discussion of the importance of thermophysical properties, and their calculation in LTE and two-temperature plasmas. The standard equations for modelling thermal plasmas are presented and contrasted with those used for non-equilibrium plasmas. Treatments of mixed-gas and non-LTE plasmas are considered, as well as the sheath regions adjacent to electrodes. Finally, the main methods used for electrical, optical, spectroscopic and laser diagnostics of thermal plasmas are briefly introduced, with an emphasis on the required assumptions for their reliable implementation, and the specific requirements of thermal plasmas.

  1. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  2. Necessary conditions for the homogeneous formation of a volume avalanche discharge with specific applications to rare gas-halide excimer laser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levatter, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    Self-sustained/avalanche discharges are an efficient method of rare gas-halide excimer laser excitation in small systems. However, with the exceptions of the work reported here, experiments attempting to increase the laser energy output by scaling up the discharge volume and/or pulse duration have not been successful. The major problem encountered in scaling experiments has been the formation of arc channels in the discharge volume. The presence of arcing can totally disrupt proper laser operation. This problem stems from a general lack of understanding of high pressure avalanche discharge phenomena. Therefore, clarifying the basic discharge formation process and establishing a set of criteria under which a homogeneous avalanche discharge can be obtained is of central importance in defining the scaling limits of avalanche discharge lasers. The work presented here reviews the phenomena involved in high E/n (electric field to gas number density ratio) breakdown and its relationship to the formation of spatially homogeneous discharges. This relationship was first explored by A.J. Palmer in 1974. The basic requirement of his model was that the preionization density be large enough to cause an appreciable overlap of the primary electron avalanches and hence smooth out the ensuing space-charge fields to the extent that individual streamer formation would be prevented. This is the same basic model used in the more detailed discharge formation analysis developed here except that the effects of a time varying electric field caused by a finite voltage rise time and the effects due to the various electrochemical properties of the gas mixture are property taken into consideration

  3. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  4. Trace gas detection by laser intracavity photothermal spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.H.; Lin, H.h.

    1986-01-01

    A novel laser intracavity photothermal detector is described. In this scheme, sample absorption of the pump laser power takes place within the cavity of a probe He-Ne laser causing modulation in the gain and in turn the output power. Comparison of this intracavity detector with two other photothermal techniques, namely, phase fluctuation optical heterodyne spectroscopy and thermal beam deflection, is made in terms of practicality and sensitivity. For in situ measurements, sensitivity of 0.5 x 10 -7 cm -1 for a probe length of 3 cm has been achieved

  5. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  6. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  7. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  8. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  9. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  10. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  11. Melt flow characteristics in gas-assisted laser cutting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    industrial applications. In this process the cut ... Under these assumptions the boundary layer theory flow over. Laser beam ... a flat plate can be applied to estimate the distance after which the flow separation takes place by calculating the ...

  12. Advanced methods for nuclear reactor gas laser coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Verdeyen, J.T.

    1978-06-01

    Research is described that led to the discovery of three nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) using mixtures of Ne--N 2 , He--Hg, and He or Ne with CO or CO 2 . The Ne--N 2 NPL was the first laser obtained with modest neutron fluxes from a TRIGA reactor (vs fast burst reactors used elsewhere in such work), the He--Hg NPL was the first visible nuclear-pumped laser, while the Ne--CO and He--CO 2 lasers are the first to provide energy storage on a millisecond time scale. Important potential applications of NPLs include coupling and power transmission from remote power stations such as nuclear plants in satellites and neutron-feedback operation of inertial confinement fusion plants

  13. Prepulse effect on intense femtosecond laser pulse propagation in gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giulietti, Antonio; Tomassini, Paolo; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Danilo; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Ceccotti, Tiberio; D'Oliveira, Pascal; Auguste, Thierry; Monot, Pascal; Martin, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of an ultrashort laser pulse can be affected by the light reaching the medium before the pulse. This can cause a serious drawback to possible applications. The propagation in He of an intense 60-fs pulse delivered by a Ti:sapphire laser in the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) mode has been investigated in conditions of interest for laser-plasma acceleration of electrons. The effects of both nanosecond amplified spontaneous emission and picosecond pedestals have been clearly identified. There is evidence that such effects are basically of refractive nature and that they are not detrimental for the propagation of a CPA pulse focused to moderately relativistic intensity. The observations are fully consistent with numerical simulations and can contribute to the search of a stable regime for laser acceleration

  14. High power electron beam accelerators for gas laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Martin, T.H.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    A preliminary parameter investigation has been used to determine a possible design of a high-power, relativistic electron beam, transversely excited laser. Based on considerations of present and developing pulsed power technology, broad area diode physics and projected laser requirements, an exciter is proposed consisting of a Marx generator, pulse shaping transmission lines, radially converging ring diodes and a laser chamber. The accelerator should be able to deliver approximately 20 kJ of electron energy at 1 MeV to the 10 4 cm 2 cylindrical surface of a laser chamber 1 m long and 0.3 m in diameter in 24 ns with very small azimuthal asymmetry and uniform radial deposition

  15. Effects of oxygen gas pressure on properties of iron oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qixin; Shi, Wangzhou; Liu, Feng; Arita, Makoto; Ikoma, Yoshifumi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pulsed laser deposition is a promising technique for growing iron oxide films. ► Crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depends on oxygen gas pressure. ► Optimum of the oxygen gas pressure leads single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality. -- Abstract: Iron oxide films were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition at oxygen gas pressures between 1 × 10 −5 and 1 × 10 −1 Pa with a substrate temperature of 600 °C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, and vibrational sample magnetometer analysis revealed that surface morphology and crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depend on the oxygen gas pressure during the growth and the optimum oxygen gas pressure range is very narrow around 1 × 10 −3 Pa for obtaining single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality

  16. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  17. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  18. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  19. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  20. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  1. Laser ignition of liquid petroleum gas at elevated pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, E.; Pasechnikov, N.; Telekh, V.

    2017-11-01

    Recent development of laser spark plugs for internal combustion engines have shown lack of data on laser ignition of fuel mixtures at multi-bar pressures needed for laser pulse energy and focusing optimisation. Methane and hydrogen based mixtures are comparatively well investigated, but propane and butane based ones (LPG), which are widely used in vehicles, are still almost unstudied. Optical breakdown thresholds in gases decrease with pressure increase up to ca. 100 bar, but breakdown is not a sufficient condition for combustion ignition. So minimum ignition energy (MIE) becomes more important for combustion core onset, and its dependency on mixture composition and pressure has several important features. For example, unlike breakdown threshold, is poorly dependent on laser pulse length, at least in pico- and to microsecond range. We have defined experimentally the dependencies of minimum picosecond laser pulse energies (MIE related value) needed for ignition of LPG based mixtures of 1.0 to 1.6 equivalence ratios and pressure of 1.0 to 3.5 bar. In addition to expected values decrease, low-energy flammability range broadening has been found at pressure increase. Laser ignition of LPG in Wankel rotary engine is reported for the first time.

  2. Evaluation of laser cutting process with auxiliary gas pressure by soft computing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazov, Lyubomir; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Jovic, Srdjan; Milovančević, Miloš; Deneva, Heristina; Teirumenieka, Erika; Arsic, Nebojsa

    2018-06-01

    Evaluation of the optimal laser cutting parameters is very important for the high cut quality. This is highly nonlinear process with different parameters which is the main challenge in the optimization process. Data mining methodology is one of most versatile method which can be used laser cutting process optimization. Support vector regression (SVR) procedure is implemented since it is a versatile and robust technique for very nonlinear data regression. The goal in this study was to determine the optimal laser cutting parameters to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed, the laser power, and the assist gas pressure, were used in the investigation. As a laser type TruLaser 1030 technological system was used. Nitrogen as an assisted gas was used in the laser cutting process. As the data mining method, support vector regression procedure was used. Data mining prediction accuracy was very high according the coefficient (R2) of determination and root mean square error (RMSE): R2 = 0.9975 and RMSE = 0.0337. Therefore the data mining approach could be used effectively for determination of the optimal conditions of the laser cutting process.

  3. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  4. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  5. Computer simulations of a single-laser double-gas-jet wakefield accelerator concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hemker

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report in this paper on full scale 2D particle-in-cell simulations investigating laser wakefield acceleration. First we describe our findings of electron beam generation by a laser propagating through a single gas jet. Using realistic parameters which are relevant for the experimental setup in our laboratory we find that the electron beam resulting after the propagation of a 0.8 μm, 50 fs laser through a 1.5 mm gas jet has properties that would make it useful for further acceleration. Our simulations show that the electron beam is generated when the laser exits the gas jet, and the properties of the generated beam, especially its energy, depend only weakly on most properties of the gas jet. We therefore propose to use the first gas jet as a plasma cathode and then use a second gas jet placed immediately behind the first to provide additional acceleration. Our simulations of this proposed setup indicate the feasibility of this idea and also suggest ways to optimize the quality of the resulting beam.

  6. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying

    2000-01-01

    A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects

  7. Improved Main Shaft Seal Life in Gas Turbines Using Laser Surface Texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Alan D.; Etsion, Izhak

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the improved main shaft seal life in gas turbines using laser surface texturing (LST). The contents include: 1) Laser Surface Texturing System; 2) Seal Schematic with LST applied; 3) Dynamic Rig Tests; 4) Surface Finish Definitions; 5) Wear Test Rig; 6) Dynamic Test Rig; 7) Seal Cross Section-Rig Test; and 8) Typical Test Results. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Measurement Of Ultrafast Ionisation From Intense Laser Interactions With Gas-Jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Galimberti, Marco; Giulietti, Antonio; Giulietti, Danilo; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Tomassini, Paolo; Martin, Philippe; Ceccotti, Tiberio; De Oliveira, Pascal; Monot, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse with a gas-jet target is investigated through femtosecond optical interferometry to study the dynamics of ionization of the gas. Experimental results are presented in which the propagation of the pulse in the gas and the consequent plasma formation is followed step by step with high temporal and spatial resolution. We demonstrate that, combining the phase shift with the measurable depletion of fringe visibility associated with the transient change of refractive index in the ionizing region and taking into account probe travel time can provide direct information on gas ionization dynamics

  9. A Plasma Control and Gas Protection System for Laser Welding of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    A prototype shield gas box with different plasma control nozzles have been investigated for laser welding of stainless steel (AISI 316). Different gases for plasma control and gas protection of the weld seam have been used. The gas types, welding speed and gas flows show the impact on process...... stability and protection against oxidation. Also oxidation related to special conditions at the starting edge has been investigated. The interaction between coaxial and plasma gas flow show that the coaxial flow widens the band in which the plasma gas flow suppresses the metal plasma. In this band the welds...... are oxide free. With 2.7 kW power welds have been performed at 4000 mm/min with Ar / He (70%/30%) as coaxial, plasma and shield gas....

  10. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  11. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The high...

  12. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I.D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-01-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of "2"3"8"–"2"4"0","2"4"2Pu and "2"4"4Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  13. In-gas-cell laser ionization studies of plutonium isotopes at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjalainen, I.; Moore, I. D.; Kron, T.; Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Tomita, H.; Trautmann, N.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-gas-cell resonance laser ionization has been performed on long-lived isotopes of Pu at the IGISOL facility, Jyväskylä. This initiates a new programme of research towards high-resolution optical spectroscopy of heavy actinide elements which can be produced in sufficient quantities at research reactors and transported to facilities elsewhere. In this work a new gas cell has been constructed for fast extraction of laser-ionized elements. Samples of 238-240,242Pu and 244Pu have been evaporated from Ta filaments, laser ionized, mass separated and delivered to the collinear laser spectroscopy station. Here we report on the performance of the gas cell through studies of the mass spectra obtained in helium and argon, before and after the radiofrequency quadrupole cooler-buncher. This provides valuable insight into the gas phase chemistry exhibited by Pu, which has been additionally supported by measurements of ion time profiles. The resulting monoatomic yields are sufficient for collinear laser spectroscopy. A gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of the Pu samples shows a good agreement with the assay provided by the Mainz Nuclear Chemistry department.

  14. Oxygen measurement by multimode diode lasers employing gas correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2009-02-10

    Multimode diode laser (MDL)-based correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was used to measure oxygen in ambient air, thereby employing a diode laser (DL) having an emission spectrum that overlaps the oxygen absorption lines of the A band. A sensitivity of 700 ppm m was achieved with good accuracy (2%) and linearity (R(2)=0.999). For comparison, measurements of ambient oxygen were also performed by tunable DL absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique employing a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. We demonstrate that, despite slightly degraded sensitivity, the MDL-based COSPEC-based oxygen sensor has the advantages of high stability, low cost, ease-of-use, and relaxed requirements in component selection and instrument buildup compared with the TDLAS-based instrument.

  15. Tuneable diode laser gas analyser for methane measurements on a large scale solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengden, Michael; Cunningham, Robert; Johnstone, Walter

    2011-10-01

    A new in-line, real time gas analyser is described that uses tuneable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) for the measurement of methane in solid oxide fuel cells. The sensor has been tested on an operating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in order to prove the fast response and accuracy of the technology as compared to a gas chromatograph. The advantages of using a TDLS system for process control in a large-scale, distributed power SOFC unit are described. In future work, the addition of new laser sources and wavelength modulation will allow the simultaneous measurement of methane, water vapour, carbon-dioxide and carbon-monoxide concentrations.

  16. Ionization processes in combined high-voltage nanosecond - laser discharges in inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Shneider, Mikhail; PU Team

    2016-09-01

    Remote control of plasmas induced by laser radiation in the atmosphere is one of the challenging issues of free space communication, long-distance energy transmission, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and standoff detection of trace gases and bio-threat species. Sequences of laser pulses, as demonstrated by an extensive earlier work, offer an advantageous tool providing access to the control of air-plasma dynamics and optical interactions. The avalanche ionization induced in a pre-ionized region by infrared laser pulses where investigated. Pre-ionization was created by an ionization wave, initiated by high-voltage nanosecond pulse. Then, behind the front of ionization wave extra avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused infrared laser pulse. The experiment was carried out in argon. It is shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation under low pressure conditions.

  17. Experimental in situ investigations of turbulence under high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwonyul; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; Jovanovic, Jovan; Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    In tube injection systems applied in high-pressure processing of packed biomaterials and foods, the pressure-transmitting medium is injected into the vessel to increase the pressure up to 1000 MPa, generating a submerged liquid-free jet. The presence of a turbulent-free jet during the pressurization phase and its positive influence on the homogeneity of the product treatment has already been examined by computational fluid dynamics investigations. However, no experimental data have supported the existence and properties of turbulent flow under high-pressure (HP) conditions up to 400 MPa. This contribution presents the development of two experimental setups: HP-laser Doppler anemometry and HP-hot wire anemometry. For the first time the time-averaged velocity profiles of a free jet during pressurization up to 300 MPa at different Reynolds numbers (Re) have been obtained. In this article, the dependence of the velocity profiles on the Re is discussed in detail. Moreover, the relaminarization phenomenon of the turbulent pipe flow most likely caused by the compressibility effects and viscosity changes of the pressure-transmitting medium is examined.

  18. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  19. High-pressure phase transformations of fluorite-type dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin-Gun Liu

    1980-01-01

    Phase transformations in six fluorite-type dioxides ('TbO 2 ', PbO 2 , 'PrO 2 ', CeO 2 , UO 2 and ThO 2 in the order of increasing cation size, where the quotation marks indicate non-stoichiometric materials) have been investigated in the diamond-anvil press coupled with laser heating. Together with earlier work, the results show that the post-fluorite phase transformations of these dioxides fall into two groups. The smaller cation group (HfO 2 , ZrO 2 and 'TbO 2 ') transforms to a cotunnite or a distorted cotunnite-type structure at pressures in the vicinity of 100 kbar and at about 1000 0 C. The larger cation group (from PbO 2 to ThO 2 ) is believed to transform to a different type of orthorhombic modification at high pressures. It is plausible that this high-pressure phase may possess a Ni 2 Si-related structure, as was observed in ThO 2 and 'PrO 2 ' at pressures greater than 150 and 200 kbar, respectively. (orig./ME)

  20. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  1. Influence of the atomic mass of the background gas on laser ablation plume propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of time-of-flight ion probe measurements and gas dynamical modeling has been used to investigate the propagation of a laser ablation plume in gases of different atomic/molecular weight. The pressure variation of the ion time-of-flight was found to be well described by the gas...... dynamical model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (Appl. Supercond. 1:2011, 1993). In particular, the model describes how the pressure required to stop the plume in a given distance depends on the atomic/molecular weight of the gas, which is a feature that cannot be explained by standard point......-blast-wave descriptions of laser ablation plume expansion in gas....

  2. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  3. Measurement of gas flow velocities by laser-induced gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B; Stampanoni-Panariello, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kozlov, A D.N. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    Time resolved light scattering from laser-induced electrostrictive gratings was used for the determination of flow velocities in air at room temperature. By measuring the velocity profile across the width of a slit nozzle we demonstrated the high spatial resolution (about 200 mm) of this novel technique. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  4. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  5. Multicomponent gas analysis using broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Reyes, A.; Hou, Z.; Van Mastrigt, E.; Horsten, R.C.; De Jongste, J.C.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Urbach, H.P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system covering the region between 850 and 1250 cm?1. Its robust multipass cavity ensures a constant interaction length over the entire spectral region. The device enables the detection and identification of numerous molecules present

  6. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, LB welding was applied to 5 mm thick plates of non-heat treatable aluminum alloy AA ... The transverse tensile properties such as yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and .... 82, 39, Orlando; FL: Laser Institute of America.

  7. Long pulse KrCl laser with a high discharge quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casper, L.C.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Hofstra, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The discharge quality and optimum pump parameters of a long-pulse high-pressure gas discharge excited KrCl laser are investigated. A three-electrode prepulse–mainpulse excitation circuit is employed as pump source. The discharge volume contains a gas mixture of HCl/Kr/Ne operated at a total pressure

  8. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  9. Enhanced transduction of photonic crystal dye lasers for gas sensing via swelling polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2011-01-01

    We present the enhanced transduction of a photonic crystal dye laser for gas sensing via deposition of an additional swelling polymer film. Device operation involves swelling of the polymer film during exposure to specific gases, leading to a change in total effective refractive index. Experimental...... in its application to other intracavity-based detection schemes to enable gas sensing. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  10. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  11. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  12. Modeling pulsed excitation for gas-phase laser diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settersten, Thomas B.; Linne, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Excitation dynamics for pulsed optical excitation are described with the density-matrix equations and the rate equations for a two-level system. A critical comparison of the two descriptions is made with complete and consistent formalisms that are amenable to the modeling of applied laser-diagnostic techniques. General solutions, resulting from numerical integration of the differential equations describing the excitation process, are compared for collisional conditions that range from the completely coherent limit to the steady-state limit, for which the two formalisms are identical. This analysis demonstrates the failure of the rate equations to correctly describe the transient details of the excitation process outside the steady-state limit. However, reasonable estimates of the resultant population are obtained for nonsaturating (linear) excitation. This comparison provides the laser diagnostician with the means to evaluate the appropriate model for excitation through a simple picture of the breakdown of the rate-equation validity

  13. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Natural Gas with Optical Feedback cw-Diode Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Michael

    2015-08-04

    We report on improvements made on our previously introduced technique of cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CERS) with optical feedback cw-diode lasers in the gas phase, including a new mode-matching procedure which keeps the laser in resonance with the optical cavity without inducing long-term frequency shifts of the laser, and using a new CCD camera with improved noise performance. With 10 mW of 636.2 nm diode laser excitation and 30 s integration time, cavity enhancement achieves noise-equivalent detection limits below 1 mbar at 1 bar total pressure, depending on Raman cross sections. Detection limits can be easily improved using higher power diodes. We further demonstrate a relevant analytical application of CERS, the multicomponent analysis of natural gas samples. Several spectroscopic features have been identified and characterized. CERS with low power diode lasers is suitable for online monitoring of natural gas mixtures with sensitivity and spectroscopic selectivity, including monitoring H2, H2S, N2, CO2, and alkanes.

  14. Gas laser spectrometer for nuclear investigation at nucleonic stability limit. (project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myshinskij, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed to obtain the atomic beam of the proton-rich and neutron-rich nuclides with half-lives of up to 1 ms, by using the gas-jet technique. Subsequently their properties are investigated using the methods of laser resonance ionization and nuclear spectroscopy. 8 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Development of CO2 and KrF gas lasers as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Several different driver systems are currently under development in the national ICF program. Los Alamos has traditionally emphasized gas laser systems because of their intrinsic high average power capability and ease of operation. This paper will review the status of activities in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and krypton fluoride (KrF) development at the Laboratory

  16. Energy balance of a laser ablation plume expanding in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The energy balance of a laser ablation plume in an ambient gas for nanosecond pulses has been investigated on the basis of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM), which provides a relatively simple and clear description of the essential hydrodynamics. This approach also leads to an insightfu...

  17. Fireworks in noble gas clusters a first experiment with the new "free-electron laser"

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    An international group of scientists has published first experiments carried out using the new soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) at the research center DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Using small clusters of noble gas atoms, for the first time, researchers studied the interaction of matter with intense X-ray radiation from an FEL on extremely short time scales (1 page).

  18. Laser-induced breakdown ignition in a gas fed two-stroke engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, E. Y.; Pasechnikov, N. A.; Telekh, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced ignition for internal combustion engines is investigated intensively after demonstration of a compact ‘laser plug’ possibility. Laser spark benefits as compared to traditional spark plugs are higher compression rate, and possibility of almost any fuel ignition, so lean mixtures burning with lower temperatures could reduce harmful exhausts (NO x , CH, etc). No need in electrode and possibility for multi-point, linear or circular ignition can make combustion even more effective. Laser induced combustion wave appears faster and is more stable in time, than electric one, so can be used for ramjets, chemical thrusters, and gas turbines. To the best of our knowledge, we have performed laser spark ignition of a gas fed two-stroke engine for the first time. Combustion temperature and pressure, exhaust composition, ignition timing were investigated at laser and compared to a regular electric spark ignition in a two-stroke model engine. Presented results show possibility for improvement of two-stroke engines performance, in terms of rotation rate increase and NO x emission reduction. Such compact engines using locally mined fuel could be highly demanded in remote Arctic areas.

  19. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote open-path trace-gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-11-28

    In this paper we present a prototype instrument for remote open-path detection of nitrous oxide. The sensor is based on a 4.53 μm quantum cascade laser and uses the chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) technique for molecular concentration measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of open-path laser-based trace-gas detection using a molecular dispersion measurement. The prototype sensor achieves a detection limit down to the single-ppbv level and exhibits excellent stability and robustness. The instrument characterization, field deployment performance, and the advantages of applying dispersion sensing to sensitive trace-gas detection in a remote open-path configuration are presented.

  20. Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: ambient gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.L.; Cheung, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    When performing laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for elemental analysis, the sensitivity could be significantly enhanced if the plume was resonantly rekindled by a dye laser pulse. The extent of the enhancement was found to depend on the ambient gas. Air, nitrogen, helium, argon and xenon at pressures ranging from vacuum to 1 bar were investigated. In vacuum, the analyte signal was boosted because of reduced cooling, but it soon decayed as the plume freely expanded. By choosing the right ambient gas at the right pressure, the expanding plume could be confined as well as thermally insulated to maximize the analyte signal. For instance, an ambient of 13 mbar xenon yielded a signal-to-noise ratio of 110. That ratio was 53 when the pellet was ablated in air, and decreased further to 5 if the dye laser was tuned off resonance

  1. Numerical modeling of laser-driven ion acceleration from near-critical gas targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomirescu, Dragos; Vizman, Daniel; d’Humières, Emmanuel

    2018-06-01

    In the past two decades, laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications have been intensely researched. Recently, it has been shown through experiments that proton beams with characteristics comparable to those obtained with solid targets can be obtained from gaseous targets. By means of particle-in-cell simulations, this paper studies in detail the effects of a near-critical density gradient on ion and electron acceleration after the interaction with ultra high intensity lasers. We can observe that the peak density of the gas jet has a significant influence on the spectrum features. As the gas jet density increases, so does the peak energy of the central quasi-monoenergetic ion bunch due to the increase in laser absorption while at the same time having a broadening effect on the electron angular distribution.

  2. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  3. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; Di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν 1 +2ν 2 0 +ν 3 transition in CO 2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ∼1.6x10 -4

  4. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν1+2ν20+ν3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ˜1.6×10-4.

  5. High pressure gas - a new approach to calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The high particle collision rate and radiation levels in detectors at the new high energy high luminosity proton colliders (SSC, LHC, UNK) put stringent demands on the design of detector components. In particular the forward calorimeters will have to deal with particle fluxes in excess of 4 x 106 per sq cm per s and high radiation doses (at the MGy level)

  6. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  7. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  8. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at a water/gas interface: A study of bath gas-dependent molecular species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.; Padmanabhan, A.; Godfrey, G.J.; Rehse, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been performed on the surface of a bulk water sample in an air, argon, and nitrogen gas environment to investigate emissions from hydrogen-containing molecules. A microplasma was formed at the gas/liquid interface by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam operating at 1064 nm onto the surface of an ultra-pure water sample. A broadband Echelle spectrometer with a time-gated intensified charge-coupled device was used to analyze the plasma at various delay times (1.0-40.0 μs) and for incident laser pulse energies ranging from 20-200 mJ. In this configuration, the dominant atomic spectral features at short delay times are the hydrogen H-alpha and H-beta emission lines at 656 and 486 nm, respectively, as well as emissions from atomic oxygen liberated from the water and air and nitrogen emission lines from the air bath gas. For delay times exceeding approximately 8 μs the emission from molecular species (particularly OH and NH) created after the ablation process dominates the spectrum. Molecular emissions are found to be much less sensitive to variations in pulse energy and exhibit a temporal decay an order of magnitude slower than the atomic emission. The dependence of both atomic hydrogen and OH emission on the bath gas above the surface of the water was studied by performing the experiment at standard pressure in an atmospheric purge box. Electron densities calculated from the Stark broadening of the H-beta and H-gamma lines and plasma excitation temperatures calculated from the ratio of H-beta to H-gamma emission were measured for ablation in the three bath gases

  10. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available to be stable at O2 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse...

  11. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  12. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  13. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  14. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  15. SrWO4 at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  17. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  18. Investigation into CO2 laser cleaning of titanium alloys for gas-turbine component manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.W.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L; Smith, A.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results of the investigation into the feasibility of using a CO 2 laser technology to perform critical cleaning of gas-turbine aero-engine components for manufacture. It reports the results of recent trials and relates these to a thermal model of the cleaning mechanisms, and describes resultant component integrity. The paper defines the experimental conditions for the laser cleaning of various aerospace-grade contaminated titanium alloys, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. Laser cleaning of Ti64 proved successful for electron beam welding, but not for the more sensitive Ti6246. For diffusion bonding the trials produced a defective standard of joint. Effects of oxide formation is modelled and examined experimentally

  19. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  20. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  1. Modeling of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers: dependence of the operation on the gas velocity and on the nature of the buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmashenko, B D; Rosenwaks, S

    2012-09-01

    A simple, semi-analytical model of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is presented. The model takes into account the rise of temperature in the lasing medium with increasing pump power, resulting in decreasing pump absorption and slope efficiency. The model predicts the dependence of power on the flow velocity in flowing gas DPALs and checks the effect of using a buffer gas with high molar heat capacity and large relaxation rate constant between the 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 fine-structure levels of the alkali atom. It is found that the power strongly increases with flow velocity and that by replacing, e.g., ethane by propane as a buffer gas the power may be further increased by up to 30%. Eight kilowatt is achievable for 20 kW pump at flow velocity of 20  m/s.

  2. Laser absorption spectroscopy - Method for monitoring complex trace gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    A frequency stabilized CO2 laser was used for accurate determinations of the absorption coefficients of various gases in the wavelength region from 9 to 11 microns. The gases investigated were representative of the types of contaminants expected to build up in recycled atmospheres. These absorption coefficients were then used in determining the presence and amount of the gases in prepared mixtures. The effect of interferences on the minimum detectable concentration of the gases was measured. The accuracies of various methods of solution were also evaluated.

  3. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K S, Nagapriya; Sinha, Shashank; R, Prashanth; Poonacha, Samhitha; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Choudhury, Niloy; Mahalik, Saroj; Maity, Sandip

    2017-02-20

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique - laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivity and specificity was done by first extracting the gases from the liquid and then analyzing the gases using techniques such as gas chromatography. Using LCS, we have been able to detect ppm levels of dissolved gases without extracting them from the liquid. In this paper, we show the detection of dissolved acetylene in transformer oil in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength (3021 nm) region.

  4. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a commercial Automated Laser Gas Interface (ALGI) for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, R. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Mores, M., E-mail: nec@pelletron.com [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Kitchen, R.; Sundquist, M.; Hauser, T.; Stodola, M. [National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Tannenbaum, S.; Skipper, P.; Liberman, R. [Dept. of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Young, G.; Corless, S. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Ltd., Ware (United Kingdom); Tucker, M. [MGT Systems, Chapel Lane, Eastbridge, Suffolk (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) collectively have been developing an interface to introduce CO{sub 2} produced by the laser combustion of liquid chromatograph eluate deposited on a CuO substrate directly into the ion source of an AMS system, thereby bypassing the customary graphitization process. The Automated Laser Gas Interface (ALGI) converts dried liquid samples to CO{sub 2} gas quickly and efficiently, allowing 96 samples to be measured in as little as 16 h. {sup 14}C:{sup 12}C ratios stabilize typically within 2 min of analysis time per sample. Presented is the recent progress of NEC's ALGI, a stand-alone accessory to an NEC gas-enabled multi-cathode source of negative ions by Cs sputtering (MC-SNICS) ion source.

  6. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  7. Laser heating of large noble gas clusters: from the resonant to the relativistic interaction regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbrell, E T; Moore, A S; Clark, E L; Garbett, W J; Comley, A J; Edwards, R D; Eagleton, R E [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Lazarus, J A; Nilson, P M; Robinson, J S; Hohenberger, M; Symes, D R; Smith, R A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: edward.gumbrell@awe.co.uk, E-mail: r.a.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Wide-ranging measurements of sub-picosecond laser interactions with large noble gas cluster targets have been conducted in order to help clarify the nature and extent of the underlying laser-plasma heating. Within the sub-relativistic vacuum irradiance range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}, we find that electron temperatures measured with continuum x-ray spectroscopy exhibit a pronounced multi-keV enhancement. Analysis indicates this behaviour to be consistent with collisional or collisionless resonant heating mechanisms. We also present the first measurements of laser-to-cluster energy deposition at relativistic vacuum irradiances, our data demonstrating absorption fractions of 90% or more. Optical probing was used to resolve the onset of a supersonic ionization front resulting from this very high absorption, and shows that despite significant pre-focus heating, the greatest plasma energy densities can be generated about the vacuum focus position. Electron energy spectra measurements confirm that laser-plasma super-heating occurs, and together with ion data establish that relativistic laser-plasma coupling in atomic clusters can take place without significant MeV particle beam production. In conjunction with optical self-emission data, the optical probing also indicates laser pre-pulse effects at peak vacuum irradiance of 5 x 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Laser absorption, plasma heating and energy transport data are supported throughout with analytical and numerical modelling.

  8. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  9. High pressure microwave discharge for electrodeless Xe-lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, J.; Kando, M.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the investigation into the high pressure Xe microwave discharge in bent tubes, sustained by electromagnetic surface wave. The research was aimed to help with the design of a new generation of high intensity light sources with generally more complex shapes than those commonly used. The results show that the electromagnetic surface wave can effectively sustain discharge in tubes with various bending radii within the large pressure range. The curved shapes of discharge tubes improve the cooling of the lamp which is one of the major technological difficulties. It was shown that under relatively lower powers and higher gas pressures (100 Torr) the discharge exhibits a streamer-like filamentation and the branching of filaments. The phenomena of the effective sustaining of the discharge by surface wave propagation along curved plasma columns will be investigated in more detail by measurements of the profiles of surface wave electric and magnetic field intensities. (author)

  10. High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2004-01-01

    High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.

  11. Topological signature in the NEXT high pressure xenon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Paola; NEXT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe in a high-pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescence to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to use the topology of events with energies close to Qββ as an extra tool to reject background. In these proceedings we show with data from prototypes that an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 ± 1.4 (stat.)% can be achieved, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 ± 1.% for signal events. The performance expected in NEW, the next stage of the experiment, is to improve to 12.9% ± 0.6% background acceptance for 66.9% ± 0.6% signal efficiency.

  12. Electron Drift Properties in High Pressure Gaseous Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simón, A.; et al.

    2018-04-05

    Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) are a very attractive detector technology for particle tracking. Characterization of both drift velocity and diffusion is of great importance to correctly assess their tracking capabilities. NEXT-White is a High Pressure Xenon gas TPC with electroluminescent amplification, a 1:2 scale model of the future NEXT-100 detector, which will be dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. NEXT-White has been operating at Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) since December 2016. The drift parameters have been measured using $^{83m}$Kr for a range of reduced drift fields at two different pressure regimes, namely 7.2 bar and 9.1 bar. The results have been compared with Magboltz simulations. Agreement at the 5% level or better has been found for drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and transverse diffusion.

  13. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be born in mind that the pressurised gas contains higher molar free energy. Operating at high current density...... hydrocarbon fuels, which is normally performed at high pressure to achieve a high yield. Operation of SOECs at elevated pressure will therefore facilitate integration with the downstream fuel synthesis and is furthermore advantageous as it increases the cell performance. In this work, recent pressurised test...... results of a planar Ni-YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. The test was performed at 800 °C at pressures up to 15 bar. A comparison of the electrochemical performance of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure...

  14. Application of a high-density gas laser target to the physics of x-ray lasers and coronal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, J.G.; Kohler, D.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment has been proposed to investigate a photopumped x-ray laser approach using a novel, high-density, laser heated supersonic gas jet plasma to prepare the lasant plasma. The scheme uses the He- like sodium 1.10027 nm line to pump the He-like neon 1s-4p transition at 1.10003 nm with the lasing transitions between the n=4 to n=2,3 states and the n=3 to n=2 state at 5.8 nm, 23.0 nm, and 8.2 nm, respectively. The experiment had been proposed in 1990 and funding began Jan. 1991; however circumstances made it impossible to pursue the research over the past 5 years, and it was decided not to pursue the research any further

  15. Fiber-ring laser-based intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jun; Ren, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a novel trace gas sensing method based on fiber-ring laser intracavity photoacoustic spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique is a merging of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) with a fiber-ring cavity for sensitive and all-fiber gas detection. A transmission-type PAS gas cell (resonant frequency f0=2.68  kHz) was placed inside the fiber-ring laser to fully utilize the intracavity laser power. The PAS signal was excited by modulating the laser wavelength at f0/2 using a custom-made fiber Bragg grating-based modulator. We used this spectroscopic technique to detect acetylene (C2H2) at 1531.6 nm as a proof of principle. With a low Q-factor (4.9) of the PAS cell, our sensor achieved a good linear response (R2=0.996) to C2H2 concentration and a minimum detection limit of 390 ppbv at 2-s response time.

  16. Titanium Matrix Composite Ti/TiN Produced by Diode Laser Gas Nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Lisiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high power direct diode laser, emitting in the range of near infrared radiation at wavelength 808–940 nm, was applied to produce a titanium matrix composite on a surface layer of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by laser surface gas nitriding. The nitrided surface layers were produced as single stringer beads at different heat inputs, different scanning speeds, and different powers of laser beam. The influence of laser nitriding parameters on the quality, shape, and morphology of the surface layers was investigated. It was found that the nitrided surface layers consist of titanium nitride precipitations mainly in the form of dendrites embedded in the titanium alloy matrix. The titanium nitrides are produced as a result of the reaction between molten Ti and gaseous nitrogen. Solidification and subsequent growth of the TiN dendrites takes place to a large extent at the interface of the molten Ti and the nitrogen gas atmosphere. The direction of TiN dendrites growth is perpendicular to the surface of molten Ti. The roughness of the surface layers depends strongly on the heat input of laser nitriding and can be precisely controlled. In spite of high microhardness up to 2400 HV0.2, the surface layers are crack free.

  17. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  18. Reflection of illumination laser from gas metal arc weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoji; Zhang, YuMing

    2009-01-01

    The weld pool is the core of the welding process where complex welding phenomena originate. Skilled welders acquire their process feedback primarily from the weld pool. Observation and measurement of the three-dimensional weld pool surface thus play a fundamental role in understanding and future control of complex welding processes. To this end, a laser line is projected onto the weld pool surface in pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and an imaging plane is used to intercept its reflection from the weld pool surface. Resultant images of the reflected laser are analyzed and it is found that the weld pool surface in GMAW does specularly reflect the projected laser as in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Hence, the weld pool surface in GMAW is also specular and it is in principle possible that it may be observed and measured by projecting a laser pattern and then intercepting and imaging the reflection from it. Due to high frequencies of surface fluctuations, GMAW requires a relatively short time to image the reflected laser

  19. Investigation of a high pressure oxy-coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of an oxy-coal process, which is pressurized to a combustion pressure of 80 bar. At that pressure the water-vapor can be separated economically from the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O flue gases, either by nucleate condensation or by condensation on cooled surfaces in condenser heat exchangers at a temperature of about 300 C. The heat of condensation can be recaptured to preheat the boiler feed water. So the number of economizers is drastically reduced compared to a conventional steam cycle. Another interesting feature of the high pressure oxy-coal process is the fact, that low rank coal with high moisture content can be fired. Such a process at a pressure of about 80 bar is currently investigated by Babcock, USA, as the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS) and will be analyzed in the present paper. A known disadvantage of the oxy-coal processes is the large recirculating flue gas stream to control the combustion temperature, and which need large pipes and heavy recirculation fans. This disadvantage could be avoided if instead of flue gas a part of the condensed water from the condenser heat exchangers is recirculated. Within the present study both types of processes have been simulated and for an electric power output of about 220 MW. Furthermore, results of CFD simulations of a pressurized 250 MW combustor with a single swirl burner and flue gas recirculation will be presented.

  20. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure...