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Sample records for high-pressure autoclave electronic

  1. Electronic structure and optical properties of AIN under high pressure

    Li Zetao; Dang Suihu; Li Chunxia

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and optical properties of Wurtzite structure AIN under different high pressure with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in this paper. The total energy, density of state, energy band structure and optical absorption and reflection properties under high pressure are calculated. By comparing the changes of the energy band structure, we obtained AIN phase transition pressure for 16.7 GPa, which is a direct band structure transforming to an indirect band structure. Meanwhile, according to the density of states distribution and energy band structure, we analyzed the optical properties of AIN under high-pressure, the results showed that the absorption spectra moved from low-energy to high-energy. (authors)

  2. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autoclave, 1 autoclave cycle, 5 autoclave cycles and 10 autoclave cycles) by SEM under 200× and 1000× magnifications. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. New files had debris and pitting on their surfaces. When the autoclave cycles were increased, the mean of surface roughness also increased at both magnifications (Pautoclave increased the surface roughness of the files and this had was directly related to the number of autoclave cycles.

  3. The high pressure electronic control system in liquid chromatography

    Popescu, Stefan; Popeneciu, Gabriel; Toadere, Florin

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Chromatography system can perform a wide variety of measurements and separations especially for the organic liquids, with maximum applications flexibility for less than half price of Gas Chromatography. The repeatability and accuracy of results in quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography are highly dependent on the reproducibility and accuracy of both integrated flow rate and mobile phase composition. Flow rate fluctuation leads to poor reproducibility in both integrated peak areas and retention times. Similarly, poor control of mobile phase composition will cause poor repeatability of retention time and peak heights. The our Solvent Delivery System SDS 200 is a single pump system which provides precise compensated flow rates from 0.01 to 10 mL/min, selectable upper pressure limits of 0 to 100 bar or 10 to 450 bar, and solvent compressibility correction. Ternary solvent system on-line mixing capability saves time, reduces solvent waste and provides more flexibility for difficult separations. The pump itself has two different displacement pistons which are used alternately on both suction and discharge, so that intake of the solvent are synchronous. The evacuated solvent from the two pump's chambers is mixed in the reference unit and then is supplied to the damping unit for flow ripple reduction. The SDS Electronic Module ensures the functions: controls the programmed flow rate, detects and shows the solvent pressure in solvent, supplies the step motor, measures and limits the solvent pressure. The control panel of SDS 200, contains a two-stages flow decimal programmer, a eight-positions knob for upper pressure limits, an alarm LED and a parallel port for connection to a PC system. (authors)

  4. High-pressure electron-resonance studies of electronic, magnetic, and structural phase transitions. Progress report

    Pifer, J.H.; Croft, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Research is described in development of a high-pressure electron-resonance probe capable of operating down to 1.5 0 K temperatures. The apparatus has been used to measure the EPR of a sample of DPPH at room temperature and zero pressure. EPR has been used to measure valence field instabilities in alloy systems. Studies have been done on metal-insulator transitions at high pressure, and are briefly described

  5. Electron Drift Properties in High Pressure Gaseous Xenon

    Simón, A.; et al.

    2018-04-05

    Gaseous time projection chambers (TPC) are a very attractive detector technology for particle tracking. Characterization of both drift velocity and diffusion is of great importance to correctly assess their tracking capabilities. NEXT-White is a High Pressure Xenon gas TPC with electroluminescent amplification, a 1:2 scale model of the future NEXT-100 detector, which will be dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches. NEXT-White has been operating at Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) since December 2016. The drift parameters have been measured using $^{83m}$Kr for a range of reduced drift fields at two different pressure regimes, namely 7.2 bar and 9.1 bar. The results have been compared with Magboltz simulations. Agreement at the 5% level or better has been found for drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and transverse diffusion.

  6. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    Cornelius, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  7. Generation of runaway electron beams in high-pressure nitrogen

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Burachenko, A. G.; Baksht, E. Kh

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the results of experimental studies of the amplitude-temporal characteristics of a runaway electron beam, as well as breakdown voltage in nitrogen are presented. The voltage pulses with the amplitude in incident wave ≈120 kV and the rise time of ≈0.3 ns was used. The supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) was detected by a collector behind the flat anode. The amplitude-time characteristics of the voltage and SAEB current were studied with subnanosecond time resolution. The maximum pressure at which a SAEB is detectable by collector was ∼1 MPa. This pressure increases with decreasing the voltage rise time. The waveforms of the discharge and runaway electron beam currents was synchronized with the voltage pulses. The mechanism of the runaway electron generation in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  8. Electron motion in high-pressure polar gases: NH3

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Maxey, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    Drift velocities w for slow electrons in NH 3 vapor have been measured and are reported as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N ( -17 V cm 2 ), density N (2.43--292 x 10 18 molecule cm -3 ), and temperature T (300--650 K). The w decreases with increasing N considerably and this decrease varies with T; for a fixed N it is higher the lower the T. Use is made of the T- and N-dependence of w to assess the role of the various processes which delay the electron drift. The density range above approx.2.5 x 10 19 molecules cm -3 seems (anionic) electron state. The number density N/sub L/ at which complete electron localization occurs, has been estimated at various T. At T = 300 K, N/sub L/approx. =3.3 x 10 20 molecule cm -3 or approx.0.01 g cm 3 . Estimates have also been made of the binding energy of the electron to the trapping species (possibly NH 3 clusters) which, depending on T, range from 0.11 to 0.15 eV

  9. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autocla...

  10. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  11. Electronic structure and high pressure phase transition in LaSb and CeSb

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Sanyal, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The electronic structure and high pressure structural phase transition in cerium and lanthanum antimonides have been investigated using the tight binding LMTO method. The calculation of total energy reveals that the simple tetragonal structure is found to be stable at high pressures for both the compounds. In the case of LaSb, the calculated value of the equilibrium cell volume and the cell volume at which phase transition occurs are found to have a fairly good agreement with the experimental results. However, in the case of CeSb, the agreement is not as good as in LaSb. We also predicted the most favoured c/a value in the high pressure phase (simple tetragonal) for these compounds. Further we present the calculated results on the electronic structure of these systems at the equilibrium as well as at the reduced cell volumes. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  12. Electronic and structural ground state of heavy alkali metals at high pressure

    Fabbris, G.; Lim, J.; Veiga, L. S. I.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals display unexpected properties at high pressure, including emergence of low-symmetry crystal structures, which appear to occur due to enhanced electronic correlations among the otherwise nearly free conduction electrons. We investigate the high-pressure electronic and structural ground state of K, Rb, and Cs using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements together with a b i n i t i o theoretical calculations. The sequence of phase transitions under pressure observed at low temperature is similar in all three heavy alkalis except for the absence of the o C 84 phase in Cs. Both the experimental and theoretical results point to pressure-enhanced localization of the valence electrons characterized by pseudogap formation near the Fermi level and strong s p d hybridization. Although the crystal structures predicted to host magnetic order in K are not observed, the localization process appears to drive these alkalis closer to a strongly correlated electron state.

  13. On the electronic structure and equation of state in high pressure ...

    We discuss the high pressure behaviour of zinc as an interesting example of controversy, and of extensive interplay between theory and experiment. We present its room temperature electronic structure calculations to study the temperature effect on the occurrence of its controversial axial ratio (/) anomaly under pressure ...

  14. Stability of very-high pressure arc discharges against perturbations of the electron temperature

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Ciencias Exactas e Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, Funchal 9000 (Portugal); Hechtfischer, U. [Philips Lighting, BU Automotive Lamps, Technology, Philipsstrasse 8, Aachen 52068 (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    We study the stability of the energy balance of the electron gas in very high-pressure plasmas against longitudinal perturbations, using a local dispersion analysis. After deriving a dispersion equation, we apply the model to a very high-pressure (100 bar) xenon plasma and find instability for electron temperatures, T{sub e}, in a window between 2400 K and 5500-7000 K x 10{sup 3} K, depending on the current density (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} A/m{sup 2}). The instability can be traced back to the Joule heating of the electron gas being a growing function of T{sub e}, which is due to a rising dependence of the electron-atom collision frequency on T{sub e}. We then analyze the T{sub e} range occurring in very high-pressure xenon lamps and conclude that only the near-anode region exhibits T{sub e} sufficiently low for this instability to occur. Indeed, previous experiments have revealed that such lamps develop, under certain conditions, voltage oscillations accompanied by electromagnetic interference, and this instability has been pinned down to the plasma-anode interaction. A relation between the mechanisms of the considered instability and multiple anodic attachments of high-pressure arcs is discussed.

  15. High pressure metallization of Mott Insulators: Magnetic, structural and electronic properties

    Pasternak, M.P.; Hearne, G.; Sterer, E.; Taylor, R.D.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-01-01

    High pressure studies of the insulator-metal transition in the (TM)I 2 (TM = V, Fe, Co and Ni) compounds are described. Those divalent transition-metal iodides are structurally isomorphous and classified as Mott Insulators. Resistivity, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy were employed to investigate the electronic, structural, and magnetic properties as a function of pressure both on the highly correlated and on the metallic regimes

  16. Theory and Practice - Measuring High-Pressure Electronic and Magnetic Properties

    Hemley, R.J.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Cohen, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the electronic and magnetic properties of Earth and planetary materials at high pressure play a crucial role in modern geoscience. There have been numerous advances in the field, primarily as a result of developments in diamond-anvil cell methods. In particular, synchrotron radiation techniques play an especially important role. The chapter begins with a short review of fundamental properties of the relevant materials, with emphasis on how these are altered under very high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's deep interior, followed by a discussion of different classes of electronic and magnetic excitations. Various techniques currently used for high-pressure studies are then described, beginning with optical spectroscopies, Moessbauer spectroscopy, elastic X-ray and neutron scattering, many new X-ray spectroscopy and inelastic scattering methods, transport techniques, and finally resonance methods. Selected examples of the techniques are given, with a common theme being the high P-T behavior of iron-containing oxides, silicates, and metals at conditions found throughout the Earth's interior. Applications to upper-mantle phases, 'simple' oxides, silicate perovskite and post-perovskite, volatiles, and iron and iron alloys are discussed, with an emphasis given to integrated studies utilizing a combination of different techniques to understand high P-T electronic and magnetic phenomena.

  17. Electron spin transition causing structure transformations of earth's interiors under high pressure

    Yamanaka, T.; Kyono, A.; Kharlamova, S.; Alp, E.; Bi, W.; Mao, H.

    2012-12-01

    To elucidate the correlation between structure transitions and spin state is one of the crucial problems for understanding the geophysical properties of earth interiors under high pressure. High-pressure studies of iron bearing spinels attract extensive attention in order to understand strong electronic correlation such as the charge transfer, electron hopping, electron high-low spin transition, Jahn-Teller distortion and charge disproponation in the lower mantle or subduction zone [1]. Experiment Structure transitions of Fe3-xSixO4, Fe3-xTixO4 Fe3-xCrxO4 spinel solid solution have been investigated at high pressure up to 60 GPa by single crystal and powder diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation with diamond anvil cell. X-ray emission experiment (XES) at high pressure proved the spin transition of Fe-Kβ from high spin (HS) to intermediate spin state (IS) or low spin state (LS). Mössbauer experiment and Raman spectra study have been also conducted for deformation analysis of Fe site and confirmation of the configuration change of Fe atoms. Jahn-Teller effect A cubic-to-tetragonal transition under pressure was induced by Jahn-Teller effect of IVFe2+ (3d6) in the tetrahedral site of Fe2TiO4 and FeCr2O4, providing the transformation from 43m (Td) to 42m (D2d). Tetragonal phase is formed by the degeneracy of e orbital of Fe2+ ion. Their c/a ratios are c/adisordered in the M2 site. At pressures above 53 GPa, Fe2TiO4 structure further transforms to Pmma. This structure change results in the order-disorder transition [2]. New structure of Fe2SiO4 The spin transition exerts an influence to Fe2SiO4 spinel structure and triggers two distinct curves of the lattice constant in the spinel phase. The reversible structure transition from cubic to pseudo-rhombohedral phase was observed at about 45 GPa. This transition is induced by the 20% shrinkage of ionic radius of VIFe2+at the low sin state. Laser heating experiment at 1500 K has confirmed the decomposition from the

  18. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  19. Interferometric determination of electron density in a high pressure hydrogen arc. 1. Calculation of refraction index

    Radtke, R; Guenther, K; Ulbricht, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1980-01-14

    The refraction index of a hydrogen plasma in LTE was calculated as a function of the wavelength of observation, temperature and pressure, taking into account bound-bound and bound-free transitions of the neutral atom. According to the present calculation, the influence of excited states at higher temperatures is smaller than indicated by Baum et al (Plasma Phys.; 17: 79 (1975)) for argon. Using the calculations presented here, the interferometric investigation of a high pressure hydrogen arc should allow the determination of the electron density with an accuracy of the order of 1%.

  20. Electronic, ductile, phase transition and mechanical properties of Lu-monopnictides under high pressures.

    Gupta, Dinesh C; Bhat, Idris Hamid

    2013-12-01

    The structural, elastic and electronic properties of lutatium-pnictides (LuN, LuP, LuAs, LuSb, and LuBi) were analyzed by using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave within generalized gradient approximation in the stable rock-salt structure (B1 phase) with space group Fm-3m and high-pressure CsCl structure (B2 phase) with space group Pm-3m. Hubbard-U and spin-orbit coupling were included to predict correctly the semiconducting band gap of LuN. Under compression, these materials undergo first-order structural transitions from B1 to B2 phases at 241, 98, 56.82, 25.2 and 32.3 GPa, respectively. The computed elastic properties show that LuBi is ductile by nature. The electronic structure calculations show that LuN is semiconductor at ambient conditions with an indirect band gap of 1.55 eV while other Lu-pnictides are metallic. It was observed that LuN shows metallization at high pressures. The structural properties, viz, equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, transition pressure, equation of state, volume collapse, band gap and elastic moduli, show good agreement with available data.

  1. Study of Electron Swarm in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas Filled RF Cavities

    Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Tollestrup, A.; Alsharo'a, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Notani, M.; Oka, T.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure hydrogen gas filled RF cavity has been proposed for use in the muon collection system for a muon collider. It allows for high electric field gradients in RF cavities located in strong magnetic fields, a condition frequently encountered in a muon cooling channel. In addition, an intense muon beam will generate an electron swarm via the ionization process in the cavity. A large amount of RF power will be consumed into the swarm. We show the results from our studies of the HV RF breakdown in a cavity without a beam and present some results on the resulting electron swarm dynamics. This is preliminary to actual beam tests which will take place late in 2010.

  2. Exploring high-pressure FeB{sub 2}: Structural and electronic properties predictions

    Harran, Ismail [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Al Fashir University (Sudan); Wang, Hongyan [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Chen, Yuanzheng, E-mail: cyz@calypso.org.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Jia, Mingzhen [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Wu, Nannan [School of Mathematics, Physics and Biological Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Science & Technology, Baotou, 014010 (China)

    2016-09-05

    The high pressure (HP) structural phase of FeB{sub 2} compound is investigated by using first-principles crystal structure prediction based on the CALYPSO technique. A thermodynamically stable phase of FeB{sub 2} with space group Imma is predicted at pressure above 225 GPa, which is characterized by a layered orthorhombic structure containing puckered graphite-like boron layers. Its electronic and mechanical properties are identified and analyzed. The feature of band structures favors the occurrence of superconductivity, whereas, the calculated Pugh's ratio reveals that the HP Imma structure exhibits ductile mechanical property. - Highlights: • The high pressure structural phase of FeB{sub 2} compound is firstly investigated by the CALYPSO technique. • A thermodynamically stable Imma phase of FeB{sub 2} is predicted at pressure above 225 GPa. • The Imma structure is characterized by a 2D boron network containing puckered graphite-like boron layers. • The band feature of Imma structure favors the occurrence of superconductivity. • The calculated Pugh's ratio suggests that the Imma structure exhibits ductile mechanical property.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of superconductor MgB sub 2 under high pressure

    Tang, J; Gu, H W; Matsushita, A; Takano, Y; Togano, K; Kito, H; Ihara, H

    2002-01-01

    The superconductivity and the lattice properties of a sintered MgB sub 2 material have been investigated under high pressure up to 10 GPa. The transition temperature was found to decrease linearly with increasing hydrostatic pressure at a rate of 1.03 K GPa sup - sup 1 , which can be explained with the classical Bardeen-Cooper-Shrieffer theory based on an electron-phonon coupling mechanism. The crystal lattice exhibits an anisotropic compressibility characterized by a larger compressibility along the c-direction than the a/b-directions. The anisotropy is attributed to a weaker inter-plane bonding along the c-axis in comparison with a stronger intra-plane bonding perpendicular to the c-axis. The bulk modulus of the measured material was deduced to be 172 GPa.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of autoclaved aerated concrete with supplementary raw materials

    Straub, C.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Nisperos, Arturo G.; Pöllmann, Herbert

    Microscopy is a key analysis technology for the understanding of the achieved properties of building materials. In the case of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) it is even more important due to the phase transformation during the hydrothermal hardening. The incorporation of substitution materials in

  5. Structural and electronic properties of Er-monopnictides under high pressure

    Pandit, Premlata, E-mail: lataprem29@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462026 (India); Srivastava, Vipul [Department of Physics, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Thakral Nagar, Bhopal (India); Rajagopalan, M. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462026 (India)

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of theoretical calculations on the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of Er-monopnictides using self-consistent first principles tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). Both spin-polarized and non-spin-polarized calculations are performed to check the magnetic stability of these compounds. We find that ErN, ErP and ErAs are metallic in ferromagnetic (FM) phase in both the spin channels and stable in NaCl-type (B{sub 1}) structure at ambient pressure. We predict NaCl-type (B{sub 1}) to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}) structural phase transition in ErN, ErP and ErAs at pressures of 146.1, 60.2 and 53.2 GPa, respectively and remain metallic ferromagnetic at high pressure. We calculate equilibrium lattice constants (a), bulk modulus (B), magnetic moments (mu{sub B}) and electronic properties of these compounds in B{sub 1} and B{sub 2} phases and compare with available experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of Er-monopnictides under high pressure

    Pandit, Premlata; Srivastava, Vipul; Rajagopalan, M.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of theoretical calculations on the structural, magnetic and electronic properties of Er-monopnictides using self-consistent first principles tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). Both spin-polarized and non-spin-polarized calculations are performed to check the magnetic stability of these compounds. We find that ErN, ErP and ErAs are metallic in ferromagnetic (FM) phase in both the spin channels and stable in NaCl-type (B 1 ) structure at ambient pressure. We predict NaCl-type (B 1 ) to CsCl-type (B 2 ) structural phase transition in ErN, ErP and ErAs at pressures of 146.1, 60.2 and 53.2 GPa, respectively and remain metallic ferromagnetic at high pressure. We calculate equilibrium lattice constants (a), bulk modulus (B), magnetic moments (μ B ) and electronic properties of these compounds in B 1 and B 2 phases and compare with available experimental and theoretical results.

  7. Correlated structural and electronic phase transformations in transition metal chalcogenide under high pressure

    Li, Chunyu, E-mail: licy@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yanhao@hpstar.ac.cn; Ke, Feng; Yu, Zhenhai; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hao, E-mail: licy@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yanhao@hpstar.ac.cn [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Hu, Qingyang [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Zhao, Jinggeng [Natural Science Research Center, Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2016-04-07

    Here, we report comprehensive studies on the high-pressure structural and electrical transport properties of the layered transition metal chalcogenide (Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3}) up to 36.3 GPa. A structural phase transition was observed in the rhombohedral Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} near 16.5 GPa by the synchrotron angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurement using a diamond anvil cell. Through in situ resistance measurement, the electric resistance value was detected to decrease by an order of three over the pressure range of 7–15 GPa coincided with the structural phase transition. Measurements on the temperature dependence of resistivity indicate that it is a semiconductor-to-metal transition in nature. The results were also confirmed by the electronic energy band calculations. Above results may shed a light on optimizing the performance of Cr{sub 2}S{sub 3} based applications under extreme conditions.

  8. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals

  9. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2004-07-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  10. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  11. Structural distortion and electronic properties of NiO under high pressure: an ab initio GGA+U study

    Zhang Weibing; Hu Yulin; Han Keli; Tang Biyu

    2006-01-01

    The structural distortion and electronic properties of NiO under high pressure are investigated by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The strong electronic correlations are also taken into account in the form of GGA+U. Recent experiments implied that previous local density approximation (LDA) calculations incorrectly predicted structural distortion under high pressure, especially above 60 GPa. The present results show that even GGA calculations do not give a proper description of structural distortion under high pressure, although much improved structural and bulk properties are obtained. When strong correlations are included, overall agreement of the structural distortions of NiO under high pressure is obtained. The lattice constants a and c as well as the axial ratio c/a are in good agreement with experiment over the entire experimental pressure range. The successful prediction of the structural distortion of GGA+U can be attributed to the reasonable description of nearest-neighbour magnetic exchange interactions. In addition, we also analyse the density of states under different pressures. Present results indicate that, with increasing pressure, the bandwidth increases and the bandgap transits from being a mixture of charge-transfer and Mott-Hubbard type towards solely Mott-Hubbard type

  12. Economic study of replacing conventional ballast with electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamps used in public lighting in Egypt

    Osama M. Arafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High pressure sodium lamp is widely used for street and public lighting in many countries including Egypt. It is traditionally connected to the AC mains through electromagnetic ballast. Electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamp has reached a matured technological state and it is outperforming electromagnetic ballast in almost all operational aspects. Differentiating both ballasts from a technical perspective has been presented in great detail by the authors in a previous paper. Due to the current critical shortage of electrical energy supply in Egypt; top executives seek alternatives to mitigate the crisis of electricity shortage. Among these alternatives is a national plan to replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts for public lighting applications. Replacing conventional electromagnetic ballast with electronic ballast is associated with high capital investment due to high cost of such devices. The objective of this study is to outlay a systematic approach to define the threshold price of electronic ballast which assures the economical feasibility of such plan. In doing this, the economical aspects of replacing electromagnetic ballasts with electronic ballast on a national scale in Egypt are analyzed and presented.

  13. Absence of lattice strain anomalies at the electronic topological transition in zinc at high pressure

    Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Stixrude, Lars; Cohen, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    High-pressure structural distortions of the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) element zinc have been a subject of controversy. Earlier experimental results and theory showed a large anomaly in lattice strain with compression in zinc at about 10 GPa which was explained theoretically by a change in Fermi surface topology. Later hydrostatic experiments showed no such anomaly, resulting in a discrepancy between theory and experiment. We have computed the compression and lattice strain of hcp zinc over a wide range of compressions using the linearized augmented plane-wave method paying special attention to k-point convergence. We find that the behavior of the lattice strain is strongly dependent on k-point sampling, and with large k-point sets the previously computed anomaly in lattice parameters under compression disappears, in agreement with recent experiments

  14. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering; Electrons correles sous haute pression: une approche par diffusion inelastique des rayons X

    Rueff, J.P

    2007-06-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  15. Why do Electrons with "Anomalous Energies" appear in High-Pressure Gas Discharges?

    Kozyrev, Andrey; Kozhevnikov, Vasily; Semeniuk, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies connected with runaway electron beams generation convincingly shows the existence of electrons with energies above the maximum voltage applied to the discharge gap. Such electrons are also known as electrons with "anomalous energies". We explain the presence of runaway electrons having so-called "anomalous energies" according to physical kinetics principles, namely, we describe the total ensemble of electrons with the distribution function. Its evolution obeys Boltzmann kinetic equation. The dynamics of self-consistent electromagnetic field is taken into the account by adding complete Maxwell's equation set to the resulting system of equations. The electrodynamic mechanism of the interaction of electrons with a travelling-wave electric field is analyzed in details. It is responsible for the appearance of electrons with high energies in real discharges.

  16. High pressure and synchrotron radiation studies of solid state electronic instabilities

    Pifer, J.H.; Croft, M.C.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses Eu and General Valence Instabilities; Ce Problem: L 3 Spectroscopy Emphasis; Bulk Property Emphasis; Transition Metal Compound Electronic Structure; Electronic Structure-Phonon Coupling Studies; High Temperature Superconductivity and Oxide Materials; and Novel Materials Collaboration with Chemistry

  17. Electronic structure and superconductivity of divalent metals under very high pressure

    Bireckoven, B.

    1987-05-01

    A single crystal, high-pressure diamond cell has been developed for the study of superconductors under pressures to over 50 GPa. A high sensitivity AC-SQUID magnetometer has been employed to detect the diamagnetic response of the very small samples at T C . The T C (p)-dependence of the lead-manometer has been calibrated against the ruby-pressure-scale up to pressures of 30 GPa. In spite of the well-known fcc/hcp-transition at 13 GPa lead shows a smooth T C (p)-behaviour and thus is a very suitable manometer. Band structure calculations for the alkaline earth metals indicate an appreciable s-to-d transfer with increasing pressure. In fact, superconductivity was previously observed in the pressure induced d-transition metals Sr and Ba (however not yet in Ca). For the first time the author presents a quantitative investigation of T C as a function of p up to 50 GPa. Both elements turn out to be ''good'' superconductors featuring T C 's of about 7 K. The possibility of a generalized phase diagram for the alkaline earth metals will be critically discussed. At any rate, the occurrence of such high T C 's is rather strong evidence for a substantial d-transition metal character at high p. Investigations of very dilute BaEu-alloys up to 45 GPa reveal a strong monotonic increase of ΔT C = T C Ba -T C BaEu . (orig./GSCH)

  18. Mobilities of slow electrons in low- and high-pressure gases and liquids

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Mobilities of slow (thermal and epithermal) electrons in low- (less than or approximately 500 Torr) and high- (approximately 500 to approximately 34,111 Torr) pressure gases are discussed and are related to the molecular structure and to the mobilities of thermal electrons in liquid media

  19. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    Tarasenko, V F; Baksht, E H; Kostyrya, I D; Lomaev, M I; Rybka, D V

    2008-01-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ∼ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF 6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  20. On the electronic structure and equation of state in high pressure ...

    Unknown

    extensive interplay between theory and experiment. We present its room .... Further verification by experimentalists and theorists continued, rekindled by the ... of electrons in the self-consistent cycle changes in accor- dance with finite ...

  1. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  2. Structural, electronic and vibrational properties of lanthanide monophosphide at high pressure

    Panchal, J. M., E-mail: amitjignesh@yahoo.co.in [Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar382028, Gujarat (India); Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Mitesh [Government Polytechnic for Girls, Athwagate, Surat395001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P. N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    A first-principles plane wave self-consistent method with the ultra-soft-pseudopotential scheme in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) is performed to study structural, electronic and vibrational properties of LaP for Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) and Cesium-chloride (CsCl/B2) phases. The instability of Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) phases around the transition is discussed. Conclusions based on electronic energy band structure, density of state, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states in both phases are outlined. The calculated results are consistence and confirm the successful applicability of quasi-harmonic phonon theory for structural instability studies for the alloys.

  3. Structural, electronic and vibrational properties of lanthanide monophosphide at high pressure

    Panchal, J. M.; Joshi, Mitesh; Gajjar, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    A first-principles plane wave self-consistent method with the ultra-soft-pseudopotential scheme in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) is performed to study structural, electronic and vibrational properties of LaP for Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) and Cesium-chloride (CsCl/B2) phases. The instability of Rock-salt (NaCl/Bl) phases around the transition is discussed. Conclusions based on electronic energy band structure, density of state, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states in both phases are outlined. The calculated results are consistence and confirm the successful applicability of quasi-harmonic phonon theory for structural instability studies for the alloys.

  4. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  5. Raman spectra of MgB2 at high pressure and topological electronic transition

    Meletov, K.P.; Kulakov, M.P.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Arvanitidis, J.; Kourouklis, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of the MgB 2 ceramic samples were measured as a function of pressure up to 32 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at normal conditions contains a very broad peak at ∼ 590 cm -1 related to the E 2g phonon mode. The frequency of this mode exhibits a strong linear dependence in the pressure region from 5 to 18 GPa, whereas beyond this region the slope of the pressure-induced frequency shift is reduced by about a factor of two. The pressure dependence of the phonon mode up to ∼ 5 GPa exhibits a change in the slope as well as a hysteresis effect in the frequency vs. pressure behavior. These singularities in the E 2g mode behavior under pressure support the suggestion that MgB 2 may undergo a pressure-induced topological electronic transition [ru

  6. A first principles study of phase stability, bonding, electronic and lattice dynamical properties of beryllium chalcogenides at high pressure

    Dabhi, Shweta; Mankad, Venu; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First principles calculations are performed for BeS, BeSe and BeTe in B3, B8 and B1 phases. • They are indirect wide band gap semiconductors stable in B3 phase at ambient condition. • Phonon calculations at ambient and high pressure are reported. • The NiAs phase is dynamically stable at high pressure. - Abstract: The present paper reports a detailed and systematic theoretical study of structural, mechanical, electronic, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of three beryllium chalcogenides BeS, BeSe and BeTe in zinc blende, NiAs and rock salt phases by performing ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory. The calculated value of lattice constants and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and found to agree reasonably well. These compounds are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with a partially ionic contribution in all considered three phases. The zinc blende phase of these chalcogenides is found stable at ambient condition and phase transition from zinc blende to NiAs structure is found to occur. The bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, anisotropic factor, Poission’s ratio, Young’s modulus for these are also calculated and discussed. The phonon dispersion curves of these beryllium chalcogenides in zinc blende phase depict their dynamical stability in this phase at ambient condition. We have also estimated the temperature variation of specific heat at constant volume, entropy and Debye temperature for these compounds in zinc blende phase. The variation of lattice-specific heat with temperature obeys the classical Dulong–Petit’s law at high temperature, while at low-temperature it obeys the Debye’s T 3 law

  7. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  8. Structural and electronic response of U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} to high pressure

    Henriques, M. S., E-mail: henriques@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); CCTN, IST/CFMCUL, University of Lisbon, Nuclear and Technological Campus, P-2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Gorbunov, D. I.; Andreev, A. V.; Arnold, Z. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Prchal, J.; Havela, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Raison, P.; Heathman, S.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gonçalves, A. P. [CCTN, IST/CFMCUL, University of Lisbon, Nuclear and Technological Campus, P-2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)

    2015-03-21

    Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties have been studied on a U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} single crystal under hydrostatic pressure. The orthorhombic crystal structure is found to be stable up to 30 GPa, the highest applied pressure, but the compressibility is strongly anisotropic. Contrary to typical uranium intermetallics for which the softest lattice direction is along the shortest inter-uranium links, in U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} the lattice is compressed most in a perpendicular direction for the high pressure range. The elastic properties are modified considerably in the vicinity of 1 GPa when the b axis is transformed from least compressible to most compressible. The bulk modulus is found to be about 150 GPa. The anomalies in the elastic properties are reflected in the electronic properties that consistently indicate a change of the magnetic ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic. Both types of order exhibit a gap in the magnon spectrum; however, it is twice as high for the ferromagnetic state. The magnetoresistance reveals field-induced transitions of different origins in the antiferromagnetic state along the easy and hard magnetization directions.

  9. Measurement of electron drift velocities in the mixture of Xe and He for a new high-pressure Xe gamma-ray detector

    Kobayashi, S; Dmitrenko, V V

    2003-01-01

    Drift velocities of electrons in a mixture of Xe (20 atm)-He (3 atm) were measured using a cylindrical high-pressure xenon chamber. The drift velocities were found to be greater than 3x10 sup 5 cm/s above the reduced electric field of 2.0x10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 V centre dot cm sup 2 at room temperature, which are close to those in Xe-H sub 2 (0.3%). The mixture of He gas into high-pressure xenon improved the resolving time of detectors because it increased the electron drift velocities. This implies that a high-pressure xenon chamber mixed with sup 3 He instead of He gas operates as a gamma-ray detector sensitive to thermal neutrons. (author)

  10. High pressure studies of magnetic, electronic, and local structure properties in the rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R = Nd, Lu)

    Gavriliuk, A.G.; Stepanov, G.N.; Lyubutin, I.S.; Stepin, A.S.; Trojan, I.A.; Sidorov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The high pressure modification of the electronic structure, magnetic properties, and local crystal structure have been studied in the rare-earth RFeO 3 (R=Nd, Lu) orthoferrites in both pure single crystals and polycrystalline samples doped with Sn. The pressure dependences of the unit cell parameters, Neel temperatures, supertransferred hyperfine magnetic fields at tin nuclei H Sn , and the optical absorption edge have been obtained. The relations of the obtained values with the geometry of exchange interactions were analyzed

  11. Interaction of slow electrons with high-pressure gases ('Quasi-liquids'): synthesis of our knowledge on slow electron-molecule interactions. Progress report

    McCorkle, D.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial step in our efforts to develop not only a coherent picture of radiation interaction with matter, but also to understand radiation effects and mechanisms, as well as the effects of chemical pollutants and toxic compounds, is to relate the often abundant knowledge on isolated molecules (low pressure gases) to that on liquids or solids. To understand the roles of the physical and chemical properties of molecules in biological reactions, we must know how these isolated-molecule properties change as molecules are embedded in gradually thicker and thicker (denser and denser) gaseous and, finally, liquid environments. The work initiated by us both at the Physics Department of The University of Tennessee and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory addresses itself to this question. At both places, high pressure (40 to approx.8000 kPa) electron swarm experiments are currently in operation yielding information as to the effects of the density and nature of the environment on fundamental electron-molecule interaction processes at densities intermediate to those corresponding to low pressure gases and liquids, and the gradual transition from isolated molecule to condensed phase behavior

  12. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy immunocytochemistry and antigen retrieval of surface layer proteins from Tannerella forsythensis using microwave or autoclave heating with citraconic anhydride

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythensis (Bacteroides forsythus), an anaerobic Gram-negative species of bacteria that plays a role in the progression of periodontal disease, has a unique bacterial protein profile. It is characterized by two unique protein bands with molecular weights of more than 200 kDa. It also is known to have a typical surface layer (S-layer) consisting of regularly arrayed subunits outside the outer membrane. We examined the relationship between high molecular weight proteins and the S-layer using electron microscopic immunolabeling with chemical fixation and an antigen retrieval procedure consisting of heating in a microwave oven or autoclave with citraconic anhydride. Immunogold particles were localized clearly at the outermost cell surface. We also used energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) to visualize 3, 3′-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) reaction products after microwave antigen retrieval with 1% citraconic anhydride. The three-window method for electron spectroscopic images (ESI) of nitrogen by the EFTEM reflected the presence of moieties demonstrated by the DAB reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated secondary antibodies instead of immunogold particles. The mapping patterns of net nitrogen were restricted to the outermost cell surface. PMID:22984898

  13. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys under high pressure

    Liu, Yanjun [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Huang, Huawei [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Yong, E-mail: yongpanyn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E{sub F} decrease. The cubic Pt{sub 3}Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure.

  14. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt3Al alloys under high pressure

    Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Huawei; Pan, Yong; Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt 3 Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt 3 Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt 3 Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt 3 Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E F decrease. The cubic Pt 3 Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure

  15. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  16. The Simulation of Energy Distribution of Electrons Detected by Segmental Ionization Detector in High Pressure Conditions of ESEM

    Neděla, Vilém; Konvalina, Ivo; Oral, Martin; Hudec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 264-269 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electron-gas interactions * Monte Carlo simulation * signal amplification * segmented ionization detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  17. High-pressure studies on electronic and mechanical properties of FeBO3 (B = Ti, Mn, Cr) ceramics - a first-principles study

    Kishore, N.; Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT) method, the electronic and mechanical properties of perovskites FeBO3 (B = Ti, Mn, Cr) nanostructures were studied in the pressure range of 0-100 GPa. The band structure studies show the change in the band structure upon substitution of different B cation in FeBO3 perovskite structure. The density of states spectrum gives the perception of change in the electronic properties of FeBO3 with the substitution of B cation. The bulk, shear and Young's moduli were calculated and an increase in the moduli is noticed. Moreover, the hardness increases under high pressure. The high-pressure studies of FeBO3 perovskite nanostructures are explored at atomistic level. The findings show that ductility and hardness of FeBO3 get increased upon an increase in the applied pressure. The substitution of Ti, Mn and Cr on FeBO3 shows a significant change in the electronic and mechanical properties.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy studies of C3N4H4 treated at high pressure and high temperature

    Yu, R C; Chen, L C; Zhu, J L; Li, F Y; Liu, Z X; Qin, Z C; Yu, T N; Jin, C Q; Duan, X F; Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    C 3 N 4 H 4 was treated at 6.0 GPa and 1500 deg C for 2.5 min. Powder x-ray measurement shows that the sample is decomposed and a hexagonal graphite phase forms. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that small amounts of diamond and amorphous carbon phase coexist with the graphite phase. Parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis was also carried out for these phases

  19. Microaspiration for high-pressure freezing: a new method for ultrastructural preservation of fragile and sparse tissues for TEM and electron tomography

    Auer, Manfred; Triffo, W.J.; Palsdottir, H.; McDonald, K.L.; Inman, J.L.; Bissell, M.J.; Raphael, R.M.; Auer, M.; Lee, J.K.

    2008-02-13

    High-pressure freezing is the preferred method to prepare thick biological specimens for ultrastructural studies. However, the advantages obtained by this method often prove unattainable for samples that are difficult to handle during the freezing and substitution protocols. Delicate and sparse samples are difficult to manipulate and maintain intact throughout the sequence of freezing, infiltration, embedding, and final orientation for sectioning and subsequent TEM imaging. An established approach to surmount these difficulties is the use of cellulose microdialysis tubing to transport the sample. With an inner diameter of 200 micrometers, the tubing protects small and fragile samples within the thickness constraints of high-pressure freezing, and the tube ends can be sealed to avoid loss of sample. Importantly, the transparency of the tubing allows optical study of the specimen at different steps in the process. Here, we describe the use of a micromanipulator and microinjection apparatus to handle and position delicate specimens within the tubing. We report two biologically significant examples that benefit from this approach, 3D cultures of mammary epithelial cells and cochlear outer hair cells. We illustrate the potential for correlative light and electron microscopy as well as electron tomography.

  20. An easy way to determine simultaneously the electron density and temperature in high-pressure plasmas by using Stark broadening

    Torres, J; Jonkers, J; Sande, M J van de; Mullen, J J A M van der; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of determining, at the same time, both the electron density and temperature in a discharge produced at atmospheric pressure using the Stark broadening of lines spontaneously emitted by a plasma. This direct method allows us to obtain experimental results that are in good agreement with others previously obtained for the same type of discharge. Its advantages and disadvantages compared to other direct methods of diagnostics, namely Thomson scattering, are also discussed. (rapid communication)

  1. High-pressure apparatus

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  2. High-pressure crystallography

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  3. First-principles study on the electronic structure, phonons and optical properties of LaB_6 under high-pressure

    Chao, Luomeng; Bao, Lihong; Wei, Wei; O, Tegus; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structure, phonons and optical properties of LaB_6 compound under different pressure have been studied by first-principles calculation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the d band along the M-Γ direction of the Brillouin zone moves up with increasing pressure and the band minimum is above the Fermi level at 45 GPa. The pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms is reflected in the upshift of d band along the M-Γ direction with pressure. The calculated phonon dispersion curve at zero pressure is in good agreement with the experimental results. However, the phonon dispersion under high pressure does not show any information about the phase transition at 10 GPa, which was reported previously. The acoustic and optical phonon modes harden all the way with increasing pressure. In addition, the dielectric function is in accordance with the Drude model in the pressure range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and follows the Lorentz model at 45 GPa. The LaB_6 compound exhibits better visible light transmittance performance with the increasing pressure in the range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and visible light transmittance peak would be shifted towards ultraviolet region. - Highlights: • Physical properties of LaB_6 under high pressure have been theoretically studied. • Predict an electronic topological transition occurs at 45 GPa for LaB_6. • Predict a pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms. • The phonon modes at Γ point show an increasing trend with increasing pressure. • The LaB_6 exhibits better heat-shielding performance with the increasing pressure.

  4. Equation of state and electronic properties of EuVO{sub 4}: A high-pressure experimental and computational study

    Paszkowicz, Wojciech, E-mail: paszk@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); López-Solano, Javier [Departamento de Física, MALTA Consolider Team, and Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife 38205 (Spain); Izaña Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Tenerife 38071 (Spain); Piszora, Paweł [Department of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Bojanowski, Bohdan [Institute of Physics, Szczecin University of Technology, Aleja Piastów 48, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland); Mujica, Andrés; Muñoz, Alfonso [Departamento de Física, MALTA Consolider Team, and Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife 38205 (Spain); Cerenius, Yngve; Carlson, Stefan [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Dąbkowska, Hanna [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-11-05

    Structural, elastic and electronic properties of zircon-type and scheelite-type EuVO{sub 4} are investigated experimentally, by in-situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, and theoretically within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and using the PBE prescription of the exchange-correlation energy. This study was motivated by the fact that the previous knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) was inconclusive due to a large scatter of the experimental and theoretical data, and by the lack of information on the dependence of the electronic structure with pressure. Under the applied experimental conditions, the zircon-type structure transforms to a scheelite-type one at 7.4(2) GPa, whereas the calculations yield a lower zircon–scheelite-coexistence pressure of 4.8 GPa. The experimental part of the study shows that the bulk modulus of the zircon-type phase is 119(3) GPa, perfectly supported by the DFT-calculated value, 119.1 GPa. The bulk modulus for the scheelite-type polymorph is higher, with an experimental value of 135(7) GPa and a theoretical one of 137.4 GPa. Compared to those reported in previous experimental and DFT or semiempirical works, the present values for the zircon-type phase are comparable or slightly lower, whereas those for the scheelite-type phase are markedly lower. Discrepancies between the present results and earlier reported ones are attributed to differences in details of the experimental method such as the pressure transmitting medium and the pressure calibration method. The calculated band structure confirms that zircon-type EuVO{sub 4} is a direct-gap semiconductor, with a bandgap energy at zero pressure of 2.88 eV. Under compression, the bandgap of the zircon phase increases with a coefficient of 10.3 meV/GPa up to the transition pressure, at which point the present calculations show a small drop of the bandgap energy. Above the transition pressure, the bandgap energy of the scheelite phase becomes almost

  5. Equation of state and electronic properties of EuVO4: A high-pressure experimental and computational study

    Paszkowicz, Wojciech; López-Solano, Javier; Piszora, Paweł; Bojanowski, Bohdan; Mujica, Andrés; Muñoz, Alfonso; Cerenius, Yngve; Carlson, Stefan; Dąbkowska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Structural, elastic and electronic properties of zircon-type and scheelite-type EuVO 4 are investigated experimentally, by in-situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, and theoretically within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and using the PBE prescription of the exchange-correlation energy. This study was motivated by the fact that the previous knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) was inconclusive due to a large scatter of the experimental and theoretical data, and by the lack of information on the dependence of the electronic structure with pressure. Under the applied experimental conditions, the zircon-type structure transforms to a scheelite-type one at 7.4(2) GPa, whereas the calculations yield a lower zircon–scheelite-coexistence pressure of 4.8 GPa. The experimental part of the study shows that the bulk modulus of the zircon-type phase is 119(3) GPa, perfectly supported by the DFT-calculated value, 119.1 GPa. The bulk modulus for the scheelite-type polymorph is higher, with an experimental value of 135(7) GPa and a theoretical one of 137.4 GPa. Compared to those reported in previous experimental and DFT or semiempirical works, the present values for the zircon-type phase are comparable or slightly lower, whereas those for the scheelite-type phase are markedly lower. Discrepancies between the present results and earlier reported ones are attributed to differences in details of the experimental method such as the pressure transmitting medium and the pressure calibration method. The calculated band structure confirms that zircon-type EuVO 4 is a direct-gap semiconductor, with a bandgap energy at zero pressure of 2.88 eV. Under compression, the bandgap of the zircon phase increases with a coefficient of 10.3 meV/GPa up to the transition pressure, at which point the present calculations show a small drop of the bandgap energy. Above the transition pressure, the bandgap energy of the scheelite phase becomes almost constant, with

  6. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  7. High-pressure tritium

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  8. Computer simulation at high pressure

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  9. Electronic transport properties of MFe2As2 (M = Ca, Eu, Sr) at ambient and high pressures up to 20 GPa

    Morozova, Natalia V.; Karkin, Alexander E.; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; Umerova, Yuliya A.; Shchennikov, Vladimir V.; Mittal, R.; Thamizhavel, A.

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally investigated the electronic transport properties of four iron pnictide crystals, namely, EuFe2As2, SrFe2As2, and CaFe2As2 parent compounds, and superconducting CaFe1.94Co0.06As2 at ambient and high pressures up to 20 GPa. At ambient pressure we examined the electrical resistivity, Hall and magnetoresistance effects of the samples in a temperature range from 1.5 to 380 K in high magnetic fields up to 13.6 T. In this work we carried out the first simultaneous investigations of the in-plane and out-of-plane Hall coefficients, and found new peculiarities of the low-temperature magnetic and structural transitions that occur in these materials. In addition, the Hall coefficient data suggested that the parent compounds are semimetals with a multi-band conductivity that includes hole-type and electron-type bands. We measured the pressure dependence of the thermoelectric power (the Seebeck effect) of these samples up to 20 GPa, i.e. across the known phase transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal lattice. The high-pressure behavior of the thermopower of EuFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 showing the p-n sign inversions was consistent with the semimetal model described above. By means of thermopower, we found in single-crystalline CaFe2As2 direct evidence of the band structure crossover related to the formation of As-As bonds along the c-axis on the tetragonal → collapsed tetragonal phase transition near 2 GPa. We showed that this feature is distinctly observable only in high-quality samples, and already for re-pressurization cycles this crossover was strongly smeared because of the moderate deterioration of the sample. We also demonstrated by means of thermopower that the band structure crossover that should accompany the tetragonal → collapsed tetragonal phase transition in EuFe2As2 near 8 GPa is hardly visible even in high-quality single crystals. This behavior may be related to a gradual valence change of the Eu ions under pressure that leads to

  10. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Superconducting, and other Phase Transitions in Novel f-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures Using Designer Diamond Anvils

    Maple, M. Brian

    2005-01-01

    Pressure is a powerful control parameter, owing to its ability to affect crystal and electronic structure without introducing defects, for the investigation of condensed matter systems. Some f-electron, heavy-fermion materials display interesting and novel behavior when exposed to pressures achievable with conventional experimental techniques; however, a growing number of condensed matter systems require extreme conditions such as ultrahigh pressures, high magnetic fields, and ultralow temperatures to sufficiently explore the important properties. To that end, we have been funded to develop an ultrahigh pressure facility at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) in order to investigate superconductivity, magnetism, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and other phenomena under extreme conditions. Our goals for the second year of this grant were as follows: (a) perform electrical resistivity measurements on novel samples at a myriad of pressures using conventional piston-cylinder techniques, Bridgman anvil techniques, and diamond anvil cell technology; (b) install, commission, and operate an Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator for access to ultralow temperatures and high magnetic fields. (c) continue the development of diamond anvil cell (DAC) technology. During the past year, we have successfully installed the Oxford Kelvinox MX-100 dilution refrigerator and verified its operability down to 12 mK. We have begun an experimental program to systematically investigate the f-electron compound URu2Si2 under pressure and in the presence of magnetic fields. We have also continued our collaborative work with Sam Weir at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on Au4V and implemented a new corollary study on Au1-xVx using ultrahigh pressures. We have continued developing our DAC facility by designing and constructing an apparatus for in situ pressure measurement as well as designing high pressure cells. This report serves to highlight the progress we have made

  11. Defects, stoichiometry, and electronic transport in SrTiO{sub 3-δ} epilayers: A high pressure oxygen sputter deposition study

    Ambwani, P.; Xu, P.; Jeong, J. S.; Deng, R.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Jalan, B.; Leighton, C., E-mail: leighton@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Haugstad, G. [Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    SrTiO{sub 3} is not only of enduring interest due to its unique dielectric, structural, and lattice dynamical properties, but is also the archetypal perovskite oxide semiconductor and a foundational material in oxide heterostructures and electronics. This has naturally focused attention on growth, stoichiometry, and defects in SrTiO{sub 3}, one exciting recent development being such precisely stoichiometric defect-managed thin films that electron mobilities have finally exceeded bulk crystals. This has been achieved only by molecular beam epitaxy, however (and to a somewhat lesser extent pulsed laser deposition (PLD)), and numerous open questions remain. Here, we present a study of the stoichiometry, defects, and structure in SrTiO{sub 3} synthesized by a different method, high pressure oxygen sputtering, relating the results to electronic transport. We find that this form of sputter deposition is also capable of homoepitaxy of precisely stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}, but only provided that substrate and target preparation, temperature, pressure, and deposition rate are carefully controlled. Even under these conditions, oxygen-vacancy-doped heteroepitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} films are found to have carrier density, mobility, and conductivity significantly lower than bulk. While surface depletion plays a role, it is argued from particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements of trace impurities in commercial sputtering targets that this is also due to deep acceptors such as Fe at 100's of parts-per-million levels. Comparisons of PIXE from SrTiO{sub 3} crystals and polycrystalline targets are shown to be of general interest, with clear implications for sputter and PLD deposition of this important material.

  12. Fascination at high pressures

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  13. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  14. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Superconducting and other Phase Transitions in Novel f-Electron Materials at Ultra-high Pressures using Designer Diamond Anvils

    Maple, M. Brian; Jeffries, Jason R.; Ho, Pei-Chun; Butch, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    Pressure is often used as a controlled parameter for the investigation of condensed matter systems. In particular, pressure experiments can provide valuable information into the nature of superconductivity, magnetism, and the coexistence of these two phenomena. Some f-electron, heavy-fermion materials display interesting and novel behavior at moderately low pressures achievable with conventional experimental techniques; however, a growing number of condensed matter systems require ultrahigh pressure techniques, techniques that generate significantly higher pressures than conventional methods, to sufficiently explore their important properties. To that end, we have been funded to develop an ultrahigh pressure diamond anvil cell facility at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) in order to investigate superconductivity, magnetism, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and other phenomena. Our goals for the first year of this grant were as follows: (a) set up and test a suitable refrigerator; (b) set up a laser and spectrometer fluorescence system to determine the pressure within the diamond anvil cell; (c) perform initial resistivity measurements at moderate pressures from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures (∼1K); (d) investigate f-electron materials within our current pressure capabilities to find candidate materials for high-pressure studies. During the past year, we have ordered almost all the components required to set up a diamond anvil cell facility at UCSD, we have received and implemented many of the components that have been ordered, we have performed low pressure research on several materials, and we have engaged in a collaborative effort with Sam Weir at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) to investigate Au4V under ultrahigh pressure in a designer diamond anvil cell (dDAC). This report serves to highlight the progress we have made towards developing an ultrahigh pressure research facility at UCSD, the research performed in the past year, as

  15. Deuterium high pressure target

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  16. Autoclave Testing on Zirconium Alloy Materials

    Hoffmann, Petra-Britt; Sell, Hans-Juergen; Garzarolli, Friedrich

    2012-09-01

    The corrosion of Zirconium components like fuel rod claddings and spacer grids is limiting lifetime and duty of these components. In Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactors (PWR and BWR), different corrosion phenomena are of interest. Although in-pile experience is the final proof for a material development, significant experience was gained by autoclave tests, trying to simulate in-pile conditions but reducing time for return of experience by increased temperatures. For PWR application, the uniform corrosion is studied in water at up to 370 deg. C and in high pressure steam at 400 deg. C, and for BWR, the nodular corrosion is studied in high pressure steam at 500-520 deg. C. Particular attention has to be given to the corrosion media, because oxidative traces in the water can significantly affect the corrosion response. An extensive air removal is thus important for all corrosion tests. This links to the different water chemistry conditions that have been investigated as separate effects otherwise difficult to separate under in-pile conditions. Uniform corrosion in 350 deg. C water is usually a cyclic process with repeated rate transitions. In addition, at high exposure times an acceleration of corrosion can occur, e.g. for Zr-Sn alloys with a high Sn content. In 400 deg. C steam, corrosion rate decreases somewhat with increasing time. Uniform corrosion rate of Zr alloys depends on their Sn- and Fe+Cr contents as well as on their annealing parameters with a similar trend as in PWR and on their yield strength, however with an opposite trend compared to BWR conditions. Nodular corrosion of BWR alloys depends on the annealing parameter with a similar trend as in PWR and out-of-reactor also significantly on the Fe+Cr content. The hydrogen pickup fraction (HPUF) depends largely on details of the water chemistry and can particularly depend on autoclave degassing and probably also on autoclave contaminations. Thus any HPUF value from out-of- pile corrosion tests is only

  17. Structural stability at high pressure, electronic, and magnetic properties of BaFZnAs: A new candidate of host material of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Chen Bi-Juan; Deng Zheng; Wang Xian-Cheng; Feng Shao-Min; Yuan Zhen; Zhang Si-Jia; Liu Qing-Qing; Jin Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The layered semiconductor BaFZnAs with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure has been successfully synthesized. Both the in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-pressure Raman scattering measurements demonstrate that the structure of BaFZnAs is stable under pressure up to 17.5 GPa at room temperature. The resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility data show that BaFZnAs is a non-magnetic semiconductor. BaFZnAs is recommended as a candidate of the host material of diluted magnetic semiconductor. (special topic)

  18. High pressure mechanical seal

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  19. Structural and electronic response of U.sub.3./sub.Fe.sub.4./sub.Ge.sub.4./sub. to high pressure

    Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa; Gorbunov, Denis; Andreev, Alexander V.; Prchal, J.; Raison, P.; Heathman, S.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Griveau, J.C.; Colineau, E.; Havela, L.; Gonçalves, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 11 (2015), "113901-1"-"113901-8" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : uranium intermetallics * ferromagnetism * antiferromagnetism * high pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2015

  20. Collapse of ferromagnetism in itinerant-electron system: a magnetic, transport properties, and high pressure study of (Hf,Ta)Fe.sub.2./sub. compounds

    Diop, L.; Kaštil, Jiří; Isnard, O.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Kamarád, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 16 (2014), "163907-1"-"163907-10" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0692 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high pressure * magnetic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  1. Characterization and behaviour of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete before Autoclaving

    Straub, Chr.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Schmidt, Wolfram; Msinjili, Nsesheye Susan

    In order to achieve a high quality Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) product, certain steps need to be ensured: the characterization of the raw materials, a proper mixing and correct slurry behaviour to achieve a good green body during green curing. In the current research the emphasis is on all of

  2. Interaction of slow electrons with high-pressure gases (Quasi-liquids). Synthesis of our knowledge on slow electron-molecule interactions. Progress report for year ending June 15, 1984

    McCorkle, D.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    A crucial step in efforts to develop not only a coherent picture of radiation interaction with matter, but also to understand radiation effects and mechanisms, as well as the effects of chemical pollutants and toxic compounds, is to relate the often abundant knowledge on isolated molecules (low pressure gases) to that on liquids or solids. To understand the roles of the physical and chemical properties of molecules in biological reactions, the way these isolated-molecule properties change as molecules are embedded in gradually thicker and thicker (denser and denser) gaseous and, finally, liquid environments must be known. The work reported here, carried out both at the Physics Department of the University of Tennessee and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory addresses itself to this question. At both places, high pressure (40 to approx. 8000 kPa) electron swarm experiments are currently in operation yielding the first information as to the effects of the density and nature of the environment on fundamental electron-molecule interaction processes at densities intermediate to those corresponding to low pressure gases and liquids, and the gradual transition from isolated molecule to condensed phase behavior. Basic physical data on the electronic states of atmospheric halocarbons in general, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particular were also studied. Such data are of special significance because of the occurrence of these molecules in the atmosphere, and are presently lacking

  3. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  4. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  5. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  6. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  7. High Pressure Research on Materials

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  8. The high-pressure electronic structure of magnesiowustite (Mg, Fe)O: applications to the physics and chemistry of the lower mantle

    Sherman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The electronic structure of magnesiowustite is investigated using self-consistent field X?? scattered wave (SCF-X??-SW) molecular orbital calculations on (FeO6)10- and (FeMg12O14)2- clusters. Calculated one-electron transition energies are used to interpret the optical spectrum of (Mg, Fe)O. The results are applied to the electrical and thermal conductivity of the lower mantle. This is especially true if Fe2+ adopts the low-spin configuration. The geophysically significant properties of (Fe, Mg)O probably result from defect Fe3+. -from Author

  9. Phase transition of LaX (X = P, As, Sb and Bi) at high pressure: Theoretical investigation of the structural and electronic properties

    Charifi, Z.; Reshak, Ali H; Baaziz, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 148, 3-4 (2008), s. 139-144 ISSN 0038-1098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Metals * Electronic band structure * Density functional theory (DFT) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2008

  10. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Collapse of ferromagnetism in itinerant-electron system: A magnetic, transport properties, and high pressure study of (Hf,Ta)Fe2 compounds

    Diop, L. V. B.; Kastil, J.; Isnard, O.; Arnold, Z.; Kamarad, J.

    2014-10-01

    The magnetism and transport properties were studied for Laves (Hf,Ta)Fe2 itinerant-electron compounds, which exhibit a temperature-induced first-order transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state upon heating. At finite temperatures, the field-induced metamagnetic phase transition between the AFM and FM has considerable effects on the transport properties of these model metamagnetic compounds. A large negative magnetoresistance of about 14% is observed in accordance with the metamagnetic transition. The magnetic phase diagram is determined for the Laves Hf1-xTaxFe2 series and its Ta concentration dependence discussed. An unusual behavior is revealed in the paramagnetic state of intermediate compositions, it gives rise to the rapid increase and saturation of the local spin fluctuations of the 3d electrons. This new result is analysed in the frame of the theory of Moriya. For a chosen composition Hf0.825Ta0.175Fe2, exhibiting such remarkable features, a detailed investigation is carried out under hydrostatic pressure up to 1 GPa in order to investigate the volume effect on the magnetic properties. With increasing pressure, the magnetic transition temperature TFM-AFM from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic order decreases strongly non-linearly and disappears at a critical pressure of 0.75 GPa. In the pressure-induced AFM state, the field-induced first-order AFM-FM transition appears and the complex temperature dependence of the AFM-FM transition field is explained by the contribution from both the magnetic and elastic energies caused by the significant temperature variation of the amplitude of the local Fe magnetic moment. The application of an external pressure leads also to the progressive decrease of the Néel temperature TN. In addition, a large pressure effect on the spontaneous magnetization MS for pressures below 0.45 GPa, dln(Ms)/dP = -6.3 × 10-2 GPa-1 was discovered. The presented results are consistent with Moriya

  12. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  13. High-pressure sodium lamp

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  14. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  15. High-pressure water facility

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  16. A first-principle study on the phase transition, electronic structure, and mechanical properties of three-phase ZrTi2 alloy under high pressure*

    Yuan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Mi-An; Chen, Wen; An, Tian-Qing

    2016-11-01

    We employed density-functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to investigate the ZrTi2 alloy, and obtained its structural phase transition, mechanical behavior, Gibbs free energy as a function of pressure, P-V equation of state, electronic and Mulliken population analysis results. The lattice parameters and P-V EOS for α, β and ω phases revealed by our calculations are consistent with other experimental and computational values. The elastic constants obtained suggest that ω-ZrTi2 and α-ZrTi2 are mechanically stable, and that β-ZrTi2 is mechanically unstable at 0 GPa, but becomes more stable with increasing pressure. Our calculated results indicate a phase transition sequence of α → ω → β for ZrTi2. Both the bulk modulus B and shear modulus G increase linearly with increasing pressure for three phases. The G/B values illustrated good ductility of ZrTi2 alloy for three phases, with ωJournal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70218-0

  17. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  18. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  19. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  20. An autoclave system for uranium oxide dissolution experiments

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1985-05-01

    According to the decision in principle of the Council of State of Finland the nuclear energy producers must provide preparedness for carrying out the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. By the present principal concept the spent fuel will be disposed deep into the granitic bedrock. A parameter needed by risk analysis models is the dissolution rate of the uranium oxide matrix in the fuel pellets. In order to approach conditions prevailing deep in the groundwater, and autoclave system for dissolution experiments was developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The low oxygen content and high pressure at elevated temperatures are simulated in the system. 20 MPa and 100 deg C are the upper operation limits of pressure and temperature. Water can be changed in the experiment autoclave without remarkable pressure and temperature variations. This has been arranged by using three pressure vessels: a supply vessel, a dissolution vessel and a depletion vessel. The extreme vessels serve pressure balancing purposes during water exchange. The water is deoxygenated during a preparation phase in the supply vessel by flushing it with nitrogen gas. Polytetrafluoroethylene is the principal material in contact with the water. A redox electrode couple was developed for potential measurements inside the dissolution vessel. The reference electrode is of Ag/AgCl-type with saturated KC1 electrolyte. A platinum wire operates as a measuring electrode

  1. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  2. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  3. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  4. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  5. High pressure experimental water loop

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  6. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  7. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NASA Out-of-Autoclave Process Technology Development

    Johnston, Norman, J.; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; McMahon, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCS) will play a significant role in the construction of large reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), mankind's future major access to low earth orbit and the international space station. PMCs are lightweight and offer attractive economies of scale and automated fabrication methodology. Fabrication of large RLV structures will require non-autoclave methods which have yet to be matured including (1) thermoplastic forming: heated head robotic tape placement, sheet extrusion, pultrusion, molding and forming; (2) electron beam curing: bulk and ply-by-ply automated placement; (3) RTM and VARTM. Research sponsored by NASA in industrial and NASA laboratories on automated placement techniques involving the first 2 categories will be presented.

  9. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat....... Codes for designing prefabricated reinforced components of aircrete structures have adopted these recently developed approaches.......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  10. High pressure research at CHESS

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  11. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  13. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  14. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  15. Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites

    Hayes, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    As the size of aerospace composite parts exceeds that of even the largest autoclaves, the development of new out-of-autoclave processes and materials is necessary to ensure quality and performance. Many out-of-autoclave prepreg systems can produce high-quality composites initially; however, due to long layup times, the resin advancement commonly causes high void content and variations in fiber volume. Applied Poleramic, Inc. (API), developed an aerospace-grade benzoxazine matrix composite prepreg material that offers more than a year out-time at ambient conditions and provides exceptionally low void content when out-of-autoclave cured. When compared with aerospace epoxy prepreg systems, API's innovation offers significant improvements in terms of out-time at ambient temperature and the corresponding tack retention. The carbon fiber composites developed with the optimized matrix technology have significantly better mechanical performance in terms of hot-wet retention and compression when compared with aerospace epoxy matrices. These composites also offer an excellent overall balance of properties. This matrix system imparts very low cure shrinkage, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low density when compared with most aerospace epoxy prepreg materials.

  16. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  17. Implementación de un balastro electrónico con microcontrolador PIC para lámparas de sodio de alta presión Implementation of electronic ballast with PIC microcontroller for high pressure sodiumlamps

    Armando Manuel Gutiérrez Menéndez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra un prototipo de balasto electrónico, que garantiza la operación exitosa en alta frecuencia de una lámpara de sodio de alta presión de 70 W, pues opera libre de resonancia acústica (RA. Se efectúa un análisis del fenómeno de la resonancia acústica, profundizando en su origen y predicción teórica. Es descrita la técnica de modulación en frecuencia utilizada para evitar este fenómeno, implementada en el microcontrolador de 8 bit PIC16F877 de la Microchip, la cual es activada en dependencia de la variación de los parámetros eléctricos de la lámpara, como son tensión y corriente. Son mostradas las etapas que dan conformación a dicho prototipo, además de presentarse las simulaciones realizadas a los principales elementos que componen el balasto. Los resultados prácticos alcanzados por el prototipo son expuestos, los cuales se dividen por etapas para analizar el correcto funcionamiento de cada una ellas.Palabra clave: In the present work is offered a prototype of electronic ballast that guarantees the correctly operation in high frequency of a high pressure sodium lamp of 70 W, because it operates free of acoustic resonance (RA. An analysis of the phenomenon of the acoustic resonance is made, deepening in its origin and theoretical prediction. The modulation technique is described in frequency used to avoid this phenomenon, implemented in the microcontrolador of 8 bit PIC16F877 of Microchip, which is activated in dependence of the variation of the electric parameters of the lamp, like they are tension and current. They are shown the stages that give conformation to this prototype, besides the simulations carried out to the main elements that compose the ballast being presented. The practical results reached by the prototype are exposed, which are divided by stages to analyze the correct operation of each a them.Key words:

  18. Implementación de un balastro electrónico con microcontrolador PIC para lámparas de sodio de alta presión; Implementation of electronic ballast with PIC microcontroller for high pressure sodiumlamps

    Armando M. - Gutiérrez Menéndez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra un prototipo de balasto electrónico, que garantiza la operación exitosa en alta frecuencia de una lámpara de sodio de alta presión de 70 W, pues opera libre de resonancia acústica (RA. Se efectúa un análisis del fenómeno de la resonancia acústica, profundizando en su origen y predicción teórica. Es descrita la técnica de modulación en frecuencia utilizada para evitar este fenómeno, implementada en el microcontrolador de 8 bit PIC16F877 de la Microchip, la cual es activada en dependencia de la variación de los parámetros eléctricos de la lámpara, como son tensión y corriente. Son mostradas las etapas que dan conformación a dicho prototipo, además de presentarse las simulaciones realizadas a los principales elementos que componen el balasto. Los resultados prácticos alcanzados por el prototipo son expuestos, los cuales se dividen por etapas para analizar el correcto funcionamiento de cada una ellas.In the present work is offered a prototype of electronic ballast that guarantees the correctly operation in high frequency of a high pressure sodium lamp of 70 W, because it operates free of acoustic resonance (RA. An analysis of the phenomenon of the acoustic resonance is made, deepening in its origin and theoretical prediction. The modulation technique is described in frequency used to avoid this phenomenon, implemented in the microcontrolador of 8 bit PIC16F877 of Microchip, which is activated in dependence of the variation of the electric parameters of the lamp, like they are tension and current. They are shown the stages that give conformation to this prototype, besides the simulations carried out to the main elements that compose the ballast being presented. The practical results reached by the prototype are exposed, which are divided by stages to analyze the correct operation of each a them.

  19. Screening of hydrogen storage media applying high pressure thermogravimetry

    Bentzen, J.J.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, J.

    2001-01-01

    A number of commercially available hydride-forming alloys of the MmNi5–xSnx (Mm=mischmetal, a mixture of lanthanides) type were examined using a high pressure, high temperature microbalance,scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Activation conditions, reversible storage capacity...

  20. Calculation of high-pressure argon plasma parameters produced by excimer laser

    Tsuda, Norio; Yamada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    When a XeCl excimer laser light was focused in a high-pressure argon gas up to 150 atm, a dense plasma developed not only backward but also forward. It is important to study on the electron density and temperature of the laser-induced plasma in the high-pressure gas. The electron density and temperature in high-pressure argon plasma produced by XeCl excimer laser has been calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  1. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  3. Autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete. ; Manufacture/performance/application. Keiryo kiho concrete. ; Sono seiho kino yoto

    Isome, Y. (Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-10-20

    This paper reviews the manufacturing process, performance, and application of autoclaved lightweight aerated concrete (ALC). ALC is produced by a two-step process composed of molding and autoclaving, using quartz, lime, portland cement, and small quantities of aluminum as raw materials. In the molding step, aluminum reacts with alkali to generate hydrogen gas, thus forming air pores in the slurry. On the other hand, calcium silicate hydrates are produced by the reaction of lime and portland cement with water, resulting in formation of voids in the intergranular spaces vacated by the reacting water. In the autoclaving step, tobermorite (crystalline calcium silicate hydrates) is formed by the reaction of quartz and calcium silicate hydrates under high temperature and high pressure steam, and the intergranular voids are reduced to micropores in size as a result of the hydrothermal reaction. The air-pore and micropore structure adds unique physical properties to the ALC, such as fire resistance, heat insulation, lightness and strength. ALC is widely used as a useful material for homes and multistory buildings. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Bonding pathways of high-pressure chemical transformations

    Hu Anguang; Zhang Fan

    2013-01-01

    A three-stage bonding pathway towards high-pressure chemical transformations from molecular precursors or intermediate states has been identified by first-principles simulations. With the evolution of principal stress tensor components in the response of chemical bonding to compressive loading, the three stages can be defined as the van der Waals bonding destruction, a bond breaking and forming reaction, and equilibrium of new bonds. The three-stage bonding pathway leads to the establishment of a fundamental principle of chemical bonding under compression. It reveals that during high-pressure chemical transformation, electrons moving away from functional groups follow anti-addition, collision-free paths to form new bonds in counteracting the local stress confinement. In applying this principle, a large number of molecular precursors were identified for high-pressure chemical transformations, resulting in new materials. (fast track communication)

  5. Transformations in refractory compounds, caused by high pressures and temperatures

    Zajnulin, Yu.G.; Alyamovskij, S.I.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the effect of high pressures and temperatures on structural features of refractory carbides, nitrides and monooxides of transition metals. The results are discussed on the basis of one component of the theory on daltonides and bertollides by N.S. Kurnakov - the theory of imaginary compounds, developed by G.B. Bokij. Several new ideas, resulting from this consideration, are formulated, It is shown that at high pressures and temperatures it is possible to obtain new electron modifications of compounds and to expand sufficiently the region of the existance of variable composition phases. The concept on imaginary compounds is shown to be true. A supposition is made on realization of numerous imaginary compounds at high pressures and temperatures. Other ways of production of imaginary compounds are recommended

  6. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  7. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  8. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  9. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  10. High pressure phase transitions in Europous oxide

    Kremser, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure-volume relationship for EuO was investigated to 630 kilobars at room temperature with a diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell. Volumes were determined by x-ray diffraction; pressures were determined by the ruby R 1 fluorescence method. The preferred interpretation involves normal compression behavior for EuO, initially in the B1 (NaCl-type) structure, to about 280 kilobars. Between approx. =280 and approx. =350 kilobars a region of anomalous compressibility in which the volume drops continuously by approximately 2% is observed. A second-order electronic transition is proposed with the 6s band overlapping with the 4f levels, thereby reducing the volume of EuO without changing the structure. This is not a semiconductor-to-metal transition. In reflected light, this transition is correlated with a subtle and continuous change in color from brown-black to a light brown. The collapsed B1 phase (postelectronic transition) is stable between approx. =350 and approx. =400 kilobars. At about 400 kilobars the collapsed B1 structure transforms to the B2 (CsCl-type) structure, with a zero pressure-volume change of approximately 12 +/- 1.5%

  11. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  12. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  13. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  14. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  15. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  16. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  17. High pressure X-ray studies

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  18. The accelerated oxidation of zircaloy-4 at 700∼900 .deg. C in high pressure steam

    Kim, K. P.; Park, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    To find the effect of pressure on the high temperature oxidation of zircaloy-4, an autoclave capable of measuring the degree of oxidation at high temperatures and high pressure was manufactured. The specimens used in experiments are commercially available Zircaloy-4 used in Kori nuclear power plants. All the measurements were done at 700∼900 .deg. C in steam. Pressure effects were noticed. The oxide thickness was much thicker in high pressure steam, comparing to that in the 1 atm steam. And, the higher is the steam pressure, the thicker becomes the oxide. The enhancement of oxide growth rate at 700∼900 .deg. C in high pressure steam is approximately propotion to the power of 1.0∼1.6 of the ratio of experimental steam pressure to critical steam pressure. There is a critical steam pressure above that the oxidation rate enhances. The critical steam pressure was measured as 30∼40 bar. The enhanced oxidation seems from the oxide cracking due to the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation at high pressure steam

  19. Performance test of ex-core high temperature and high pressure water loop test equipment (Contract research)

    Nakano, Hiroko; Uehara, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Jinichi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we started research and development so as to monitor the situations in the Nuclear Plant Facilities during a severe accident, such as a radiation-resistant monitoring camera, a radiation-resistant transmission system for conveying the in-core information, and a heat-resistant signal cable. As a part of developments of the heat-resistant signal cable, we prepared ex-core high-temperature and high-pressure water loop test equipment, which can simulate the conditions of BWRs and PWRs, for evaluating reliability and properties of sheath materials of the cable. This equipment consists of autoclave, water conditioning tank, high-pressure metering pump, preheater, heat exchanger and water purification equipment, etc. This report describes the basic design and the performance test results of ex-core high-temperature and high-pressure water loop test equipment. (author)

  20. Temperature field investigation of the industrial autoclave ASCAMAT-230

    Stolyanov A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the temperature field in the sterilization chambers of industrial autoclaves during heating and cooling phase is one of the problems in the development of new regime for product heat treatment on the preliminary selection and laboratory testing stages. This is the reason of studying the temperature field of the industrial autoclave ASCAMAT-230. The autoclave ASCAMAT-230 is a vertical autoclave of 230 liters capacity heated by three tubular electric heaters. Determination of temperature field parameters has been carried out according to the method for studying the temperature field of periodic devices' heating medium for sterilizing canned food. Six Thermochron iButton temperature loggers have been used to measure the temperatures in the sterilization chamber of the ASCAMAT-230 autoclave. Logger 1 has been put in the place of the standard thermometer installation, loggers 2 and 3, 5 and 6 – in the center and on periphery of the lower and upper parts of the autoclave respectively, logger 4 – in the center of the middle part of the autoclave's sterilization chamber. Temperature measurement in cans with the product has been carried out by temperature loggers from the Ellab TrackSense PRO complex. The loggers have been installed in two cans with homogeneous product located in the upper and lower parts of the autoclave. The time temperature dependences for the entire sterilization process, as well as for the heating and cooling stages have been constructed according to the acquired information. Based on these data conclusions about the uniformity of the temperature field inside the sterilization chamber of the autoclave ASCAMAT-230 during the heating, sterilization and cooling stages have been developed. Some recommendations for using the autoclave ASCAMAT-230 in the preliminary selection and verification of sterilization regimes for canned foods from hydrobionts, and also for the creation of an industrial autoclave control system

  1. From simple to complex and backwards. Chemical reactions under very high pressure

    Bini, Roberto; Ceppatelli, Matteo; Citroni, Margherita; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High pressure reactivity of several molecular systems. ► Reaction kinetics and dynamics in high density conditions. ► Key role of optical pumping and electronic excitation. ► Perspectives for the synthesis of hydrogen. - Abstract: High pressure chemical reactions of molecular systems are discussed considering the various factors that can affect the reactivity. These include steric hindrance and geometrical constraints in the confined environment of crystals at high pressure, changes of the free energy landscape with pressure, photoactivation by two-photon absorption, local and collective effects. A classification of the chemical reactions at high pressure is attempted on the basis of the prevailing factors.

  2. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  3. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Compaction behavior of out-of-autoclave prepreg materials

    Serrano, Léonard; Olivier, Philippe; Cinquin, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    The main challenges with composite parts manufacturing are related to the curing means, mainly autoclaves, the length of their cycles and their operating costs. In order to decrease this dependency, out of autoclave materials have been considered as a solution for high production rate parts such as spars, flaps, etc… However, most out-of-autoclave process do not possess the same maturity as their counterpart, especially concerning part quality1. Some pre-cure processes such as compaction and ply lay-up are usually less of a concern for autoclave manufacturing: the pressure applied during the cycle participates to reduce the potential defects (porosity caused by a poor quality lay-up, bad compaction, entrapped air or humidity…). For out-of-autoclave parts, those are crucial steps which may have many consequences on the final quality of the laminate2. In order to avoid this quality loss, those steps must be well understood.

  5. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  6. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  7. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  8. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  9. The effect of high pressures on actinide metals

    Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    The solid state properties of the actinides are controlled by the dualism of the localized and itinerant (delocalized) configuration of the 5f electrons. This dualism allows to define two main subgroups. At ambient pressures the first subgroup, of elements with atomic number 91 to 94, is characterized by 5f electrons in an itinerant state and the second subgroup, atomic number 95 to 98, by 5f electrons in a localized state. The latter means that these electrons have well defined energy levels and do not contribute to the metallic bond. The other two subgroups consist of thorium, as a subgroup of its own because its 5f levels are practically unoccupied in the ground state configuration, and of the five heaviest elements with atomic number 99 to 103. The most remarkable effect of pressure on the actinide metals is that due to closer contact between the lattice atoms, localized 5f electrons can become itinerant, hybridise with the conduction electrons and participate in the metallic bond. In this chapter the high-pressure structural behaviour of actinide metals is reviewed. Section 3 gives an introduction into the techniques of generating and measuring pressure and of determining various physical properties of the actinides under pressure and describes a few high-pressure devices and methods. Sections 4 to 7 treat the high-pressure results for each subgroup separately. In section 8 the results of the preceding sections are brought together in a graphical representation which consists of interconnecting binary phase diagrams of neighbouring actinide metals. 155 refs.; 14 figs.; 7 tabs. (H.W.)

  10. Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing of Aerospace Representative Parts

    Cauberghs, Julien

    The use of carbon fibre reinforced composites for aerospace structures has seen a high increase in recent years, and is still growing. The high stiffness-to-weight ratio of these materials makes them ideal for primary structures on airplanes, satellites, and spacecrafts. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of composites remains very costly since it requires equipment investment such as an autoclave, and very qualified workers. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing technology is very promising since it only requires a traditional oven, while still aiming at similar part quality. However, the absence of positive pressure compared with an autoclave makes it more difficult to achieve low porosity parts. This research investigates the manufacturing of complex features with out-of autoclave prepreg technology. The features studied are tight-radius corners with a curvature change, and ply drop-offs. Ply drop-offs tests were conducted to identify if porosity is higher at ply terminations. In corners, the bagging arrangement was modified to achieve the most uniform thickness in areas of curvature change, even with small radii. The conclusions from these studies provided us with guidelines to manufacture larger representative parts, which included these features. The representative parts were tested for porosity, thickness uniformity, mechanical performance, and glass transition temperature (Tg). A total of four representative parts were manufactured with out-of-autoclave technology, and one more was manufactured with an autoclave to allow for a proper comparison between the two processes. The materials used were MTM45-1 5 harness satin and CYCOM5320 plain weave for the out-of-autoclave parts, and CYCOM5276-1 plain weave for the autoclave part. The effect of ply drop-offs on porosity was found to be negligible. Thickness deviation in corners was attributed to a combination of consumable bridging, prepreg's bulk factor and inter-ply shear. Overall, out-of-autoclave prepregs showed

  11. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    Kepa, M. W., E-mail: mkepa@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}.

  12. Excited Atoms and Molecules in High Pressure Gas Discharges

    Vuskovic, L.; Popovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of high-pressure non-thermal discharges are increasingly drawing attention in view of many interesting applications. These, partially ionized media in non-equilibrium state, tend to generate complex effects that are difficult to interpret without a detailed knowledge of elementary processes involved. Electronically excited molecules and atoms may play an important role as intermediate states in a wide range of atomic and molecular processes, many of which are important in high-pressure discharges. They can serve also as reservoirs of energy or as sources of high energy electrons either through the energy pooling or through superelastic collisions. By presenting the analysis of current situation on the processes involving excited atoms and molecules of interest for high-pressure gas discharges, we will attempt to draw attention on the insufficiency of available data. In the same time we will show how to circumvent this situation and still be able to develop accurate models and interpretations of the observed phenomena

  13. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  14. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  15. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  16. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  17. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  18. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  19. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  20. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  1. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  2. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  3. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  4. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  5. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  6. Synthesis and morphology of iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles produced by high pressure gas condensation

    Xing, Lijuan; ten Brink, Gert H.; Chen, Bin; Schmidt, Franz P.; Haberfehlner, Georg; Hofer, Ferdinand; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured Fe nanoparticles (NPs) produced by high pressure magnetron sputtering gas condensation were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), tomographic reconstruction, and Wulff shape construction

  7. Autoclavable physically-crosslinked chitosan cryogel as a wound dressing.

    Takei, Takayuki; Danjo, So; Sakoguchi, Shogo; Tanaka, Sadao; Yoshinaga, Takuma; Nishimata, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    Moist wounds were known to heal more rapidly than dry wounds. Hydrogel wound dressings were suitable for the moist wound healing because of their hyperhydrous structure. Chitosan was a strong candidate as a base material for hydrogel wound dressings because the polymer had excellent biological properties that promoted wound healing. We previously developed physically-crosslinked chitosan cryogels, which were prepared solely by freeze-thawing of a chitosan-gluconic acid conjugate (CG) aqueous solution, for wound treatment. The CG cryogels were disinfected by immersing in 70% ethanol before applying to wounds in our previous study. In the present study, we examined the influence of autoclave sterilization (121°C, 20 min) on the characteristics of CG cryogel because complete sterilization was one of the fundamental requirements for medical devices. We found that optimum value of gluconic acid content of CG, defined as the number of the incorporated gluconic acid units per 100 glucosamine units of chitosan, was 11 for autoclaving. An increased crosslinking level of CG cryogel on autoclaving enhanced resistance of the gels to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the autoclaved CG cryogels retained favorable biological properties of the pre-autoclaved CG cryogels in that they showed the same hemostatic activity and efficacy in repairing full-thickness skin wounds as the pre-autoclaved CG cryogels. These results showed the great potential of autoclavable CG cryogels as a practical wound dressing. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High Pressure Reduction of Selenite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Testemale, D.; Letard, I.; Bleuet, P.; Cardon, H.; Oger, P.

    2007-12-01

    High-pressure biotopes comprise cold deep-sea environments, hydrothermal vents, and deep subsurface or deep-sea sediments. The latter are less studied, due to the technical difficulties to sample at great depths without contamination. Nevertheless, microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis have been found to be spatially distributed in deep deep-sea sediments (1), and sulfate reduction has been shown to be actually more efficient under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in some sediments (2). Sulfate-reducing bacteria obtained from the Japan Sea are characterized by an increased sulfide production under pressure (3,4). Unfortunately, investigations of microbial metabolic activity as a function of pressure are extremely scarce due to the experimental difficulty of such measurements at high hydrostatic pressure. We were able to measure the reduction of selenite Se(IV) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a function of pressure, to 150 MPa using two different high-pressure reactors that allow in situ X-ray spectroscopy measurements on a synchrotron source. A first series of measurements was carried out in a low-pressure Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) of our own design (5) at ID22 beamline at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); a second one was performed in an autoclave (6) at the BM30B beamline at ESRF. Selenite reduction by strain MR-17 was monitored from ambient pressure to 150 MPa over 25 hours at 30 deg C by XANES spectroscopy (X-ray Analysis of Near Edge Structure). Spectra were recorded hourly in order to quantify the evolution of the oxidation state of selenium with time. Stationary-phase bacteria were inoculated at a high concentration into fresh growth medium containing 5 or 10 M of sodium selenite and 20 mM sodium lactate. Kinetic parameters of the Se (IV) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 could be extracted from the data, as a function of pressure. They show 1) that the rate constant k of the reaction is decreased by a half at high pressure

  9. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  10. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  11. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  12. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  13. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  14. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  15. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  16. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  17. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  18. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  20. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  1. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  2. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  3. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF A HALLOYSITE ADDITIVE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Z. Owsiak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the tests of autoclaved aerated concrete with halloysite as a cement additive. Good pozzolanic properties make it a suitable material to be used as a partial replacement of a portion of cement. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the composites with various mineral content are discussed. The compressive strength test results indicate an increase in strength of the AAC containing 2.5 % and 5 % halloysite relative to the reference specimen. Thermal conductivity and density values remained at the same level. Observations of the microstructure in the scanning electron microscope confirmed the results from the XRD tests. Anhydrite was observed in addition to tobermorite. The results from the tests of the autoclaved aerated concretes in which halloysite was incorporated as 7.5 % and 10 % cement replacement showed an increase in compressive strength, density and thermal conductivity values.

  5. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  6. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  7. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  8. High pressure synthesis of zeolite/polymer nanocomposites

    Haines, Julien; Thibaud, Jean-Marc; Rouquette, Jerome; Cambon, Olivier; Di Renzo, Francesco, E-mail: julien.haines@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (France); Lee, Arie van der [Institut Europeen des Membranes, Montpellier (France); Scelta, Demetrio; Ceppatelli, Matteo; Dziubek, Kamil; Gorelli, Federico; Bini, Roberto; Santoro, Mario [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Polymerization of simple organic molecules under high pressure in the subnanometric pores of pure SiO{sub 2} zeolites can be used to produce novel nanocomposite materials, which can be recovered at ambient P and have remarkable mechanical, electrical or optical properties. Polymerization of ethylene in silicalite was studied in situ at high pressure by IR and results in a nanocomposite with isolated chains of non-conducting polyethylene strongly confined in the pores based on single crystal x-ray diffraction data. The nanocomposite is much less compressible than silicalite and has a positive rather than a negative thermal expansion coefficient. In order to target novel electrical and optical properties, isolated chains of conducting polymers can also be prepared in the pores of zeolite hosts at high pressure, such as polyacetylene, which was polymerized under pressure in the pores of the 1-D zeolite TON. The structure of this nanocomposite was determined by synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data with complete pore filling corresponding to one planar polymer chain confined in each pore with a zig-zag configuration in the yz plane. This very strong confinement can be expected to strongly modify the electrical properties of polyacetylene. In this nanocomposite, our theoretical calculations indicate that the electronic density of states of polyacetylene exhibit van Hove singularities related to quantum 1D confinement, which could lead to future technological applications. This new material is susceptible to have applications in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and energy and light harvesting. Completely novel nanocomposites were prepared by the polymerization of carbon monoxide CO in silicalite and TON. In these materials, isolated, ideal polycarbonyl chains are obtained in contrast to the non-stoichiometric, branched bulk polymers obtained by high pressure polymerization of this simple system. These poly CO/zeolite composites could be interesting energetic

  9. High-pressure behavior of CaMo O4

    Panchal, V.; Garg, N.; Poswal, H. K.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Cavalli, E.

    2017-09-01

    We report a high-pressure study of tetragonal scheelite-type CaMo O4 up to 29 GPa. In order to characterize its high-pressure behavior, we have combined Raman and optical-absorption measurements with density functional theory calculations. We have found evidence of a pressure-induced phase transition near 15 GPa. Experiments and calculations agree in assigning the high-pressure phase to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure. The reported results are consistent with previous powder x-ray-diffraction experiments, but are in contradiction with the conclusions obtained from earlier Raman measurements, which support the existence of more than one phase transition in the pressure range covered by our studies. The observed scheelite-fergusonite transition induces significant changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of CaMo O4 . We have determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependencies of the Raman-active and infrared-active modes. In addition, based on calculations of the phonon dispersion of the scheelite phase, carried out at a pressure higher than the transition pressure, we propose a possible mechanism for the reported phase transition. Furthermore, from the calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters and atomic positions of the different phases and their room-temperature equations of state. These results are compared with previous experiments showing a very good agreement. Finally, information on bond compressibility is reported and correlated with the macroscopic compressibility of CaMo O4 . The reported results are of interest for the many technological applications of this oxide.

  10. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis.

  11. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  12. Itinerant-electron metamagnetism of the Hf.sub.1-x./sub.Ta.sub.x./sub.Fe.sub.2./sub. (x=0.125 and0.14)compounds under high pressure

    Diop, L.V.B.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Isnard, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 395, Dec (2015), s. 251-256 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0692 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic properties * itinerant-electron systems * metamagnetic transition * pressure effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  13. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  14. Thermally induced coloration of KBr at high pressures

    Arveson, Sarah M.; Kiefer, Boris; Deng, Jie; Liu, Zhenxian; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (LHDAC) experiments reveal electronic changes in KBr at pressures between ˜13 -81 GPa when heated to high temperatures that cause runaway heating to temperatures in excess of ˜5000 K . The drastic changes in absorption behavior of KBr are interpreted as rapid formation of high-pressure F-center defects. The defects are localized to the heated region and thus do not change the long-range crystalline order of KBr. The results have significant consequences for temperature measurements in LHDAC experiments and extend the persistence of F centers in alkali halides to at least 81 GPa.

  15. High pressure structural phase transition of neodymium mono pnictides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, P.; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the high-pressure structural phase transition of two neodymium mono NdX (X=As, Sb) using an interionic potential theory with necessary modification to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized f electrons of Nd ion. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to body centered tetragonal (BCT) at 27 GPa and 15.3 GPa respectively. We also calculated the Nd-Nd distance as a function of pressure. (author)

  16. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  17. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The high...

  18. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  19. Autoclave cycle optimization for high performance composite parts manufacturing

    Nele, L.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2016-01-01

    In aeronautical production, autoclave curing of composite parts must be performed according to a specified diagram of temperature and pressure vs time. Part-tool assembly thermal inertia and shape have a large influence on the heating and cooling rate, and therefore on the dwell time within the target temperature range. When simultaneously curing diverse composite parts, the total autoclave cycle time is driven by the part-tool assembly with the lower heating and cooling rates. With the aim t...

  20. Superconductivity in the unconventional high pressure phase bismuth-III

    Semeniuk, Konstantin; Brown, Philip; Vasiljkovic, Aleksandar; Grosche, Malte [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    One of the most surprising developments in high pressure research was the realisation that many elements assume very unexpected high pressure structures, described in terms of extremely large or even infinite unit cells. Elemental bismuth, which has been known to undergo a series of pressure induced structural transitions between 25 kbar and 80 kbar, is an interesting example: the intermediate pressure Bi-III phase has a complex 'host-guest' structure consisting of two incommensurate sublattices. Since the unit cell is infinitely large, the description of electronic and lattice excitations is problematic. Apart from its metallic character and the observation of superconductivity at low temperature, little is known about the electronic structure in this phase. We investigate the electrical resistivity within the metallic Bi-III phase under high hydrostatic pressure and in applied magnetic field using a piston cylinder cell. Superconductivity is observed below 7.1 K, and we extract the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, which exceeds 2 T at low temperature. The normal state resistivity exhibits an approximately linear temperature dependence. This could be attributed to strong scattering from low-lying excitations, as caused by an unusually soft phonon spectrum. The results suggest that strong coupling superconductivity arises within the host-guest structure of Bi-III out of an unusual electronic state.

  1. Generating Autoclave-Level Mechanical Properties with Out-of-Autoclave Thermoplastic Placement of Large Composite Aerospace Structures, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Out-of-autoclave thermoplastic tape/tow placement (TP-ATP) is nearing commercialization but suffers a moderate gap in mechanical properties compared with laminates...

  2. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  3. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  4. Influence of autoclave sterilization on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six orthodontic wires.

    Pernier, C; Grosgogeat, B; Ponsonnet, L; Benay, G; Lissac, M

    2005-02-01

    Orthodontic wires are frequently packaged in individual sealed bags in order to avoid cross-contamination. The instructions on the wrapper generally advise autoclave sterilization of the package and its contents if additional protection is desired. However, sterilization can modify the surface parameters and the mechanical properties of many types of material. The aim of this research was to determine the influence of one of the most widely used sterilization processes, autoclaving (18 minutes at 134 degrees C, as recommended by the French Ministry of Health), on the surface parameters and mechanical properties of six wires currently used in orthodontics (one stainless steel alloy: Tru-Chrome RMO; two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC; and three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA(R) and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). The alloys were analysed on receipt and after sterilization, using surface structure observation techniques, including optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy and profilometry. The mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. The results showed that autoclave sterilization had no adverse effects on the surface parameters or on the selected mechanical properties. This supports the possibility for practitioners to systematically sterilize wires before placing them in the oral environment.

  5. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P Autoclave sterilization significantly increased the MCF of HyFlex CM and K3XF (P Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High-pressure behavior of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI_3) hybrid perovskite

    Capitani, Francesco; Marini, Carlo; Caramazza, Simone; Postorino, Paolo; Garbarino, Gaston; Hanfland, Michael; Pisanu, Ambra; Quadrelli, Paolo; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide an accurate high-pressure structural and optical study of the MAPbI_3 hybrid perovskite. Structural data show the presence of a phase transition toward an orthorhombic structure around 0.3 GPa followed by full amorphization of the system above 3 GPa. After releasing the pressure, the system keeps the high-pressure orthorhombic phase. The occurrence of these structural transitions is further confirmed by pressure induced variations of the photoluminescence signal at high pressure. These variations clearly indicate that the bandgap value and the electronic structure of MAPI change across the phase transition.

  7. High-pressure behavior of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite

    Capitani, Francesco; Marini, Carlo; Caramazza, Simone; Postorino, Paolo; Garbarino, Gaston; Hanfland, Michael; Pisanu, Ambra; Quadrelli, Paolo; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we provide an accurate high-pressure structural and optical study of the MAPbI3 hybrid perovskite. Structural data show the presence of a phase transition toward an orthorhombic structure around 0.3 GPa followed by full amorphization of the system above 3 GPa. After releasing the pressure, the system keeps the high-pressure orthorhombic phase. The occurrence of these structural transitions is further confirmed by pressure induced variations of the photoluminescence signal at high pressure. These variations clearly indicate that the bandgap value and the electronic structure of MAPI change across the phase transition.

  8. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  9. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  10. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  11. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    Imm2). The structural transition is clearly reflected in the high pressure Raman data through the appearance of several new modes, allowing us to map in detail the (P,T) phase diagram and determine the transition line between the two phases. In the new phase, the renormalization of the buckling mode is completely suppressed, while no anomalies are observed in any of the other Raman active phonons. According to ab initio calculations, the coupling of the buckling mode to the electronic system is not significantly affected by the structural phase transition. The absence of phonon renormalizations in the presence of sizable electron-phonon coupling, indicate that, in contrast to earlier transport studies, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} is not superconducting anymore under hydrostatic pressures higher than 10 GPa. Finally we proceeded with the investigation of the high pressure structural and vibrational properties of SmFeAsO, a member of the ''1111'' family (space group P4/nmm) of the Fe-based superconductors, in which superconductivity is commonly induced either by substituting F/H for O or by applying high pressures on the parent magnetic compound. The magnetic transition of the undoped compound is accompanied with a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural distortion, both of which are commonly suppressed upon the emergence of superconductivity. In the SmFeAsO{sub x}F{sub 1-x} system while the magnetic transition is totally suppressed already at low doping levels, structural studies have reported either the gradual suppression of the orthorhombic distortion or its retention over a wide regime of the superconducting phase. We addressed this controversy using high pressure as an alternative tuning parameter to suppress the magneto-structural transition and induce superconductivity in the parent compound. Our high pressure, low temperature X-ray diffraction measurements on single crystals of SmFeAsO have revealed that the tetragonal

  12. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Raman data through the appearance of several new modes, allowing us to map in detail the (P,T) phase diagram and determine the transition line between the two phases. In the new phase, the renormalization of the buckling mode is completely suppressed, while no anomalies are observed in any of the other Raman active phonons. According to ab initio calculations, the coupling of the buckling mode to the electronic system is not significantly affected by the structural phase transition. The absence of phonon renormalizations in the presence of sizable electron-phonon coupling, indicate that, in contrast to earlier transport studies, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 is not superconducting anymore under hydrostatic pressures higher than 10 GPa. Finally we proceeded with the investigation of the high pressure structural and vibrational properties of SmFeAsO, a member of the ''1111'' family (space group P4/nmm) of the Fe-based superconductors, in which superconductivity is commonly induced either by substituting F/H for O or by applying high pressures on the parent magnetic compound. The magnetic transition of the undoped compound is accompanied with a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural distortion, both of which are commonly suppressed upon the emergence of superconductivity. In the SmFeAsO x F 1-x system while the magnetic transition is totally suppressed already at low doping levels, structural studies have reported either the gradual suppression of the orthorhombic distortion or its retention over a wide regime of the superconducting phase. We addressed this controversy using high pressure as an alternative tuning parameter to suppress the magneto-structural transition and induce superconductivity in the parent compound. Our high pressure, low temperature X-ray diffraction measurements on single crystals of SmFeAsO have revealed that the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition survives with the application of high pressures up to 85 kbars. In addition, our Raman data

  13. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (pautoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (pautoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the possibility of developing quasi-CW high-power high-pressure laser on 4p-4s transition of ArI with electron beam—optical pumping: quenching of 4s (3P2) lower laser level

    Ionin, A. A.; Kholin, I. V.; L'dov, A. Yu; Seleznev, L. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    A new electron beam-optical procedure is proposed for quasi-cw pumping of high-pressure large-volume He-Ar laser on the 4p[1/2]1-4s[3/2]20 argon atom transition at the wavelength of 912.5 nm. It consists of creation and maintenance of a necessary density of the 4s[3/2]20 metastable state in the gain medium by a fast electron beam and subsequent optical pumping of the upper laser level via the classical three-level scheme using a laser diode. Absorption probing is used to study collisional quenching of Ar* metastable in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He-Ar mixtures with a low content of argon. The rate constants for plasma-chemical reactions Ar*  +  He  +  Ar  >  Ar2*   +  He (3.6  ±  0.4)  ×  10-33 cm6 s-1, Ar*  +  2He  >  HeAr*  +  He (4.4  ±  0.9)  ×  10-36 cm6 s-1 and Ar*  +  He  >  Products  +  He (2.4  ±  0.3)  ×  10-15 cm3 s-1 were for the first time measured.

  15. High pressure behaviour of heavy rare earth antimonides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Soni, Pooja; Srivastava, Vipul; Sanyal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated theoretically the high-pressure structural phase transition and cohesive properties of two heavy rare earth mono anyimonides (LnSb; Ln = Dy and Lu) by using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 4f electrons of the RE ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves and the values of high-pressure behaviour have been discussed and compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 23.6 GPa and 25.4 GPa respectively. At phase transition the % volume collapse for both the compounds are little higher than the measured ones. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. The bulk moduli of LnSb compounds are obtained from the P-V curve fitted by the Birch equation of state. We also calculated the Ln-Ln distance as a function of pressure. (author)

  16. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance.

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Advances in high pressure research in condensed matter: proceedings of the international conference on condensed matter under high pressures

    Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Computer simulations of high pressure systems

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given

  19. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  20. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  1. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  2. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  3. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  4. SrWO4 at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  6. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  7. Frictional characteristics of silicon graphite lubricated with water at high pressure and high temperature

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Eun Hyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jong In

    2001-01-01

    Experimental frictional and wear characteristics of silicon graphite materials is studied in this paper. Those specimens are lubricated with high temperature and highly pressurized water to simulate the same operating condition for the journal bearing and the thrust bearing on the main coolant pump bearing in the newly developing nuclear reactor named SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Operating condition of the bearings is realized by the tribometer and the autoclave. Friction coefficient and wear loss are analyzed to choose the best silicon graphite material. Pin on plate test specimens are used and coned disk springs are used to control the applied force on the specimens. Wear loss and wear width are measured by a precision balance and a micrometer. The friction force is measured by the strain gauge which can be used under high temperature and high pressure. Three kinds of silicon graphite materials are examined and compared with each other, and each material shows similar but different results on frictional and wear characteristics

  8. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  9. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications

    Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying

    2000-01-01

    A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects

  10. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  11. BALU: Largest autoclave research facility in the world

    Hakan Ucan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large-scale facilities operated at the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade BALU is the world's largest research autoclave. With a loading length of 20m and a loading diameter of 5.8 m the main objective of the facility is the optimization of the curing process operated by components made of carbon fiber on an industrial scale. For this reason, a novel dynamic autoclaving control has been developed that is characterized by peripheral devices to expend the performance of the facility for differential applications, by sensing systems to detect the component state throughout the curing process and by a feedback system, which is capable to intervene into the running autoclave process.

  12. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Tampio, Elina, E-mail: elina.tampio@mtt.fi [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles [University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rintala, Jukka [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H 2 S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m 3 day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH 4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m 3 day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH 4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m 3 day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 3 kg VS/m 3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 4 kg VS/m 3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  15. High pressure structural behavior of YGa2: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Sekar, M.; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Babu, R.; Sahu, P. Ch.; Sinha, A.K.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Singh, M.N.; Babu, K. Ramesh; Appalakondaiah, S.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Kanchana, V.

    2015-01-01

    High pressure structural stability studies were carried out on YGa 2 (AlB 2 type structure at NTP, space group P6/mmm) up to a pressure of ~35 GPa using both laboratory based rotating anode and synchrotron X-ray sources. An isostructural transition with reduced c/a ratio, was observed at ~6 GPa and above ~17.5 GPa, the compound transformed to orthorhombic structure. Bulk modulus B 0 for the parent and high pressure phases were estimated using Birch–Murnaghan and modified Birch–Murnaghan equation of state. Electronic structure calculations based on projector augmented wave method confirms the experimentally observed two high pressure structural transitions. The calculations also reveal that the ‘Ga’ networks remains as two dimensional in the high pressure isostructural phase, whereas the orthorhombic phase involves three dimensional networks of ‘Ga’ atoms interconnected by strong covalent bonds. - Graphical abstract: High pressure X-ray diffraction patterns of YGa 2 up to ~35 GPa shows an isostructural phase transition at ~5 GPa and transition to an orthorhombic structure ~14 GPa. - Highlights: • High pressure structural stability studies were carried out on YGa 2 up to 35 GPa. • An isostructural transition with reduced c/a ratio was observed above 6 GPa. • Above 17.5 GPa, the compound transformed to orthorhombic structure. • PAW based electronic structure calculations have been carried out. • Calculations confirm the experimentally observed structural transitions

  16. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure...

  17. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2011-07-01

    ... imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of high pressure steel cylinders... contained in USITC Publication 4241 (July 2011), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China...

  18. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2012-06-22

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of high pressure steel... preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China were... Publication 4328 (June 2012), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480...

  19. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch...

  20. High pressure effect for high-Tc superconductors

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tomita, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity and to enhance T c . High-pressure techniques have played a very important role for these studies. In this paper, the high-pressure techniques and physical properties of high-T c superconductor under high pressure are presented. (author)

  1. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  2. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  3. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  4. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on High-Pressure Crystallography

    Boldyreva, Elena; High-Pressure Crystallography

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to the theme of crystallographic studies at high pressure, with emphasis on the phenomena characteristic to the compressed state of matter, as well as experimental and theoretical techniques used to study these phenomena. As a thermodynamic parameter, pressure is remarkable in many ways. In the visible universe its value spans over sixty orders of magnitude, from the non-equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in intergalactic space, to the kind of pressure encountered within neutron stars. In the laboratory, it provides the unique possibility to control the structure and properties of materials, to dramatically alter electronic properties, and to break existing, or form new chemical bonds. This agenda naturally encompasses elements of physics (properties, structure and transformations), chemistry (reactions, transport), materials science (new materials) and engineering (mechanical properties); in addition it has direct applications and implications for geology (minerals in deep Earth environmen...

  6. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  7. Radiation interactions in high-pressure gases

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article is on basic radiation interaction processes in dense fluids and on interphase studies aiming at the interfacing of knowledge on radiation interaction processes in the gaseous and the liquid state of matter. It is specifically focused on the effect of the density and nature of the medium on electron production in irradiated fluids and on the state, energy, transport, and attachment of slow excess electrons in dense fluids especially dielectric liquids which possess excess-electron conduction bands (V 0 < 0 eV). Studies over the past two decades have shown that the interactions of low-energy electrons with molecules embedded in dense media depend not only on the molecules themselves and their internal state of excitation, but also on the electron state and energy in -- and the nature and density of -- the medium in which the interactions occur

  8. Radiation interactions in high-pressure gases

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This article is on basic radiation interaction processes in dense fluids and on interphase studies aiming at the interfacing of knowledge on radiation interaction processes in the gaseous and the liquid state of matter. It is specifically focused on the effect of the density and nature of the medium on electron production in irradiated fluids and on the state, energy, transport, and attachment of slow excess electrons in dense fluids especially dielectric liquids which possess excess-electron conduction bands (V{sub 0} < 0 eV). Studies over the past two decades have shown that the interactions of low-energy electrons with molecules embedded in dense media depend not only on the molecules themselves and their internal state of excitation, but also on the electron state and energy in -- and the nature and density of -- the medium in which the interactions occur.

  9. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  10. Long Out-time, Out-of-Autoclave Cure Composites, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the size of composite parts exceed that of even the largest autoclaves, new out-of-autoclave processes and materials are necessary to achieve the same level of...

  11. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pinstruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  12. Band structure and phonon properties of lithium fluoride at high pressure

    Panchal, J. M., E-mail: amitjignesh@yahoo.co.in [Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar 382028, Gujarat (India); Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Mitesh [Government Polytechnic for Girls, Athwagate, Surat395001, Gujarat (India); Gajjar, P. N., E-mail: pngajjar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-23

    High pressure structural and electronic properties of Lithium Fluoride (LiF) have been studied by employing an ab-initio pseudopotential method and a linear response scheme within the density functional theory (DFT) in conjunction with quasi harmonic Debye model. The band structure and electronic density of states conforms that the LiF is stable and is having insulator behavior at ambient as well as at high pressure up to 1 Mbar. Conclusions based on Band structure, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states are outlined.

  13. Band structure and phonon properties of lithium fluoride at high pressure

    Panchal, J. M.; Joshi, Mitesh; Gajjar, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    High pressure structural and electronic properties of Lithium Fluoride (LiF) have been studied by employing an ab-initio pseudopotential method and a linear response scheme within the density functional theory (DFT) in conjunction with quasi harmonic Debye model. The band structure and electronic density of states conforms that the LiF is stable and is having insulator behavior at ambient as well as at high pressure up to 1 Mbar. Conclusions based on Band structure, phonon dispersion and phonon density of states are outlined.

  14. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  15. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V. [Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería, “Ing. H. Fernández Long,” Av. Paseo Colón 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Institut Universitari de Ciència dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, c/ Doctor Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  16. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at room ...

  17. Alkaline autoclave leaching of refractory uranium-thorium minerals

    Milani, S. A.; Sam, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of an innovative method for processing the Oman placer ores by alkaline leaching in ball mill autoclaves, where grinding and leaching of the refractory minerals take place simultaneously. This was followed by the selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by autoclave leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions. The introduced method is based on the fact that thorium and uranium form soluble carbonate complexes with ammonium carbonate, while lanthanides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. It was found that a complete alkaline leaching of Oman placer ores (98.0 P ercent ) was attained at 150 and 175 d egree C within 2.5 and 2h, respectively. Oman placer ores leaching was intensified and accelerated in a ball mill autoclaves as a result of the grinding action of steel balls, removal of the hydroxide layer covering ores grains and the continuous contact of fresh ore grains with alkaline solution. The study of selective carbonate processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions on autoclave under pressure revealed that the complete thorium recovery (97.5 P ercent ) with uranium recovery (90.8 P ercent ) and their separation from the lanthanides were attained at 70-80 d egree C during l-2h. The extraction of lanthanides in carbonate solution was low and did not exceed 4.6 P ercent .

  18. Predicted crystal structures of molybdenum under high pressure

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Guang Biao [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Yuan Xu, E-mail: wangyx@henu.edu.cn [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A double-hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) structure of molybdenum is predicted. ► Calculated acoustic velocity confirms the bcc–dhcp phase transition at 660 GPa. ► The valence electrons of dhcp Mo are mostly localized in the interstitial sites. -- Abstract: The high-pressure structures of molybdenum (Mo) at zero temperature have been extensively explored through the newly developed particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on crystal structural prediction. All the experimental and earlier theoretical structures were successfully reproduced in certain pressure ranges, validating our methodology in application to Mo. A double-hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) structure found by Mikhaylushkin et al. (2008) [12] is confirmed by the present PSO calculations. The lattice parameters and physical properties of the dhcp phase were investigated based on first principles calculations. The phase transition occurs only from bcc phase to dhcp phase at 660 GPa and at zero temperature. The calculated acoustic velocities also indicate a transition from the bcc to dhcp phases for Mo. More intriguingly, the calculated density of states (DOS) shows that the dhcp structure remains metallic. The calculated electron density difference (EDD) reveals that its valence electrons are localized in the interstitial regions.

  19. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  20. Autoclaving practice in microbiology laboratories: report of a survey. The Public Health Laboratory Service Subcommittee on laboratory autoclaves.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of autoclaves in 27 laboratories, operated in accordance with the normal routine of local practice, has been monitored using thermometric equipment. Sterilising performance was unsatisfactory on 10 of 62 occasions, and cooling was inadequate on 52 of 60 occasions. PMID:649767

  1. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled

  2. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10 6 cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUT ZT (936.4 ± 120.9 b ) and AUT + M ZE (867.2 ± 49.3 b ) groups presented significantly higher values (p autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1972-1977, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  4. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  5. Proposed dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS

    Ruoff, A.L.; Vohra, Y.K.; Bassett, W.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An instrumentation proposal for dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS is described. It is the purpose of this proposed program to provide researchers in high pressure science with beam lines for X-ray diffraction studies in the megabar regime. This will involve radiation from a bending magnet as well as from a wiggler. Examples of the high pressure results up to 2.16 Mbar are shown. Diffraction patterns from bending magnet and wiggler beams are shown and compared. The need for this facility by the high pressure community is discussed. (orig.)

  6. High pressure behaviour of uranium mono pnictides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, Poonam; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2006-01-01

    The pressure induced structural phase transition of three actinide mono pnictides AX (A=U and X=As, Sb, Bi), have been studied theoretically using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 5f electrons of the actinide (uranium) ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves are compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 17GPa, 9.5GPa and 5.3 GPa respectively. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. (author)

  7. The effect of high pressure on the luminescent properties of coumarin 153

    Li Hong; He Li Ming; Wu Shi Kang; Li Yi; Yang Guo Qiang

    2002-01-01

    A dual-fluorescence emitting behaviour of coumarin 153 powder has been detected at high pressure while at ambient pressure the dye exhibits only single-band emission. Because of the strong electron-withdrawal group at site 7, these two fluorescent peaks can be ascribed to local excited state emission and charge transfer state emission, respectively.

  8. Comparative catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by polyacrylamide-gold nanocomposite synthesized by hydrothermal autoclaving and conventional heating routes

    Salaheldin, Hosam I.

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in polymeric polyacrylamide (PAAm) matrix were synthesized using conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques. The synthesized Au/PAAm nanocomposite was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of the synthesized particles was approximately 6.37 nm and 8.19 nm with the conventional heating and autoclaving thermal techniques, respectively. Electron diffraction x-ray spectroscopy and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy were used for the composition and elemental studies, which confirmed that the Au metallic atoms were synthesized and embedded within a PAAm matrix via a coordination bond between the carbonyl (-CONH2) group and the metallic NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystalline nature of the fabricated AuNPs with face centered cubic of nanocrystals. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared Au/PAAm nanocomposite for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was studied in the presence of sodium borohydrate. The synthesized AuNPs had an effective catalytic activity; the smaller NPs synthesized NPs with the conventional heating technique had a higher reaction kinetic rate in comparation with those synthesized with the autoclaving technique. Therefore, the Au/PAAm nanocomposite can be widely used as an eco-friendly, non-toxic, a fast and cost-effective product to remove versatile organic pollutants such as aromatic nitro compounds.

  9. The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave.

    Dravid, M N; Chandak, A; Phute, S U; Khadse, R K; Adchitre, H R; Kulkarni, S D

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels have forced the developed world to look for clean energy alternatives. Solar cooking is developing in Asian and African countries blessed with ample sun, but is still at an early stage. A portable autoclave was developed in India using this technology. The Prince-40 Concentrator provided adequate capacity to autoclave culture media and treat biomedical waste in a small laboratory set-up, and could save electricity worth Rs. 15,000 (188.10 GBP)/year or LPG worth Rs. 37,500 (470.25 GBP)/year. This technology would be of immense use in health centres in rural areas with frequent power cuts or no power supply. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PREPARATION OF ULTRA-LOW VOLUME WEIGHT AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Ondrej Koutny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved aerated concrete is a modern construction material that gains its popularity especially due to its thermal insulation performance resulting from low volume weight and porous structure with sufficient mechanical strength. Nowadays, there are attempts to use this material for thermal insulation purposes and to replace current systems, which have many disadvantages, mainly concerning durability. The key for improvement of thermal insulation properties is therefore obtaining a material based on autoclaved aerated concrete with extremely low volume weight (below 200 kg/m ³ ensuring good thermal isolation properties, but with sufficient mechanical properties to allow easy manipulation. This material can be prepared by foaming very fine powder materials such as silica fume or very finely ground sand. This paper deals with the possibilities of preparation and summarizes the basic requirements for successful preparation of such a material.

  11. Preparation of high-pressure phase boron nitride films by physical vapor deposition

    Zhu, P W; Zhao, Y N; Li, D M; Liu, H W; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure phases boron nitride films together with cubic, wurtzic, and explosive high-pressure phases, were successfully deposited on the metal alloy substrates by tuned substrate radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The percentage of cubic boron nitride phase in the film was about 50% as calculated by Fourier transform infrared measurements. Infrared peak position of cubic boron nitride at 1006.3 cm sup - sup 1 , which is close to the stressless state, indicates that the film has very low internal stress. Transition electron microscope micrograph shows that pure cubic boron nitride phase exits on the surface of the film. The growth mechanism of the BN films was also discussed.

  12. To the probe theory in a highly-ionized high-pressure plasma

    Baksht, F.G.; Rybakov, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The probe theory in highly-ionized high-pressure plasma is presented. The situation typical for high-pressure plasma, when the plasma in the main part of the near-probe layer is in the state of local ionization equilibrium with general temperature for electrons and heavy particles. Possibility is discussed for determining the parameters of non-perturbed plasma through analysis of the probe characteristic at place of ion saturation, transition area and by the probe floating potential. The experiments were carried out by example of highly-ionized xenon plasma under atmospheric pressure

  13. Autoclave growth, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 nanowires

    Han, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Li, Qidong; Liu, Huatao; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2017-12-01

    High-quality single crystalline gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanowires have been successfully prepared at very low temperatures of 200-240 °C by a high pressure solid state (HPSS) method in an autoclave with a new chemical reaction route, where Gd, H3BO3, Mg and I2 were used as raw materials. The crystal structure, morphology, valence, magnetic and optical absorption properties were investigated using XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS, SQUID magnetometry and optical measurements. HRTEM images and SAED patterns reveal that the GdB6 nanowires are single crystalline with a preferred growth direction along [001]. The XPS spectrum suggests that the valence of Gd ion in GdB6 is trivalent. The effective magnetic momentum per Gd3+ in GdB6 is about 6.26 μB. The optical properties exhibit weak absorption in the visible light range, but relatively strong absorbance in the NIR and UV range. Low work function and high NIR absorption can make GdB6 nanowires a potential solar radiation shielding material for solar cells or other NIR blocking applications.

  14. Autoclave Sterilization of PEDOT:PSS Electrophysiology Devices.

    Uguz, Ilke; Ganji, Mehran; Hama, Adel; Tanaka, Atsunori; Inal, Sahika; Youssef, Ahmed; Owens, Roisin M; Quilichini, Pascale P; Ghestem, Antoine; Bernard, Christophe; Dayeh, Shadi A; Malliaras, George G

    2016-12-01

    Autoclaving, the most widely available sterilization method, is applied to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrophysiology devices. The process does not harm morphology or electrical properties, while it effectively kills E. coli intentionally cultured on the devices. This finding paves the way to widespread introduction of PEDOT:PSS electrophysiology devices to the clinic. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  16. The use of on-line ion chromatography for high temperature and high pressure reaction studies

    Lynch, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the use of on-line ion chromatography as a tool for chemistry reaction studies in small volume systems. The technique was used to study chemistry behavior in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave system. A dual analyzer, multi-channel on-line ion chromatograph (IC) was configured to automate the sampling and analysis. Analytical channels were set up for analysis of inorganic anions, monovalent cations, conductivity, and pH. Conductivity and pH were measured using the IC as a flow injection analyzer. Use of the IC system provides significant advantages over conventional sampling and analysis techniques: Reduction in sample volume, a closed sampling system that protects air or light sensitive analytes from breakdown, around-the-clock test performance combined with automatic calibration and quality control checking, and detection and tracking of reaction products or unexpected contaminants. Methods used to correct measured concentrations for the effects of sampling and for calculation of control chemical loss half-lives are presented. A limited evaluation of the flow injection analysis methods for conductivity and pH is provided

  17. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  18. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  19. The compact mirrors with high pressure plasmas

    Anikeev, A.V.; Bagryansky, P.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lizunov, A.A.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Prikhodko, V.V.; Collatz, S.; Noack, K.

    2004-01-01

    The gas dynamic trap (GDP) experimental facility at the Budker Institute Novosibirsk is a long axial-symmetric mirror system with a high mirror ratio variable in the range of 12.5 - 100 for the confinement of a two-component plasma. One component is a collisional plasma with ion and electron temperatures up to 100 eV and density up to 10 14 cm -3 . The second component is the population of high-energetic fast ions with energies of 2-18 keV and a density up to 10 13 cm -3 which is produced by neutral beam injection (NBI). GDP is currently undergoing an upgrade whose first stage is the achievement of the synthesized hot ion plasmoid experiment (SHIP). This experiment aims at the investigation of plasmas and at the knowledge of plasma parameters that have never been achieved before in magnetic mirrors. The paper presents the physical concept of the SHIP experiment, the results of numerical pre-calculations and draws conclusions regarding possible scenarios of experiments. The simulation of a maximal NBI power regime with hydrogen injection gave a fast ion density of 1.2*10 14 cm -3 with a mean energy of 14 keV. The calculation of the deuterium injection regime with 2 MW NBI power gave a maximal fast ion density of 1.9*10 14 cm -3 with a beam energy of 9 keV. The calculation of an experimental scenario with reduced magnetic field resulted in a maximal β-value of 62%, so this regime is recommended for the study of high-β effects in plasmas confined in axial-symmetric mirrors

  20. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  1. Production of nanograined intermetallics using high-pressure torsion

    Alhamidi, Ali; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji, E-mail: horita@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Formation of intermetallics is generally feasible at high temperatures when the lattice diffusion is fast enough to form the ordered phases. This study shows that nanograined intermetallics are formed at a low temperature as 573 K in Al- 25 mol% Ni, Al- 50 mol.% Ni and Al- 50 mol% Ti powder mixtures through powder consolidation using high-pressure torsion (HPT). For the three compositions, the hardness gradually increases with straining but saturates to the levels as high as 550-920 Hv. In addition to the high hardness, the TiAl material exhibits high yield strength as {approx}3 GPa with good ductility as {approx}23%, when they are examined by micropillar compression tests. X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the significant increase in hardness and strength is due to the formation of nanograined intermetallics such as Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, TiAl{sub 3}, TiAl{sub 2} and TiAl with average grain sizes of 20-40 nm (author)

  2. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  3. Band structure of CdTe under high pressure

    Jayam, Sr. Gerardin; Nirmala Louis, C.; Amalraj, A.

    2005-01-01

    The band structures and density of states of cadmium telluride (CdTe) under various pressures ranging from normal to 4.5 Mbar are obtained. The electronic band structure at normal pressure of CdTe (ZnS structure) is analyzed and the direct band gap value is found to be 1.654 eV. CdTe becomes metal and superconductor under high pressure but before that it undergoes structural phase transition from ZnS phase to NaCl phase. The equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and the phase transition pressure at which the compounds undergo structural phase transition from ZnS to NaCl are predicted from the total energy calculations. The density of states at the Fermi level (N(E F )) gets enhanced after metallization, which leads to the superconductivity in CdTe. In our calculation, the metallization pressure (P M = 1.935 Mbar) and the corresponding reduced volume ((V/V 0 ) M = 0.458) are estimated. Metallization occurs via direct closing of band gap at Γ point. (author)

  4. Colloquium: High pressure and road to room temperature superconductivity

    Gor'kov, Lev P.; Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    2018-01-01

    This Colloquium is concerned with the superconducting state of new high-Tc compounds containing hydrogen ions (hydrides). Recently superconductivity with the record-setting transition temperature of Tc=203 K was reported for sulfur hydrides under high pressure. In general, high pressure serves as a path finding tool toward novel structures, including those with very high Tc . The field has a rich and interesting history. Currently, it is broadly recognized that superconductivity in sulfur hydrides owes its origin to the phonon mechanism. However, the picture differs from the conventional one in important ways. The phonon spectrum in sulfur hydride is both broad and has a complex structure. Superconductivity arises mainly due to strong coupling to the high-frequency optical modes, although the acoustic phonons also make a noticeable contribution. A new approach is described, which generalizes the standard treatment of the phonon mechanism and makes it possible to obtain an analytical expression for Tc in this phase. It turns out that, unlike in the conventional case, the value of the isotope coefficient (for the deuterium-hydrogen substitution) varies with the pressure and reflects the impact of the optical modes. The phase diagram, that is the pressure dependence of Tc , is rather peculiar. A crucial feature is that increasing pressure results in a series of structural transitions, including the one which yields the superconducting phase with the record Tc of 203 K. In a narrow region near P ≈150 GPa the critical temperature rises sharply from Tc≈120 to ≈200 K . It seems that the sharp structural transition, which produces the high-Tc phase, is a first-order phase transition caused by interaction between the order parameter and lattice deformations. A remarkable feature of the electronic spectrum in the high-Tc phase is the appearance of small pockets at the Fermi level. Their presence leads to a two-gap spectrum, which can, in principle, be observed with the

  5. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  6. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of sulfite-based polyoxometalates at high temperature and high pressure

    Quesada Cabrera, Raul; Firth, Steven; Blackman, Christopher S.; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy; McMillan, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes occurring within non-conventional Dawson-type [α/β-Mo 18 O 54 (SO 3 ) 2 ] 4− polyanions in the form of tetrapentylammonium salts were studied by a combination of IR, Raman and visible spectroscopy at high temperature and high pressure. Evidence of the formation of bronze-type materials above 400 K and also upon pressurization to 8 GPa is presented. This conclusion is suggested to be a general result for polyoxometalate compounds subjected to extreme conditions and it opens opportunities for the design of new materials with interesting optical and electronic properties. - Graphical abstract: Structural changes occurring within non-conventional Dawson-type [α/β-Mo 18 O 54 (SO 3 ) 2 ] 4− polyanions in the form of tetrapentylammonium salts were studied by a combination of IR, Raman and visible spectroscopy at high temperature and high pressure. Evidence of the formation of bronze-type materials above 400 K and also upon pressurization to 8 GPa is presented. This conclusion is suggested to be a general result for polyoxometalate compounds subjected to extreme conditions and it opens opportunities for the design of new materials with interesting optical and electronic properties. Highlights: ► Spectroscopy studies of non-conventional Wells–Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs) at high temperature and high pressure. ► Discussion on the stability of two POM isomers. ► Local formation of bronze-like materials: possibilities for a new synthetic method at high pressure from POM precursors.

  8. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  9. High pressure processing reaches the U.S. market

    Mermelstein, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first food product commercially produced by a U.S. company using high-pressure processing has had successful test market results. High-pressure processing permits food to be preserved by subjecting it to pressures in the range of 60,000-100,000 psi for a short time instead of exposing the food to heat, freezing, chemicals, or irradiation. To produce Classic Guacamole, Avomex of Keller, Texas, uses a batch isostatic press to deactivate the enzymes in the avocado and to kill bacteria, obtaining a refrigerated shelf life of over 30 days. The guacamole is then vacuum packed and processed again. The product undergoes no heat treatment and does not contain preservatives, and the high pressure does not affect its texture, color, or taste. Meanwhile, a continuous system for high-pressure processing of pumpable foods is currently being developed by Flow International of Kent, Washington, and will be used for testing and applications work at Oregon State University

  10. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  11. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  12. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  13. Bio-Hemostat-Acute Treatment Modality for High Pressure Hemorrhage

    Carr, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    Bleeding from an artery is difficult to control due to the high pressures found in the arterial system Hemorrhage is especially problematic in penetrating wounds where the bleeding source may not be...

  14. Applicable technical method for freeze-substitution of high pressure ...

    bmshsj

    2011-11-02

    Quintana, 1994) are available for the microscopic visualization of intracellular organelles. Cryo- fixation, plunge freezing, propane jet freezing, cold metal block freezing, and high pressure freezing provide advantages over chemical ...

  15. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  16. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  17. Moisture conditions of modern structures made of autoclaved aerated concrete in operation period

    P.S. Zyryanov; G.I. Grinfeld; Р.A. Morozov; I.A. Sogomonyan

    2011-01-01

    In St.-Petersburg and area six organizations making cellular concrete of autoclave hardening operate. At all enterprises the cellular concrete is made by the gas way of pore development by molding technology. The molding technology in practice means that the mass humidity of concrete on an exit from autoclaves will be at level of 35-45 % (great values of humidity correspond to smaller density). The similar situation is observed in other regions: more than 80 % of all autoclave cellular concre...

  18. Preparation of extra-small nisin nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial activity after autoclave treatment.

    Chang, Ranran; Lu, Hao; Li, Man; Zhang, Shuangling; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-04-15

    Nisin is applied broadly in the food industry as an antimicrobial peptide. The objective of this study is to prepare nisin nanoparticles using free nisin by a facile nanoprecipitation technique and to investigate their antimicrobial activity after high-temperature processing. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the size of extra-small nisin nanoparticles with different initial concentrations of nisin (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) was 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. The nisin nanoparticles were stable at pH 5.0 with the smallest size. Moreover, nisin nanoparticles exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than free nisin at a concentration below 2.0 mg/ml after autoclave treatment. These results suggested that nisin nanoparticles could serve as a potential food preservative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect Of Ethylene Oxide, Autoclave and Ultra Violet Sterilizations On Surface Topography Of Pet Electrospun Fibers

    Sebnem DUZYER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the effects of different sterilization methods on electrospun polyester. Ethylene oxide (EO, autoclave (AU and ultraviolet (UV sterilization methods were applied to electrospun fibers produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET solutions with concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 wt.%. The surface characteristics of the fibers were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, surface pore size studies and contact angle measurements. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests were carried out to characterize the thermal properties. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR tests were performed to analyze the micro structural properties. SEM studies showed that different sterilization methods made significant changes on the surfaces of the fibers depending on the PET concentration. Although the effects were decreased with the increasing polymer concentration, the fiber structure was damaged especially with the EO sterilization. The contact angle values were decreased with the UV sterilization method the most.

  20. Model of Structural Fragmentation Induced by High Pressure Torsion

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin; Sedláček, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2010), s. 88-98 ISSN 1606-5131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : High-pressure torsion * intergranular glide * homogeneous deformation mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/kruzik-model of structural fragmentation induced by high pressure torsion.pdf

  1. Thermal neutron scattering studies of condensed matter under high pressures

    Carlile, C.J.; Salter, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Although temperature has been used as a thermodynamic variable for samples in thermal neutron scattering experiments since the inception of the neutron technique, it is only in the last decade that high pressures have been utilised for this purpose. In the paper the problems particular to this field of work are outlined and a review is made of the types of high-pressure cells used and the scientific results obtained from the experiments. 103 references. (author)

  2. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    Kamigaki, Kazuo; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  3. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  4. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal OsB 2 , a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB 2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB 2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from −225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB 2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB 2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron micrograph of hexagonal OsB 2 nanocrystallite with corresponding fast Fourier transform and simulated diffraction pattern. - Highlights: • Hexagonal OsB 2 has been synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical method. • Hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in P63/mmc space group (No. 194), a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. • The hexagonal structure was confirmed by a transmission electron microscope. • No phase transformation was observed after being annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days. • 20 wt% of h-OsB 2 was transformed to o-OsB 2 after being sintered at 1500 °C for 5 min

  6. Water-bearing, high-pressure Ca-silicates

    Németh, Péter; Leinenweber, Kurt; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Groy, Thomas; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Kovács, István J.; Kovács, Judit S.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2017-07-01

    Water-bearing minerals provide fundamental knowledge regarding the water budget of the mantle and are geophysically significant through their influence on the rheological and seismic properties of Earth's interior. Here we investigate the CaO-SiO2-H2O system at 17 GPa and 1773 K, corresponding to mantle transition-zone condition, report new high-pressure (HP) water-bearing Ca-silicates and reveal the structural complexity of these phases. We document the HP polymorph of hartrurite (Ca3SiO5), post-hartrurite, which is tetragonal with space group P4/ncc, a = 6.820 (5), c = 10.243 (8) Å, V = 476.4 (8) Å3, and Z = 4, and is isostructural with Sr3SiO5. Post-hartrurite occurs in hydrous and anhydrous forms and coexists with larnite (Ca2SiO4), which we find also has a hydrous counterpart. Si is 4-coordinated in both post-hartrurite and larnite. In their hydrous forms, H substitutes for Si (4H for each Si; hydrogrossular substitution). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows broad hydroxyl absorption bands at ∼3550 cm-1 and at 3500-3550 cm-1 for hydrous post-hartrurite and hydrous larnite, respectively. Hydrous post-hartrurite has a defect composition of Ca2.663Si0.826O5H1.370 (5.84 weight % H2O) according to electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the Si deficiency relative to Ca is also observed in the single-crystal data. Hydrous larnite has average composition of Ca1.924Si0.851O4H0.748 (4.06 weight % H2O) according to EPMA, and it is in agreement with the Si occupancy obtained using X-ray data collected on a single crystal. Superlattice reflections occur in electron-diffraction patterns of the hydrous larnite and could indicate crystallographic ordering of the hydroxyl groups and their associated cation defects. Although textural and EPMA-based compositional evidence suggests that hydrous perovskite may occur in high-Ca-containing (or low silica-activity) systems, the FTIR measurement does not show a well-defined hydroxyl absorption band for this

  7. Studies on synthesis of diamond at high pressure and temperature

    Kailath, Ansu J.

    chapter is a general introduction incorporating the information regarding diamond together with a brief history of diamond synthesis. It also includes the details of the high pressure synthesis of diamond, the uses of diamond grits, the advantages of the synthetic diamond grit over natural grit and an outline to elucidate the reasons which prompted to undertake the present work. The details of the technique used in the present studies for synthesis of diamond grits by high-pressure high-temperature process are included in chapter II. The hydraulic press used for synthesis, the details of the reactant materials, stacking of the high pressure cell and the details of synthesis run have been described together with the separation procedure to isolate diamond grits from the frozen slug. Different analytical and characterization techniques used in the present studies for the analysis and characterization of the reactant materials, synthesized diamonds and the crystallization medium have been illustrated in chapter III. The effect of different synthesizing parameters on synthesized diamond crystals were studied. This study includes: (a) dependence of yield of diamond on temperature and pressure, (b) dependence of crystal size on cook length, (c) effect of variation of the relative amounts of carbonaceous material and catalyst on synthesis, (d) morphological variation and (e) effect of pressure pulse on synthesized crystals. Various observations made during this study and the results obtained have been compiled in chapter IV. The synthesized diamond crystals were characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy. The results obtained have been compiled in chapter V. In addition to these, the results obtained from the Infrared Spectra and the Electron Paramagnetic Spectra have also been included. Studies of crystallization medium and inclusions in the synthesized diamonds were carried out. This include

  8. Evaluation of Out-of-Autoclave (OOA epoxy system

    Fernanda Guilherme

    Full Text Available Abstract Epoxy resins (EP usually cure in autoclave to minimize resin voids and to achieve the desired resin/fiber ratio. Cure parameters such as temperature, vacuum and pressure levels are controlled and monitored. Aiming time and cost optimization, new out-of-autoclave (OOA cure processes have been developed lately. This study evaluated the cure cycle and the effect of non-programmed interruptions in an OOA process. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results show similarities between the resin used and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and also that the curing system is composed of cyan and sulfur hardeners, codified in industry, as Components of #2511 Resin System. The cure cycle and its interruptions were simulated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA. The samples obtained were evaluated by FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, whose results show that the degree of cure varying between 0.8 to 0.85 was achieved at 120 °C.

  9. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    2013-07-01

    around 2 ms and 12 ms in this figure, and during the discharge period, the current was continuous without any pulse . Once a discharge generated in...electron avalanches [10]. Fig. 1. High pressure ozone generator. (a) Top view (b) Side view Fig. 2. Barrier discharge device. Table 1... discharge N. Osawa P1 P, UY. Yoshioka UP2 P, R. Hanaoka P1 P 1 Center for Electric, Optic and Energy applications, Department of Electric and

  10. High-pressure effects on cooking loss and histological structure of beef muscle

    Liu, Anjun; Zhan, Hu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Dongyue; Jia, Peiqi

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of high pressures (up to 600 MPa) applied at room temperature for 10 min on beef cooking loss and structure. The data on cooking loss, pH and protein solubility, as well as the electron microscopy, illustrate the changes in cooking loss and structure with high pressure processing (HPP). There is a significant reduction in cooking loss of beef with HPP. When the beef sample is imposed upon by 300 or 400 MPa, the cooking loss reduction is about 12%. Further, the pH of beef is dramatically increased as the pressure increases, and the pH increases by about 5% when imposed upon by 500 MPa. When a high pressure was applied at room temperature, the structure of the beef tissue apparently changed. Muscle fiber fragments gradually became slender and sarcomeres became lengthened. Our data indicated that high-pressure treatment on beef leads to stretching of the muscle fiber and an increase in the water-holding capacity.

  11. High-pressure phase transition and properties of spinel ZnMn2O4

    Åbrink, S.; Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif

    1999-01-01

    to normal pressure. The c/a ratio reduces from 1.62 to 1.10 above P-c and remains nearly pressure independent in the high-pressure phase. The transition is attributed to the changes in electron configuration of the Mn3+ ions. According to the crystal field theory, the e(g) electron of octahedrally......-pressure behavior of ZnMn2O4 was investigated up to 52 GPa using the energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction technique and synchrotron radiation. The structural first-order phase transition from the body-centered to primitive-tetragonal cell takes place at P-c = 23 GPa. The high-pressure phase is metastable down...... coordinated Mn3+ is either in the d(z)(2) orbital or in the d(x2-y2). In the first configuration the MnO6 octahedron will be elongated and this is the case at normal pressure, while the second configuration gives the flattened octahedron. In the high-pressure phase some proportion of the e(g) electrons...

  12. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  13. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    Kamimura, N; Sotome, S; Shimizu, A; Nakajima, K; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4 0 C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4 0 C.

  14. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  15. Methods of studying oxide scales grown on zirconium alloys in autoclaves and in a PWR

    Blank, H.; Bart, G.; Thiele, H.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of water-side corrosion of zirconium alloys has been a field of research for more than 25 years, but the details of the mechanisms involved still cannot be put into a coherent picture. Improved methods are required to establish the details of the microstructure of the oxide scales. A new approach has been made for a general analysis of oxide specimens from scales grown on the zirconium-based cladding alloys of PWR rods in order to analyse the morphology of these scales, the topography of the oxide/metal interface and the crystal structures close to this interface: a) Instead of using the conventional pickling solutions, the Zr-alloys are dissolved using a 'softer' solution (Br 2 in an organic solvent) in order to avoid damage to the oxide at the oxide/metal interface to be analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). A second advantage of this method is easy etching of the grain structure of Zr-alloys for SEM analysis; b) By using the particular properties of the oxide scales, the corrosion-rate-determining innermost part of the oxide layer at the oxide/metal interface can be separated from the rest of the oxide scale and then analysed by SEM, STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and electron diffraction after dissolution of the alloy. Examples are given from oxides grown on Zr-alloys in a pressurized water reactor and in autoclaves. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 9 refs

  16. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste (MSW) pulp

    Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW, yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated. The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s...

  17. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of GLARE panels using resistance heating

    Muller, B.; Palardy, G.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2017-01-01

    Autoclave manufacturing of fibre metal laminates, such as GLARE, is an expensive process.Therefore, there is an increasing interest to find cost effective out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes without diminishing the laminate quality. The aim of this study is to

  18. Evaluation of high pressure Freon decontamination. I. Preliminary tests

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure Freon blasting techniques are being evaluated for applications involving the removal of non-adherent radioactive particulate contamination at SRP. Very little waste is generated by this technique because the used Freon can be easily distilled and reused. One of the principle advantages of this technique is that decontaminated electrical equipment can be returned to service immediately without drying, unlike high-pressure water blasting techniques. Preliminary scoutin tests evaluating high-pressure Freon blasting for decontamination at SRP were carried out at Quadrex Co., Oak Ridge, TN, October 12 and 13. DWPF-type contamination (raw sludge plus volatiles) and separations area-type contamination (diluted boiling point (47.6 0 C) allow it to rapidly separate from higher boiling contaminants via distillation with filtration to remove particulate material, and distillation with condensation, the solvent may be recovered for indefinite reuse while reducing the radioactive waste to a minimum. 3 references, 5 figures, 6 tables

  19. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  20. Diamonds: powerful tools for high-pressure physics

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Diamond-anvil high-pressure studies have progressed to the point where they complement shock-wave studies. Because they operate at static high pressure, they permit time-consuming procedures, such as x-ray diffraction measurements for determining crystal structure. The sample material is completely recoverable and the method is adaptable to minute advantage when dealing with rare or hazardous materials. One of our goals in investigating the high-pressure behavior of iridium was to test the theoretical prediction that iridium would exhibit a phase transformation from the face-centered cubic crystal structure at about 9 GPa. Our finding that no such transformation takes place even at pressures up to 30 GPa will need to be taken into account by physicsts working to improve solid-state theory

  1. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  2. Modification of enzymes by use of high-pressure homogenization.

    Dos Santos Aguilar, Jessika Gonçalves; Cristianini, Marcelo; Sato, Helia Harumi

    2018-07-01

    High-pressure is an emerging and relatively new technology that can modify various molecules. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) has been used in several studies on protein modification, especially in enzymes used or found in food, from animal, plant or microbial resources. According to the literature, the enzymatic activity can be modulated under pressure causing inactivation, stabilization or activation of the enzymes, which, depending on the point of view could be very useful. Homogenization can generate changes in the structure of the enzyme modifying various chemical bonds (mainly weak bonds) causing different denaturation levels and, consequently, affecting the catalytic activity. This review aims to describe the various alterations due to HPH treatment in enzymes, to show the influence of high-pressure on proteins and to report the HPH effects on the enzymatic activity of different enzymes employed in the food industry and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  4. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-pressure phase transition in Ho2O3

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Ravindran, T.R.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on holmium sesquioxide (Ho 2 O 3 ) have been carried out up to a pressure of ∼17 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Holmium oxide, which has a cubic or bixbyite structure under ambient conditions, undergoes an irreversible structural phase transition at around 9.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase has been identified to be low symmetry monoclinic type. The two phases coexist to up to about 16 GPa, above which the parent phase disappears. The high-pressure laser-Raman studies have revealed that the prominent Raman band ∼370 cm -1 disappears around the similar transition pressure. The bulk modulus of the parent phase is reported.

  6. Diagnostics and modeling of high pressure streamer induced discharges

    Marode, E.; Dessante, P.; Deschamps, N.; Deniset, C.

    2001-01-01

    A great variety of diagnostic has been applied to gain information on basic parameter governing high pressure nonthermal filamentary plasmas (and namely streamer induced filamentary discharges). Apart from electrical diagnostics, gas discharge, in contrast with solid state physics, can greatly benefit from all optical techniques owing to its ''transparent'' state. Emission and absorption spectroscopy, as well as LIF or CARS (talk are given during this meeting on these two techniques) are among such specific possibilities. The figures gained from these diagnostic measurements has generally no meaning by itself. They must be worked out, by means of calibrated former results, and/or by using them as input in high pressure plasma modeling. Mixing experimental and modeling approach is necessary for reaching relevant physical knowledge of the high pressure filamentary discharges processes. It is shown that diffusion, and thermal space and time distribution, must fully be taken into account

  7. Effect of autoclaving on the surfaces of TiN -coated and conventional nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Spagnuolo, G; Ametrano, G; D'Antò, V; Rengo, C; Simeone, M; Riccitiello, F; Amato, M

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments. A total of 60 NiTi rotary instruments, 30 ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer) and 30 TiN -coated AlphaKite (Komet/Gebr. Brasseler), were analysed. Instruments were evaluated in the as-received condition and after 1, 5 and 10 sterilization cycles. After sterilization, the samples were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface chemical analysis was performed on each instrument with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, the samples were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square value (RMS) of the scanned surface profiles were recorded. Data were analysed by means of anova followed by Tukey's test. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the presence of pitting and deep milling marks in all instruments. EDS analysis confirmed that both types of instruments were composed mainly of nickel and titanium, whilst AlphaKite had additional nitride. After multiple autoclave sterilization cycles, SEM examinations revealed an increase in surface alterations, and EDS values indicated changes in chemical surface composition in all instruments. Ra and RMS values of ProTaper significantly increased after 5 (P = 0.006) and 10 cycles (P = 0.002) with respect to the as-received instruments, whilst AlphaKite showed significant differences compared with the controls after 10 cycles (P = 0.03). Multiple autoclave sterilization cycles modified the surface topography and chemical composition of conventional and TiN -coated NiTi rotary instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. High-pressure test loop design and application

    Burnette, R.D.; Graves, J.N.; Blair, P.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-07-01

    A high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed for the purpose of performing a number of chemistry experiments at simulated HTGR conditions of temperature, pressure, flow, and impurity content. The HPTL can be used to develop, modify, and verify computer codes for a variety of chemical processes involving gas phase transport in the reactor. Processes such as graphite oxidation, fission product transport, fuel reactions, purification systems, and dust entrainment can be studied at high pressure, which would largely eliminate difficulties in correlating existing laboratory data and reactor conditions

  9. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures. [. gamma. rays

    Milinchuk, V; KIRJUKHIN, V; KLINSHPONT, E

    1977-06-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibers were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene, 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures.

  10. Very high pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy using diamond anvil cells

    Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of generating very high pressure by means of Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) for Mossbauer Effect applications is outlined. A comprehensive description is presented of the principles of DAC, modification for the use in M/umlt o/ssbauer Spectroscopy (MS), the Merrill--Bassett and Bassett cells, of pressure measurements, of gasketing and collimation, and of hydrostatic media. Examples of 151 Eu, 119 Sn and 129 I are given showing the feasibility of DAC applications in MS. Other isotopes with potential use for high pressure MS using DAC are suggested. 27 refs., 9 figs

  11. Calculation of cooling tower plumes for high pressure wintry situations

    Gassmann, F.; Tinguely, M.; Haschke, D.

    1982-12-01

    The diffusion of the plumes of the projected nuclear power plants at Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt, during high pressure wintry conditions, has been examined using a mathematical model to simulate the plumes. For these calculations, microaerological measurements were made in the proximity of Kaiseraugst and Schwoerstadt. These give a typical image of the weather during high pressure wintry conditions, which is normally associated with an inversion, sometimes strong, at a low height. Dry cooling towers with natural draught, which offer an alternative solution to the wet cooling towers proposed for Kasieraugst, are examined equally. (Auth./G.T.H.)

  12. Infrared spectra of hexamethylbenzene—tetracyanoethylene complexes at high pressures

    Yamada, Haruka; Saheki, Masao

    Infrared spectra of hexamethylbenzene(HMB)—tetracyanoethylene(TCNE), 1:1 and 2:1, complexes were measured under high pressures, 11˜4,000 bar. It was found that the CC stretching (A g) band of TCNE became much stronger at high pressures than at 1 bar and that the intensity increase of this band was especially large for both of the complexes. Based on these facts the strong appearance of the CC band at 1 bar, which is inconsistent with the symmetry consideration derived from X-ray analysis, can be discussed.

  13. High-pressure cell for simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy

    Sanz, Alejandro; Hansen, Henriette Wase; Jakobsen, Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we report on the design, manufacture, and testing of a high-pressure cell for simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy. This cell is a unique tool for studying dynamics on different time scales, from kilo- to picoseconds, covering universal features such as the α relaxation......, a cylindrical capacitor is positioned within the bore of the high-pressure container. The capacitor consists of two concentric electrodes separated by insulating spacers. The performance of this setup has been successfully verified by collecting simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy data...

  14. Magnetization at high pressure in CeP

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okayama, Y.; Môri, N.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence of magnetization below 60 K up to 1.6 GPa in the low-carrier concentration system CeP showing two step transitions at T = TL and TH under high pressure. At high pressure, M( P, T) exhibits a maximum at around the lower transition temperature TL. This behavior implies that the magnetic state changes at TL. The pressure dependence of isothermal magnetization M( P) is different above and below TL. In fact, M( P) below TL exhibits a maximum at around 1.4 GPa, whereas M( P) above TL increases steeply with pressure up to 1.6 GPa.

  15. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  16. Phase transformations in cerium and thorium metals at ultra high pressures

    Vohra, Y.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of pressure variable in phase transformation which has not been fully exploited in metallic elements and their alloys. The static compression of over 50% in volume can readily be obtained in most metals and this tremendous change in inter-atomic distances can lead to the formation of new exotic crystal structures. The pressure-induced electron transfer amongst existing electronic energy bands and the occupation of new bands are the driving forces in a rich variety of phase transformations. The modern high pressure diamond anvil cell techniques can produce calibrated static pressures of over 300 to 400 GPa range and this technology, when interfaced with the synchrotron radiation sources, can yield rapid structural information (1-3). These capabilities have given new impetus for investigation of phase transformations in metallic systems at extreme conditions of temperatures and pressures and in establishing phase boundaries at high pressures and high temperatures. Cerium (Ce) and thorium (Th) metals occupy special positions in the periodic table at the beginning of the 4-f lanthanide and 5-f, actinide series, respectively. Ce has one electron in the localized 4-f shell, apart from the three valence electrons. Th metal, on the other hand, has four valence electrons and an unoccupied 5-f band above the Fermi-energy at ambient conditions. In view of the unoccupied 5-f band, Th metal is normally regarded as a tetravalent transition metal like Ti, Zr, and Hf and its bonding and other electronic properties can be explained within the tetravalent transition metal framework. However, the application of ultra-high pressures causes the delocalization of the 4-f shell in Ce and it is believed that Ce above 0.8 GPa pressure is a 4-f band metal

  17. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    Ferretti, D.; Michelini, E.; Rosati, G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM

  18. Cracking in autoclaved aerated concrete: Experimental investigation and XFEM modeling

    Ferretti, D., E-mail: daniele.ferretti@unipr.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Michelini, E. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Land Management Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, P.co Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Rosati, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    The paper aims to investigate and model cracking development in beams and deep-beams made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Fracture mechanics of AAC has been first studied by performing three-point bending tests on beams, similar to those commonly used for ordinary concrete elements. In some of these tests, crack growth has been also monitored by using ESPI laser technique. In this way, it has been possible to calibrate the main parameters of a proper cohesive law by means of extended finite element inverse analysis. Subsequently, cracking tests have been also performed on deep-beams, whose behavior is more representative of full scale walls. To validate the proposed cohesive law, deep-beam experimental behavior has been finally simulated through XFEM.

  19. Methane biofiltration using autoclaved aerated concrete as the carrier material.

    Ganendra, Giovanni; Mercado-Garcia, Daniel; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Boeckx, Pascal; Ho, Adrian; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    The methane removal capacity of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) culture in a biofilter setup using autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) as a highly porous carrier material was tested. Batch experiment was performed to optimize MOB immobilization on AAC specimens where optimum methane removal was obtained when calcium chloride was not added during bacterial inoculation step and 10-mm-thick AAC specimens were used. The immobilized MOB could remove methane at low concentration (~1000 ppmv) in a biofilter setup for 127 days at average removal efficiency (RE) of 28.7 %. Unlike a plug flow reactor, increasing the total volume of the filter by adding a biofilter in series did not result in higher total RE. MOB also exhibited a higher abundance at the bottom of the filter, in proximity with the methane gas inlet where a high methane concentration was found. Overall, an efficient methane biofilter performance could be obtained using AAC as the carrier material.

  20. Two new planar coil designs for a high pressure radio frequency plasma source

    Munsat, T.; Hooke, W. M.; Bozeman, S. P.; Washburn, S.

    1995-04-01

    Two planar coil designs for a high pressure rf plasma source are investigated using spectroscopic techniques and circuit analysis. In an Ar plasma a truncated version of the commonly used ``spiral'' coil is found to produce improvements in peak electron density of 20% over the full version. A coil with figure-8 geometry is found to move plasma inhomogeneities off of center and produce electron densities comparable to the spiral coils. Both of these characteristics are advantageous in industrial applications. Coil design characteristics for favorable power coupling are also determined, including the necessity of closed hydrodynamic plasma loops and the drawback of closely situated antiparallel coil currents.

  1. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  2. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies on U-Al systems

    Sahu, P.Ch.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Subramanian, N.; Yousuf, Mohammad; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, high pressure x-ray diffraction studies of the three U-Al compounds, namely, UAl 2 , UAl 3 and UAl 4 are presented. The experiments are carried out using a unique diamond anvil high pressure x-ray diffraction system in the Guinier geometry up to a maximum pressure of ∼ 35 GPa. The compressibility behaviour of UAl 2 is consistent with its itinerant 5f states, whereas that of UAl 3 and UAl 4 indicate more towards their localized nature. Among these three compounds, a structural phase transition in UAl 2 has been observed at ∼ 11 GPa and the structure of the high pressure phase has been identified to be of MgNi 2 type with space group P6 3 /mmc. The structure of UAl 2 at NTP is of MgCu 2 type with space group Fd3m. From the electron to atom ratio (e/α) consideration, another structural phase transition, namely, MgNi 2 -MgCu 2 at a higher pressure is proposed. Further, on a similar consideration, a new pressure induced structural sequence, namely, MgCu 2 -MgNi 2 (or MgZn 2 -MgCu 2 ) in the AB 2 type compounds of the f electron based systems is suggested. (author)

  3. Ab initio pseudopotential studies of cubic BC2N under high pressure

    Pan Zicheng; Sun Hong; Chen Changfeng

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic study of the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of various cubic BC 2 N phases under high pressure. Ab initio pseudopotential total-energy and phonon calculations have been carried out to examine the changes in the structural parameters, bonding behaviours, band structures, and dynamic instabilities caused by phonon softening in these phases. We find that an experimentally synthesized high-density phase of cubic BC 2 N exhibits outstanding stability in the structural and electronic properties up to very high pressures. On the other hand, another experimentally identified phase with lower density and lower symmetry undergoes a dramatic structural transformation with a volume and bond-length collapse and a concomitant semi-metal to semiconductor transition. A third phase is predicted to be favourable over the above-mentioned lower-density phase by the enthalpy calculations. However, the dynamic phonon calculations reveal that it develops imaginary phonon modes and, therefore, is unstable in the experimental pressure range. The calculations indicate that its synthesis may be achieved at reduced pressures. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for the high-pressure behaviour of the cubic BC 2 N phases and reveal their interesting properties that can be verified by experiments

  4. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing

    Rauscher, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  5. Physics of mercury-free high-pressure discharge lamps

    Born, M

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high-pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no 13N8072 and 13N8264. Due to upcoming European legislations which are expected for the year 2003, the replacement of mercury in lighting products is a high priority task. For example, mercury-free headlight discharge lamps are requested by the automotive industry. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transitions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same than for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI 3 , axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al 2 O 3 ) as a wall material. Electric field strengths of 6.0 and 8.6 V mm -1 are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 and 100 lm W -1 are found in metal halide

  6. Physical aspects of mercury-free high pressure discharge lamps

    Born, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of recent results about the replacement of mercury in high pressure discharge lamps by metallic zinc. Actually, this topic is of high relevance for the lighting industry due to the need of more environmentally friendly products. The work presented here is supported by the German government under contract no. 13N8072. Pure zinc/argon discharges as well as lamps including zinc or mercury and metal halide additives are investigated. Experimental data are compared with model calculations of the energy balance involving the transport of heat and radiation. Since the excitation energies of relevant zinc transistions are lower than for mercury, axis temperatures of pure zinc lamps are about 300 K below the value of mercury arcs. In addition, the thermal conductivity of zinc including the contribution of radiation diffusion is larger than compared to mercury. From lamp voltage measurements it is found that the cross section for elastical electron scattering by zinc atoms is about the same as for mercury. When adding metal halides to a pure zinc discharge with argon as a starting gas, i.e. NaI, TlI, DyI3, axis temperatures decrease to about 5100 K due to strong radiation cooling. In order to obtain sufficiently large lamp voltages, wall temperatures of more than 1300 K are adjusted by means of polycrystalline aluminaoxide (Al2O3) as a wall material. Electrical field strenghts of 6.0 V/mm and 8.6 V/mm are measured for metal halide lamps containing zinc or mercury, respectively. The light technical data of the discharges are very close, since mercury and zinc do not contribute significantly to the radiation in the visible range. Efficacies of up to 93 lm/W and 100 lm/W are found in metal halide lamps with zinc and mercury, respectively. Consequently, zinc turns out to be an attractive replacer for mercury in this type of lamp not only from an environmental point of view

  7. Effect of high pressure hydrogen on low-cycle fatigue

    Rie, K.T.; Kohler, W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the fatigue life can be influenced in low-cycle range by high pressure hydrogen while the effect of high pressure hydrogen on high-cycle fatigue will not be as significant. The paper reports the details and the results of the investigations of the effect of high pressure hydrogen on the low-cycle endurance of commercially pure titanium. The results of this study indicate that: 1. The degradation of the fatigue life in low-cycle region for commercially pure titanium under high pressure hydrogen can be described by Nsub(cr)sup(α x Δepsilon)sub(pl)sup(=c) 2. The fatigue life decreases with decreasing strain rate. 3. The fatigue life decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure. It was found that the semilogarithmic plot of the fatigue life versus the hydrogen pressure gives a linear relationship. The Sievert's law does not hold in low-cycle fatigue region. 4. HAC in titanium in low-cycle fatigue region is the result of the disolution of hydrogen at the crack tip and of the strain-induced hybride formation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  8. Pneumomediastinum following high pressure air injection to the hand.

    Kennedy, J

    2012-02-01

    We present the case of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum after high pressure air injection to the hand. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of pneumomediastinum where the gas injection site was the thenar eminence. Fortunately the patient recovered with conservative management.

  9. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C [Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2004-04-14

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  10. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  11. Strength-toughness requirements for thick walled high pressure vessels

    Kapp, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness requirements of materials for use in high pressure vessels has been the subject of some discussion in the meetings of the Materials Task Group of the Special Working Group High Pressure Vessels. A fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to theoretically establish the required toughness for a high pressure vessel. This paper reports that the analysis performed is based on the validity requirement for plane strain fracture of fracture toughness test specimens. This is that at the fracture event, the crack length, uncracked ligament, and vessel length must each be greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone size for brittle fracture to occur. For high pressure piping applications, the limiting physical dimension is the uncracked ligament, as it can be assumed that the other dimensions are always greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone. To perform the fracture mechanics analysis several parameters must be known: these include vessel dimensions, material strength, degree of autofrettage, and design pressure. Results of the analysis show, remarkably, that the effects of radius ratio, pressure and degree of autofrettage can be ignored when establishing strength and toughness requirements for code purposes. The only parameters that enter into the calculation are yield strength, toughness and vessel thickness. The final results can easily be represented as a graph of yield strength against toughness on which several curves, one for each vessel thickness, are plotted

  12. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Werner, S.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Application of in situ high pressure powder diffraction technique for examination of specific structural properties of nanocrystals based on the experimental data of SiC nanocrystalline powders of 2 to 30 nrn diameter in diameter is presented. Limitations and capabilities of the experimental techniques themselves and methods of diffraction data elaboration applied to nanocrystals with very small dimensions (nanoparticles of different grain size.

  13. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  14. Magnetism in UPtAl under high pressure

    Honda, F.; Eto, T.; Oomi, G.; Sechovský, V.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Takeshita, N.; Môri, N.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2002), s. 263-266 ISSN 0011-4626. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /11./. Košice, 20.08.2001-23.08.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : UPtAl * high pressure * electrical resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  15. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide ...

    Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single ... tance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify .... The optical band gaps of the as-grown crystals were obtained by optical ab-.

  16. Crosslinking polymerization of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate under high pressure

    Kaminski, K; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Bogoslovov, R; Roland, C M [Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5342 (United States)], E-mail: kaminski@us.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The polymerization reaction of tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate was induced by application of high pressure. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was employed to investigate dielectric properties of the produced polymers. Additionally swelling experiment was performed to determine the degree of crossliniking of the polymers.

  17. High-pressure physical properties of magnesium silicate post ...

    MgSiO3) post-perovskite at high pressure are investigated with quasi-harmonic Debye model and ab initio method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated structural parameters of MgSiO3 post-perovskite are consistent with the ...

  18. Pneumomediastinum following high pressure air injection to the hand.

    Kennedy, J

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum after high pressure air injection to the hand. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of pneumomediastinum where the gas injection site was the thenar eminence. Fortunately the patient recovered with conservative management.

  19. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  20. A high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering

    Carlile, C.J.; Glossop, B.H.

    1981-06-01

    Commissioning tests involving deformation studies and tests to destruction as well as neutron diffraction measurements of a standard sample have been carried out on the SERC high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering studies. A detailed description of the pressurising equipment is given. (author)

  1. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure using Neutron Diffraction

    Johnston, Blair F.; Marshall, William G.; Parsons, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalised using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a new...

  2. Effects of high pressures on magnetism in UNiGa

    Míšek, M.; Sechovský, V.; Kamarád, Jiří; Prokleška, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2010), 8-11 ISSN 0895-7959 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) 129009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : high pressure * uniaxial stress * magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.995, year: 2010

  3. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  4. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    Marshall, William G.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low...

  5. Learning by Practice, High-Pressure Student Ateliers

    Timmermans, W.; Cilliers, J.; Garcia, A.; Koolen, A.; Woudstra, A.; Dijk, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Two international and interdisciplinary high pressure student ateliers have been done and evaluated, one to explore possible future scenario’s for Strofylia (Greece) as requested by local and regional authorities and stakeholders, the other to put urban agriculture on the Lugo (Galicia, Spain)

  6. A high-pressure MWPC detector for crystallography

    Ortuno-Prados, F.; Bazzano, A.; Berry, A.

    1999-01-01

    The application of the Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) as a potential detector for protein crystallography and other wide-angle diffraction experiments is presented. Electrostatic problems found with our large area MWPC when operated at high pressure are discussed. We suggest that a solution...

  7. Propane Oxidation at High Pressure and Intermediate Temperatures

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    Propane oxidation at intermediate temperatures (500—900 K) and high pressure (100 bar) has been characterized by conducting experiments in a laminar flow reactor over a wide range of stoichiometries. The onset of fuel oxidation was found to be 600—725 K, depending on mixture stoichiometry...

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  9. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  10. Variable high pressure processing sensitivities for GII human noroviruses

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. High pressure processing (HPP) is one of the most promising non-thermal technologies for decontamination of viral pathogens in foods. However, the survival of HuNoVs by HPP is poorly understood because these viruses cann...

  11. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C

    2004-01-01

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic

  12. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  13. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  14. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    1997-01-01

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  15. Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas

    Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed

  16. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    Schell, W R; Yoon, S R; Tobin, M J

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min . This paper presents the design features, opera...

  17. Conformal coating of amorphous silicon and germanium by high pressure chemical vapor deposition for photovoltaic fabrics

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Hiu Yan; Grede, Alex J.; Molina, Alex; Talreja, Disha; Mohney, Suzanne E.; Giebink, Noel C.; Badding, John V.; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2018-04-01

    Conformally coating textured, high surface area substrates with high quality semiconductors is challenging. Here, we show that a high pressure chemical vapor deposition process can be employed to conformally coat the individual fibers of several types of flexible fabrics (cotton, carbon, steel) with electronically or optoelectronically active materials. The high pressure (˜30 MPa) significantly increases the deposition rate at low temperatures. As a result, it becomes possible to deposit technologically important hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) from silane by a simple and very practical pyrolysis process without the use of plasma, photochemical, hot-wire, or other forms of activation. By confining gas phase reactions in microscale reactors, we show that the formation of undesired particles is inhibited within the microscale spaces between the individual wires in the fabric structures. Such a conformal coating approach enables the direct fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based Schottky junction devices on a stainless steel fabric functioning as a solar fabric.

  18. Metallographic assessment of Al-12Si high-pressure die casting escalator steps.

    Vander Voort, George Frederic; Suárez-Peña, Beatriz; Asensio-Lozano, Juan

    2014-10-01

    A microstructural characterization study was performed on high-pressure die cast specimens extracted from escalator steps manufactured from an Al-12 wt.% Si alloy designed for structural applications. Black and white, color light optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to conduct the microstructural analysis. Most regions in the samples studied contained globular-rosette primary α-Al grains surrounded by an Al-Si eutectic aggregate, while primary dendritic α-Al grains were present in the surface layer. This dendritic microstructure was observed in the regions where the melt did not impinge directly on the die surface during cavity filling. Consequently, microstructures in the surface layer were nonuniform. Utilizing physical metallurgy principles, these results were analyzed in terms of the applied pressure and filling velocity during high-pressure die casting. The effects of these parameters on solidification at different locations of the casting are discussed.

  19. Charging of Dust Grains in a Nuclear-Induced Plasma at High Pressures

    Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2001-01-01

    The process of dust-grain charging in plasmas produced by radioactive decay products or spontaneous fission fragments in air and xenon at high pressures is studied numerically in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that, at sufficiently high rates of gas ionization, the dust grains in air are charged by electrons rather than ions, so that the grain charge in air is comparable to that in electropositive gases. The results of numerical calculations based on a complete model agree well with the experimental data. The time evolution of the grain charge is investigated, and the characteristic time scales on which the grains acquire an electric charge are established. The validity of approximate theories of dust-grain charging in electropositive and electronegative gases at high pressures is examined

  20. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  1. High-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments on US using synchrotron radiation

    Olsen, J.S.; Steenstrup, S.

    1983-12-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on US up to 40 GPa using synchrotron radiation and a diamond anvil cell. The measured value of the bulk modulus B 0 = 92 GPa is in reasonable agreement with calculations. The high-pressure behaviour indicates a phase transformation to US III at about 15 GPa. The transformation is a smooth deformation process, which starts with a tetragonal structure asub(tetr) = asub(cub)/√2, csub(tetr) = 2asub(cub) and continues with an orthorhombic structure with a = 375(3)pm, b = 345(3)pm, c = 1069 (24)pm at 35 GPa; it is of second order nature within experimental errors and it should involve some contributions from uranium f electrons. (orig.)

  2. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s -1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling

  3. High Pressure Optical Studies of the Thallous Halides and of Charge-Transfer Complexes

    Jurgensen, Charles Willard

    High pressure was used to study the insulator -to-metal transition in sulfur and the thallous halides and to study the intermolecular interactions in charge -transfer complexes. The approach to the band overlap insulator -to-metal transition was studied in three thallous halides and sulfur by optical absorption measurements of the band gap as a function of pressure. The band gap of sulfur continuously decreases with pressure up to the insulator -to-metal transition which occurs between 450 and 485 kbars. The results on the thallous halides indicate that the indirect gap decreases more rapidly than the direct gap; the closing of the indirect gap is responsible for the observed insulator -to-metal transitions. High pressure electronic and vibrational spectroscopic measurements on the solid-state complexes of HMB-TCNE were used to study the intermolecular interactions of charge -transfer complexes. The vibrational frequency shifts indicate that the degree of charge transfer increases with pressure which is independently confirmed by an increase in the molar absorptivity of the electronic charge-transfer peak. Induction and dispersion forces contribute towards a red shift of the charge-transfer peak; however, charge-transfer resonance contributes toward a blue shift and this effect is dominant for the HMB-TCNE complexes. High pressure electronic spectra were used to study the effect of intermolecular interactions on the electronic states of TCNQ and its complexes. The red shifts with pressure of the electronic spectra of TCNQ and (TCNQ)(' -) in polymer media and of crystalline TCNQ can be understood in terms of Van der Waals interactions. None of the calculations which considered intradimer distance obtained the proper behavior for either the charge-transfer of the locally excited states of the complexes. The qualitative behavior of both states can be interpreted as the effect of increased mixing of the locally excited and charge transfer states.

  4. Ignition during hydrogen release from high pressure into the atmosphere

    Oleszczak, P.; Wolanski, P.

    2010-12-01

    The first investigations concerned with a problem of hydrogen jet ignition, during outflow from a high-pressure vessel were carried out nearly 40 years ago by Wolanski and Wojcicki. The research resulted from a dramatic accident in the Chorzow Chemical Plant Azoty, where the explosion of a synthesis gas made up of a mixture composed of three moles of hydrogen per mole of nitrogen, at 300°C and 30 MPa killed four people. Initial investigation had excluded potential external ignition sources and the main aim of the research was to determine the cause of ignition. Hydrogen is currently considered as a potential fuel for various vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc. Crucial safety issues are of potential concern, associated with the storage of hydrogen at a very high pressure. Indeed, the evidence obtained nearly 40 years ago shows that sudden rupture of a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank or other component can result in ignition and potentially explosion. The aim of the present research is identification of the conditions under which hydrogen ignition occurs as a result of compression and heating of the air by the shock wave generated by discharge of high-pressure hydrogen. Experiments have been conducted using a facility constructed in the Combustion Laboratory of the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. Tests under various configurations have been performed to determine critical conditions for occurrence of high-pressure hydrogen ignition. The results show that a critical pressure exists, leading to ignition, which depends mainly on the geometric configuration of the outflow system, such as tube diameter, and on the presence of obstacles.

  5. 76 FR 33239 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China; Initiation of Countervailing...

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-978] High Pressure Steel... countervailing duty (``CVD'') petition concerning imports of high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders... of Antidumping Duties and Countervailing Duties on High Pressure Steel Cylinders from the People's...

  6. Anomalous perovskite PbRuO3 stabilized under high pressure

    Cheng, J.-G.; Kweon, K. E.; Zhou, J.-S.; Alonso, J. A.; Kong, P.-P.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Changqing; Wu, Junjie; Lin, Jung-Fu; Larregola, S. A.; Yang, Wenge; Shen, Guoyin; MacDonald, A. H.; Manthiram, Arumugam; Hwang, G. S.; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Perovskite oxides ABO3 are important materials used as components in electronic devices. The highly compact crystal structure consists of a framework of corner-shared BO6 octahedra enclosing the A-site cations. Because of these structural features, forming a strong bond between A and B cations is highly unlikely and has not been reported in the literature. Here we report a pressure-induced first-order transition in PbRuO3 from a common orthorhombic phase (Pbnm) to an orthorhombic phase (Pbn21) at 32 GPa by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This transition has been further verified with resistivity measurements and Raman spectra under high pressure. In contrast to most well-studied perovskites under high pressure, the Pbn21 phase of PbRuO3 stabilized at high pressure is a polar perovskite. More interestingly, the Pbn21 phase has the most distorted octahedra and a shortest Pb—Ru bond length relative to the average Pb—Ru bond length that has ever been reported in a perovskite structure. We have also simulated the behavior of the PbRuO3 perovskite under high pressure by first principles calculations. The calculated critical pressure for the phase transition and evolution of lattice parameters under pressure match the experimental results quantitatively. Our calculations also reveal that the hybridization between a Ru:t2g orbital and an sp hybrid on Pb increases dramatically in the Pbnm phase under pressure. This pressure-induced change destabilizes the Pbnm phase to give a phase transition to the Pbn21 phase where electrons in the overlapping orbitals form bonding and antibonding states along the shortest Ru—Pb direction at P > Pc. PMID:24277807

  7. High pressure inactivation of human norovirus-like particles: evidence that the capsid of human norovirus is highly pressure resistant

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a promising non-thermal technology to inactivate foodborne viruses. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivating human norovirus (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, is unknown because it cannot be propagated in cell culture. Therefore, developi...

  8. Destruction of spores on building decontamination residue in a commercial autoclave.

    Lemieux, P; Sieber, R; Osborne, A; Woodard, A

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial autoclave for treating simulated building decontamination residue (BDR). The BDR was intended to simulate porous materials removed from a building deliberately contaminated with biological agents such as Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in a terrorist attack. The purpose of the tests was to assess whether the standard operating procedure for a commercial autoclave provided sufficiently robust conditions to adequately destroy bacterial spores bound to the BDR. In this study we investigated the effects of several variables related to autoclaving BDR, including time, temperature, pressure, item type, moisture content, packing density, packing orientation, autoclave bag integrity, and autoclave process sequence. The test team created simulated BDR from wallboard, ceiling tiles, carpet, and upholstered furniture, and embedded in the BDR were Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator (BI) strips containing 10(6) spores and thermocouples to obtain time and temperature profile data associated with each BI strip. The results indicated that a single standard autoclave cycle did not effectively decontaminate the BDR. Autoclave cycles consisting of 120 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F and 75 min at 45 lb/in2 and 292 degrees F effectively decontaminated the BDR material. Two sequential standard autoclave cycles consisting of 40 min at 31.5 lb/in2 and 275 degrees F proved to be particularly effective, probably because the second cycle's evacuation step pulled the condensed water out of the pores of the materials, allowing better steam penetration. The results also indicated that the packing density and material type of the BDR in the autoclave could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the decontamination process.

  9. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  10. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  11. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AUTOCLAVE START MODE IN THE PRODUCTION OF NITRIC ACID

    Ладієва, Леся Ростиславівна; Ширма, А. В.

    2015-01-01

    The algorithm of optimal control of autoclave start mode in the production of nitric acid is proposed. By optimality criterion is selected minimum time-autoclave at preset mode with the restriction on the concentration of nitric acid. End time start mode is entered on the terminal part of the cost function. The method of penalties and a gradient procedure is used to solve the problem. The applied algorithm is allowed to bring an autoclave at a given technological regime.Keywords: production o...

  12. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.; Benezeth, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO 2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO 2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) in water-bearing scCO 2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO 2 , a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the

  13. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  14. A high-pressure cell for neutron crystal spectrometry

    Buras, B.; Kofoed, W.; Lebech, B.; Baeckstroem, G.

    1977-04-01

    Three fixed-scattering-angle methods for neutron scattering powder measurements using double- and triple-axis crystal spectrometers were tested: (1) the analyzer-scan method (AS), (2) the monochromator-scan method (MS), and (3) the monochromator-analyzer scan method (MAS). A high-pressure cell, primarily for use in powder diffraction measurements, with scattering angles of 30 0 , 60 0 , 90 0 and 120 0 and a sample volume of about 0.8 cm 3 was constructed and used in conjunction with the MS and MAS methods. At room temperature, this cell makes it possible to make measurements at pressures up to about 40 kbar and up to about 30 kbar at 300 0 C. The report includes a description of the diffraction methods and of the high-pressure cell. A few examples of experimental results are also given. (Auth.)

  15. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  16. Development of nuclear quality high pressure valve bellows in Canada

    Janzen, P.; Astill, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Concurrent with the decision to use bellows stem sealed nuclear valves where feasible in commercial-scale CANDU plants, AECL undertook to develop an indigenous high pressure valve bellows technology. This program included developing the capability to fabricate improved high pressure valve bellows in conjunction with a Canadian manufacturer. This paper describes the evolution of a two-stage bellows fabrication process involving: (1) manufacture of discrete lengths of precision thin wall telescoping tubes - from preparation of strip blanks through edge grinding and edge forming to longitudinal welding; (2) forming of bellows from tube assemblies using a novel combination of mechanical inward forming followed by hydraulic outward forming. Bellows of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 have been manufactured and evaluated. Test results indicate comparable to improved performance over alternative high quality bellows. (author)

  17. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  18. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  19. A hydronitrogen solid: high pressure ab initio evolutionary structure searches

    Hu Anguang; Zhang Fan

    2011-01-01

    High pressure ab initio evolutionary structure searches resulted in a hydronitrogen solid with a composition of (NH) 4 . The structure searches also provided two molecular isomers, ammonium azide (AA) and trans-tetrazene (TTZ) which were previously discovered experimentally and can be taken as molecular precursors for high pressure synthesis of the hydronitrogen solid. The computed pressure versus enthalpy diagram showed that the transformation pressure to the hydronitrogen solid is 36 GPa from AA and 75 GPa from TTZ. Its metastability was analyzed by the phonon dispersion spectrum and room-temperature vibrational density of state together with the transformation energy barrier back to molecular phases at 298 K. The predicted energy barrier of 0.21 eV/atom means that the proposed hydronitrogen solid should be very stable at ambient conditions. (fast track communication)

  20. Is high-pressure water the cradle of life?

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules. This letter shows that the structure of supercritical water, or high-pressure water, could trigger prebiotic synthesis and the origin of life deep in the oceans, in hydrothermal vent systems. Dimer geometries of high-pressure water may have a point of symmetry and a zero dipole moment. Consequently, simple apolar molecules found in submarine hydrothermal vent systems will dissolve in the apolar environment provided by the apolar form of the water dimer. Apolar water could be the medium which helps precursor molecules to concentrate and react more efficiently. The formation of prebiotic molecules could thus be linked to the structure of the water inside chimney nanochannels and cavities where hydrothermal piezochemistry and shock wave chemistry could occur. (letter to the editor)

  1. Leak Detection of High Pressure Feedwater Heater Using Empirical Models

    Lee, Song Kyu; Kim, Eun Kee; Heo, Gyun Young; An, Sang Ha

    2009-01-01

    Even small leak from tube side or pass partition within the high pressure feedwater heater (HPFWH) causes a significant deficiency in its performance. Plant operation under the HPFWH leak condition for long time will result in cost increase. Tube side leak within HPFWH can produce the high velocity jet of water and it can cause neighboring tube failures. However, most of plants are being operated without any information for internal leaks of HPFWH, even though it is prone to be damaged under high temperature and high pressure operating conditions. Leaks from tubes and/or pass partition of HPFWH occurred in many nuclear power plants, for example, Mihama PS-2, Takahama PS-2 and Point Beach Nuclear Plant Unit 1. If the internal leaks of HPFWH are monitored, the cost can be reduced by inexpensive repairs relative to loss in performance and moreover plant shutdown as well as further tube damages can be prevented

  2. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  3. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  4. Drilling and testing hot, high-pressure wells

    MacAndrew, R. (Ranger Oil Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Parry, N. (Phillips Petroleum Company United Kingdom Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Prieur, J.M. (Conoco UK Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Wiggelman, J. (Shell UK Exploration and Production, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Diggins, E. (Brunei Shell Petroleum (Brunei Darussalam)); Guicheney, P. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Cameron, D.; Stewart, A. (Dowell Schlumberger, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    Meticulous planning and careful control of operations are needed to safely drill and test high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Techniques, employed in the Central Graben in the UK sector of the North Sea, where about 50 HTHP wells have been drilled, are examined. Three main areas of activity are covered in this comprehensive review: drilling safety, casing and cementation, and testing. The three issues at the heart of HTHP drilling safety are kick prevention, kick detection and well control. Kicks are influxes of reservoir fluid into the well. Test equipment and operations are divided into three sections: downhole, subsea and surface. Also details are given of how this North Sea experience has been used to help plan a jackup rig modification for hot, high-pressure drilling off Brunei. 16 figs., 32 refs.

  5. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  6. High-pressure Raman investigation of the semiconductor antimony oxide

    Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130012 Changchun (China); Wan, Chunming [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Ma, Yanmei [Department of Agronomy, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun (China)

    2011-05-15

    The in situ high-pressure behavior of the semiconductor antimony trioxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 20 GPa at room temperature. New peaks in the external lattice mode range emerged at a pressure above 8.6-15 GPa, suggesting that the structural phase transition occurred. The pressure dependence of Raman frequencies was obtained. The band at 139 cm{sup -1} (assigned to group mode) has a pressure dependence of -0.475 cm{sup -1}/GPa and reveals significant softening at high pressure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. T- P Phase Diagram of Nitrogen at High Pressures

    Algul, G.; Enginer, Y.; Yurtseven, H.

    2018-05-01

    By employing a mean field model, calculation of the T- P phase diagram of molecular nitrogen is performed at high pressures up to 200 GPa. Experimental data from the literature are used to fit a quadratic function in T and P, describing the phase line equations which have been derived using the mean field model studied here for N 2, and the fitted parameters are determined. Our model study gives that the observed T- P phase diagram can be described satisfactorily for the first-order transitions between the phases at low as well as high pressures in nitrogen. Some thermodynamic quantities can also be predicted as functions of temperature and pressure from the mean field model studied here and they can be compared with the experimental data.

  8. Phosphorus Dimerization in Gallium Phosphide at High Pressure

    Lavina, Barbara [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Kim, Eunja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Cynn, Hyunchae [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States; Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, United States; Seaborg, Kelly [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Siska, Emily [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, United States; Meng, Yue [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Evans, William [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, United States

    2018-02-09

    Using combined experimental and computational approaches, we show that at 43 GPa and 1300 K gallium phosphide adopts the super-Cmcm structure, here indicated with its Pearson notation oS24. First-principles enthalpy calculations demonstrate that this structure is more thermodynamically stable above ~20 GPa than previously proposed polymorphs. Here, in contrast to other polymorphs, the oS24 phase shows a strong bonding differentiation and distorted fivefold coordination geometries of both P atoms. The shortest bond of the phase is a single covalent P–P bond measuring 2.171(11) Å at synthesis pressure. Phosphorus dimerization in GaP sheds light on the nature of the super-Cmcm phase and provides critical new insights into the high-pressure polymorphism of octet semiconductors. Bond directionality and anisotropy explain the relatively low symmetry of this high-pressure phase.

  9. High-Tc superconductors under very high pressure

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Scholtz, J.J.; Eenige, E.N. van; Griessen, R.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure has played a crucial role in the short history of high T c superconductors. Soon after the discovery of superconductivity by Bednorz and Muller in La-Ba-Cu-O, Chu et al. showed that the critical temperature T c could be significantly increased by pressure. This observation led to the discovery of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 by Wu et al. with a T c above 90 K. Incidentally, this high T c is probably also due to the fact that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has two CuO 2 layers per unit cell instead of a single one in La-Ba-Cu-O. The authors discuss the high pressure dependence of the oxide superconductors, particularly at pressures above 10 GPa, and the nonmonotonic dependence of transition temperature on pressure

  10. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  11. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  12. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  13. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  14. Slowly digestible properties of lotus seed starch-glycerine monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization.

    Chen, Bingyan; Jia, Xiangze; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2018-06-30

    Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion. The results of Gel-permeation chromatography and Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed high homogenization pressure impacted molecular weight distribution and semi-crystalline region of complexes, resulting in the formation of new semi-crystalline with repeat unit distance of 16-18 nm and molecular weight distribution of 2.50-2.80 × 10 5  Da, which displayed strong enzymatic resistance. Differential scanning calorimeter results revealed new semi-crystalline lamellar may originate from type-II complexes that exhibited a high transition temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Woon-Yong; Oh, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choon-Geun; Seo, Yong-Chang; Kim, Ji-Seon; Song, Chi-Ho; Kim, Ga-Vin; Lee, Shin-Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v). Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production. PMID:22969270

  16. High pressure homogenization to improve the stability of casein - hydroxypropyl cellulose aqueous systems.

    Ye, Ran; Harte, Federico

    2014-03-01

    The effect of high pressure homogenization on the improvement of the stability hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and micellar casein was investigated. HPC with two molecular weights (80 and 1150 kDa) and micellar casein were mixed in water to a concentration leading to phase separation (0.45% w/v HPC and 3% w/v casein) and immediately subjected to high pressure homogenization ranging from 0 to 300 MPa, in 100 MPa increments. The various dispersions were evaluated for stability, particle size, turbidity, protein content, and viscosity over a period of two weeks and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) at the end of the storage period. The stability of casein-HPC complexes was enhanced with the increasing homogenization pressure, especially for the complex containing high molecular weight HPC. The apparent particle size of complexes was reduced from ~200nm to ~130nm when using 300 MPa, corresponding to the sharp decrease of absorbance when compared to the non-homogenized controls. High pressure homogenization reduced the viscosity of HPC-casein complexes regardless of the molecular weight of HPC and STEM imagines revealed aggregates consistent with nano-scale protein polysaccharide interactions.

  17. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Seok-Cheol Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v. Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production.

  18. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Wang, Tianyi; Xu, Ke; Dong, Qing; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingbing, E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Jing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA) form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO{sub 2} phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B{sub 0} = 158 GPa) of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa). We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  19. Anomalous anisotropic compression behavior of superconducting CrAs under high pressure

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Ke; Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2015-01-01

    CrAs was observed to possess the bulk superconductivity under high-pressure conditions. To understand the superconducting mechanism and explore the correlation between the structure and superconductivity, the high-pressure structural evolution of CrAs was investigated using the angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The structure of CrAs remains stable up to 1.8 GPa, whereas the lattice parameters exhibit anomalous compression behaviors. With increasing pressure, the lattice parameters a and c both demonstrate a nonmonotonic change, and the lattice parameter b undergoes a rapid contraction at ∼0.18−0.35 GPa, which suggests that a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition occurs in CrAs. Above the phase transition pressure, the axial compressibilities of CrAs present remarkable anisotropy. A schematic band model was used to address the anomalous compression behavior of CrAs. The present results shed light on the structural and related electronic responses to high pressure, which play a key role toward understanding the superconductivity of CrAs. PMID:26627230

  20. Determination of line broadening constants in high pressure discharge lamps

    Weiss, M; Schubert, H; Meier, S; Born, M; Reiter, D; Stroesser, M

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model of the radiative transfer in high pressure metal halide discharge lamps is used to determine line broadening parameters for atomic scandium lines. The determined broadening constants are in qualitative agreement with theoretical estimates in many cases, but significant deviations exist. The data obtained from this paper can, therefore, be used to further improve modelling of radiative contributions to the energy balance in such types of discharge lamps

  1. High pressure apparatus transport properties study in high magnetic field

    Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.; Mikulina, O.; Kamarád, Jiří; Alsmadi, A. M.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, 20, 21 & 22 (2002), s. 3330-3333 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D045; GA ČR GA202/00/1217; GA MŠk ME 165 Grant - others:NSF(XX) DMR-0094241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : high-pressure apparatus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2002

  2. Design and testing of high-pressure railguns and projectiles

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The results of high-pressure tests of four railgun designs and four projectile types are presented. All tests were conducted at the Los Alamos explosive magnetic-flux compression facility in Ancho Canyon. The data suggest that the high-strength projectiles have lower resistance to acceleration than the low strength projectiles, which expand against the bore during acceleration. The railguns were powered by explosive magneticflux compression generators. Calculations to predict railgun and power supply performance were performed by Kerrisk

  3. Pipe connection for high pressure and temperature loads

    Haferkamp, D.; Hodzic, A.; Paetz, E.; Stach, H.

    1976-01-01

    The patent proposes an inprovement of the clamping device for a pipe joint connecting pipelines which are subject to high pressure and temperature loads, e.g. in a nuclear power plant. This clamping device may be tightened and loosened by remote control. The proposed clamping ring consists of several segments connected with each other by hinge-type guide pins and fishplates. (UWI) [de

  4. High pressure phase transition in Pr-monopnictides

    Raypuria, Gajendra Singh, E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com, E-mail: gsraypuria@gmail.com; Gupta, Dinesh Chandra [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474011 (India); Department of Physics, Govt. K.R.G. P.G. Autonomous College, Gwalior - 474001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Praseodymium-monopnictides compounds have been found to undergo transition from their initial NaCl-type structure to high pressure body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (distorted CsCl-type P4/mmm) using CTIP model. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers.

  5. Phase transition of La- chalcogenides under high pressure

    Gupta, Dinesh Chandra [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474 011 (India); Raypuria, Gajendra Singh, E-mail: gsraypuria@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. K.R.G. P.G. Autonomous College, Gwalior - 474 001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The lanthanum compounds have been found to undergo transition from their initial NaCl-type structure to high pressure body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (distorted CsCl-type P4/mmm) using CTIP model. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers.

  6. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

    R.F. Vogel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK, while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport.

  7. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  8. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Releasable, high-pressure seal and method of forming same

    Holman, R.R.; Turkail, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive releaseable, high-pressure seal was developed, which can withstand pressures over 70 atm, and is particularly useful for nuclear reactors where remote-handling equipment must be used to access the flanged connections. It is smaller than existing high-pressure seals and does not require as many bolts. The fail-safe quality of the seal does not depend on close tolerances or high-quality surface finishes. The seal comprises two conduits through which the high-pressure fluid flows, each fitted with flanges. The second flange has a periphery attached to the second conduit. Each flange has a central opening for the fluid to flow through. The second flange is frustoconical in shape and is resilient so that a portion of it near its central opening can be resiliently biased towards the first flange. A seal ring between the end flanges seals the interior of the conduits from the exterior. A force is applied to the seal ring which acts nearly parallel to the axis of the conduits and varies as a function of the fluid pressure inside of the conduits. The flanges are attached to each other with peripheral collars via a circumferential clamp. (DN)

  10. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  11. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  12. Synthesis and stability of hydrogen selenide compounds at high pressure

    Pace, Edward J.; Binns, Jack; Alvarez, Miriam Pena; Dalladay-Simpson, Philip; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T. (Edinburgh); (CHPSTAR- China)

    2017-11-14

    The observation of high-temperature superconductivity in hydride sulfide (H2S) at high pressures has generated considerable interest in compressed hydrogen-rich compounds. High-pressure hydrogen selenide (H2Se) has also been predicted to be superconducting at high temperatures; however, its behaviour and stability upon compression remains unknown. In this study, we synthesize H2Se in situ from elemental Se and molecular H2 at pressures of 0.4 GPa and temperatures of 473 K. On compression at 300 K, we observe the high-pressure solid phase sequence (I-I'-IV) of H2Se through Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements, before dissociation into its constituent elements. Through the compression of H2Se in H2 media, we also observe the formation of a host-guest structure, (H2Se)2H2, which is stable at the same conditions as H2Se, with respect to decomposition. These measurements show that the behaviour of H2Se is remarkably similar to that of H2S and provides further understanding of the hydrogen chalcogenides under pressure.

  13. The partitioning of barium and lead between silicate melts and aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    Bureau, Helene; Menez, Benedicte; Khodja, Hicham; Daudin, Laurent; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Massare, Dominique; Shaw, Cliff; Metrich, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    The origin of subduction-related magmas is still a matter of debate in the Earth Sciences. These magmas are characterised by their distinctive trace element compositions compared to magmas from other tectonic settings, e.g. mid-ocean ridges or rifts. The distinct trace element composition of these magmas is generally attributed to alteration of the source region by a contaminating agent: either a silicate melt or a hydrous fluid, possibly chlorine-enriched. In this study, we have used μPIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) to analyse synthetic samples obtained from a micro-experimental petrology study that aims to determine the partitioning behaviour of two key elements, Ba and Pb, between silicate melt and both pure water and saline fluids. Our experiments were performed at high-pressure (>0.34-1.53 GPa) and high-temperature (697-1082 deg. C) in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, that was used as a transparent rapid quench autoclave. We observed that at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of pure water, Ba and Pb are not strongly fractionated into one phase or the other. The partition coefficient of Pb is ranging from 0.46 to 1.28. Results from one experiment performed at 0.83 GPa and 847 deg. C, in the presence of a saline fluid indicate that the presence of Cl induces strong fractionation of Pb and moderate fractionation of Ba both into the silicate melt. In addition, our data indicate that Cl is strongly partitioned into the fluid phase

  14. Nonlinear Modeling of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Masonry Wall Strengthened using Ferrocement Sandwich Structure

    M., Abdel-Mooty; M., El-Kashef; E., Fahmy; M., Abou-Zeid; M., Haroun

    2011-01-01

    Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block are used mainly as non-load-bearing walls that provide heat insulation. This results in considerable saving in cooling energy particularly in hot desert environment with large variation of daily and seasonal

  15. Carbon Foam Self-Heated Tooling for Out-of-Autoclave Composites Manufacturing, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's need for non-autoclave composites manufacture. The Constellation program, including the Ares V launch vehicle, will require very...

  16. Leaching of a copper flotation concentrate with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave system

    Deniz Turan, M.; Soner Altundoğan, H.

    2014-09-01

    The leaching behavior of a copper flotation concentrate was investigated using ammonium persulfate (APS) in an autoclave system. The decomposition products of APS, active oxygen, and acidic medium were used to extract metals from the concentrate. Leaching experiments were performed to compare the availability of APS as an oxidizing agent for leaching of the concentrate under atmospheric conditions and in an autoclave system. Leaching temperature and APS concentration were found to be important parameters in both leaching systems. Atmospheric leaching studies showed that the metal extractions increased with the increase in APS concentration and temperature (up to 333 K). A similar tendency was determined in the autoclave studies up to 423 K. It was also determined that the metal extractions decreased at temperatures above 423 K due to the passivation of the particle surface by molten elemental sulfur. The results showed that higher copper extractions could be achieved using an autoclave system.

  17. Functionalization of 2D macroporous silicon under the high-pressure oxidation

    Karachevtseva, L.; Kartel, M.; Kladko, V.; Gudymenko, O.; Bo, Wang; Bratus, V.; Lytvynenko, O.; Onyshchenko, V.; Stronska, O.

    2018-03-01

    Addition functionalization after high-pressure oxidation of 2D macroporous silicon structures is evaluated. X-ray diffractometry indicates formation of orthorhombic SiO2 phase on macroporous silicon at oxide thickness of 800-1200 nm due to cylindrical symmetry of macropores and high thermal expansion coefficient of SiO2. Pb center concentration grows with the splitting energy of LO- and TO-phonons and SiO2 thickness in oxidized macroporous silicon structures. This increase EPR signal amplitude and GHz radiation absorption and is promising for development of high-frequency devices and electronically controlled elements.

  18. Microscopic Origins of the Anomalous Melting Behavior of Sodium under High Pressure

    Eshet, Hagai; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Behler, Jörg; Parrinello, Michele

    2012-03-01

    X-ray diffraction experiments have shown that sodium exhibits a dramatic pressure-induced drop in melting temperature, which extends from 1000 K at ˜30GPa to as low as room temperature at ˜120GPa. Despite significant theoretical effort to understand the anomalous melting, its origins are still debated. In this work, we reconstruct the sodium phase diagram by using an ab initio quality neural-network potential. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reentrant behavior results from the screening of interionic interactions by conduction electrons, which at high pressure induces a softening in the short-range repulsion.

  19. Quasi-two-dimensional metallic hydrogen in diphosphide at a high pressure

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Mazur, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic, phonon, and other characteristics of the normal phases of phosphorus hydrides with stoichiometry PH k are analyzed. The properties of the initial substance, namely, diphosphine are calculated. In contrast to phosphorus hydrides with stoichiometry PH 3 , a quasi-two-dimensional phosphorus-stabilized lattice of metallic hydrogen can be formed in this substance during hydrostatic compression at a high pressure. The formed structure with H–P–H elements is shown to be locally stable in phonon spectrum, i.e., to be metastable. The properties of diphosphine are compared with the properties of similar structures of sulfur hydrides.

  20. Quasi-two-dimensional metallic hydrogen in diphosphide at a high pressure

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Mazur, E. A., E-mail: eugen-mazur@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The structural, electronic, phonon, and other characteristics of the normal phases of phosphorus hydrides with stoichiometry PH{sub k} are analyzed. The properties of the initial substance, namely, diphosphine are calculated. In contrast to phosphorus hydrides with stoichiometry PH{sub 3}, a quasi-two-dimensional phosphorus-stabilized lattice of metallic hydrogen can be formed in this substance during hydrostatic compression at a high pressure. The formed structure with H–P–H elements is shown to be locally stable in phonon spectrum, i.e., to be metastable. The properties of diphosphine are compared with the properties of similar structures of sulfur hydrides.

  1. Formation of nanocrystalline MgB sub 2 under high pressure

    Sun, L; Kikegawa, T; Cao, L; Zhan, Z; Wu, Q; Wu, X; Wang, W

    2002-01-01

    The microstructural features of MgB sub 2 at ambient pressure and high pressure have been investigated by means of in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The x-ray diffraction measurements indicated that nanocrystalline MgB sub 2 formed in the pressure range of 26.3-30.2 GPa. TEM investigations reveal complex structure domains with evident lattice distortion in the relevant samples. The superconductivity of nanocrystalline MgB sub 2 was measured and compared with that of the starting sample of MgB sub 2.

  2. Equilibrium studies on liquid ammonia-potassium amide-hydrogen system at high pressures and temperatures (Preprint No. CA-10)

    Donde, M.M.; Srinivasa, K.; Raman, S.

    1989-04-01

    Insoluble deposits were observed to form during the operation of Heavy Water Plant at Talcher, based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange process with potassium amide as catalyst. Experiments were undertaken to investigate this phenomenon under controlled conditions in the laboratory employing high pressures and elevated temperatures. It was observed that deposit formation was very minimal in the autoclave and no visible deposit was left on the strainer-filter, in all the experiments. Deposit analysis showed the presence of potassium hydroxide monohydrate as major component and alpha-potassium hydroxide and potassium azide as minor components. It is suggested that the presence of hydroxide may be due to the reaction of amide with the residual moisture in the system during the experiment and any ingress of moisture while opening for collection of deposit. Azide formation is explained by following reactions occurring during the experiments. NH 3 +KNH 2 →NH 2 -NH 2 +KH; NH 2 -NH 2 +KNH 2 →KN 3 +3H 2 . (author). 1 fig

  3. Development of dispersion interferometer for magnetic confinement plasmas and high-pressure plasmas

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.; Urabe, K.; Terashima, K.; Shirai, N.

    2015-09-01

    A CO2 laser dispersion interferometer (DI) has been developed for both magnetically fusion plasmas and high pressure industrial plasmas. The DI measures the phase shift caused by dispersion in a medium. Therefore, it is insensitive to the mechanical vibrations and changes in the neutral gas density, which degrade the resolution of the electron density measurement. We installed the DI on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and demonstrated a high density resolution of 2× 1017 m-3 without any vibration-free bench. The measured electron density with the DI shows good agreement with results of the existing far infrared laser (a wavelength of 119 μ m) interferometer. The DI system is also applied to the electron density measurement of high-pressure small-scale plasmas. The significant suppression of the phase shift caused by the neutral gas is proven. The achieved density resolution was 1.5× 1019 m-3 with a response time of 100 μ s. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  4. Time resolved Thomson scattering measurements on a high pressure mercury lamp

    Vries, N de; Zhu, X; Kieft, E R; Mullen, J van der

    2005-01-01

    Time resolved Thomson scattering (TS) measurements have been performed on an ac driven high pressure mercury lamp. For this high intensity discharge (HID) lamp, TS is coherent and a coherent fitting routine, including rotational Raman calibration, was used to determine n e and T e from the measured spectrum. The maximum electron density and electron temperature obtained in the centre of the discharge varied in a time period of 5 ms between 1 x 10 21 m -3 e 21 m -3 and 6500 K e < 7100 K. In order to test the non-intrusive character of TS, we have derived a general expression for the heating of the electrons. By applying this to our mercury lamp and laser settings, we have confirmed the non-intrusiveness of our method. This is supported by the experimental findings. Furthermore, because the TS results were obtained directly, thus, without the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumptions, they enabled us to follow the deviations from LTE as a function of time. Contrary to the generally made assumption that HID lamps are in LTE, we have found deviations from both the thermal and chemical equilibrium inside the high pressure mercury lamp at different phases of the applied current

  5. Feasibility studies of high-pressure 4π proportional counter for absolute activity measurement

    Hino, Y.; Kawada, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure proportional counter system is constructed. The high pressure 4πβ counter system constructed is made of aluminum and is divided into two 2π counters. The gas pressure is controlled with a pressure regulator and very fine leak valves to keep the balance of a stable pressure and constant flow rate. Investigation of characteristics of th counter shows that there is an almost linear relation between voltage and pressure. The linearlity of gas gain of this counter to the electron energies is measured with different gas pressures. Quite good linear gas multiplication is obtained at 0.9 MPa. Another investigation is made of application of to activity measurement of 109 Cd. When the gas pressure is over 0.5 MPa, the proportion of collected conversion electrons to absolute activity comes to a constant value of 96 %. This is quite good agreement with the decay data of 96.4 % conversion electron emission rate. The study indicated many excellent features for activity measurement. Especially the efficiency variation technique is good for automatic data acquisition with a programmable high voltage supplier. Moreover, since it is possible to obtain absolute activity with only one sample, it will be quite useful for limited samples experiments. (N.K.)

  6. Investigation of the continuum radiation from a high pressure argon arc

    Glasser, J.; Chapelle, J.

    1975-01-01

    At the high electronic densities existing in high temperature strongly correlated plasmas (with number of electrons in the Debye sphere Nd<<1) it is sometimes difficult to find lines for which Stark broadening allows determination of electronic density. Since the broadening effect is rather strong, the lines overlap or could not be easily extracted from the intense continuous background. The continuum emission in the UV, visible and near infra-red regions, principally due to the radiative recombination, could thus be widely used for the diagnostics of such plasmas. So far a limited number of data on the continuum emission of Argon plasma is available. At the same time certain discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experiments have also been found. The aim of this work is to obtain more elaborated data on the Argon continuum emission at high pressure, where the differences were found to be the largest. (Auth.)

  7. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  8. Experiments and numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer coefficients inside an autoclave model

    Ghamlouch, T.; Roux, S.; Bailleul, J.-L.; Lefèvre, N.; Sobotka, V.

    2017-10-01

    Today's aerospace industrial first priority is the quality improvement of the composite material parts with the reduction of the manufacturing time in order to increase their quality/cost ratio. A fabrication method that could meet these specifications especially for large parts is the autoclave curing process. In fact the autoclave molding ensures the thermal control of the composite parts during the whole curing cycle. However the geometry of the tools as well as their positioning in the autoclave induce non uniform and complex flows around composite parts. This heterogeneity implies non-uniform heat transfers which can directly impact on part quality. One of the main challenges is therefore to describe the flow field inside an autoclave as well as the convective heat transfer from the heated pressurized gas to the composite part and the mold. For this purpose, and given the technical issues associated with instrumentation and measurements in actual autoclaves, an autoclave model was designed and then manufactured based on similarity laws. This tool allows the measurement of the flow field around representative real industrial molds using the PIV technique and the characterization of the heat transfer thanks to thermal instrumentation. The experimental results are then compared with those derived from numerical simulations using a commercial RANS CFD code. This study aims at developing a semi-empirical approach for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient around the parts and therefore predicts its thermal history during the process with a view of optimization.

  9. Effect of autoclave postpolymerization treatments on the fracture toughness of autopolymerizing dental acrylic resins.

    Durkan, Rukiye; Gürbüz, Ayhan; Yilmaz, Burak; Özel, M Birol; Bağış, Bora

    2012-06-26

    Microwave and water bath postpolymerization have been suggested as methods to improve the mechanical properties of heat and autopolymerizing acrylic resins. However, the effects of autoclave heating on the fracture properties of autopolymerizing acrylic resins have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of various autoclave postpolymerization methods on the fracture properties of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins. Forty-two specimens of 3 different autopolymerizing acrylic resins (Orthocryl, Paladent RR and Futurajet) were fabricated (40x8x4mm), and each group was further divided into 6 subgroups (n=7). Control group specimens remained as processed (Group 1). The first test group was postpolymerized in a cassette autoclave at 135°C for 6 minutes and the other groups were postpolymerized in a conventional autoclave at 130°C using different time settings (5, 10, 20 or 30 minutes). Fracture toughness was then measured with a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Duncan test (α=0.05). The fracture toughness of Orthocryl and Paladent-RR acrylic resins significantly increased following conventional autoclave postpolymerization at 130°C for 10 minutes (Pautoclave postpolymerized Futurajet was not significantly different than its control specimens (Pautoclaved at 130°C for 10 minutes. Within the limitations of this study, it can be suggested that autoclave postpolymerization is an effective method for increasing the fracture toughness of tested autoploymerized acrylic resins.

  10. Herbaspirillum seropedicae and sugarcane endophytic interaction investigated by using high pressure freezing electron microscopy Uso da técnica de congelamento por alta pressão no estudo da interação endofítica de Herbaspirillum seropedicae e cana-de-açúcar

    Lúcia Gracinda da Silva

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between sugar cane plantlets and H. seropedicae was investigated using High Pressure Freezing followed by Freeze Substitution. Microscopical observation showed consistent differences between this approaches when compared with the conventional preparation, specially related to appearance of the bacteria cell and the endophytic attachment to the host cell wall.A interação entre plântulas de cana-de-açúcar e H. seropedicae foi investigada pelo uso da técnica de congelamento por alta pressão seguida de criosubstituição. Observações microscópicas evidenciaram diferenças marcantes entre esta técnica e preparações convencionais, especialmente relacionadas a ultraestrutura da bactéria e às estruturas envolvidas na adesão à superfície da parede celular da planta hospedeira.

  11. Preparation and characterization of PLGA nanospheres encapsulated with Autoclaved Leishmania Major (ALM) and Quillaja Saponin

    Tafaghodi, M.; Tabasi, S. Abolghasem Sajadi; Kharazizdeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several antigens, adjuvants and delivery systems have been evaluated for induction of protective immune responses against leishmaniasis, but have mostly been inefficient. In this study, poly (d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres as antigen delivery system and Quillaja saponins (QS) as an immunoadjuvant have been used to increase the immune responses against Autoclaved Lieshmania major (ALM). PLGA nanospheres were prepared using a double emulsion (W/O/W) technique. The internal aqueous phase contained ALM and saponin, while the oily phase contained the solution of PLGA in dichloromethane and the external aqueous phase was polyvinylacohol (PVA) 7.5% (W/V) solution. Particulate characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was determined by Lowry method and the release profile of antigen and saponin from nanospheres was evaluated for one week. Nanospheres were spherical in shape having smooth surfaces. Mean diameters for nanospheres loaded with ALM and ALM+QS were 300+-123 nm and 294+-106 nm respectively. Encapsulation efficiencies for ALM and QS were found 71+-14.8% and 55.8+- 23.1% respectively. Evaluation of the release profiles of ALM and QS from nanospheres in one week showed that 44.8 +-0.8% of ALM and 29.5+- 0.21% of QS had been released from naospheres. In conclusion, the prepared nanospheres with desirable size, encapsulation efficiency, and slow rate of release, had acceptable features for future in vivo studies. (author)

  12. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  13. High-pressure 3He gas scintillation neutron spectrometer

    Derzon, M.S.; Slaughter, D.R.; Prussin, S.G.

    1985-10-01

    A high-pressure, 3 He-Xe gas scintillation spectrometer has been developed for neutron spectroscopy on D-D fusion plasmas. The spectrometer exhibits an energy resolution of (121 +- 20 keV) keV (FWHM) at 2.5 MeV and an efficiency of (1.9 +- 0.4) x 10 -3 (n/cm 2 ) -1 . The contribution to the resolution (FWHM) from counting statistics is only (22 +- 3 keV) and the remainder is due predominantly to the variation of light collection efficiency with location of neutron events within the active volume of the detector

  14. High-Pressure Injection Injuries to the Hand

    Davod Jafari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background High-pressure injections into the hand, burden devastating and permanent functional impairments. Many materials including paint, paint thinner, gasoline, oil and grease are reported as the causative agents. These injuries need multiple procedures and reconstructions most of the time and 40% of the injuries may end with amputation of the injured part. Objectives The aim of this study was to report the treatment outcomes and methods of treatments of patients with high-pressure injection injuries of the hand. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, imaging files and demographic data of patients, who were treated at our center due to the high-pressure injuries to their hands. We recorded the kind of the injected materials, time to the first treatment procedure, times of operation, and methods of their treatments. The outcomes of the injuries as well as the deficiency of the digital joints motion were also reported. Results Nine cases with high-pressure injury of the hand were enrolled in this study. All patients were male with mean age of 26.88 ± 7.52. Mean follow-up time was 28.55 ± 12.49 months. The dominant hand was the right side in seven patients and left in two patients. Injury was in the left hand of seven patients and right hand of two patients. Index finger was the most common involved part (five cases followed by the thumb (two cases. Injected material was grease in seven cases, water-base paint and water, each in one case.Mean time delay to the first treatment procedure was 29.16 ± 25.66 hours for seven patients. This was exceptionally long for two patients (seven days and 24 months. Type of treatment was debridement and skin graft for three cases, debridement and cross finger flap for two cases, debridement for two cases and nerve graft for one case. Amputation of the necrotic digit was performed for one case. Mean hospitalization time was 8.33 ± 3.64 days for all patients.Mean total active range of motion

  15. Determination of liquid viscosity at high pressure by DLS

    Fukui, K; Asakuma, Y; Maeda, K

    2010-01-01

    The movement of particles with a size smaller than few microns is governed by random Brownian motion. This motion causes the fluid to flow around the particles. The force acting upon Brownian particles as well as their velocities are measured by using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. It provides the relationship between fluid shear stress and shear rate over the Brownian particle and determines the viscosity properties of the fluid. In this study, we propose a new rheometer which is widely applicable to fluid viscosity measurements at both normal and high pressure levels for Newtonian and non- Newtonian fluids.

  16. The high pressure xenon lamp as a source of radiation

    Heerdt, J.A. ter.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an investigation into the radiation properties of a commercially available high pressure xenon lamp (type XBO 900 W) in the spectral range 0.3 to 3 μm. The purpose of the study was to find out whether such a lamp can serve as a (secondary) standard of radiation in spectroscopic and radiometric measurements. The main advantades of the xenon lamp over other secondary standards such as the tungsten strip lamp and the anode of a carbon arc lamp are the high temperature of its discharge and the resulting strong radiation over a broad spectral range. (Auth.)

  17. A new box system for a high pressure tritium pump

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Souers, P.C.; Merrill, J.T.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 200 MPa (30 kpsi) high pressure tritium pump inside a box system is described. This system is currently under construction but all representative mechanical parts have been fabricated and tested. The pump is a conventional mechanical-plus-cryostaged system, so that most of the interesting features are in the box. The system contains nine separate sections, with automatic pressure balancing and venting systems. Five sections are hood-to-box convertible enclosures with inflatable door seals. The procedure of cryostaging with liquid argon is described. Special detail is given to valves and motor shaft seals. 3 refs., 4 figs

  18. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  19. High pressure gas spheres for neutron and photon experiments

    Rupp, G.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.; Kaltenbaek, J.; Leugers, B.; Reifarth, R.

    2009-09-01

    High pressure gas spheres have been designed and successfully used in several nuclear physics experiments on noble gases. The pros and cons of this solution are the simple design and the high reliability versus the fact that the density is limited to 40-60% of liquid or solid gas samples. Originally produced for neutron capture studies at keV energies, the comparably small mass of the gas spheres were an important advantage, which turned out to be of relevance for other applications as well. The construction, performance, and operation of the spheres are described and examples for their use are presented.

  20. Decontamination using the high-pressure wet jet system

    Brandt, D.

    1985-01-01

    For decontaminating machine components, tools, instruments and scrap in nuclear plants the most varying decontamination procedures are used. At the nuclear power plant Wuergassen a mobile high-pressure wet jet unit, developed by Ernst Schmutz GmbH, was successfully used for the first time in extensive decontamination work. The recycling system integrated in the decontamination unit substantially reduces secondary waste, which is usually produced in large quantities by the dry jet method, and continually extracts the contaminated dirt thus guaranteeing full utilisation of the jet agent while preventing secondary contamination of the components to be treated. (orig.) [de

  1. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  2. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  3. Pulsed operation of high-pressure-sodium discharge lamps

    Guenther, K.; Kloss, H.G.; Lehmann, T.; Radtke, R.; Serick, F.

    1990-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed operated high-pressure-sodium lamps. Choosing for the colour temperature a value of 3000 K, the output spectrum was optimized with respect to colour rendition and lamp efficacy taking the pulse parameters, the sodium mole fraction, and the cold spot temperature as quantities to be varied. For the nominal rating of 70 W a maximum lamp efficacy of 70 lm/W and a colour rendering index of 40 can be obtained. Further improvements of the colour rendition require an enhanced sodium vapour pressure which can be achieved by operating the lamp at rised cold spot temperature. (orig.)

  4. Pulsed operation of high-pressure-sodium discharge lamps

    Guenther, K; Kloss, H G; Lehmann, T [Zentrum fuer Forschung und Technologie, Berlin (Germany, F.R.); Radtke, R; Serick, F [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    Results of spectral and photometric measurements are presented for pulsed operated high-pressure-sodium lamps. Choosing for the colour temperature a value of 3000 K, the output spectrum was optimized with respect to colour rendition and lamp efficacy taking the pulse parameters, the sodium mole fraction, and the cold spot temperature as quantities to be varied. For the nominal rating of 70 W a maximum lamp efficacy of 70 lm/W and a colour rendering index of 40 can be obtained. Further improvements of the colour rendition require an enhanced sodium vapour pressure which can be achieved by operating the lamp at rised cold spot temperature. (orig.).

  5. Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures

    McMahon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    \\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to s...

  6. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  7. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  8. High-pressure structural behaviour of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H; Liu, J F; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jiang, J Z; Olsen, J Staun; Gerward, L

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transition remains constant. Simplified models for the high-pressure structural behaviour are presented, based on the assumption that a large fraction of the atoms reside in grain boundary regions of the nanocrystalline material. The interface structure plays a significant role in affecting the transition pressure and the bulk modulus

  9. High-pressure phase transitions - Examples of classical predictability

    Celebonovic, Vladan

    1992-09-01

    The applicability of the Savic and Kasanin (1962-1967) classical theory of dense matter to laboratory experiments requiring estimates of high-pressure phase transitions was examined by determining phase transition pressures for a set of 19 chemical substances (including elements, hydrocarbons, metal oxides, and salts) for which experimental data were available. A comparison between experimental and transition points and those predicted by the Savic-Kasanin theory showed that the theory can be used for estimating values of transition pressures. The results also support conclusions obtained in previous astronomical applications of the Savic-Kasanin theory.

  10. High pressure MHD coal combustors investigation, phase 2

    Iwata, H.; Hamberg, R.

    1981-05-01

    A high pressure MHD coal combustor was investigated. The purpose was to acquire basic design and support engineering data through systematic combustion experiments at the 10 and 20 thermal megawatt size and to design a 50 MW/sub t/ combustor. This combustor is to produce an electrically conductive plasma generated by the direct combustion of pulverized coal with hot oxygen enriched vitiated air that is seeded with potassium carbonate. Vitiated air and oxygen are used as the oxidizer, however, preheated air will ultimately be used as the oxidizer in coal fired MHD combustors.

  11. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Heweliusza 1, 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  12. Loads on EPR containment after RPV failure at high pressure

    Jacobs, G.

    1995-01-01

    As regards the desgin of the EPR, the general strategy is to eliminate, the vessel failure at high pressure by preventive and mitigative measures. The design proposals involved trust in the reliability of dedicated devices (relief valves) for rapid depressurization. The aim is to attain a lower pressure level at the moment of vessel failure, so that the containment is capable to cope with the blowdown impact on the pit walls and the vessel supporting structures. Nevertheless, the potential of a high-pressure failure of the vessel must be kept in mind, whatever well thought-out and reliable preventive depressurization measures might be. Therefore, the reactor pressure blowdown has been studied in order to quantify the ultimate containment load, which might support future design requirements. The calculations were performed with the LWR transient analysis thermal-hydraulics computer code REALAP5/MOD3. In previous analyses, the nodalization of the problem was based on the geometrical conditions of a typical German 1300 MW(e) NPP. In the present analysis a new input model has been used, which was based on the EPR conditions. (orig./HP)

  13. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  14. Selective gettering of hydrogen in high pressure metal iodide lamps

    Kuus, G.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main problems in the manufacture of high pressure gas discharge lamps is the elimination of gaseous impurities from their arc tubes. Long degassing processes of all the lamp components are necessary in order to produce lamps with a low ignition voltage and good maintenance of the radiation properties. The investigation described deals with a selective getter place in the arc tube which can replace the long degassing process. The getter consists of a piece of yttrium encapsulated in thin tantalum foil. By this way it is possible to use the gettering action of tantalum and yttrium without having reaction between the metal iodide of the arc tube and yttrium. Yttrium is used because this metal can adsorb a large quantity of hydrogen even at a temperature of 1000 0 C. Hydrogen forms the main gaseous impurity in the high pressure metal iodide lamp. For this reason the adsorption properties like adsorption rate and capacity of the tantalum--yttrium getter for hydrogen are examined, and the results obtained from lamp experiments are given

  15. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  16. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  17. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  18. Ammonia oxidation at high pressure and intermediate temperatures

    Song, Yu; Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation experiments were conducted at high pressure (30 bar and 100 bar) under oxidizing and stoichiometric conditions, respectively, and temperatures ranging from 450 to 925 K. The oxidation of ammonia was slow under stoichiometric conditions in the temperature range investigated. Under...... oxidizing conditions the onset temperature for reaction was 850–875 K at 30 bar, while at 100 bar it was about 800 K, with complete consumption of NH3 at 875 K. The products of reaction were N2 and N2O, while NO and NO2 concentrations were below the detection limit even under oxidizing conditions. The data...... was satisfactory. The main oxidation path for NH3 at high pressure under oxidizing conditions is NH3⟶+OH NH2⟶+HO2,NO2 H2NO⟶+O2 HNO⟶+O2 NO ⟶+NH2 N2. The modeling predictions are most sensitive to the reactions NH2 + NO = NNH + OH and NH2 + HO2 = H2NO + OH, which promote the ammonia consumption by forming OH...

  19. High-pressure stainless steel active membrane microvalves

    Sharma, G; Svensson, S; Ogden, S; Klintberg, L; Hjort, K

    2011-01-01

    In this work, high-pressure membrane microvalves have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The valves were able to withstand back-pressures of 200 bar with a response time of less than 0.6 s. These stainless steel valves, manufactured with back-end batch production, utilize the large volume expansion coupled to the solid–liquid phase transition in paraffin wax. When membrane materials were evaluated, parylene coated stainless steel was found to be the best choice as compared to polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide. Also, the influence of the orifice placement and diameter is included in this work. If the orifice is placed too close to the rim of the membrane, the valve can stay sealed even after turning the power off, and the valve will not open until the pressure in the system is released. The developed steel valves, evaluated for both water and air, provide excellent properties in terms of mechanical stability, ease of fabrication, and low cost. Possible applications include sampling at high pressures, chemical microreactors, high performance liquid chromatography, pneumatics, and hydraulics

  20. Photoconductivity studies of the ferrocyanide ion under high pressure

    Finston, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The photoaquation of the ferrocyanide ion was studied using a high-pressure photoconductivity apparatus and a steady-state high-pressure mercury lamp. The first-order photocurrent rise-time could be related to the relative quantum efficiency of the photoaquation process, while the dark decay of the photocurrent yielded a relative value of the bimolecular rate-constant for the reverse reaction. Kinetic measurements were carried out on dilute solutions of potassium ferrocyanide in pure water, and in 20% ethanol. The photocurrent yield in aqueous solution was dependent upon secondary chemical equilibria which were sensitive to pressure in a predictable way. In ethanolic solution, the dependence of photocurrent yield on pressure followed the variation of the reciprocal solvent vicosity. In both aqueous and alcoholic solution, the photoaquation quantum efficiency decreased exponentially with pressure, as did the biomolecular rate-constant for the dark reaction in aqueous solution. The pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate-constant in the alcoholic solution indicated a diffusion-limited process. The pressure dependence of the photoaquation quantum yield, and of the bimolecular rate-constant in aqueous solution, was interpreted in terms of an activation volume model. The photoaquation data for both the aqueous and the alcoholic solutions agreed with a hypothetical mechanism whereby ligand-to-metal bond-breaking, and solvent-to-metal bond-formation, are effectively simultaneous. The results for the aqueous dark reaction strongly indicated breaking of the solvent-to-metal bond as the rate-limiting step.

  1. Evaluation of high-pressure containment buildings for LMFBR's

    Armstrong, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study was conducted on the use of High Pressure LMFBR Containment Buildings for 1000 MW(e) LMFBRs. Two principal aspects were investigated: accident consequence mitigation and cost. Two types of hypothetical accidents were analyzed to establish consequence mitigation: melt-through and energetic expulsion. Three Containment Building (CB) design pressures were investigated: 69 kPa (10 psig), 207 kPa (30 psig), and 414 kPa (60 psig). Four types of design structures were analyzed to establish cost: steel, steel with confinement building, reinforced concrete, and prestressed/post-tensioned concrete. Results show that: it is within reason that a high pressure containment for a 1000 MW(e) reactor can be fabricated that will retain its integrity during postulated severe hypothetical accidents, if available measures are taken to reduce or prevent hydrogen production and the cost differential between basic high (414 kPa) and low (69 kPa) pressure containments is $10 x 10 6 or less

  2. Experimental in situ investigations of turbulence under high pressure.

    Song, Kwonyul; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; Jovanovic, Jovan; Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    In tube injection systems applied in high-pressure processing of packed biomaterials and foods, the pressure-transmitting medium is injected into the vessel to increase the pressure up to 1000 MPa, generating a submerged liquid-free jet. The presence of a turbulent-free jet during the pressurization phase and its positive influence on the homogeneity of the product treatment has already been examined by computational fluid dynamics investigations. However, no experimental data have supported the existence and properties of turbulent flow under high-pressure (HP) conditions up to 400 MPa. This contribution presents the development of two experimental setups: HP-laser Doppler anemometry and HP-hot wire anemometry. For the first time the time-averaged velocity profiles of a free jet during pressurization up to 300 MPa at different Reynolds numbers (Re) have been obtained. In this article, the dependence of the velocity profiles on the Re is discussed in detail. Moreover, the relaminarization phenomenon of the turbulent pipe flow most likely caused by the compressibility effects and viscosity changes of the pressure-transmitting medium is examined.

  3. Rare-earth-metal nitridophosphates through high-pressure metathesis

    Kloss, Simon David; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Developing a synthetic method to target an broad spectrum of unknown phases can lead to fascinating discoveries. The preparation of the first rare-earth-metal nitridophosphate LiNdP_4N_8 is reported. High-pressure solid-state metathesis between LiPN_2 and NdF_3 was employed to yield a highly crystalline product. The in situ formed LiF is believed to act both as the thermodynamic driving force and as a flux to aiding single-crystal formation in dimensions suitable for crystal structure analysis. Magnetic properties stemming from Nd"3"+ ions were measured by SQUID magnetometry. LiNdP_4N_8 serves as a model system for the exploration of rare-earth-metal nitridophosphates that may even be expanded to transition metals. High-pressure metathesis enables the systematic study of these uncharted regions of nitride-based materials with unprecedented properties. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  5. High-pressure cell for simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy

    Sanz, Alejandro; Hansen, Henriette Wase; Jakobsen, Bo; Pedersen, Ib H.; Capaccioli, Simone; Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Paluch, Marian; Gonthier, Julien; Frick, Bernhard; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy; Peters, Judith; Niss, Kristine

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report on the design, manufacture, and testing of a high-pressure cell for simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy. This cell is a unique tool for studying dynamics on different time scales, from kilo- to picoseconds, covering universal features such as the α relaxation and fast vibrations at the same time. The cell, constructed in cylindrical geometry, is made of a high-strength aluminum alloy and operates up to 500 MPa in a temperature range between roughly 2 and 320 K. In order to measure the scattered neutron intensity and the sample capacitance simultaneously, a cylindrical capacitor is positioned within the bore of the high-pressure container. The capacitor consists of two concentric electrodes separated by insulating spacers. The performance of this setup has been successfully verified by collecting simultaneous dielectric and neutron spectroscopy data on dipropylene glycol, using both backscattering and time-of-flight instruments. We have carried out the experiments at different combinations of temperature and pressure in both the supercooled liquid and glassy state.

  6. High pressure synthesis of BiS2

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    crystal structures and electrical properties.1,2 Up until now, the most sulfur rich phase in the Bi-S phase diagram was Bi2S3.3 For BiS2 the Bi atoms have anisotropic charge distribution and more complex structures are expected when comparing the layered structures of transition metal dichalcogenides....... The possibilities of using high pressure synthesis to discover new phases in the Bi-S binary system were investigated as early as the 1960’s.4 The research led to discovery of a compound with BiS2 stoichiometry, but no structure solution of BiS2 was reported. A reason behind making this new phase is to study...... the physical properties since the related compound Bi2S3 is known to be a thermoelectric material.5 In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure...

  7. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet

  8. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  9. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Condensation heat transfer on natural convection at the high pressure

    Jong-Won, Kim; Hyoung-Kyoun, Ahn; Goon-Cherl, Park

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation is to develop a small scale electric power system driven by an environment-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. REX-10 has been developed to assure high system safety in order to be placed in densely populated region and island. REX-10 adopts the steam-gas pressurizer to assure the inherent safety. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam-gas pressurizer are very complex. Especially, the condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas on the natural convection is important to evaluate the pressurizer behavior. However, there have been few investigations on the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas at the high pressure. In this study, the theoretical model is developed to estimate the condensation heat transfer at the high pressure using heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis results show good agreement with correlations and experimental data. It is found that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases as the total pressure increases or the mass fraction of the non-condensable gas decreases. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient no more increases over the specific pressure

  11. High pressure XAFS experiments at the XAFS beamline, INDUS-2

    Ramanan, Nitya; Lahiri, Debdutta; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Jha, S.N.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersive EXAFS beamline at the INDUS-2 synchrotron source, RRCAT, Indore uses a bent Si (111) crystal as a dispersive-cum-focusing element and a position sensitive CCD detector to enable instantaneous measurement of the whole EXAFS spectrum around the absorption edge of a particular atom. One of the proposed activities with this beamline is the characterization of amorphous materials under high pressure. Polychromator-based beamline is ideal for high pressure studies using Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) with ∼ 50 μm sample size. Larger spot size would give rise to unwanted diffraction peaks from diamond, superimposed on the XAFS data. Micro-focusing by polychromator crystal and absence of its mechanical movement (unlike monochromator-based scanning-mode beamlines), during data collection, lead to required focal spot stability for DAC experiments. Currently, the theoretically determined spot size (Horizontal x vertical) varies between 17 x 137 μm and 37 x 142 μm for the X-ray energy range 5 keV-20 keV. To reduce the vertical spot size to <50 μm, we have designed an additional focusing mirror between the polychromator and sample position. The mirror, fabricated at SESO, France will be installed shortly. Meanwhile, we have carried out preliminary XAFS experiments on Sr-compounds at ∼16 keV, under ambient conditions and inside diamond anvil cell, in order to assess the signal intensity and quality. We have obtained reasonably good signal. (author)

  12. High pressure as a probe of the solid state

    Ruoff, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    It is a great pleasure and honor to receive the Percy Williams Bridgman Award. Henry Eyring, my Ph.D. advisor, instilled in me a desire to unravel the secrets of nature in the chemical and physical world. He continued what my mother had begun. From my father I learned the virtue and satisfaction of hard work. In reading Percy Bridgman's The Physics of High Pressure [1] after I came to Cornell, I became intrigued by the high-pressure variable, so I owe much to him. I received valuable assistance and encouragement from George Kennedy and Harry Drickamer (the first winner of the Bridgman Award) and later from Alvin Van Valkenburg (a co-inventor with three others of the diamond anvil cell). Most importantly, I received encouragement from my wife, Enid Seaton Ruoff, to carry out what is sometimes the arduous pursuit of science---a pursuit that involves long working hours---and I want especially to thank her. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  13. High-pressure phase transformations of fluorite-type dioxides

    Lin-Gun Liu

    1980-01-01

    Phase transformations in six fluorite-type dioxides ('TbO 2 ', PbO 2 , 'PrO 2 ', CeO 2 , UO 2 and ThO 2 in the order of increasing cation size, where the quotation marks indicate non-stoichiometric materials) have been investigated in the diamond-anvil press coupled with laser heating. Together with earlier work, the results show that the post-fluorite phase transformations of these dioxides fall into two groups. The smaller cation group (HfO 2 , ZrO 2 and 'TbO 2 ') transforms to a cotunnite or a distorted cotunnite-type structure at pressures in the vicinity of 100 kbar and at about 1000 0 C. The larger cation group (from PbO 2 to ThO 2 ) is believed to transform to a different type of orthorhombic modification at high pressures. It is plausible that this high-pressure phase may possess a Ni 2 Si-related structure, as was observed in ThO 2 and 'PrO 2 ' at pressures greater than 150 and 200 kbar, respectively. (orig./ME)

  14. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  15. Selective component degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) using high-pressure steam

    Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi; Kim, Dong Hee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito; Nishida, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    In order to accelerate the bioconversion process of press-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB), the effect of high-pressure steam pre-treatment (HPST) in degrading the lignocellulosic structure was investigated. HPST was carried out under various sets of temperature/pressure conditions such as 170/0.82, 190/1.32, 210/2.03, and 230 °C/3.00 MPa. It was noted that after HPST, the surface texture, color, and mechanical properties of the treated EFB had obviously altered. Scanning electron micrographs of the treated EFB exhibited effective surface erosion that had occurred along the structure. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses showed the removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredients. X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity. These results reveal that HPST is an effective pre-treatment method for altering the physicochemical properties of the EFB and enhancing its biodegradability characteristics for the bioconversion process. -- Highlights: ► Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was accelerated by high-pressure steam pre-treatment. ► Scanning electron micrographs exhibited surface erosion as well as composting over 20 days. ► FT-IR and TG data showed the selective removal of silica bodies and hemicellulose ingredient. ► X-ray diffraction profiles of the treated EFB indicated significant increases in crystallinity

  16. The innovation of cryo-SEM freeze-fracturing methodology demonstrated on high pressure frozen biofilm.

    Hrubanova, Kamila; Nebesarova, Jana; Ruzicka, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav

    2018-04-22

    In this study we present an innovative method for the preparation of fully hydrated samples of microbial biofilms of cultures Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and high-pressure freezing (HPF) rank among cutting edge techniques in the electron microscopy of hydrated samples such as biofilms. However, the combination of these techniques is not always easily applicable. Therefore, we present a method of combining high-pressure freezing using EM PACT2 (Leica Microsystems), which fixes hydrated samples on small sapphire discs, with a high resolution SEM equipped with the widely used cryo-preparation system ALTO 2500 (Gatan). Using a holder developed in house, a freeze-fracturing technique was applied to image and investigate microbial cultures cultivated on the sapphire discs. In our experiments, we focused on the ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix produced during cultivation and the relationships among microbial cells in the biofilm. The main goal of our investigations was the detailed visualization of areas of the biofilm where the microbial cells adhere to the substrate/surface. We show the feasibility of this technique, which is clearly demonstrated in experiments with various freeze-etching times. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ab initio study of properties of BaBiO3 at high pressure

    Martoňák, Roman; Ceresoli, Davide; Kagayama, Tomoko; Tosatti, Erio

    BaBiO3 is a mixed-valence perovskite which escapes metallic state by creating a Bi-O bond disproportionation or CDW pattern, resulting in a Peierls semiconductor with gap of nearly 1 eV at zero pressure. Evolution of structural and electronic properties at high pressure is, however, largely unknown. Pressure, it might be natural to expect, could reduce the bond-disproportionation and bring the system closer to metalicity or even superconductivity. We address this question by ab initio DFT methods based on GGA and hybrid functionals in combination with crystal structure prediction techniques based on genetic algorithms. We analyze the pressure evolution of bond disproportionation as well as other order parameters related to octahedra rotation for various phases in connection with corresponding evolution of the electronic structure. Results indicate that BaBiO3 continues to resist metalization also under pressure, through structural phase transitions which sustain and in fact increase the diversity of length of Bi-O bonds for neighboring Bi ions, in agreement with preliminary high pressure resistivity data. R.M. Slovak Research and Development Agency Contract APVV-15-0496, VEGA project No. 1-0904-15; E.T. ERC MODPHYSFRICT Advanced Grant No. 320796.

  18. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Zhang, Zhifang [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Wenbo [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China); Wang, Aiqin, E-mail: aqwang@licp.cas.cn [Center of Eco-materials and Green Chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); R& D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuyi 211700 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Palygorskite was modified by a homogenization associated hydrothermal process. • The crystal bundles of PAL were disaggregated efficiently after modification. • The adsorption of palygorskite for Methylene blue was greatly enhanced. • MB-loaded palygorskite exhibits excellent resistance to acid and alkali solution. - Abstract: Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic–inorganic hybrid pigment.

  19. High-pressure homogenization associated hydrothermal process of palygorskite for enhanced adsorption of Methylene blue

    Zhang, Zhifang; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-02-01

    Palygorskite (PAL) was modified by a high-pressure homogenization assisted hydrothermal process. The effects of modification on the morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of PAL were systematically investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential analysis techniques, and the adsorption properties were systematically evaluated using Methylene blue (MB) as the model dye. The results revealed that the crystal bundles were disaggregated and the PAL nanorods became more even after treated via associated high-pressure homogenization and hydrothermal process, and the crystal bundles were dispersed as nanorods. The intrinsic crystal structure of PAL was remained after hydrothermal treatment, and the pore size calculated by the BET method was increased. The adsorption properties of PAL for MB were evidently improved (from 119 mg/g to 171 mg/g) after modification, and the dispersion of PAL before hydrothermal reaction is favorable to the adsorption. The desorption evaluation confirms that the modified PAL has stronger affinity with MB, which is benefit to fabricate a stable organic-inorganic hybrid pigment.

  20. Magnetic and Structural Phase Transitions in Thulium under High Pressures and Low Temperatures

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Samudrala, Gopi K. [UAB

    2017-10-01

    The nature of 4f electrons in many rare earth metals and compounds may be broadly characterized as being either "localized" or "itinerant", and is held responsible for a wide range of physical and chemical properties. The pressure variable has a very dramatic effect on the electronic structure of rare earth metals which in turn drives a sequence of structural and magnetic transitions. We have carried out four-probe electrical resistance measurements on rare earth metal Thulium (Tm) under high pressures to 33 GPa and low temperatures to 10 K to monitor the magnetic ordering transition. These studies are complemented by angle dispersive x-ray diffraction studies to monitor crystallographic phase transitions at high pressures and low temperatures. We observe an abrupt increase in magnetic ordering temperature in Tm at a pressure of 17 GPa on phase transition from ambient pressure hcp-phase to α-Sm phase transition. In addition, measured equation of state (EOS) at low temperatures show anomalously low thermal expansion coefficients likely linked to magnetic transitions.