Sample records for high-power target system

  1. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J


    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  2. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  3. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department


    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  4. High power lasers & systems


    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip


    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  5. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.


    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  6. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia


    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  7. A physics-based solver to optimize the illumination of cylindrical targets in spherically distributed high power laser systems (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.


    In recent years, our understanding of high energy density plasmas has played an important role in improving inertial fusion confinement and in emerging new fields of physics, such as laboratory astrophysics. Every new idea required developing innovative experimental platforms at high power laser facilities, such as OMEGA or NIF. These facilities, designed to focus all their beams onto spherical targets or hohlraum windows, are now required to shine them on more complex targets. While the pointing on planar geometries is relatively straightforward, it becomes problematic for cylindrical targets or target with more complex geometries. This publication describes how the distribution of laser beams on a cylindrical target can be done simply by using a set of physical laws as a pointing procedure. The advantage of the method is threefold. First, it is straightforward, requiring no mathematical enterprise besides solving ordinary differential equations. Second, it will converge if a local optimum exists. Finally, it is computationally inexpensive. Experimental results show that this approach produces a geometrical beam distribution that yields cylindrically symmetric implosions.

  8. High power target developments at ISAC

    CERN Document Server

    Bricault, P G; Dowling, A; Lane, M


    TRIUMF, Canada's national research facility for particle and nuclear physics is currently operating the ISAC facility. A high-energy proton beam from the H sup - TRIUMF cyclotron is used to generate short-lived radioactive species in a thick target. An ion source at the target creates a radioactive beam, which is then injected into the ISAC beam lines and accelerator system. The ISAC facility is designed to accept proton beam intensity up to 100 mu A at 500 MeV. At present our target design can only sustains 40 mu A at maximum. Beyond this point the target has to be cooled. A new target equipped with fins has been developed that may sustain proton beam up to 100 mu A. The fined target has been tested off-line and a thermal simulation using ANSYS[reg] has been conducted and the results are reported here.

  9. The SPES High Power ISOL production target (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.


    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  10. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal


    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  11. High power laser perforating tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  12. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.


    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  13. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, Silviu D. [JLAB


    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 {micro}A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 {micro}A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  14. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, S. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  15. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert


    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  16. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)


    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  17. High Power Proton Beam Shocks and Magnetohydrodynamics in a Mercury Jet Target for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, A; Fabjan, Christian


    The feasibility of liquid metal jet targets for secondary particle production with high power proton beams has been studied. The main aspects of the thesis were benchmark experiments covering the behaviour of liquid targets under thermal shock waves induced by high power proton beams, and also magnetohydrodynamic effects. Severe challenges were imposed by safety issues and the restricted beam time to the tests in ISOLDE at CERN and at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Grenoble. Restricted access times in high radiation level areas were of the order of minutes and in this short time span, the complete experimental setup had to be performed and verified. The involvement of mercury as liquid target material and its activation during beam tests demanded special confinement precautions. The setup for both experiments was based on the use of a high speed camera system for observation of the mercury target. The presence of high radiation or high magnetic field required the installation of the sensitive camera sy...

  18. Beam Delivery Systems For High Power Lasers (United States)

    Hohberg, G.


    For materials processing with lasers, beam delivery systems are necessary for directing the radiation from the laser head to the working point on the workpiece. The more new fields of application are assumed by the laser, the greater the need for beam delivery systems which have been appropriately designed to meet the requirements of the task to be performed. Depending on the task on hand the appropriate design may be a fixed pipe with a focussing lens at its end or a six-axis articulated arm. This paper will describe the design principles and their optical and mechanical properties. The discussion of the advantages and disadvantages may be of some help in choosing an adequate delivery system.

  19. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  1. Experimental study of lithium target under high power load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khripunov, B.I. E-mail:; Petrov, V.B.; Shapkin, V.V.; Pleshakov, A.S.; Rupyshev, A.S.; Antonov, N.V.; Litnovsky, A.M.; Romanov, P.V.; Shpansky, Yu.S.; Evtikhin, V.A.; Lyublinsky, I.E.; Vertkov, A.V


    This paper presents experimental research on simulation of a free liquid lithium surface under high heat flux impact for divertor application. Capillary porous structure (CPS) was taken to form the free liquid metal surface imitating divertor target plate. Experiments were performed in the SPRUT-4 linear plasma device with electron beam as power source. Lithium-filled targets were investigated at 1-50 MW/m{sup 2} heat loads in steady state. Lithium evaporation, energy and mass balance, surface temperature, vapor ionization, lithium plasma parameters and radiation were studied. Detailed thermal analysis was made to study heat flows in the target and their correspondence with experimental observations. Durable operation of the setup was possible in the range 1-20 MW/m{sup 2} without damage of the structure. The relevance of the experimental performance to divertor condition is analyzed.

  2. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping


    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  3. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E


    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  4. Visual observation of boiling in high power liquid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeples, J. L.; Stokely, M. H.; Poorman, M. C.; Magerl, M.; Wieland, B. W. [Bruce Technologies Inc., 1939 Evans Rd. Cary, NC 27513 (United States); IBA Molecular, 801 Forestwood Dr. Romeoville, IL 60446 (United States); Bruce Technologies Inc., 1939 Evans Rd. Cary, NC 27513 (United States)


    A top pressurized, batch style, 3.15 mL total volume (2.5 mL fill volume) water target with transparent viewing windows was operated on an IBA 18/9 cyclotron at 18 MeV proton energy and beam power up to 1.1 kW. Video recordings documented bubble formation and transport, and blue light from de-excitation of water molecules produced images of proton beam stopping geometry including location of the Bragg peak.

  5. Time Structure of Particle Production in the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Palm, M; Lettry, J; Haug, F; Pereira, H; Pernegger, H; Steerenberg, R; Grudiev, A; Kirk, H G; Park, H; Tsang, T; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P


    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 μs. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  6. Multiple-pass amplifiers for high-power laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackel, S.; Givon, M.; Ludmirsky, A.; Eliezer, S.; Borowitz, J.L.; Arad, B.; Zigler, A.; Gazit, Y.


    Multiple-pass amplifiers were configured from Nd:glass rods using polarization and angular coupling techniques. Very high gain (>600) single beam triple-pass booster stages and high gain (30 or 15) single or double-beam double-pass amplifiers were combined to construct a very cost effective high-power (50 GW) pulsed laser system. These techniques were also effectively applied to smaller compact high repetition-rate systems.

  7. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  8. Neutronic performance of the MEGAPIE spallation target under high power proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel-Sendis, F. [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabod, S. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 38000 Grenoble (France); Letourneau, A. [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Panebianco, S., E-mail: stefano.panebianco@cea.f [CEA - Saclay, Irfu/Service de Physique Nucleaire, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    The MEGAPIE project, aiming at the construction and operation of a megawatt liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, constitutes the first step in demonstrating the feasibility of liquid heavy metal target technologies as spallation neutron sources. In particular, MEGAPIE is meant to assess the coupling of a high power proton beam with a window-concept heavy liquid metal target. The experiment has been set at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland and, after a 4-month long irradiation, has provided unique data for a better understanding of the behavior of such a target under realistic irradiation conditions. A complex neutron detector has been developed to provide an on-line measurement of the neutron fluency inside the target and close to the proton beam. The detector is based on micrometric fission chambers and activation foils. These two complementary detection techniques have provided a characterization of the neutron flux inside the target for different positions along its axis. Measurements and simulation results presented in this paper aim to provide important recommendations for future accelerator driven systems (ADS) and neutron source developments.

  9. Test Facilities in Support of High Power Electric Propulsion Systems (United States)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Martin, James J.; Salvail, Patrick; Carter, Robert


    Successful development of space fission systems requires an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through non-nuclear testing. Through demonstration of systems concepts (designed by DOE National Laboratories) in relevant environments, this philosophy has been demonstrated through hardware testing in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS). The HPPTS is designed to enable very realistic non-nuclear testing of space fission systems. Ongoing research at the HPPTS is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE labs, industry, universities, and other NASA centers. Through hardware based design and testing, the HPPTS investigates High Power Electric Propulsion (HPEP) component, subsystem, and integrated system design and performance.

  10. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  12. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.


    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  13. High power RF solid state power amplifier system (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)


    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  14. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip


    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  15. Simulation of High Power Amplifier Calculation in VSAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Neforawati


    Full Text Available Arithmatical simulation of High Power Amplifier (HPA on VSAT system is a program which used to calculate the capacity of HPA as a working test of maximum power on each remote station of the VSAT network system, afterward can be obtained the available capacity value and power capacity used, therefore able to reallocate residual power below its available power spare. VSAT system can be used for several telecommunication application such as video broadcast, data broadcast,audio broadcast, banking operation, ATM and others. Due to the easy operational, maintanance and its instalment, VSAT system is more prifitable compare to ordinary terestrial band, its capability for multiservice application become more flexible in using its network. The software used is Visual Basic 6.0 version and database Microsoft Access. These software take a role as visualization and planning for remote station development and also power capasity needed for each remote in the calculation of HPA.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko


    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  17. Control system for high power laser drilling workover and completion unit (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Makki, Siamak; Faircloth, Brian O; DeWitt, Ronald A; Allen, Erik C; Underwood, Lance D


    A control and monitoring system controls and monitors a high power laser system for performing high power laser operations. The control and monitoring system is configured to perform high power laser operation on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  18. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian


    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  19. Development of a liquid Pb-Bi target for high-power ISOL facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houngbo, D., E-mail: [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University (UGent), St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bernardes, A.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); David, J.C. [CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Delonca, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IRTES-M3M & IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Kravalis, K. [Institute of Physics of University of Latvia (IPUL), 32 Miera iela, Salaspils LV-2169 (Latvia); Lahiri, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Losito, R.; Maglioni, C. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marchix, A. [CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Mendonca, T.M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Popescu, L. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schuurmans, P. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Stora, T.; Vollaire, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Vierendeels, J. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University (UGent), St.-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)


    This paper describes some R&D activities conducted in support of the design and safe operation of a high-power liquid Pb-Bi target within the LIEBE (Liquid Eutectic Lead Bismuth Loop Target for EURISOL) project. The target material is lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) which also acts as a primary coolant. As a consequence of interaction of the highly pulsed 1.4-GeV protons at ISOLDE with the target, heat powers of the order of 2 GW would be instantaneously deposited in the target during a bunch. Considerable R&D effort is thus required to demonstrate its continued coolability and structural integrity. This paper mainly reports on the conjugate flow (CFD) and heat deposition (Monte Carlo) calculations, not accounting for Fluid–Structure Interactions.

  20. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    in conjunction with optical coherence tomography, two-photon microscopy or coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In order to provide high-power green diode laser emission, nonlinear frequency conversion of state-of-the-art near-infrared diode lasers represents a necessary means. However, the obtained....... The underlying principle is spectral beam combining of multiple, comparable diode lasers with subsequent nonlinear frequency conversion. In the former approach multiple lasers are incoherently combined with an external optical component. With two 1062 nm tapered diode lasers and a reflecting volume Bragg grating...

  1. High-power production targets for the Super-FRS using a fast extraction scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Kojouharova, J; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Chishkine, V; Geissel, H; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kindler, B; Landre-Pellemoine, F; Lommel, B; Mittig, W; Münzenberg, G; Shutov, A; Weick, H; Yavor, M


    The high-power production target of the Super-FRS [H. Geissel et al., these Proceedings] will be irradiated by very intense heavy-ion beams which will be delivered from the future SIS100/200 [An International Accelerator Facility for Beams of Ions and Antiprotons, GSI-Report, 2001] synchrotron facility at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. This paper presents calculations of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of such a target, considering that a uranium ion beam with an energy of 1 GeV/u and an intensity of 10 sup 1 sup 2 particles will impinge within 50 ns on a solid carbon target with a thickness of 4 g/cm sup 2. Due to the high beam intensity the target may be strongly heated and could be destroyed in a single shot. The purpose of this work is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations how one can minimize target heating and avoid target destruction.

  2. Numerical simulation of high power LED heat-dissipating system (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Jeh; Hsu, Hsiang-Chen; Fu, Shen-Li; Yeh, Jiam-Nan


    In this paper, thermal analysis of the heat dissipation under different heat sink for high-power white Light Emitting Diode (LED) is presented. Junction temperature of LED is elevated as the power of LED increases, which brings up deterioration of light efficiency and other side effects. Heat dissipation is another design concern other than material and illumination efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cooling of high-power LED chips and modules for design of heat sinks. Three types of heat sinks are designed for a tandem 12-chip module and an extensive numerical investigation of the heat sink design performance is conducted by Computational Fluid Dynamics software Fluent. The effects of heat sink geometry and adhesive material are also investigated. Design variables are the thickness of sink base, number, thickness and length of fins. The total wetted area is the dominant factor to the junction temperature. The objective of design regarding the junction temperatures around 50°C is easily achieved. However, its effect is limited at high values of these parameters, furthermore an excessive number of fins incurs reverse consequence due to problem of ventilation also waste of material.

  3. X-point target divertor concept and the Alcator DX high power divertor test facility (United States)

    Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Vieria, R.; Wolfe, S.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Parker, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Theiler, C.; Wallace, G.; White, A.; Whyte, D.; Wukitch, S.


    Three critical challenges must be met before a steady-state, power-producing fusion reactor can be realized: (1) safely handle extreme plasma exhaust power, (2) completely suppress material erosion at divertor targets and (3) do this while maintaining a burning plasma core. Advanced divertors such as `Super X' and `X-point target' have the potential to solve all three challenges by producing a stable, fully detached, low temperature plasma in the divertor while maintaining a hot boundary layer around a clean plasma core. The X-point target divertor may be particularly effective. It places a second X-point in the pathway of the peak parallel heat flux with the intention of forming an X-point MARFE in the divertor volume, well away from the primary X-point that defines the last closed flux surface and at larger major radius, providing detachment front stability. Divertor heat dissipation is via volumetric processes (radiation, ion-neutral collisions), virtually eliminating erosion by ion bombardment and reducing peak heat flux and neutron fluence on remote divertor target components. Alcator DX is conceived as a national facility to test these ideas. It employs the high magnetic field technology of Alcator combined with high-power ICRH to investigate advanced divertors at reactor-level parallel heat flux densities.

  4. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production. (United States)

    Halfon, S; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Paul, M; Berkovits, D; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Friedman, M; Hazenshprung, N; Mardor, I; Nagler, A; Shimel, G; Tessler, M; Silverman, I


    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm(3)) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the (7)Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ~200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm(2) and volume power density of ~2 MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

  5. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Paul, M.; Friedman, M.; Tessler, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm{sup 3}) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ∼200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm{sup 2} and volume power density of ∼2 MW/cm{sup 3} at a lithium flow of ∼4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91–2.5 MeV, 1–2 mA) at SARAF.

  6. Design of a compact high-power neutron source—The EURISOL converter target (United States)

    Samec, K.; Milenković, R. Ž.; Dementjevs, S.; Ashrafi-Nik, M.; Kalt, A.


    The EURISOL project, a multi-lateral initiative supported by the EU, aims to develop a facility to achieve high yields of isotopes in radioactive beams and extend the variety of these isotopes towards more exotic types. The neutron source at the heart of the projected facility is designed to generate isotopes by fissioning uranium carbide (UC) targets arranged around a 4 MW neutron source. For reasons of efficiency, it is essential that the neutron source be as compact as possible, to avoid losing neutrons by absorption whilst maximising the escaping neutron flux, thus increasing the number of fissions in the UC targets. The resulting configuration presents a challenge in terms of absorbing heat deposition rates of up to 8 kW/cm3 in the neutron source; it has led to the selection of liquid metal for the target material. The current paper presents the design of a compact high-power liquid-metal neutron source comprising a specially optimised beam window concept. The design is based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations for thermal hydraulics and hydraulic aspects, as well as finite-element method (FEM) for assessing thermo-mechanical stability. The resulting optimised design was validated by a dedicated hydraulic test under realistic flow conditions. A full-scale mock-up was built at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and was tested at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL).

  7. Design of a compact high-power neutron source-The EURISOL converter target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)], E-mail:; Milenkovic, R.Z.; Dementjevs, S.; Ashrafi-Nik, M.; Kalt, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)


    The EURISOL project, a multi-lateral initiative supported by the EU, aims to develop a facility to achieve high yields of isotopes in radioactive beams and extend the variety of these isotopes towards more exotic types. The neutron source at the heart of the projected facility is designed to generate isotopes by fissioning uranium carbide (UC) targets arranged around a 4 MW neutron source. For reasons of efficiency, it is essential that the neutron source be as compact as possible, to avoid losing neutrons by absorption whilst maximising the escaping neutron flux, thus increasing the number of fissions in the UC targets. The resulting configuration presents a challenge in terms of absorbing heat deposition rates of up to 8 kW/cm{sup 3} in the neutron source; it has led to the selection of liquid metal for the target material. The current paper presents the design of a compact high-power liquid-metal neutron source comprising a specially optimised beam window concept. The design is based on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations for thermal hydraulics and hydraulic aspects, as well as finite-element method (FEM) for assessing thermo-mechanical stability. The resulting optimised design was validated by a dedicated hydraulic test under realistic flow conditions. A full-scale mock-up was built at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and was tested at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL)

  8. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I


    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S., E-mail: [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel 81800 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Bisyakoev, M.; Eliyahu, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, Israel 81800 (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Hazenshprung, N.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)


    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the {sup 7}Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks.

  10. Systems and assemblies for transferring high power laser energy through a rotating junction (United States)

    Norton, Ryan J.; McKay, Ryan P.; Fraze, Jason D.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There are provided high power laser devices and systems for transmitting a high power laser beam across a rotating assembly, including optical slip rings and optical rotational coupling assemblies. These devices can transmit the laser beam through the rotation zone in free space or within a fiber.

  11. High-power, military ruggedized QCL-based laser systems (United States)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Chapman, William B.; Arnone, David; Pushkarsky, Michael; Lopez, Enrique; Young, Michael; Caffey, Dave; Borgardt, Brandon; Priest, Allen; Sensibaugh, Jason; Day, Timothy


    Daylight Solutions has pioneered the development and commercialization of quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology for commercial and military markets. Multi-Watt, multi-wavelength QCL-based systems have been manufactured and tested against harsh military environmental requirements for military applications. These self-contained, turn-key systems have been designed to comply with modular open system architecture (MOSA) principles, and have been proven in several different system geometries. This paper will highlight the environmental requirements imposed upon, and performance from, QCL-based laser systems for example military applications.

  12. Repetitively Pulsed High Power RF Solid-State System (United States)

    Bowman, Chris; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.; Prager, James; Quinley, Morgan


    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies and power levels necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems at validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. In Year 1 of this program, EHT has developed a solid-state RF system that combines an inductive adder, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL), and antenna into a single system that can be deployed at fusion science experiments. EHT has designed and optimized a lumped-element NLTL that will be suitable RF generation near the lower-hybrid frequency at the High Beta Tokamak (HBT) located at Columbia University. In Year 2, EHT will test this system at the Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and HBT at Columbia. EHT will present results from Year 1 testing and optimization of the NLTL-based RF system. With support of DOE SBIR.

  13. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems (United States)

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C


    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  14. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.


    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  15. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.


    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  16. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantista, Christopher D.


    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  17. Design and characterization of a novel power over fiber system integrating a high power diode laser (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsein; Zahuranec, Terry


    High power 9xx nm diode lasers along with MH GoPower's (MHGP's) flexible line of Photovoltaic Power Converters (PPCs) are spurring high power applications for power over fiber (PoF), including applications for powering remote sensors and sensors monitoring high voltage equipment, powering high voltage IGBT gate drivers, converters used in RF over Fiber (RFoF) systems, and system power applications, including powering UAVs. In PoF, laser power is transmitted over fiber, and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells (packaged into Photovoltaic Power Converters, or PPCs) which efficiently convert the laser light. In this research, we design a high power multi-channel PoF system, incorporating a high power 976 nm diode laser, a cabling system with fiber break detection, and a multichannel PPC-module. We then characterizes system features such as its response time to system commands, the PPC module's electrical output stability, the PPC-module's thermal response, the fiber break detection system response, and the diode laser optical output stability. The high power PoF system and this research will serve as a scalable model for those interested in researching, developing, or deploying a high power, voltage isolated, and optically driven power source for high reliability utility, communications, defense, and scientific applications.

  18. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser (United States)

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  19. Transmission of high power sensor system and DWDM data system in one optical fiber


    Čučka, Milan; Münster, Petr; Kočí, Lukáš; Horváth, Tomáš; Filka, Miloslav; Vojtěch, Josef


    The main contribution of this paper is simulation of transmission DWDM system and high power sensor system in one optical fiber Hlavním přínosem této práce je simulace přenosu DWDM systému a vysokovýkonového senzorického systému na jednom optickém vlákně.

  20. Hardening Unmanned Aerial Systems Against High Power Microwave Threats in Support of Forward Operations (United States)


    In each of these scenarios, counter-UAS (C-UAS) weapons utilizing pulsed high power microwave (HPM) energy pose a significant problem for UAS in...offensive and defensive combat roles. These weapons cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) to produce effects on UAS ranging from upset to system...operations, their vulnerability to counter-UAS weapons utilizing high power microwaves (HPM) must be explored and mitigated. Defining this unique problem

  1. High Power Efficiency Buck Converter Design for Standalone Wind Generation System


    Yigeng Huangfu; Ruiqing Ma; Bo Liang; Yuren Li


    In wind generation system, the power converter efficiency is one of the key factors for the performance of the system. In those systems, DC/DC Buck converter is widely used for high power system. Considering the converter’s cost and efficiency, this paper mainly focuses on the design of an improved topology Buck converter adopted for high power standalone wind generation system. The designed converter uses multi-MOSFETs in parallel instead of the IGBTs, in order to increase the conductive cur...

  2. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H


    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  3. Control system of a high-power infrared free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Gorniker, E I; Kondakov, A A; Kurkin, G Ya


    The control system of the high power infrared FEL is built on the of a two-level distributed system.The system includes the operator interface at the upper level and Input/Output Controllers under supervision of the real time operating system at the lower level.All hardware for the control system of the FEL is produced by our institute,which solves several problems of hard real time and reduces cost of equipment.

  4. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.


    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  5. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 5. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system for multimegawatt CW requirements of 100 MeV proton LINAC. Purushottam Shrivastava Y D Wanmode P R Hannurkar. Volume 59 Issue 5 November 2002 pp 829-834 ...

  6. High Power Efficiency Buck Converter Design for Standalone Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigeng Huangfu


    Full Text Available In wind generation system, the power converter efficiency is one of the key factors for the performance of the system. In those systems, DC/DC Buck converter is widely used for high power system. Considering the converter’s cost and efficiency, this paper mainly focuses on the design of an improved topology Buck converter adopted for high power standalone wind generation system. The designed converter uses multi-MOSFETs in parallel instead of the IGBTs, in order to increase the conductive current as well as the converter switch frequency. From the experimental tests results, the maximum efficiency of the designed 2 kW Buck converter is up to 96% based on maximum power point tracking (MPPT method.

  7. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletti, Mario, E-mail: [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Galimberti, Marco [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hooker, Chris [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Curcio, Alessandro [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, Maria Pia [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giulietti, Danilo [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)


    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class. - Highlights: • Integration of the diagnostic tool on high power laser. • Validation of the GROG algorithm in comparison to a well-known commercial available software. • Complete characterization of the GEMINI ultra-short high power laser pulse.

  8. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules


    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Thermal management of power electronic devices is essential for reliable system performance especially at high power levels. Since even the most efficient electronic circuit becomes hot because of ohmic losses, it is clear that cooling is needed in electronics and even more as the power increases. One of the most important activities in the thermal management and reliability improvement is the cooling system design. As industries are developing smaller power devices with higher power densitie...

  9. Feasibility of High Power Refractory Metal Foil-Targets for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    R. Wilfinger, J. Lettry and the EURISOL Task 3 Workgroup

    Radioisotopes are produced by the ISOL method in thick targets. In existing ISOL facilities, only small yields have been obtained for short-lived nuclei close to the driplines due to the radioactive decay during the diffusion, effusion and ionization processes. An increase of the proton beam current increases the production rate, which is directly proportional to the primary proton flux. But at the same time, the power deposition inside the target is also increased proportional to the primary proton flux...

  10. Performance of target irradiation in a high-power laser with a continuous phase plate and spectral dispersion. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Li, Jinghui; Wu, Rong; Zhu, Zhengtao; Zhou, Shenlei; Lin, Zunqi


    We report on the performance of target irradiation at the SG-II high-power laser facility with a continuous phase plate (CPP) and the technique of smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Simulative and experimental results are presented, where the irradiation uniformity and energy concentration of the target spots are analyzed. The results show that the designed CPP can focus the spot energy into the desired region and shape a profile with steep edge and flat top, but the actual performance of the fabricated CPP needs some improvements. It is also proved that the CPP is insensitive to the long-scale wavefront distortion in the incident beam. The one-dimensional SSD configuration evidently works in smoothing the fine-scale intensity modulation inside the target spot.

  11. Optimization Tool for Direct Water Cooling System of High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede


    . One of the most important activities in the thermal management and reliability improvement is the cooling system design. As industries are developing smaller power devices with higher power densities, optimized design of cooling systems with minimum thermal resistance and pressure drop become...... important issue for thermal design engineers. This paper aims to present a user friendly optimization tool for direct water cooling system of a high power module which enables the cooling system designer to identify the optimized solution depending on customer load profiles and available pump power. CFD...

  12. High-power multimode X-band rf pulse compression system for future linear colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami G. Tantawi


    Full Text Available We present a multimode X-band rf pulse compression system suitable for a TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC. The NLC main linac operating frequency is 11.424 GHz. A single NLC rf unit is required to produce 400 ns pulses with 475 MW of peak power. Each rf unit should power approximately 5 m of accelerator structures. The rf unit design consists of two 75 MW klystrons and a dual-moded resonant-delay-line pulse compression system that produces a flat output pulse. The pulse compression system components are all overmoded, and most components are designed to operate with two modes. This approach allows high-power-handling capability while maintaining a compact, inexpensive system. We detail the design of this system and present experimental cold test results. We describe the design and performance of various components. The high-power testing of the system is verified using four 50 MW solenoid-focused klystrons run off a common 400 kV solid-state modulator. The system has produced 400 ns rf pulses of greater than 500 MW. We present the layout of our system, which includes a dual-moded transmission waveguide system and a dual-moded resonant line (SLED-II pulse compression system. We also present data on the processing and operation of this system, which has set high-power records in coherent and phase controlled pulsed rf.

  13. FEM Thermal Modeling and Improvement for High Power IGBT Modules Used in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Thermal management of high power IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) modules is crucial to ensure the reliable operation of power electronic systems especially in wind power applications. The important stage in thermal management of power modules is temperature estimation inside the IGBT...... modules. Generally, thermal information on datasheet is used to estimate transistor and diode chip temperatures, but this information is based on average and rough temperature measurements. In addition this information does not consider thermal coupling impact between the chips and the impact of different...... cooling conditions on thermal behavior of power module. In this paper, a detailed 3D thermal network of high power module is presented based on FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. The thermal coupling impact between chips will be studied and the transient thermal impedances will be examined under...

  14. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M


    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  15. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    Both electricity and fresh water become basic human needs in modern days. This paper describes the coupling methods of high power pressurized water reactors and desalination system, and evaluates the economics of coupling systems. OPR1000 designed by Korea was chosen for the reference reactor. Because MED (Mulct-Effect Distillation) with TVC (Thermal Vapor Compressor) have been evaluated as an effective desalination system for high power reactors, it was used for the reference desalination method in simulation. In order to simulate the secondary circuit of PWRs with heat exchangers for MED-TVC, PEPSE program which is normally used for performance evaluation of power system efficiencies was used. The coupling of OPR1000 and desalination systems were set under the restriction it had to make as small changes as possible. From the results PEPSE simulation, the economics of the coupling systems were calculates using equations form DEEP4.0 (Desalination Economic Evaluation Program) which was developed by IAEA because Deep simulates just two simple couplings which are back pressure and condensation/extraction. In the secondary circuit simulation seven coupling cases were set and outlet powers to heat exchanger for desalination were varied to be dependent on the thermohydraulic conditions on each part. The results of changed electrical power generation were calculated with the thermal outputs for desalination. It is concluded that two coupling method using the steam from high-pressure turbine have high performance and are economical among the simulated cases. The first one is to add a heat exchanger on the branch from high-pressure turbine into moisture separator and the other is on the branch into feedwater heating parts. It proves desalination plants can be added to current high power PWRs.

  16. Review of high-power pulsed systems at the Institute of High Current Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kim


    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of some most powerful pulsed systems developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics (HCEI, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, and describe latest achievements of the teams dealing with these installations. Besides the presented high-power systems, HCEI performs numerous investigations using much less powerful generators. For instance, last year much attention was paying to the research and development of the intense low-energy (<200 kV high-current electron and ion beam and plasma sources, and their application in the technology [1–3].

  17. High-power LED illumination system for photosynthetic research on potted plant canopies (United States)

    Thestrup, Birgitte; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Lund, Janni B.; Rosenqvist, Eva


    The high energy efficiency and radiant flux of high-power LED devices has lead to many new applications of LED lighting. Within the more production oriented applied plant research, there is a need for illumination systems that ensures a high irradiance, spectral control and homogeneous illumination of a large plant canopy to ensure reproducible results over long term measurements. A new high power LED illumination system is presented. It has been designed and developed for illumination of a plant canopy area of 60 x 80 cm2 in a climate chamber where photosynthesis of the whole canopy can be measured. The LED system extends the precise control of the chamber climate with computer control and long term stability of the irradiance and spectral composition of the illumination. High-power red and blue (at 455 and 639 nm) LED devices have been chosen that coincides with the absorption peaks of chlorophyll. The illumination system allows for a maximum irradiance of 6.3 W/cm2 corresponding to a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 300 μmol m -2 s -1. The spectral composition of the light given by the ratio of blue photons compared to the total number of red and blue photons can be adjusted from 0-40 % keeping the irradiance at a constant level. Spectroradiometric 2D grid measurement at the plant top level shows homogeneity of +/- 5% of the irradiance and +/- 5% of the spectral distribution, over almost the entire canopy area. Initial experiments carried out on Chrysanthemum plants showing the dependence of the photosynthesis on blue light fraction is presented and discussed.

  18. $^{206}$ Po sources for production and release studies relevant for high power spallation targets

    CERN Multimedia

    The knowledge of the evaporation behaviour of Po is of essential importance for several scientific and technological applications, like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the LIEBE project at CERN-ISOLDE. Fundamental investigations on the experimental conditions for the formation of volatile Po species as well as on the chemical composition of the volatile compounds are necessary for a safe operation of such facilities. $^{206}$Po, a mainly $\\gamma$- ray-emitting Po isotope with a half-life of 8.8 d, is best suited for model studies, due to the lower radiation hazard compared to the longer-lived $\\alpha$-emitting isotopes $^{208-210}$Po as well as the easy-to-measure $\\gamma$-ray emission. We propose the production of $^{206}$Po samples in several matrices via the implantation of its precursor $^{210}$Fr into selected metal foils at CERN-ISOLDE. Using these samples, experiments will be carried out at PSI studying the volatilization of Po from different matrices under varying chemical conditions.

  19. Experimental and theoretical analysis of an optical current sensor for high power systems (United States)

    Brigida, A. C. S.; Nascimento, I. M.; Mendonça, S.; Costa, J. C. W. A.; Martinez, M. A. G.; Baptista, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.


    A magneto-optical sensor, using a dual quadrature polarimetric processing scheme, was evaluated for current metering and protection applications in high voltage lines. Sensor calibration and resolution were obtained in different operational conditions using illumination in the 1550-nm band. Results obtained indicated the feasibility of interrogating such sensor via the optical ground wire (OPGW) link installed in standard high power grids. The polarimetric bulk optical current sensor also was theoretically studied, and the effects of different sources of error considering practical deployment were evaluated. In particular, the interference from external magnetic fields in a tree-phase system was analyzed.

  20. A computer control system for the PNC high power cw electron linac. Concept and hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Hirano, K.; Takei, Hayanori; Nomura, Masahiro; Tani, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kato, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.


    Design and construction of a high power cw (Continuous Wave) electron linac for studying feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation was started in 1989 at PNC. The PNC accelerator (10 MeV, 20 mA average current, 4 ms pulse width, 50 Hz repetition) is dedicated machine for development of the high current acceleration technology in future need. The computer control system is responsible for accelerator control and supporting the experiment for high power operation. The feature of the system is the measurements of accelerator status simultaneously and modularity of software and hardware for easily implemented for modification or expansion. The high speed network (SCRAM Net {approx} 15 MB/s), Ethernet, and front end processors (Digital Signal Processor) were employed for the high speed data taking and control. The system was designed to be standard modules and software implemented man machine interface. Due to graphical-user-interface and object-oriented-programming, the software development environment is effortless programming and maintenance. (author)

  1. Waveform agile high-power fiber laser illuminators for directed-energy weapon systems (United States)

    Engin, Doruk; Lu, Wei; Kimpel, Frank; Gupta, Shantanu


    A kW-class fiber-amplifier based laser illuminator system at 1030nm is demonstrated. At 125 kHz pulse repetition rate, 1.9mJ energy per pulse (235W average power) is achieved for 100nsec pulses with >72% optical conversion efficiency, and at 250kHz repetition, >350W average power is demonstrated, limited by the available pumps. Excellent agreement is established between the experimental results and dynamic fiber amplifier simulation, for predicting the pulse shape, spectrum and ASE accumulation throughout the fiber-amplifier chain. High pulse-energy, high power fiber-amplifier operation requires careful engineering - minimize ASE content throughout the pre-amplifier stages, use of large mode area gain fiber in the final power stage for effective pulse energy extraction, and pulse pre-shaping to compensate for the laser gain-saturation induced intra-pulse and pulse-pattern dependent distortion. Such optimization using commercially available (VLMA) fibers with core size in the 30-40μm range is estimated to lead to >4mJ pulse energy for 100nsec pulse at 50kHz repetition rate. Such waveform agile high-power, high-energy pulsed fiber laser illuminators at λ=1030nm satisfies requirements for active-tracking/ranging in high-energy laser (HEL) weapon systems, and in uplink laser beacon for deep space communication.

  2. Data Processing Middleware in a High-Powered Neutral Beam Injection Control System (United States)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Song, Shihua; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Dou, Shaobin


    A set of data-processing middleware for a high-powered neutral beam injection (NBI) control system is presented in this paper. The middleware, based on TCP/IP and multi-threading technologies, focuses mainly on data processing and transmission. It separates the data processing and compression from data acquisition and storage. It provides universal transmitting interfaces for different software circumstances, such as WinCC, LabView and other measurement systems. The experimental data acquired on Windows, QNX and Linux platforms are processed by the middleware and sent to the monitoring applications. There are three middleware deployment models: serial processing, parallel processing and alternate serial processing. By using these models, the middleware solves real-time data-processing problems on heterogeneous environmental acquisition hardware with different operating systems and data applications.

  3. Vehicle-mounted high-power microwave systems and health risk communication in a deployed environment. (United States)

    Westhoff, John L; Roberts, Brad J; Erickson, Kristin


    Vehicle-mounted high-power microwave systems have been developed to counter the improvised explosive device threat in southwest Asia. Many service members only vaguely comprehend the nature of these devices and the nonionizing radio frequency (RF) radiation they emit. Misconceptions about the health effects of RF radiation have the potential to produce unnecessary anxiety. We report an incident in which concern for exposure to radiation from a high-power microwave device thought to be malfunctioning led to an extensive field investigation, multiple evaluations by clinicians in theater, and subsequent referrals to an Occupational Health clinic upon return from deployment. When acute exposure to RF does occur, the effects are thermally mediated and immediately perceptible--limiting the possibility of injury. Unlike ionizing radiation, RF radiation is not known to cause cancer and the adverse health effects are not cumulative. Medical officers counseling service members concerned about potential RF radiation exposure should apply established principles of risk communication, attend to real and perceived risks, and enlist the assistance of technical experts to properly characterize an exposure when appropriate.

  4. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition. (United States)

    Cappellini, G; Lombardi, P; Mancini, M; Pagano, G; Pizzocaro, M; Fallani, L; Catani, J


    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic (173)Yb with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  5. A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappellini, G., E-mail: [LENS European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lombardi, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INO-CNR Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR, Sezione di Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mancini, M.; Pagano, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pizzocaro, M. [INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Torino 10135 (Italy); Fallani, L. [LENS European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Catani, J. [LENS European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INO-CNR Istituto Nazionale di Ottica del CNR, Sezione di Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    In this paper, we present the realization of a compact, high-power laser system able to excite the ytterbium clock transition at 578 nm. Starting from an external-cavity laser based on a quantum dot chip at 1156 nm with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator, we were able to obtain up to 60 mW of visible light at 578 nm via frequency doubling. The laser is locked with a 500 kHz bandwidth to an ultra-low-expansion glass cavity stabilized at its zero coefficient of thermal expansion temperature through an original thermal insulation and correction system. This laser allowed the observation of the clock transition in fermionic {sup 173}Y b with a <50 Hz linewidth over 5 min, limited only by a residual frequency drift of some 0.1 Hz/s.

  6. Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus


    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper....... In order to achieve low switching losses, the 60 clamp Discontinuous PulseWidth Modulation (DPWM1) is used to modulate the VSCs. A step-by-step design procedure of the line filter, which ensures the desired harmonic performance under all operating conditions, is presented. The analytical harmonic solution...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...

  7. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik


    the use of a current controller which takes into account the discrete states of the inverter, e.g. DTC or a more modern approach: Model Predictive Direct Current Control (MPDCC). Moreover overshoots and oscillations in the speed are not desired in many applications, since they lead to mechanical stress......In drive systems the most used control structure is the cascade control with an inner torque, i.e. current and an outer speed control loop. The fairly small converter switching frequency in high power applications, e.g. wind turbines lead to modest speed control performance. An improvement bring...... behaviour. It compensates the load torque influence on the speed control setting a feed forward torque value, i.e. current reference value. The benefits are twice. The speed controller reaches immediately the speed reference value avoiding offsets which must be compensated by the weak integrator. Moreover...

  8. Cost-effective optoacoustic system based on the combination of high-power diode lasers (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio


    One of the main issues of the advances in optoacoustic (OA) applications is to reduce the high costs and the big sizes of solid state lasers. High-power diode lasers (HPDLs) have been demonstrated to be a valid alternative reducing enormously the expenses, besides other advantages such as smaller sizes and higher modulation frequencies. However, in some cases it is possible to furtherly reduce their costs. We present a cost-effective OA system based on the combination of several 905-nm HPDLs with direct coupling into a fiber bundle. These HPDLs have an internal pulse driver, based on an n-channel Mosfet and two charging capacitors, which needs an external Mosfet driver circuit and a voltage supply in order to improve the optical pulse shape and energy. We compare the performances and the prices of this OA system with another similar HPDL-based OA system built with commercial elements. Results indicate good OA signal generation ( 15.6 mVpp) with pulse energy of 12.3 μJ and, especially, a cost reduction by a factor of 15 if compared to the other HPDL-based system.

  9. Experimental Study on Active Cooling Systems Used for Thermal Management of High-Power Multichip Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W. The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC, and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs.

  10. High-power density miniscale power generation and energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyshevski, Sergey Edward [Department of Electrical and Microelectronics Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States)


    This paper reports design, analysis, evaluations and characterization of miniscale self-sustained power generation systems. Our ultimate objective is to guarantee highly-efficient mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion, ensure premier wind- or hydro-energy harvesting capabilities, enable electric machinery and power electronics solutions, stabilize output voltage, etc. By performing the advanced scalable power generation system design, we enable miniscale energy sources and energy harvesting technologies. The proposed systems integrate: (1) turbine which rotates a radial- or axial-topology permanent-magnet synchronous generator at variable angular velocity depending on flow rate, speed and load, and, (2) power electronic module with controllable rectifier, soft-switching converter and energy storage stages. These scalable energy systems can be utilized as miniscale auxiliary and self-sustained power units in various applications, such as, aerospace, automotive, biotechnology, biomedical, and marine. The proposed systems uniquely suit various submersible and harsh environment applications. Due to operation in dynamic rapidly-changing envelopes (variable speed, load changes, etc.), sound solutions are researched, proposed and verified. We focus on enabling system organizations utilizing advanced developments for various components, such as generators, converters, and energy storage. Basic, applied and experimental findings are reported. The prototypes of integrated power generation systems were tested, characterized and evaluated. It is documented that high-power density, high efficiency, robustness and other enabling capabilities are achieved. The results and solutions are scalable from micro ({proportional_to}100 {mu}W) to medium ({proportional_to}100 kW) and heavy-duty (sub-megawatt) auxiliary and power systems. (author)

  11. Temperature-controlling system for high power LEDs based on semiconductor coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changguang LI


    Full Text Available Semiconductor refrigeration was used for heat dissipation of high power LEDs. A practical temperature-controlling system was designed and built with a microcontroller unit (STC89C52 and a thermoelectric cooling module (TEC1-12703 as the core components. Functions including temperature measurement, display, setup, and control were realized. PWM (pulse width modulation was applied to regulate the driving current of the thermoelectric cooler. Effective refrigeration and temperature control were thus achieved. This system was used for the temperature control of a LED module with the power of 7×3 W. When the environment temperature was 22~25 ℃, the substrate temperature of the LED module could be stabilized in the range of 40~70 ℃. If the upper and lower temperature limits of the LED substrate were set to be 64 ℃and 65 ℃, respectively, the power consumed by thermoelectric cooling was only 27% of that consumed by the LEDs. The temperature-controlling system had a high cooling speed (up to 14 ℃/min and small temperature fluctuation (only ±0.5 ℃. It fulfilled the requirements for LED temperature control and could be used for many other applications.

  12. High power fiber laser system for a high repetition rate laserwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Nevay


    Full Text Available We present the development of a high power fiber laser system to investigate its suitability for use in a transverse electron beam profile monitor, i.e., a laserwire. A system capable of producing individual pulses up to 165.8±0.4  μJ at 1036 nm with a full width at half maximum of 1.92±0.12  ps at 6.49 MHz is demonstrated using a master oscillator power amplifier design with a final amplification stage in a rod-type photonic crystal fiber. The pulses are produced in trains of 1 ms in a novel burst mode amplification scheme to match the bunch pattern of the charged particles in an accelerator. This method allows pulse energies up to an order of magnitude greater than the steady-state value of 17.0±0.6  μJ to be achieved at the beginning of the burst with a demonstrated peak power of 25.8±1.7  MW after compression. The system is also shown to demonstrate excellent spatial quality with an M^{2}=1.26±0.01 in both dimensions, which would allow nearly diffraction limited focusing to be achieved.

  13. Active Stabilization of the Beam Pointing of a High- Power KrF Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna1 A.


    Full Text Available An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad. This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.

  14. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.


    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  15. New generation all-silica based optical elements for high power laser systems (United States)

    Tolenis, T.; GrinevičiÅ«tÄ--, L.; Melninkaitis, A.; Selskis, A.; Buzelis, R.; MažulÄ--, L.; Drazdys, R.


    Laser resistance of optical elements is one of the major topics in photonics. Various routes have been taken to improve optical coatings, including, but not limited by, materials engineering and optimisation of electric field distribution in multilayers. During the decades of research, it was found, that high band-gap materials, such as silica, are highly resistant to laser light. Unfortunately, only the production of anti-reflection coatings of all-silica materials are presented to this day. A novel route will be presented in materials engineering, capable to manufacture high reflection optical elements using only SiO2 material and GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) method. The technique involves the deposition of columnar structure and tailoring the refractive index of silica material throughout the coating thickness. A numerous analysis indicate the superior properties of GLAD coatings when compared with standard methods for Bragg mirrors production. Several groups of optical components are presented including anti-reflection coatings and Bragg mirrors. Structural and optical characterisation of the method have been performed and compared with standard methods. All researches indicate the possibility of new generation coatings for high power laser systems.

  16. Monitoring of High-Power Microwave Tube Systems Using the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshi, N


    .... This report details the next step in transitioning the laboratory MTBIT system into a system that is compatible with condition-based maintenance systems employing the Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) used by the Fleet...

  17. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T


    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  18. Analysis and design of a high power, digitally-controlled spacecraft power system (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Cho, B. H.


    The progress to date on the analysis and design of a high power, digitally controlled spacecraft power system is described. Several battery discharger topologies were compared for use in the space platform application. Updated information has been provided on the battery voltage specification. Initially it was thought to be in the 30 to 40 V range. It is now specified to be 53 V to 84 V. This eliminated the tapped-boost and the current-fed auto-transformer converters from consideration. After consultations with NASA, it was decided to trade-off the following topologies: (1) boost converter; (2) multi-module, multi-phase boost converter; and (3) voltage-fed push-pull with auto-transformer. A non-linear design optimization software tool was employed to facilitate an objective comparison. Non-linear design optimization insures that the best design of each topology is compared. The results indicate that a four-module, boost converter with each module operating 90 degrees out of phase is the optimum converter for the space platform. Large-signal and small-signal models were generated for the shunt, charger, discharger, battery, and the mode controller. The models were first tested individually according to the space platform power system specifications supplied by NASA. The effect of battery voltage imbalance on parallel dischargers was investigated with respect to dc and small-signal responses. Similarly, the effects of paralleling dischargers and chargers were also investigated. A solar array and shunt model was included in these simulations. A model for the bus mode controller (power control unit) was also developed to interface the Orbital replacement Unit (ORU) model to the platform power system. Small signal models were used to generate the bus impedance plots in the various operating modes. The large signal models were integrated into a system model, and time domain simulations were performed to verify bus regulation during mode transitions. Some changes have

  19. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang


    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  20. Design of an Advanced Modular Automated Evaluation System for Experimental High Power SGTOS (United States)


    HIGH POWER SGTOS Shelby Lacouture, Kevin Lawson, Stephen Bayne , Michael Giesselmann, Heather O’Brien 1 , Aderinto Ogunniyi 1 , Charles J...hopefully aid in understanding of why failure occurred, and lead to improvements in device durability. VI. REFERENCES [1] Lacouture, S.; Bayne ...Conference (PPC), 2011 IEEE , vol., no., pp.1474-1476, 19-23 June 2011. [2] Lacouture, S.; Bayne , S.B.; Giesselmann, M.G.; Lawson, K.; O’Brien, H

  1. Robust modeling and performance analysis of high-power diode side-pumped solid-state laser systems. (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer; Ghoniemy, Samy; Mokhtar, Ayman


    In this paper, we present an enhanced high-power extrinsic diode side-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) model to accurately predict the dynamic operations and pump distribution under different practical conditions. We introduce a new implementation technique for the proposed model that provides a compelling incentive for the performance assessment and enhancement of high-power diode side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using cooperative agents and by relying on the MATLAB, GLAD, and Zemax ray tracing software packages. A large-signal laser model that includes thermal effects and a modified laser gain formulation and incorporates the geometrical pump distribution for three radially arranged arrays of laser diodes is presented. The design of a customized prototype diode side-pumped high-power laser head fabricated for the purpose of testing is discussed. A detailed comparative experimental and simulation study of the dynamic operation and the beam characteristics that are used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for analyzing the performance of high-power DPSSLs under different conditions are discussed. The simulated and measured results of power, pump distribution, beam shape, and slope efficiency are shown under different conditions and for a specific case, where the targeted output power is 140 W, while the input pumping power is 400 W. The 95% output coupler reflectivity showed good agreement with the slope efficiency, which is approximately 35%; this assures the robustness of the proposed model to accurately predict the design parameters of practical, high-power DPSSLs.

  2. High Power Electronics (United States)

    Pendharker, Sameer

    High Power Electronics Future Trends: New process, circuit and packaging technologies over the last 5 years have led to significant innovation and technological developments in high power electronics. In this topic, the trends and performance improvements achieved in the industry will be discussed with focus on gallium-nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC). Both GaN and SiC technologies have been around for many years but have seen limited adoption and proliferation in high power systems. With the improved transistor performance, power conversion efficiencies and densities previously unrealizable are now available leading to new applications and new system. Trends in these technologies will also be reviewed and remaining challenges to overcome before true mass market adoption can be expected.

  3. Utilization of recently developed codes for high power Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.


    Two recently developed FORTRAN computer codes for high power Brayton and Rankine thermodynamic cycle analysis for space power applications are presented. The codes were written in support of an effort to develop a series of subsystem models for multimegawatt Nuclear Electric Propulsion, but their use is not limited just to nuclear heat sources or to electric propulsion. Code development background, a description of the codes, some sample input/output from one of the codes, and state future plans/implications for the use of these codes by NASA's Lewis Research Center are provided.

  4. Development of modular scalable pulsed power systems for high power magnetized plasma experiments (United States)

    Bean, I. A.; Weber, T. E.; Adams, C. S.; Henderson, B. R.; Klim, A. J.


    New pulsed power switches and trigger drivers are being developed in order to explore higher energy regimes in the Magnetic Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. To achieve the required plasma velocities, high-power (approx. 100 kV, 100s of kA), high charge transfer (approx. 1 C), low-jitter (few ns) gas switches are needed. A study has been conducted on the effects of various electrode geometries and materials, dielectric media, and triggering strategies; resulting in the design of a low-inductance annular field-distortion switch, optimized for use with dry air at 90 psig, and triggered by a low-jitter, rapid rise-time solid-state Linear Transformer Driver. The switch geometry and electrical characteristics are designed to be compatible with Syllac style capacitors, and are intended to be deployed in modular configurations. The scalable nature of this approach will enable the rapid design and implementation of a wide variety of high-power magnetized plasma experiments. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. Approved for unlimited release, LA-UR-17-2578.

  5. An X-band, high power dielectric resonator oscillator for future military systems. (United States)

    Mizan, M A; Sturzebecher, D; Higgins, T; Paolella, A


    A 9.0-GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO), generating a CW output power of 2.5 W at room temperature, has been designed and fabricated using a high-power GaAs MESFET and a dielectric resonator (DR) in a parallel feedback configuration. The oscillator exhibited a frequency stability of better than 130 ppm, without any temperature compensation, over the range -50 degrees C to +50 degrees C. The output power varied from +35 dBm (3.2 W) at -50 degrees C to +33 dBm (2 W) at +50 degrees C. The single-sideband phase noise levels were measured and found to be -105 and -135 dBc/Hz, at 10- and 100-kHz carrier offset frequencies, respectively. The oscillator output was then fed into a single-stage high-power MESFET amplifier, resulting in a total RF power output of 6.5 W. The overall DC to RF conversion efficiency of the 6.5-W unit was approximately 15.3%

  6. System Assessment of a High Power 3-U CubeSat (United States)

    Shaw, Katie


    The Advanced eLectrical Bus (ALBus) CubeSat project is a technology demonstration mission of a 3-UCubeSat with an advanced, digitally controlled electrical power system capability and novel use of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology for reliable deployable solar array mechanisms. The objective of the project is to, through an on orbit demonstration, advance the state of power management and distribution (PMAD) capabilities to enable future missions requiring higher power, flexible and reliable power systems. The goals of the mission include demonstration of: 100 Watt distribution to a target electrical load, efficient battery charging in the orbital environment, flexible power system distribution interfaces, adaptation of power system control on orbit, and reliable deployment of solar arrays and antennas utilizing re-settable SMA mechanisms. The power distribution function of the ALBus PMAD system is unique in the total power to target load capability of 100 W, the flexibility to support centralized or point-to-load regulation and ability to respond to fast transient power requirements. Power will be distributed from batteries at 14.8 V, 6.5 A to provide 100 W of power directly to a load. The deployable solar arrays utilize NASA Glenn Research Center superelastic and activated Nitinol(Nickel-Titanium alloy) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology for hinges and a retention and release mechanism. The deployable solar array hinge design features utilization of the SMA material properties for dual purpose. The hinge uses the shape memory properties of the SMA to provide the spring force to deploy the arrays. The electrical conductivity properties of the SMA also enables the design to provide clean conduits for power transfer from the deployable arrays to the power management system. This eliminates the need for electrical harnesses between the arrays and the PMAD system in the ALBus system design. The uniqueness of the SMA retention and release mechanism design is the

  7. The generation of amplified spontaneous emission in high-power CPA laser systems. (United States)

    Keppler, Sebastian; Sävert, Alexander; Körner, Jörg; Hornung, Marco; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte Christoph


    An analytical model is presented describing the temporal intensity contrast determined by amplified spontaneous emission in high-intensity laser systems which are based on the principle of chirped pulse amplification. The model describes both the generation and the amplification of the amplified spontaneous emission for each type of laser amplifier. This model is applied to different solid state laser materials which can support the amplification of pulse durations ≤350 fs . The results are compared to intensity and fluence thresholds, e.g. determined by damage thresholds of a certain target material to be used in high-intensity applications. This allows determining if additional means for contrast improvement, e.g. plasma mirrors, are required for a certain type of laser system and application. Using this model, the requirements for an optimized high-contrast front-end design are derived regarding the necessary contrast improvement and the amplified "clean" output energy for a desired focussed peak intensity. Finally, the model is compared to measurements at three different high-intensity laser systems based on Ti:Sapphire and Yb:glass. These measurements show an excellent agreement with the model.

  8. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices (United States)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni


    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  9. High Power Spark Delivery System Using Hollow Core Kagome Lattice Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dumitrache


    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the recently developed hollow core kagome lattice fibers for delivery of high power laser pulses. Compared to other photonic crystal fibers (PCFs, the hollow core kagome fibers have larger core diameter (~50 µm, which allows for higher energy coupling in the fiber while also maintaining high beam quality at the output (M2 = 1.25. We have conducted a study of the maximum deliverable energy versus laser pulse duration using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pulse energies as high as 30 mJ were transmitted for 30 ns pulse durations. This represents, to our knowledge; the highest laser pulse energy delivered using PCFs. Two fiber damage mechanisms were identified as damage at the fiber input and damage within the bulk of the fiber. Finally, we have demonstrated fiber delivered laser ignition on a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine.

  10. X-ray emission from Au-Sm alloy target irradiated with high power sub nanosecond laser (United States)

    Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D. S.; Tripathi, S.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, N. K.; Dhareshwar, L. J.; Bajaj, P. N.


    The hohlraum cavity is generally made out of gold (Au) and recently it has been shown that laser-target coupling efficiency can be increased by using cocktail or mixed targets such as gold-samarium (Au-Sm). We report here results of experiments performed on Au-Sm alloy in various spectral regions for various compositions. In these experiments, a 12 Joule/500ps Nd:glass laser has been used. It is observed that the soft x-ray emission in the spectral region 0.7 -1.56 keV is enhanced by about 40-50% by using a composition of Au:Sm:: 3:7 as compared to pure Au .However, in case of hard x-ray emission (3.2 -5 keV), there is a reduction in x-ray emission from Au-Sm target as compared to pure gold. This behaviour, that enhancement occurs in soft x-rays in the case of mixed Au-Sm targets is desirable in the ICF scheme.

  11. A Novel WPT System Based on Dual Transmitters and Dual Receivers for High Power Applications: Analysis, Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li


    Full Text Available Traditional Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems only have one energy transmission path, which can hardly meet the power demand for high power applications, e.g., railway applications (electric trains and trams, etc. due to the capacity constraints of power electronic devices. A novel WPT system based on dual transmitters and dual receivers is proposed in this paper to upgrade the power capacity of the WPT system. The reliability and availability of the proposed WPT system can be dramatically improved due to the four energy transmission paths. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA tool ANSYS MAXWELL (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA, USA is adopted to investigate the proposed magnetic coupling structure. Besides, the effects of the crossing coupling mutual inductances among the transmitters and receivers are analyzed. It shows that the same-side cross couplings will decrease the efficiency and transmitted power. Decoupling transformers are employed to mitigate the effects of the same-side cross couplings. Meanwhile, the output voltage in the secondary side can be regulated at its designed value with a fast response performance, and the system can continue work even with a faulty inverter. Finally, a scale-down experimental setup is provided to verify the proposed approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method could improve the transmitted power capacity, overall efficiency and reliability, simultaneously. The proposed WPT structure is a potential alternative for high power applications.

  12. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.


    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  13. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air. (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo


    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultra-short pulse reconstruction software in high power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletti, M. [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Galimberti, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Giulietti, D. [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)


    An ultra-short pulse reconstruction software, validated through a set of experimental measurements on the front-end of the Vulcan laser at the RAL Central Laser Facility is presented. The measurements were acquired in Target Area Petawatt of the Vulcan laser, both using a conventional autocorrelation technique and the GRENOUILLE technique in order to compare the results. The FWHM of the laser pulses considered came out to be comparable for the two techniques. In this experimental campaign for the first time a technique different from the autocorrelation one has been used for a PW class laser as Vulcan.

  15. Ultra-short pulse reconstruction software in high power laser system (United States)

    Galletti, M.; Galimberti, M.; Giulietti, D.


    An ultra-short pulse reconstruction software, validated through a set of experimental measurements on the front-end of the Vulcan laser at the RAL Central Laser Facility is presented. The measurements were acquired in Target Area Petawatt of the Vulcan laser, both using a conventional autocorrelation technique and the GRENOUILLE technique in order to compare the results. The FWHM of the laser pulses considered came out to be comparable for the two techniques. In this experimental campaign for the first time a technique different from the autocorrelation one has been used for a PW class laser as Vulcan.

  16. System design considerations for a high-power aerospace resonant link converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, T.M.; De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; Szczesny, P.M.; Turnbull, F.G. [GE Corporate R and D, Schenectady, NY (United States); Radun, A.V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    A new variable-speed, constant-frequency (VSCF) 400 Hz aircraft generating system has been developed using an actively clamped resonant dc link converter. The design approach used to select the best configuration for the resonant converter power stage is described, including techniques for choosing power component values to meet key governing performance specifications. Interactions between the various converter components are discussed, suggesting approaches for selecting values which must meet multiple and sometimes conflicting system performance criteria. Verification is provided using a combination of simulation results and test data from a 60 kVA laboratory breadboard system.

  17. High power pulsed fiber laser development for Co2 space based dial system (United States)

    Canat, Guillaume; Le Gouët, Julien; Lombard, Laurent; Bresson, Alexandre; Goular, Didier; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès.; Duzellier, Sophie; Boivin, Denis; Nilsson, Johan; Sahu, Jayata; Bordais, Sylvain


    High energy fiber lasers emitting around 1579nm is seen as a possible technology for the laser unit of a spaceborn CO2 DIAL system. We are developing an all fiber system with the following expected performances: pulse energy of 260μJ, pulse duration 150ns, beam quality M2 laser stability 200 kHz. One of our main concerns has been the radiation induced attenuation mitigation. Various fiber compositions have been investigated.

  18. Index extraction for electromagnetic field evaluation of high power wireless charging system. (United States)

    Park, SangWook


    This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.

  19. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  20. Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shibata, S.; Aoki, H. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gregory, C. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)


    A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].

  1. Design of an Optical System for High Power CO2 Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Nielsen, Jakob Skov


    independent of the entering beam angle or position. manufacturing tolerances have been compensated in a one time adjustment during the assembly of the optical system. Preliminary cutting results in 13 mm thick steel in a shipyard application show a signinficant improvement in the cutting performance....

  2. Performance of the Crowbar of the LHC High Power RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ravidà, G; Valuch, D


    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are captured and accelerated to their final energies by two identical 400 MHz Radio Frequency (RF) systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell superconducting (SC) cavity. Each unit of four klystrons is powered by a -100kV/40A AC/DC power converter. A fast protection system (crowbar) protects the four klystrons in each of these units. Although the LHC RF system has shown has very good performance, operational experience has shown that the five-gap double-ended thyratrons used in the crowbar system suffer, from time to time, from auto-firing, which result in beam dumps. This paper presents the recent results obtained with an alternative solution based on solid state thyristors. Comparative measurements with the thyratron are shown.

  3. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained.

  4. Design and Comparative Analysis of a Retrofitted Liquid Cooling System for High-Power Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Paine


    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth system-level experimental analysis comparing air-cooled and liquid-cooled commercial off-the-shelf (COTS electric motors. Typically, liquid-cooled electric motors are reserved for large, expensive, high-end applications where the design of the motor’s electromagnetic components are closely coupled to its cooling system. By applying liquid cooling to a pre-existing motor design, this work helps bring the performance advantages of liquid cooling to smaller scale and lower cost applications. Prior work in this area gives little insight to designers of such systems. Conversely, this work aims to improve the understanding of liquid-cooled COTS motors by reporting empirically-observed factors of improvement for motor current, torque, output power and system efficiency. These measurements are obtained using a new liquid-cooled motor housing design that improves the ease of maintenance and component reuse compared to existing work. It is confirmed that datasheet motor thermal properties may serve as a reasonable guide for anticipating continuous torque performance, but may over-specify continuous power output. For the motor used in this test, continuous torque output is increased by a factor of 2.58, matching to within 9% of expected datasheet values. Continuous power output is increased by a factor of two with only 2.2% reduced efficiency compared to air-cooling.

  5. Optical systems for high-power laser applications: principles and design aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, L.H.J.F.; Ehrlichmann, D.


    Starting from the optical properties of laser beams, the requirements of optical systems for manipulating laser radiation in industrial applications are derived. The relevant parameters, relations to the diffraction limit and the state-of-the-art design techniques are discussed. The three important

  6. A passive cooling system proposal for multifunction and high-power displays (United States)

    Tari, Ilker


    Flat panel displays are conventionally cooled by internal natural convection, which constrains the possible rate of heat transfer from the panel. On one hand, during the last few years, the power consumption and the related cooling requirement for 1080p displays have decreased mostly due to energy savings by the switch to LED backlighting and more efficient electronics. However, on the other hand, the required cooling rate recently started to increase with new directions in the industry such as 3D displays, and ultra-high-resolution displays (recent 4K announcements and planned introduction of 8K). In addition to these trends in display technology itself, there is also a trend to integrate consumer entertainment products into displays with the ultimate goal of designing a multifunction device replacing the TV, the media player, the PC, the game console and the sound system. Considering the increasing power requirement for higher fidelity in video processing, these multifunction devices tend to generate very high heat fluxes, which are impossible to dissipate with internal natural convection. In order to overcome this obstacle, instead of active cooling with forced convection that comes with drawbacks of noise, additional power consumption, and reduced reliability, a passive cooling system relying on external natural convection and radiation is proposed here. The proposed cooling system consists of a heat spreader flat heat pipe and aluminum plate-finned heat sink with anodized surfaces. For this system, the possible maximum heat dissipation rates from the standard size panels (in 26-70 inch range) are estimated by using our recently obtained heat transfer correlations for the natural convection from aluminum plate-finned heat sinks together with the surface-to-surface radiation. With the use of the proposed passive cooling system, the possibility of dissipating very high heat rates is demonstrated, hinting a promising green alternative to active cooling.

  7. Assessment of new-generation high-power electronic nicotine delivery system as thermal aerosol generation device for inhaled bronchodilators. (United States)

    Pourchez, Jérémie; de Oliveira, Fabien; Perinel-Ragey, Sophie; Basset, Thierry; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Prévôt, Nathalie


    A need remains for alternative devices for aerosol drug delivery that are low cost, convenient and easy to use for the patient, but also capable of producing small-sized aerosol particles. This study investigated the potential of recent high power electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) as aerosol generation devices for inhaled bronchodilators. The particle size distribution was measured using a cascade impactor. The delivery of terbutaline sulfate, a current bronchodilator used for asthma or COPD therapy by inhalation, was studied. This drug was quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The particle size distribution in terms of mass frequency (in two ways, gravimetrically and quantitatively through drug assay on each stage) and the terbutaline sulfate concentration in the aerosol were elucidated. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the drug delivery rose when the power level increased, to reach 5.6±0.4μg/puff with a MMAD of 0.78±0.03μm at 25W. New generation high-power ENDS are very efficient to generate carrier-droplets in the submicron range containing drug molecules with a constant drug concentration whatever the size-fractions. ENDS appear to be highly patient-adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modern precise high-power water-cooling systems for press quenching


    A. Patejuk; J. Piwnik; M. Plata


    Demand for extrusions in transport applications is increasing rapidly. The extrusions must be strong, light, crashworthy and may have to undergo hydroforming. This implies low wall thicknesses (1-2½ mm) in strong alloys that need very fast quenching to obtain the required T4 temper. Crashworth iness – the ability to absorb a lot of energy in crushing deformation – demands very uniform properties throughout the section, and so does hydroforming. Various systems of water or air/water jets, with...

  9. Development of Metamaterial Composites for Compact High Power Microwave Systems and Antennas (United States)


    After the cores had been fractured into smaller pieces, these were sealed in vacuum bags and pressed between steel plates of a hydraulic press. This...Systems and Antennas DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 11 If we now assume that the alternating portion...residual losses respectfully. Eddy current losses occur due to an alternating magnetic field which induces circular currents in a magnetic material that in

  10. Modern precise high-power water-cooling systems for press quenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patejuk


    Full Text Available Demand for extrusions in transport applications is increasing rapidly. The extrusions must be strong, light, crashworthy and may have to undergo hydroforming. This implies low wall thicknesses (1-2½ mm in strong alloys that need very fast quenching to obtain the required T4 temper. Crashworth iness – the ability to absorb a lot of energy in crushing deformation – demands very uniform properties throughout the section, and so does hydroforming. Various systems of water or air/water jets, with and without scanning, with and withoutarrangements for precisely aiming the jets, have proved effective for less difficult alloys in wall thicknesses down to 3 mm. These areunsuitable for the new types of transport extrusions, either inducing physical distortion or non-uniform mechanical properties. A novelcooling system that satisfies the new requirements uses laminar water jets of 50-250 μm diameter in a densely packed array of up to10/cm2. These are arranged in modules whose position and direction of aim can be adjusted relative to the part of the extrusion they cool,assuring linear cooling of all parts of the section at up to 500 K/s. The array of modules is very compact and not expensive. A sophisticated system of water microfiltration ensures that the fine nozzles do not become blocked.

  11. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich


    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  12. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang


    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  13. Electron cyclotron heating/current-drive system using high power tubes for QUEST spherical tokamak (United States)

    Onchi, Takumi; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Nagata, T.; Kuroda, K.; Hanada, K.; Kariya, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Kobayashi, S.; Quest Team


    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is the primary method to ramp up plasma current non-inductively in QUEST spherical tokamak. A 28 GHz gyrotron is employed for short pulses, where the radio frequency (RF) power is about 300 kW. Current ramp-up efficiency of 0.5 A/W has been obtained with focused beam of the second harmonic X-mode. A quasi-optical polarizer unit has been newly installed to avoid arcing events. For steady-state tokamak operation, 8.56 GHz klystron with power of 200 kW is used as the CW-RF source. The high voltage power supply (54 kV/13 A) for the klystron has been built recently, and initial bench test of the CW-ECH system is starting. The array of insulated-gate bipolar transistor works to quickly cut off the input power for protecting the klystron. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI (15H04231), NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUTR085, NIFS17KUTR128), and through MEXT funding for young scientists associated with active promotion of national university reforms.

  14. System analysis of wavelength beam combining of high-power diode lasers for photoacoustic endoscopy (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodriguez, Sergio; Osiński, Marek; Sacher, Joachim; Carpintero, Guillermo; Lamela, Horacio


    This paper, originally published on 27 April 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 8 June 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. The purpose of wavelength-beam combining (WBC) is to improve the output power of a multi-wavelength laser system while maintaining the quality of the combined beam. This technique has been primarily proposed for industrial applications, such as metal cutting and soldering, which require optical peak power between kilowatts and megawatts. In order to replace the bulkier solid-state lasers, we propose to use the WBC technique for photoacoustic (PA) applications, where a multi-wavelength focused beam with optical peak power between hundreds of watts up to several kilowatts is necessary to penetrate deeply into biological tissues. In this work we present an analytical study about the coupling of light beams emitted by diode laser bars at 808 nm, 880 nm, 910 nm, 940 nm, and 980 nm into a .

  15. Technical And Economical Aspects Of Integrating, Handling And Exploiting High Power Laser Beams In Industrial Welding Systems (United States)

    Sayegh, Georges


    Analysis of the different factors which affect the improvement of high power laser systems are presented. It concerns ; the laser sources and their power and mode structure stability, their pointing stability and their efficiency, the beam transport and handling with different morphologies of machines according to the dimensions of the parts and the production rate ; the control of the industrial process through a central computer which takes in charge all the functions of the machine. Next, factors to be considered in the economical analysis for installing high power laser systems are discussed ; this covers the investment cost for the source and the associated system, the cost for consummables, for maintenance for training and labor. Comparison of the investment cost as function of power for both laser and electrons beam welding, shows that, generally speaking, there are two regions of beam power : the first located at less than 3 to 4kW where the laser is more advantageous economically, the second located at higher than 10kW where the E.B. is more advantageous. An example of a multi-stations mock-up (12 welding heads) supplied by a single laser beam is finally presented. Located at about 20m from the laser source the welding heads receive the laser beam through a distributor of high alignement precision. A spot weld similar to what is usually obtained with resistance spot welding can be achieved in about 0,5 second. Some technical and scientific problems relative to this application and concerning the transfer of laser beam are presented.

  16. High power mid-IR OPCPA system pumped by a femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier (United States)

    Rigaud, P.; Van de Walle, A.; Hanna, M.; Forget, N.; Guichard, F.; Zaouter, Y.; Guesmi, K.; Druon, F.; Georges, P.


    We describe an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture built around a state of the art Yb-doped fiber femtosecond pump source delivering 300 fs 400 μ pulses at a repetition rate 125 kHz (50 W average power) and a central wavelength of 1030 nm. The short pump pulse duration compared to bulk Yb:YAG or Nd:YVO4 based systems results in a number of important advantages. First, it allows efficient seeding at 1550 nm using supercontinuum generation directly from the pump pulses in a bulk YAG crystal, resulting in extremely robust passive pump-signal synchronization. The short pump pulse duration also allows the use of millimeter to centimeter lengths of bulk materials to provide stretching and compression for the signal and idler, which minimizes the accumulation of higher-order spectral phase. Finally, the shorter pump pulse duration increases the damage peak intensity, permitting the use of shorter nonlinear crystals to perform the amplification, which increases the spectral bandwidth of the parametric process. Additional experiments are performed to sort out the phenomena that limit power scaling in MgO:PPLN crystals. The OPCPA stages are all operated in collinear geometry, allowing the use of both signal and idler without the introduction of angular chirp on the latter. These points result in the dual generation of 70 fs 23 μJ signal pulses at 1550 nm and 60 fs 10 μJ idler pulses at 3070 nm from a simple setup, with the added benefit of inherent CEP stability of the idler pulses.

  17. R&D progress of the high power negative ion accelerator for the ITER NB system at JAEA (United States)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Grisham, L. R.; Svensson, L.; Tobari, H.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Inoue, T.


    At JAEA, as the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) for ITER, a MAMuG (multi-aperture multi-grid) accelerator has been developed to perform the required R&D for the ITER neutral beam (NB) system. As a result of countermeasures to handle excess heat load to the ion source by backstreaming positive ions, H- ion beam current was increased to 0.32 A (the ion current density of 140 A m-2) at a beam energy of 796 keV. This high power beam acceleration simulated the ITER operation condition maintaining the perveance (H- ion current density/beam energy3/2) of the ITER accelerator. After the high power beam operation, the pulse length was successfully extended from 0.2 to 5 s at 550 keV, which yielded a 131 mA H- ion beam as an initial test of the long pulse operation. A test of a single-aperture single-gap (SINGAP) accelerator was performed at JAEA under an ITER R&D task agreement. The objective of this test was to compare two different accelerator concepts (SINGAP and MAMuG) at the same test facility. As a result, the MAMuG accelerator was defined as the baseline design for ITER, due to advantages in its better voltage holding and less electron acceleration. In three-dimensional beam trajectory analyses, the aperture offset at the bottom of the extractor was found to be effective for compensation of beamlet deflection due to their own space charge. It has been analytically demonstrated that these compensated beamlets can be focused at a focal point by adopting the aperture offset at the final grid of the accelerator.

  18. A Model-Based Fast Protection System for High-Power RF Tube Amplifiers Used at the European XFEL Accelerator (United States)

    Butkowski, Łukasz; Vogel, Vladimir; Schlarb, Holger; Szabatin, Jerzy


    The driving engine of the superconducting accelerator of the European X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a set of 27 radio frequency (RF) stations. Each of the underground RF stations consists of a multibeam horizontal klystron that can provide up to 10 MW of power at 1.3 GHz. Klystrons are sensitive devices with a limited lifetime and a high mean time between failures. In real operation, the lifetime of the tube can be significantly reduced because of failures. The special fast protection klystron lifetime management (KLM) system has been developed to minimize the influence of service conditions on the lifetime of klystrons. The main task of this system is to detect all events which can destroy the tube as quickly as possible, and switch off the driving RF signal or the high voltage. Detection of events is based on a comparison of the value of the real signal obtained at the system output with the value estimated on the basis of a high-power RF amplifier model and input signals. The KLM system has been realized in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and implemented in XFEL. Implementation is based on the standard low-level RF micro telecommunications computing architecture (MTCA.4 or xTCA). The main part of the paper focuses on an estimation of the klystron model and the implementation of KLM in FPGA. The results of the performance of the KLM system will also be presented.

  19. EURISOL Multi-MW Target: First thermal-hydraulic studies for the EURISOL high-power liquid-metal target using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Trevor V. Dury

    A scoping study of a mercury target for the Multi-Megawatt Proton-to-Neutron Converter of theEURISOL Project has been made at PSI using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codeCFX-4. A mesh model of a horizontal target with forced circulation was used which had beenoriginally proposed for the European Spallation Source (ESS). The heat deposition profilewhich was applied produced a total of 4 MW of heat in the fluid and 13.4 kW in the window,

  20. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy


    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  1. Development of a high power wideband polarizer for electron cyclotron current drive system in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, Mikio, E-mail: [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Oyama, Gaku; Matsubara, Fumiaki; Takii, Keita; Sai, Takuma [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takayuki; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)


    Highlights: • We developed a new wideband polarizer for JT-60SA ECCD system. • The wideband polarizer is optimized for dual frequency gyrotrons (110 and 138 GHz) in JT-60SA. • The wideband polarization properties were verified at cold tests. • The preliminary high power tests have been carried out at 0.25 MW, 3 s at 110 GHz. - Abstract: A wideband polarizer consisting of a polarization twister and a circular polarizer has been developed for an electron cyclotron current driving system in JT-60SA, where the output frequencies of a dual frequency gyrotron for JT-60SA are 110 and 138 GHz. The groove depths are optimized for the dual frequencies by numerical simulations using a FDTD method and cold test results. The polarization properties of a mock-up polarizer are measured at the dual frequencies in cold tests. The cold test results suggest that all practical polarizations for ECCD experiments can be achieved at the dual frequencies. The prototype polarization twister has been tested up to 0.25 MW during 3 s at the frequency of 110 GHz.

  2. Time-Domain Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Breakdown Problems in High-Power-Microwave Devices and Systems (United States)


    AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0003 AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0003 TIME-DOMAIN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR BREAKDOWN PROBLEMS IN HIGH- POWER-MICROWAVE...2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24-09-2014 – 24-11-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Time-Domain Finite Element Analysis of...and interpreted from the simulation results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS High power microwave, time-domain, finite - element , discontinuous-Galerkin, nonlinear

  3. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan


    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  4. Study on the Thermal Resistance of Multi-chip Module High Power LED Packaging Heat Dissipation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailin Pan


    Full Text Available Thermal resistance is a key technical index which indicates the thermal management of multi-chip module high power LED (MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system. In this paper, the prototype structure of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is proposed to study the reliable thermal resistance calculation method. In order to analyze the total thermal resistance of the MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system, three kinds of thermal resistance calculation method including theoretical calculation, experimental testing and finite element simulation are developed respectively. Firstly, based on the thermal resistance network model and the principle of steady state heat transfer, the theoretical value of total thermal resistance is 6.111 K/W through sum of the thermal resistance of every material layer in the major direction of heat flow. Secondly, the thermal resistance experiment is carried out by T3Ster to obtain the experimental result of total thermal resistance, and the value is 6.729 K/W. Thirdly, a three-dimensional finite element model of MCM-LED packaging heat dissipation system is established, and the junction temperature experiment is also performed to calculated the finite element simulated result of total thermal resistance, the value is 6.99 K/W. Finally, by comparing the error of all the three kinds of result, the error of total thermal resistance between the theoretical value and experimental result is 9.2 %, and the error of total thermal resistance between the experimental result and finite element simulation is only about -3.9 %, meanwhile, the main reason of each error is discussed respectively.

  5. Root cause analysis and solution to the degradation of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) couplers in high power fiber amplifier system. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Gu, Xinhua; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Rider, Andy; Fisher, Norman; Woodbridge, Toby; Dionne, Rene; Trepanier, Francois


    In the evaluation a fused biconical taper 1480/1580 nm WDM's ability to handle high power cascaded Raman laser throughput (>100 W) a significant degradation in performance was observed. A systematic root cause investigation was conducted and it is experimentally confirmed that the WDM degradation was caused by an interaction between the high power 1480 nm line, an out-of-band Stokes line, and the -OH content of the glass optical fiber. Slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) was introduced to filter out the 1390 nm out-of-band Stokes line in an attempt to avoid this interaction. Ultimately a series of tests were conducted and it was confirmed that the addition of a 1390 nm SFBG in between a high power Raman laser and the high power WDM has successfully prevented the degradation which therefore allowed the continued high power operation of the WDM. NAVAIR Public Release SPR 2013-469 Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  6. Optical design and development of a fiber coupled high-power diode laser system for laser transmission welding of plastics (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Eva; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon; Azkorbebeitia, Urko; Otaduy, Deitze; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando


    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of thermoplastics is a direct bonding technique already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobiles, microfluidics, electronics, and biomedicine. LTW evolves localized heating at the interface of two pieces of plastic to be joined. One of the plastic pieces needs to be optically transparent to the laser radiation whereas the other part has to be absorbent, being that the radiation produced by high power diode lasers is a good alternative for this process. As consequence, a tailored laser system has been designed and developed to obtain high quality weld seams with weld widths between 0.7 and 1.4 mm. The developed laser system consists of two diode laser bars (50 W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a nonimaging solution: equalization of the beam parameter product (BPP) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of step-mirrors. The power scaling was carried out by means of a multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality was performed considering ray tracing simulation (ZEMAX) and experimental validation. The welding experiments were conducted on acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), a thermoplastic frequently used in automotive, electronics and aircraft applications, doped with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). Quality of the weld seams on ABS was analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. Mechanical properties of weld seams were analyzed by mechanical shear tests. High quality weld seams were produced in ABS, revealing the potential of the laser developed in this work for a wide range of plastic welding applications.

  7. Visualization of the influence of the air conditioning system to the high-power laser beam quality with the modulation coherent imaging method. (United States)

    Tao, Hua; Veetil, Suhas P; Pan, Xingchen; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Jianqiang


    Air conditioning systems can lead to dynamic phase change in the laser beams of high-power laser facilities for the inertial confinement fusion, and this kind of phase change cannot be measured by most of the commonly employed Hartmann wavefront sensor or interferometry due to some uncontrollable factors, such as too large laser beam diameters and the limited space of the facility. It is demonstrated that this problem can be solved using a scheme based on modulation coherent imaging, and thus the influence of the air conditioning system on the performance of the high-power facility can be evaluated directly.

  8. High-power noise-like pulse generation using a 1.56-µm all-fiber laser system. (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Shian; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming


    We demonstrated an all-fiber, high-power noise-like pulse laser system at the 1.56-µm wavelength. A low-power noise-like pulse train generated by a ring oscillator was amplified using a two-stage amplifier, where the performance of the second-stage amplifier determined the final output power level. The optical intensity in the second-stage amplifier was managed well to avoid not only the excessive spectral broadening induced by nonlinearities but also any damage to the device. On the other hand, the power conversion efficiency of the amplifier was optimized through proper control of its pump wavelength. The pump wavelength determines the pump absorption and therefore the power conversion efficiency of the gain fiber. Through this approach, the average power of the noise-like pulse train was amplified considerably to an output of 13.1 W, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 36.1% and a pulse energy of 0.85 µJ. To the best of our knowledge, these amplified pulses have the highest average power and pulse energy for noise-like pulses in the 1.56-µm wavelength region. As a result, the net gain in the cascaded amplifier reached 30 dB. With peak and pedestal widths of 168 fs and 61.3 ps, respectively, for the amplified pulses, the pedestal-to-peak intensity ratio of the autocorrelation trace remains at the value of 0.5 required for truly noise-like pulses.

  9. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua


    conductive polymer gel binders with 3D framework nanostructures. These gel binders provide multiple functions owing to their structure derived properties. The gel framework facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. The polymer coating formed on every particle acts as surface modification and prevents particle aggregation. The mechanically strong and ductile gel framework also sustains long-term stability of electrodes. In addition, the structures and properties of gel binders can be facilely tuned. We further introduce the development of multifunctional binders by hybridizing conductive polymers with other functional materials. Meanwhile mechanistic understanding on the roles that novel binders play in the electrochemical processes of batteries is also reviewed to reveal general design rules for future binder systems. We conclude with perspectives on their future development with novel multifunctionalities involved. Highly efficient binder systems with well-tailored molecular and nanostructures are critical to reach the entire volume of the battery and maximize energy use for high-energy and high-power lithium batteries. We hope this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of multifunctional binder materials.

  10. High-power LED light sources for optical measurement systems operated in continuous and overdriven pulsed modes (United States)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Schröder, Andreas; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof


    The rapid progress of light emitting diode (LED) technology has recently resulted in the availability of high power devices with unprecedented light emission intensities comparable to those of visible laser light sources. On this basis two versatile devices have been developed, constructed and tested. The first one is a high-power, single-LED illuminator equipped with exchangeable projection lenses providing a homogenous light spot of defined diameter. The second device is a multi-LED illuminator array consisting of a number of high-power LEDs, each integrated with a separate collimating lens. These devices can emit R, G, CG, B, UV or white light and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. Using an external trigger signal they can be easily synchronized with cameras or other devices. The mode of operation and all parameters can be controlled by software. Various experiments have shown that these devices have become a versatile and competitive alternative to laser and xenon lamp based light sources. The principle, design, achieved performances and application examples are given in this paper.

  11. Heat pipe cooling system of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter based on the loss calculation and finite element analysis (United States)

    Li, Yuan


    The special using condition of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter limits its cooling system within heat pipe and water-cooled cooling systems. How to calculate these two systems quantitatively to provide references for engineering application becomes one of the critical problems. In this paper, the principle of three-level explosion-proof was introduced first, and the power-loss generation theory was described and deduced into equations. Secondly, the heat pipe cooling system theory calculation was conducted based on the power losses of power devices, and the whole cooling system model was built by using finite element analysis. Finally, the temperature rise experiment was carried out on a 1 MW high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter, and the results proved the feasibility of this theory and its accuracy of analysis.

  12. High Power Vanadate lasers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ


    Full Text Available This presentation aims at the following: to develop new techniques to mount laser crystals; compare the laser properties of two equally doped, high power Nd:YVO4 and Nd: GdVO4 lasers; build a 1um vanadate laser with average output power exceeding...

  13. Applicability of STEM-RTG and High-Power SRG Power Systems to the Discovery and Scout Mission Capabilities Expansion (DSMCE) Study of ASRG-Based Missions (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.


    This study looks at the applicability of utilizing the Segmented Thermoelectric Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (STEM-RTG) or a high-power radioisotope generator to replace the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which had been identified as the baseline power system for a number of planetary exploration mission studies. Nine different Discovery-Class missions were examined to determine the applicability of either the STEM-RTG or the high-power SRG power systems in replacing the ASRG. The nine missions covered exploration across the solar system and included orbiting spacecraft, landers and rovers. Based on the evaluation a ranking of the applicability of each alternate power system to the proposed missions was made.

  14. Broadly tunable high-power operation of an all-solid-state titanium-doped sapphire laser system (United States)

    Steele, T. R.; Gerstenberger, D. C.; Drobshoff, A.; Wallace, R. W.


    Broadly tunable and high-power operation of a Ti-doped sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum broadband (FWHM = 25 nm) output pulse energy of 720 microJ at 795 nm in a TEM00 mode is obtained for 1850 microJ of energy of 532-nm pump light. A minimum pulse duration of 7 nsec is obtained from a 40-mm-long cavity. With the use of an intracavity prism, the Ti:sapphire laser is tunable continuously over the 696-1000-nm spectral range (with three different mirror sets).

  15. SiC/GaN Based Optically Triggered MESFET for High Power Efficiency and High Radiation Resistance Solid State Switch Application for Actuator System (United States)


    High Radiation Resistance Solid State Switch Application for Actuator System The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...Final Report: SiC/GaN Based Optically Triggered MESFET for High Power Efficiency and High Radiation Resistance Solid State Switch Application for...performed by the reactive ion etching (RIE) of silicon carbide in fluorinated -gas (CHF3, CBrF3, CF4, SF6 and NF3) plasma and inductively coupled plasma

  16. High Power Factor Control Regulating Inverter Output Power in IPM Motor Driven by Inverter System without Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Inazuma, Kazuya; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Sazawa, Mataki; Kondo, Seiji

    This paper presents a new high power factor control method for a single-to-three-phase power converter without an electrolytic capacitor. The circuit used in the method consists of a single-phase rectifier, a small film capacitor at DC-link, a voltage-source three-phase inverter, and an IPM motor. The inverter regulates both the velocity of the IPM motor and input current waveform. In order to obtain a power factor of unity, we propose a new control method that regulates the inverter output power. The inverter output power controller is placed between the speed controller and the q-axis current controller. The inverter power is regulated by a PI and repetitive controller. When repetitive control is applied to the inverter power controller, the phase delay of the inverter power controller is quite small. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results.

  17. Dual-wavelength high-power diode laser system based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier with tunable frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    A dual-wavelength high-power semiconductor laser system based on a tapered amplifier with double-Littrow external cavity is demonstrated around 800 nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 10.0 THz. To our...... knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range of the frequency difference from a dual-wavelength diode laser system. The spectrum, output power, and beam quality of the diode laser system are characterized. The power stability of each wavelength is measured, and the power fluctuations of the two wavelengths...

  18. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.10.091001


    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  19. High power coaxial ubitron (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  20. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications. (United States)

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard


    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers.

  1. Solid-State High Power Radio Frequency Directed Energy Systems in Support of USMC Force Protection Operations (United States)


    systems, physical and conceptual systems, static and dynamic systems, and closed and open-loop systems. Both are exactly like they sound . A natural ...Expeditionary Force Laser Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation LaWS Laser Weapon System MCPP Marine Corps Planning Process...expanding landscape of the modern battlefield. Even in everyday life, most usable infrastructure including vehicles, phones , and many personal

  2. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to develop and optimize an electrode-less plasma propulsion system that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) that is being developed...

  3. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases. (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Steinberg, D; Nagler, A; Arenshtam, A; Kijel, D; Polacheck, I; Srebnik, M


    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  4. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail:; Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Steinberg, D. [Biofilm Laboratory, Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah (Israel); Nagler, A.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Polacheck, I. [Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center (Israel); Srebnik, M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)


    A new conceptual design for an accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (ABNCT) facility based on the high-current low-energy proton beam driven by the linear accelerator at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) incident on a windowless forced-flow liquid-lithium target, is described. The liquid-lithium target, currently in construction at Soreq NRC, will produce a neutron field suitable for the BNCT treatment of deep-seated tumor tissues, through the reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be. The liquid-lithium target is designed to overcome the major problem of solid lithium targets, namely to sustain and dissipate the power deposited by the high-intensity proton beam. Together with diseases conventionally targeted by BNCT, we propose to study the application of our setup to a novel approach in treatment of diseases associated with bacterial infections and biofilms, e.g. inflammations on implants and prosthetic devices, cystic fibrosis, infectious kidney stones. Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor.

  5. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  6. Wideband and high-power light sources for in-line interferometric diagnostics of laser structuring systems (United States)

    Peterka, Pavel; Todorov, Filip; KašÎ¯k, Ivan; Matějec, Vlastimil; Podrazký, Ondřej; Šašek, Ladislav; Mallmann, Guilherme; Schmitt, Robert


    Laser structuring is rapidly developing manufacturing technique for broad spectrum of industrial branches, e.g. aerospace, power engineering, tool- and mould making, and automotive. It enables to prepare work pieces and products with very fine micro structures achieving a far better degree of details than conventional structuring techniques like etching or eroding. However, the state of art in laser structuring shows a crucial deficit. Used systems contain no metrology setup to detect the shape geometry (depth and length) and contour accuracy during the process. Therefore, an innovative in-line metrology technique based on low coherence interferometry for laser structuring systems has been investigated and described in the paper. In this contribution we present our results in the research of wideband and highpower light sources for the proposed low-coherence interferometric measurement system. The system can be incorporated into a structuring workplace equipped with a Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser at 1064 nm for material processing. In the paper we focus on two wideband sources for such a measurement system. The first source is based on a superluminescent diode and the second one is based on an amplified spontaneous emission in a double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber. An example of results measured with the proposed in-line metrology system is presented.

  7. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.


    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  8. High power evaluation of X-band high power loads

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Syratchev, Igor; Riddone, Germana; Wuensch, Walter


    Several types of X-band high power loads developed for several tens of MW range were designed, fabricated and used for high power tests at X-band facility of KEK. Some of them have been used for many years and few units showed possible deterioration of RF performance. Recently revised-design loads were made by CERN and the high power evaluation was performed at KEK. In this paper, the main requirements are recalled, together with the design features. The high power test results are analysed and presented

  9. Surge snubber design for high power-density DC-DC converters in HVDC power distribution systems


    Domoto, Kazuhide; Ninomiya, Tamotsu; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Simanjorang, Rejeki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Seiya; Kaga, Masato


    In an isolated DC-DC converter utilized in the HVDC power distribution system, a large surge voltage occurs across the secondary-side diodes due to the transformer's leakage inductance, and then the diodes with a large withstand voltage are required. However, those diodes cause a lot of power loss. In this paper, a simple surge snubber with prominent surge suppression capability is examined, and the surge-voltage evaluation through the analysis using the high-frequency equivalent circuits, wh...

  10. Time-Domain Full-Wave Modeling of Nonlinear Air Breakdown in High-Power Microwave Devices and Systems (United States)


    processing unit ( GPU ) platform [25], [26]. This report is organized as follows. In Section 3.0, the five-moment fluid model is first introduced...multipole algorithm for electromagnetic simulation on multi- GPU computing systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3607–3616, Jul...2013. [26] J. Guan, S. Yan, and J.-M. Jin, “An accurate and efficient finite element-boundary integral method with GPU acceleration for 3-D

  11. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)


    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  12. Development of a diagnostic system for high power microwave (FEL) electric fields in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, T.; Takiyama, K. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Odajima, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others


    One of the most important diagnostics for the electron-cyclotron-frequency heating (ECH) experiments is to directly measure the spatial distribution of the microwave electric field in a plasma for understanding the absorption mechanism of the microwave in the plasma. We have developed a diagnostic system using laser-aided particle-probe spectroscopy (LAPPS) to observe the high electric field (>100 kV/cm) generated by a free electron laser (FEL) beam for the ECH study in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principle of method and an outline of the diagnostic system have been presented. The diagnostic apparatus consists of a neutral helium beam, a dye laser exciting the neutral beam, and a spectroscopic system with originally designed collecting optics. Using the Stark effect we observe fluorescences induced by the forbidden transitions from the metastable levels of the helium atoms to obtain the electric field strength in the plasma. Similar spectroscopic measurements have been made of high frequency electric fields in plasmas, although the plasmas have quite lower densities and temperatures than the MTX plasma. The whole apparatus was assembled on a mock-up of the MTX torus at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute at Tokai, and we have observed laser-induced fluorescences from the LAPPS helium beam. Measurements of beam intensity using Faraday cups and thermocouples have been also made. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O


    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  14. Improvement of automatic control systems of high-power turbines of PAO tubroatom for nuclear power plants (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.


    The main technical solutions applied by PAO Turboatom used as the compensatory measures at the increase of the period of nonstop operation of nuclear power plants' (NPP) turbines with VVER-1000 type reactors up to 18 months are (1) replacing the standard hydraulic speed controller with an electronic one, (2) introduction of overclocking protection, (3) modernization of units of stop-control valves of high pressures, (4) installation of locking dampers on the receiver tubes of turbines of the first and second modification, and (5) improving the quality of repairs by reviewing the requirements for their implementation. The introduction of complex diagnostics of a control system on the basis of automatic treatment of results of registration of working parameters of the turbine is allocated as a separate prospective direction. Using an electronic controller of speed makes it possible to simplify the procedure of its inclusion in work at the failure of an electro-hydraulic system of control and vice versa. The regimes of maintaining the turbine rotor speed, steam pressure on the outlet of turbine, and the positions of main servomotors were introduced into the functions of the electronic controller. An electronic controller of speed includes its own electro-hydraulic transducer, turbine rotor speed sensor, and sensors of the position of main servomotors. Into the functions of electro- hydraulic control system and electronic speed controller, the function of overclocking protection, which determines the formation of commands for stopping the turbine at the exceeding of both the defined level of rotation speed and the defined combination of achieved rotation speed and angular acceleration of rotor, was introduced. To simplify the correction of forces acting on the control valve cups, the design of the cups was changed, and it has the profiled inserts. The solutions proposed were implemented on K-1100-60/1500-2M turbines of Rostov NPP. From the composition of control system

  15. High power operation of the polyphase resonant converter modulator system for the spallation neutron source linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Reass, W A; Baca, D M; Doss, J D; Gonzáles, J M; Gribble, R F; Trujillo, P G


    The spallation neutron source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge national laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 "long-pulse" converter-modulator stations each providing a maximum of 11 MW pulses with a 1.1 MW average power. Two variants of the converter-modulator are utilized, an 80 kV and a 140 kV design, the voltage dependant on the type of klystron load. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant zero-voltage- switching polyphase boost inverter. As noted in Figure 1, each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard 13.8 kV to 2100 Y (1.5 MVA) substation cast-core transformer. The substation also contains harmonic traps and filters to accommodate IEEE 519 and 141 regulations. Each substation is followed by an SCR preregulator to accommodate system voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage and filtering is provided by special low inductance self-clearing metallized ...

  16. Guidance system for laser targets (United States)

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly


    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  17. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy. (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I


    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Absorption spectra measurements of the x-ray radiation heated sio{sub 2} aerogel plasma in 'dog-bone' targets irradiated by high power laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Dong, Q-L; Wang, S-J; Li, Y-T; Zhang, J [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wei, H-G; Shi, J-R; Zhao, G [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, J-Y; Wen, T-S; Zhang, W-H; Hu, X; Liu, S-Y; Ding, Y-K; Zhang, L; Tang, Y-J; Zhang, B-H; Zheng, Z-J [Research Center for Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: (and others)


    We studied the opacity effect of the SiO{sub 2} aerogel plasma heated by x-ray radiation produced by high power laser pulses irradiating the inner surface of golden 'dog-bone' targets. The PET crystal spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectra of the plasmas in the range from 6.4 A to 7.4 A, among which the line emissions involving the K shell of Si ions from He-like to neutral atom were located. The experimental results were analyzed with Detailed-Level-Accounting method. As the plasma temperature increased, the characteristic lines of highly ionized ions gradually dominated the absorption spectrum.

  19. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    compact and efficient new devices, it noted increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of electronic ... in electric machines and capacitors,. HIGH POWER FACTOR. HIGH POWER FACTOR HYBRID ...... Auxiliary DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles ”,. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics vol. 23, no. 6, pp.

  20. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V


    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  1. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neethling, PH


    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  2. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams (United States)

    Elmer, John W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [Livermore, CA; Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA


    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  3. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart


    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...

  4. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank


    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  5. High-frequency tuning of high-powered DFB MOPA system with diffraction limited power up to 1.5W (United States)

    Sacher, Joachim; Knispel, Richard; Stry, Sandra


    The combination of high power, small linewidth and fast tunability is essential for many fields in high resolution spectroscopy. External cavity laser diode systems are limited in tuning speed to several kHz by the resonance frequency of the mechanical assembly together with the actuator. We report on the application of a directly modulated DFB laser as master laser within a master laser power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. This DFB MOPA system combines fast frequency tuning up to more then 100kHz tuning speed, a tuning amplitude of more than 10GHz, a narrow linewidth below 5MHz with high output power of 1500mW and an almost Gaussian shaped beam quality (M2<1.2). The coupling efficiency to optical waveguides as well as single mode fibers exceeds 60%. This concept can be realized within the wavelength regime between 730 and 1060nm. We approved this light source for high resolution spectroscopy by frequency locking to the saturated Rubidium absorption at 780nm. Applying two DFB lasers as master lasers of the MOPA configuration opens the choice to high frequency modulated THz radiation.

  6. Increase of energy efficiency in horticultural tissue culture with high-power-LED lighting systems; Energieeffizienzsteigerung pflanzlicher In-vitro-Kulturverfahren mit Hochleistungs-LED-Belichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornwasser, Thorsten


    The lighting of tissue cultures is one of the main cost factors in growing rooms due to the high energy need. A lighting system with high-power light-emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) was tested as an alternative to the conventionally used fluorescent tubes. Therefore the HP-LED-types royal-blue, red, and cool white were used to create different spectral outputs. The photon flux yield, level of efficiency, and spectral shift of the single HP-LEDs were measured beforehand at different operating conditions (i.e. increasing current and junction temperature). The energy efficiency of the HP-LED lighting system was determined at 0.83 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} with the same shelf board distance (300 mm) and average PPFD on the exposed surface as compared to the control lighting system. The energy efficiency of the fluorescent lighting system could reach a maximum value of 0.68 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In addition to the reduced energy needs, HP-LED lighting systems reduce the need for cooling energy in culture rooms to regulate the room temperature. HP-LED lighting systems allow the reduction of the shelf board distance due to the small mass volume of LEDs and diminished radiant heat output towards the plant. The lower shelf board distance led to an additional increase of the energy efficiency up to 1.16 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} at a distance of 210 mm. Simultaneously the PPFD distribution was more regular than under the exposure with a fluorescent tube. Beside the increase of energy efficiency, HP-LEDs facilitate the control of the spectral composition. The spectral output can be adjusted to the plants' needs and thereby permit a more optimal production and influence the plant morphology (Nhut und Na, 2010; Morrow, 2008). Various plant tissue cultures and their response to different spectral compositions were investigated with the developed HP-LED lighting system. For none of the tested cultures could a preference for one of the spectral compositions be determined

  7. High-power downhole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Evans, C.R. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Westcott, P.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)


    New high power motors are being developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in an attempt to reduce drilling costs in deep gas wells. Conventional 2 3/8-in. (60-mm) and 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motors operated in overpowered conditions (i.e., high flow rates and high differential pressures) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. A new high-power 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor is being developed that utilizes additional stages and tighter interference between the rotor and stator to increase motor pressure drop, torque, and power output. This new high-power motor delivers up to 238 hp (177 kW) compared to 50 hp (37 kW) for a conventional 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor operating at rated operating conditions. Temperature probes showed that temperatures in different stages of motors vary considerably, showing that some sections do more work than others. A better understanding of temperatures within the stators is needed because thermal degradation and ``chunking`` of the rubber is a leading cause of failures in motors operating at high power levels. These tests were very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of developing reliable, high-power motors.

  8. Laser transurethral resection of the prostate: Safety study of a novel system of photoselective vaporization with high power diode laser in prostates larger than 80mL. (United States)

    Andrés, G; Arance, I; Gimbernat, H; Redondo, C; García-Tello, A; Angulo, J C


    To present the feasibility of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with of a new diode laser-resection system. Surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is constantly evolving. Laser techniques are increasingly used in prostates of large size. A prospective study was performed to evaluate operative data and patient outcomes with PVP using high-power diode laser (HPD) and a novel quartz-head fiber with shovel shape in patients with prostate>80mL. Demographic data, operative time, hemoglobin loss, operative results (IPSS, quality of life (QoL), Qmax, post void residue (PVR), IIEF-5 and micturition diary) and complications following Clavien-Dindo classification are described. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Sixteen (51.6%) were on active antiplatelet treatment and 12 (38.7%) had received anticoagulants before surgery. All cases were followed at least 6mo. No intraoperative or postoperative major complications occurred. Three patients (9.7%) had minor complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Twenty-seven (87.1%) were discharged on postoperative day one without catheter. There were significant improvements in IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR, both at 3 and 6mo (P<.0001), but sexual function according to IIEF-5 showed no differences. Urgency (any grade) increased at 3mo (48.4%; P=.002) and considerably decreased at 6mo (9.7%; P<.0001). This pilot experience with shovel shape fiber and HPD is encouraging. It shows that laser-resection is a safe procedure, achieving excellent results in terms of IPSS, QoL and Qmax in large prostates even in high-risk patients. Longer follow-up, comparative and randomized controlled studies are needed to widespread these results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. High power gas laser amplifier (United States)

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.


    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  10. Targeted Therapy in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Baron


    Full Text Available Targeted therapies use an understanding of the pathophysiology of a disease in an individual patient. Although targeted therapy for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma has not yet reached the level of patient-specific treatments, recent developments in the understanding of the global pathophysiology of the disease have led to new treatments based on the cells and pathways that have been shown to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. The presence of a B cell signature in skin biopsies has led to the trial of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in SSc. The well-known properties of transforming growth factor (TGF-β in promoting collagen synthesis and secretion has led to a small trial of fresolimumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TGF-β. Evidence supporting important roles for interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of SSc have led to a large trial of tocilizumab in SSc. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO to the sGC molecule. Processes such as cell growth and proliferation are regulated by cGMP. Evidence that sGC may play a role in SSc has led to a trial of riociguat, a molecule that sensitizes sGC to endogenous NO. Tyrosine kinases (TKs are involved in a wide variety of physiologic and pathological processes including vascular remodeling and fibrogenesis such as occurs in SSc. This has led to a trial of nintedanib, a next-generation tyrosine-kinase (TK inhibitor which targets multiple TKs, in SSc.

  11. High power switching and other high power devices (United States)

    Gundersen, Martin


    High power thyratrons and devices such as high power microwave sources have cathode-related performance limits. Research is described of a simple, robust 'super-emissive' cathode that produces greater than 10,000 A/sq cm from a macroscopic area (approx. 1 sq cm), and operates with a low pressure (approx. 0.1 torr), spatially uniform glow plasma (density greater than 1015 cu cm). The cathode also can operate as a hollow cathode, and is at the heart of the operation of the pseudospark and back-lighted thyratron. The physics of this hollow and super-emissive cathode is very rich. The hollow cathode geometry traps electrons in the hollow cathode backspace. The lifetime of these electrons enables them to ionize a spatially homogeneous high density glow, and this hollow cathode mode of operation is responsible for certain types of electron and ion beam behavior. A plasma cathode sheath that is formed during this phase leads to super-emissive behavior, which is responsible for high current emission. Super-emissive cathode thyratron-type switches (with higher peak current, voltage, di/dt) being developed for pulsed power switching of lasers, accelerators, high current and high coulomb transfer, Marx bank operation, transfer of technology to commercial applications, high current electron beams, and millimeter wave generation (1 to 100 GHz) are described.

  12. Linear and nonlinear filters under high power microwave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brauer


    Full Text Available The development of protection circuits against a variety of electromagnetic disturbances is important to assure the immunity of an electronic system. In this paper the behavior of linear and nonlinear filters is measured and simulated with high power microwave (HPM signals to achieve a comprehensive protection against different high power electromagnetic (HPEM threats.

  13. Guidance and targeting for the Strategic Target System (United States)

    White, John E.

    Guidance algorithms and targeting procedures for the Strategic Target System (STARS) launch vehicle are described. The STARS vehicle is a three stage booster, based partly upon retired Polaris A3 missile assets, which is intended to support development and testing of the Strategic Defense Initiative by delivering target payloads to the vicinity of the Kwajalein Atoll. STARS will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility located on Kauai, Hawaii. The STARS guidance objective is to deliver payloads to a prescribed target location with maximum accuracy at intercontinental ballistic missile velocities. Mission objectives are achieved with a combination of guidance algorithms.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting (United States)


    mission, a pre-determined number of different targets should be shuffled between the target locations in the array. Example targets for this subtest are...UNFOV Ultra Narrow Field of View UTM Universal Transverse Mercator VBLSS Video-Based Laser Scoring System VRT Vertical Reference Target WFOV

  15. Optics assembly for high power laser tools (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  16. Advanced Capacitors for High-Power Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a...

  17. Optimized VCSELs for high-power arrays (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Kolb, Johanna S.; Engelhardt, Andreas P.; Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, Roland; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Weichmann, Ulrich; Witzigmann, Bernd


    High-power VCSEL systems with multi kilowatt output power require a good electro-optical efficiency at the point of operation i.e. at elevated temperature. The large number of optimization parameters can be structured in a way that separates system and assembly considerations from the minimization of electrical and optical losses in the epitaxially grown structure. Temperature dependent functions for gain parameters, internal losses and injection efficiency are derived from a fit to experimental data. The empirical description takes into account diameter dependent effects like current spreading or temperature dependent ones like voltage drops over hetero-interfaces in the DBR mirrors. By evaluating experimental measurements of the light output and voltage characteristics over a large range of temperature and diameter, wafer-characteristic parameters are extracted allowing to predict the performance of VCSELs made from this material in any array and assembly configuration. This approach has several beneficial outcomes: Firstly, it gives a general description of a VCSEL independent of its geometry, mounting and detuning, secondly, insights into the structure and the underlying physics can be gained that lead to the improvement potential of the structure and thirdly the performance of the structure in arrays and modules can be predicted. Experimental results validate the approach and demonstrate the significantly improved VCSEL efficiency and the benefit in high power systems.

  18. High-power pump diodes for defense applications (United States)

    Ebert, Chris; Guiney, Tina; Braker, Joe; Stapleton, Dean; Alegria, Kim; Irwin, David


    DILAS offers a variety of high power pump diode lasers, optimized for different gain media. Systems optimized for DPAL pumping at 766nm will be discussed, including results demonstrating precise wavelength and spectral width control necessary to optimal overlap with atomic lines. In addition, pump modules optimized at 793 nm for Tm fiber laser pumping have been demonstrated, including a low SWaP module targeted for airborne applications. Lastly, DILAS' line of high-efficiency/low-SWaP pump at 976nm for Yb fiber laser will be presented. Starting with the 330W IS46 module, DILAS has demonstrated >53% efficiency, and has now increased brightness up to 625W from a 225 um/ 0.22 NA fiber. Developments towards a module with >900W output power will also be shown.

  19. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  20. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.


    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  1. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)


    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  2. LED Systems Target Plant Growth (United States)


    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  3. Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers. (United States)

    Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C


    In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10  GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions.

  4. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...

  5. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  6. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    . A detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance. • If optimally designed, boost converters......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, if a converter is properly designed, primary side voltage clamp circuits will not even work in low voltage high power converters. • Very high conversion efficiency can be achieved. Peak efficiency of 98% and worst case minimum efficiency of 96.8% are demonstrated on a 1.5 kW converter. The ability...

  7. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    and maximum output power. In chapter 3, a detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based....... • If optimally designed, boost converters will be much more efficient than comparable buck type converters for high power low voltage applications. • The use of voltage clamp circuits to protect primary switches in boost converters is no longer needed for device protection. On the other hand...

  8. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology (United States)

    Liu, Jingru


    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  9. Magnetic confinement system using charged ammonia targets (United States)

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly


    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  10. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses (United States)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir


    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  11. Design and implementation of a high-power resonant DC-DC converter module for a reduced-scale prototype integrated power system


    Whitcomb, Bryan D.


    An Integrated Power System (IPS) with a DC Zonal Electrical Distribution System (DC ZEDS) is a strong candidate for the next generation submarine and surface ship. To study the implementation of an IPS with DC ZEDS, members of the Energy Sources Analysis Consortium (ESAC) are currently constructing a reduced-scale laboratory. One fundamental component of DC ZEDS is the Ships Service Converter Module (SSCM), commonly known as a buck DC-DC converter. This thesis documents the design, simulation...

  12. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.


    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  13. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui


    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  14. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M.D.


    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  15. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei


    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  16. High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B


    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line.

  17. Thermal Fatigue Testing of ZrO2-Y2O3 Thermal Barrier Coating Systems using a High Power CO2 Laser (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure, under thermal loads that simulate diesel engine conditions, are investigated. The surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*(sub NCF), which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 microns/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 microns/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*(sub NCF) about 20,000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that HCF damage effect increases with increasing surface temperature swing, the thermal expansion coefficient and the elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. A good agreement has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence.

  18. High power regenerative laser amplifier (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.


    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  19. Heatsink Design of High Power Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Ki [Chungang University (Korea)


    Various ways of designing heat sink are available for commercial high power converters and among them, the method of air cooling is the most popular and practical method than any other ones. In this paper, a practical method of cooling high power converter, which includes a method of reducing noise and vibration caused by the fan and a method of estimating the gap and contact resistances existing between the thyristor and heat sink, is presented. Finally, the heat transfer analysis and implementation methods of heat sink for high power converter is presented. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Emotional System for Military Target Identification (United States)


    J. & Ioerger, T.R. (2000). FLAME– fuzzy logic adaptive model of emotions. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems , 3(3), 219–257. Emotional...Proceedings of the Sixteenth European Meeting on Cybernetics and System Research, Vienna, 751–756. [16] Doya K. (2002). Meta-learning and neuro ...RTO-MP-IST-087 18 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Emotional System for Military Target Identification Prof. Dr. Adnan

  1. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  2. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser (United States)

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.


    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  3. Seeing laser scalpel: a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser system at 2.02 μm with double-clad fiber combined OCT (United States)

    Messner, Manuel; Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Unterrainer, Karl


    We report on a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser at 2.02 μm. The pulsed laser generates average output power and pulse energy of beyond 90W and 900mJ in 400 μs pulses, respectively. This wavelength allows usage of standard fused silica fibers and optics, a price competitive solution for minimally-invasive endoscopic surgery. Recent developments in double-clad fiber combiners enable a rugged delivery system for the laser and the OCT ideal for a seeing laser scalpel. This gives the possibility to detect in-depth underlying tissue not yet ablated by the laser in a 2D or 3D fashion with micrometer resolution.

  4. Systemic Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan B. J.


    Full Text Available Background: The fundamental principles of internal targeted alpha therapy for cancer were established many decades ago.The high linear energy transfer (LET of alpha radiation to the targeted cancer cellscauses double strand breaks in DNA. At the same time, the short range radiation spares adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts, such as lack of control of some primary cancers (e.g.glioblastoma multiformeand to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Objective: This review charts the developing role of systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. Method: Targeted alpha therapy is a rapidly advancing experimental therapy that holds promise to deliver high cytotoxicity to targeted cancer cells. Initially thought to be indicated for leukemia and micrometastases, there is now evidence that solid tumors can also be regressed. Results: Alpha therapy may be molecular or physiological in its targeting. Alpha emitting radioisotopes such as Bi-212, Bi-213, At-211 and Ac-225 are used to label monoclonal antibodies or proteins that target specifc cancer cells. Alternatively, Radium-233 is used for palliative therapy of breast and prostate cancers because of its bone seeking properties. Conclusion: Preclinical studies and clinical trials of alpha therapy are discussed for leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, bone metastases, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.

  5. Piezoelectric Transformers for a High Power Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezaki, T


    .... Here, in order to obtain compact and high-power AC-DC adaptors, we explored suitable designs for a multi-layered piezoelectric transformer, by taking into account the effect of the mechanical quality...

  6. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new thruster has been conceived and tested that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) plasma wave. In this new method of propulsion, an antenna generates and...

  7. High Power Fiber Laser Test Bed (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, unique within DoD, power-combines numerous cutting-edge fiber-coupled laser diode modules (FCLDM) to integrate pumping of high power rare earth-doped...

  8. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  9. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben


    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....

  10. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)


    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  11. Development of an autonomous target tracking system (United States)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  12. Innovations in high power fiber laser applications (United States)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Mahrle, Achim; Lütke, Matthias; Standfuss, Jens; Brückner, Frank


    Diffraction-limited high power lasers represent a new generation of lasers for materials processing, characteristic traits of which are: smaller, cost-effective and processing "on the fly". Of utmost importance is the high beam quality of fiber lasers which enables us to reduce the size of the focusing head incl. scanning mirrors. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a lot of new applications. In the field of remote cutting and welding the beam quality is the key parameter. By reducing the size of the focusing head including the scanning mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. By using these frequencies very thin and deep welding seams can be generated experienced so far with electron beam welding only. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a high potential for developing new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed cutting. Highly dynamic cutting systems with maximum speeds up to 300 m/min and accelerations up to 4 g reduce the cutting time for cutting complex 2D parts. However, due to the inertia of such systems the effective cutting speed is reduced in real applications. This is especially true if complex shapes or contours are cut. With the introduction of scanner-based remote cutting systems in the kilowatt range, the effective cutting speed on the contour can be dramatically increased. The presentation explains remote cutting of metal foils and sheets using high brightness single mode fiber lasers. The presentation will also show the effect of optical feedback during cutting and welding with the fiber laser, how those feedbacks could be reduced and how they have to be used to optimize the cutting or welding process.

  13. Resonance tracking and vibration stablilization for high power ultrasonic transducers. (United States)

    Kuang, Y; Jin, Y; Cochran, S; Huang, Z


    Resonant frequency shift and electrical impedance variation are common phenomena in the application of high power ultrasonic transducers, e.g. in focused ultrasound surgery and in cutting. They result in low power efficiency and unstable vibration amplitude. To solve this problem, a driving and measurement system has been developed to track the resonance of high power transducers and to stabilise their vibration velocity. This has the ability to monitor the operating and performance parameters of the ultrasonic transducers in real time. The configuration of the system, with its control algorithm implemented in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Newbury, UK), ensures flexibility to suit different transducers and load conditions. In addition, with different programs, it can be utilised as a high power impedance analyser or an instantaneous electrical power measurement system for frequencies in the MHz range. The effectiveness of this system has been demonstrated in detailed studies. With it, high transducer performance at high power can be achieved and monitored in real time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Method and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy over long distances (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Systems, devices and methods for the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates.

  15. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0020 Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power David Lancaster THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Final Report 01/04/2016...COVERED (From - To) 01-07-2014 to 30-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER...germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal-cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped

  16. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu


    Full Text Available Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  17. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications (United States)

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.


    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  18. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.


    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  19. RI and Target recovery system of Lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. H.; Park, U. J.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Moon, J. H.; Nam, S. S.; Jang, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Separation of adjacent lanthanides is complicated process to obtain pure target nuclide. Several papers have reported that the ionic character change of lanthanides with appropriate chelating agents can isolate the target lanthanides. These specific agents to the metal ion are called as complexing agents including-HIBA, tartaric acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid etc. Radioisotope research division of KAERI has developed separating technique for target lanthanides, total 20mg scale, by using complexing agents and ion-pairing agents in cold state. The reactor-produced radiolanthanides have been pivotal for development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Some radiolanthanides show excellent theranostic effects in that they have proper Let (Linear Energy Transfer) to induce apoptosis for cancer treatment and gamma ray to use as a tracer for cancer diagnosis. This system was designed for automated separation of the (n,γ) reaction product. Especially, we are focused on getting the carrier free Ho-166 which is the first attempt at KAERI. Even though we have already developed to produce c.a Ho-166(carrier added form), we did not try to develop to produce carrier free Ho-166 since the separating process is difficult as well as production process follows double (n,γ) reaction. After HANARO is re-operated, we are schedule to produce n.c.a Ho by using this recovery system.

  20. The apelinergic system: a promising therapeutic target. (United States)

    Falcão-Pires, Inês; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F


    Apelin is a bioactive peptide known as the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence regarding the importance of apelin and APJ in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular, metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, brain signalling, HIV infection and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, the apelinergic system is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases that represent a major burden to our society. The goal of this paper is to give an up-to-date review of existing information on apelin/APJ since the discovery of apelin in 1998, with particular focus on their involvement in the regulation of human body systems and potential therapeutic applications. An overview of the most important physiological functions of the apelinergic system and the diseases that may benefit in the future from its modulation as a therapeutic target. Today, the established biological effects of apelin involve major cardiovascular actions, neoangiogenesis, immunologic modulation and insulinemia control as well as body fluid and glucose homeostasis. However, the physiological and pathophysiological role of endogenous apelin is still unsettled and a better and profound knowledge of this system in humans is necessary for the development of novel apelinergic-based therapeutic targets.

  1. Development of adaptive resonator techniques for high-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J; Brase, J; Carrano, C; Dane, C B; Flath, L; Fochs, S; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R


    The design of an adaptive wavefront control system for a high-power Nd:Glass laser will be presented. Features of this system include: an unstable resonator in confocal configuration, a multi-module slab amplifier, and real-time intracavity adaptive phase control using deformable mirrors and high-speed wavefront sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the adaptive correction of an aberrated passive resonator (no gain).

  2. Feasibility of High-Power Diode Laser Array Surrogate to Support Development of Predictive Laser Lethality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W H; Rubenchik, A M; Springer, H K


    Predictive modeling and simulation of high power laser-target interactions is sufficiently undeveloped that full-scale, field testing is required to assess lethality of military directed-energy (DE) systems. The cost and complexity of such testing programs severely limit the ability to vary and optimize parameters of the interaction. Thus development of advanced simulation tools, validated by experiments under well-controlled and diagnosed laboratory conditions that are able to provide detailed physics insight into the laser-target interaction and reduce requirements for full-scale testing will accelerate development of DE weapon systems. The ultimate goal is a comprehensive end-to-end simulation capability, from targeting and firing the laser system through laser-target interaction and dispersal of target debris; a 'Stockpile Science' - like capability for DE weapon systems. To support development of advanced modeling and simulation tools requires laboratory experiments to generate laser-target interaction data. Until now, to make relevant measurements required construction and operation of very high power and complex lasers, which are themselves costly and often unique devices, operating in dedicated facilities that don't permit experiments on targets containing energetic materials. High power diode laser arrays, pioneered by LLNL, provide a way to circumvent this limitation, as such arrays capable of delivering irradiances characteristic of De weapon requires are self-contained, compact, light weight and thus easily transportable to facilities, such as the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where testing with energetic materials can be performed. The purpose of this study was to establish the feasibility of using such arrays to support future development of advanced laser lethality and vulnerability simulation codes through providing data for materials characterization and laser

  3. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.


    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH...

  4. Methods for High Power EM Pulse Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala


    Full Text Available There are some suitable methods for the measurement of ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses that can be generated by high power pulsed generators. The measurement methods properties have to correspond to the fact whether we want to measure pulses of voltage, current or free-space electromagnetic wave. The need for specific measurement methods occurred by the development of high power microwave pulse generator. Applicable methods are presented in this paper. The method utilizing Faraday's induction law allows the measurement of generated current. For the same purpose the magneto-optic method can be utilized, with its advantages. For measurement of output microwave pulse of the generator the calorimetric method was designed and realized.

  5. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  6. An introduction to high power microwaves (United States)

    Benford, James; Swegle, John


    The area of high power microwaves has emerged in recent years as a new technology allowing new applications and offering innovative approaches to existing applications. The great leap in microwave power levels has been driven by a mix of sources that either push conventional microwave device physics in new directions or employ altogether new interaction mechanisms. Running counter to the trend in conventional microwave electronics toward miniaturization with solid-state devices intrinsically limited in their peak power capability, high power microwave generation taps the immense power and energy reservoirs of modern intense relativistic electron beam technology. The term high power microwaves (HPM) is used to denote devices that exceed 100 MW in peak power and span the cm- and mm-wave range of frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz. This definition is arbitrary, but does cleanly divide the conventional microwave devices, which do not exceed 100 MW, from a collection of microwave-generating devices that have now reached powers as high as 15 GW.

  7. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.


    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Recent results in mirror based high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Elvang, Mads


    In this paper, recent results in high power laser cutting, obtained in reseach and development projects are presented. Two types of mirror based focussing systems for laser cutting have been developed and applied in laser cutting studies on CO2-lasers up to 12 kW. In shipyard environment cutting...... speed increase relative to state-of-the-art cutting of over 100 % has been achieved....

  9. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David


    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  10. CAS Accelerator Physics (High-Power Hadron Machines) in Spain

    CERN Multimedia



    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and ESS-Bilbao jointly organised a specialised course on High-Power Hadron Machines, held at the Hotel Barceló Nervión in Bilbao, Spain, from 24 May to 2 June, 2011.   CERN Accelerator School students. After recapitulation lectures on the essentials of accelerator physics and review lectures on the different types of accelerators, the programme focussed on the challenges of designing and operating high-power facilities. The particular problems for RF systems, beam instrumentation, vacuum, cryogenics, collimators and beam dumps were examined. Activation of equipment, radioprotection and remote handling issues were also addressed. The school was very successful, with 69 participants of 22 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the participants w...

  11. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin


    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  12. High Power Argon, Nitrogen Plasma Torches (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.; Sadikov, K.


    The paper describes a high power supply for Argon and Nitrogen plasma torches. A high frequency was used in order to drive the pulse width modulation circuit. The average output current consumption (AOCC) was modified from 20A up to 80A by increasing the pulse width from 2μsec up to 3μsec for Argon gas plasma torches. The (AOCC) was reduced from 70A down to 25A by increasing the pulse width from 6μsec up to 8μsec in the case of Nitrogen gas plasma torches.

  13. High power lasers and their industrial applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Innsbruck, Austria, Apr. 15-18, 1986 (United States)

    Schuoecker, Dieter


    Papers are presented on the discharge behavior of an RF excited high power CO2 laser at different excitation frequencies; high power CO2 lasers for materials processing; a semiconductive preionization technique; high power Nd lasers for industrial applications; high power light transmission in optical waveguides; beam delivery systems for high power lasers; and quality control for high power CO2 laser optics. Topics discussed include the monitoring of laser material processes; measuring the quality of high power laser beams; the physics of laser material processing; metal precision drilling with lasers; and the evolution of microstructure for laser clad Fe-Cr-Mn-C alloys. Consideration is given to robotic manipulation for laser processing; laser cutting; the use of the laser versus the electron beam in welding the surface treatments; high power laser safety; and laser protective filters for the visible and near-IR spectrum.

  14. Development of High Power Lasers for Materials Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L A


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of developing high power lasers for use in basic science and applications. The Laser Science and Technology Program (LS&T) at LLNL supports advanced lasers and optics development both for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as well as for high power lasers and optics technology for a broader range of government, military and industrial applications. The NIF laser is currently under construction with the first of the 192 beamlines being activated. When finished NIF will have an output energy of 2 MJ at 351 nm. This system will be used for studies of high energy density physics, equation of state and inertial confinement fusion. It is now generally acknowledged that the future of laser missile defense lies with solid state lasers. The leading laser technology for theater missile defense is under development within the LS&T and funded by the US Army SMDC. This high average power technology is based on a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity mode. In the concept the heat producing lasing cycle is separated in time from the cooling cycle thus reducing thermal gradients and allowing significantly greater average output power. Under the current program, an LLNL developed laser has achieved a record setting 13 kW of average power in 20 second duration bursts. We have also performed target lethality experiments showing a previously unrecognized advantage of a pulsed laser format. The LLNL work is now focused on achieving improved output beam quality and in developing a 100 kW output with diode pumping of a large aperture crystal gain medium on a compact mobile platform. The Short Pulse Laser Group of LS&T has been developing high power short pulse laser systems for a number of applications. Of great importance is petawatt (10{sup 12} Watt) and greater power output to support experiments on the NIF. We are developing a system of 5 M class output and 5 to 10 ps pulse duration for generating intense

  15. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  16. Real-time target tracking and locating system for UAV (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Tang, Linbo; Fu, Huiquan; Li, Maowen


    In order to achieve real-time target tracking and locating for UAV, a reliable processing system is built on the embedded platform. Firstly, the video image is acquired in real time by the photovoltaic system on the UAV. When the target information is known, KCF tracking algorithm is adopted to track the target. Then, the servo is controlled to rotate with the target, when the target is in the center of the image, the laser ranging module is opened to obtain the distance between the UAV and the target. Finally, to combine with UAV flight parameters obtained by BeiDou navigation system, through the target location algorithm to calculate the geodetic coordinates of the target. The results show that the system is stable for real-time tracking of targets and positioning.

  17. ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dr. Michel


    Full Text Available In the ELBE Center for High-Power Radiation Sources, the superconducting linear electron accelerator ELBE, serving  two free electron lasers, sources for intense coherent THz radiation, mono-energetic positrons, electrons, γ-rays, a neutron time-of-flight system as well as two synchronized ultra-short pulsed Petawatt laser systems are collocated. The characteristics of these beams make the ELBE center a unique research instrument for a variety of external users in fields ranging from material science over nuclear physics to cancer research, as well as scientists of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR.

  18. Acquisition of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meling, John


    .... Joint STARS is a surveillance, battle-management, and target attack support system being developed to detect, locate, and track moving and stationary targets located beyond the forward line of our troops...

  19. Radiation safety with high power operation of EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Ridikas, D


    The European Community has launched the design study for a next generation RIB facility able to increase by a few orders of magnitude, the exotic beam intensity and availability in Europe. Forty institutes and laboratories within Europe, North America and Asia are taking part in this consortium, named EURISOL DS project (European Isotope Separation On Line Design Study). In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW (MMW) target assembly, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In this MMW station, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source. The envisaged increase in RIB intensities at EURISOL means a drastic increase of the radioactive inventory and corresponding radioprotection related issues. Safety aspects of the future RIB production targets (aiming at a few ~1015 fissions/s) will become decisive in li...

  20. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar


    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  1. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan


    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Towards quantitative simulations of high power proton cyclotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Bi


    Full Text Available We describe a large scale simulation effort using Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library, that leads to a better quantitative understanding of the existing Paul Scherrer Institut high power proton cyclotron facility. The 1.3 MW of beam power on target poses stringent constraints on the controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. We present initial conditions for the Ring simulation, obtained from the new time-structure measurement and the many profile monitors of the 72 MeV transfer line. A trim coil model is developed, including trim coil TC15, which is needed to avoid the dangerous ν_{r}=2ν_{z} resonance. By properly selecting the injection position and angle (eccentric injection, the flattop voltage, and phase, very good agreement between simulations and measurements at the radial probe RRE4 is obtained. We report on 3–4 orders of magnitude in dynamic range when comparing simulations with measurements. The relation between beam intensity, rms beam size, and accelerating voltage is studied and compared with measurement. The demonstrated capabilities are mandatory in the design and operation of the next generation high power proton drivers. In an outlook we discuss our future plans to include more physics into the model, which eventually leads to an even larger dynamic range in the simulation.

  3. Novel design for a high power superconducting delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.J.; Caporaso, G.J.


    Potential designs for a high power superconducting delay line of approximately 10ms duration are described. The transmitted signal should have low dispersion and little attenuation to recapture the original signal. Such demands cannot be met using conventional metal conductors. This paper outlines a proposal for a new transmission line design using low temperature superconducting material which meets system specifications. The 25W line is designed to carry pulsed signals with an approximate rise time of 8 nsec and a maximum voltage of 25kV. Predicted electrical design and performance of the line is presented.

  4. Designs for a high power superconducting delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.J.; Caporaso, G.


    Potential designs for a high power superconducting delay line of approximately 10 microsecs duration are described. The transmitted signal should have low dispersion and little attenuation to recapture the original signal. Such demands cannot be met using conventional metal conductors. This paper outlines a proposal for a new transmission line design using low temperature superconducting material which meets system specifications. The 25 omega line is designed to carry pulsed signals with an approximate rise time of 8 nsec and a maximum voltage magnitude of 25 kV. Predicted electrical design and performance of the line will be presented.

  5. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.


    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  6. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong


    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  7. Diode pumped 1kHz high power Nd:YAG laser with excellent beam quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    The design and operation of a one kilohertz diode pumped all solid-state Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system with a phase conjugate mirror is presented. The setup allows high power scaling without reduction in beam quality.

  8. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)


    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  9. Laminar composite structures for high power actuators (United States)

    Hobosyan, M. A.; Martinez, P. M.; Zakhidov, A. A.; Haines, C. S.; Baughman, R. H.; Martirosyan, K. S.


    Twisted laminar composite structures for high power and large-stroke actuators based on coiled Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) composite yarns were crafted by integrating high-density Nanoenergetic Gas Generators (NGGs) into carbon nanotube sheets. The linear actuation force, resulting from the pneumatic force caused by expanding gases confined within the pores of laminar structures and twisted carbon nanotube yarns, can be further amplified by increasing NGG loading and yarns twist density, as well as selecting NGG compositions with high energy density and large-volume gas generation. Moreover, the actuation force and power can be tuned by the surrounding environment, such as to increase the actuation by combustion in ambient air. A single 300-μm-diameter integrated MWNT/NGG coiled yarn produced 0.7 MPa stress and a contractile specific work power of up to 4.7 kW/kg, while combustion front propagated along the yarn at a velocity up to 10 m/s. Such powerful yarn actuators can also be operated in a vacuum, enabling their potential use for deploying heavy loads in outer space, such as to unfold solar panels and solar sails.

  10. High-Power Helicon Double Gun Thruster (United States)

    Murakami, Nao

    While chemical propulsion is necessary to launch a spacecraft from a planetary surface into space, electric propulsion has the potential to provide significant cost savings for the orbital transfer of payloads between planets. Due to extended wave particle interactions, a plasma thruster that can operate in the 100 kW to several MW power regime can only be attained by increasing the size of the thruster, or by using an array of plasma thrusters. The High-Power Helicon (HPH) Double Gun thruster experiment examines whether firing two helicon thrusters in parallel produces an exhaust velocity higher than the exhaust velocity of a single thruster. The scaling law that relates the downstream plasma velocity with the number of helicon antennae is derived, and compared with the experimental result. In conjunction with data analysis, two digital filtering algorithms are developed to filter out the noise from helicon antennae. The scaling law states that the downstream plasma velocity is proportional to square root of the number of helicon antennae, which is in agreement with the experimental result.

  11. High-power extreme ultraviolet source based on gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.; Krenz, K.


    The authors report on the development of a high power laser plasma Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) source for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. The source is based on the plasma emission of a recycled jet beam of large Xe clusters and produces no particulate debris. The source will be driven by a pulsed laser delivering 1,500 W of focused average power to the cluster jet target. To develop condensers and to optimize source performance, a low power laboratory cluster jet prototype has been used to study the spectroscopy, angular distributions, and EUV source images of the cluster jet plasma emission. In addition, methods to improve the reflectance lifetimes of nearby plasma facing condenser mirrors have been developed. The resulting source yields EUV conversion efficiencies up to 3.8% and mirror lifetimes of 10{sup 9} plasma pulses.

  12. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A


    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  13. Feasibility of target communities in a Dutch brook valley system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, AH; Bekker, RM

    As a reaction to the ongoing deterioration of nature conservation interest in The Netherlands, an offensive nature strategy was formulated in the 1990 Nature Policy Plan. In this Plan, target communities and target plant species are mentioned. For the 'Drentse A brook valley system', target

  14. Parametric design and protective strategy of energy module for SG-III high power laser

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Ke Fu; Qing Shi Hong; Pan Yuan; Yao Zeng Gan; Pi Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Liang Fu; Zhou Pei Zhang; Li Yi Zheng; Chen De Huai


    The author presented the circuitry design and principle of parameters choice of the energy module for SG-III high power laser. All possible faults of high pulsed power supply were analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis and computation, the protective strategy and technology was put forward. It is helpful for the design and safe operation of high power supply and laser amplifier system. The experiments showed that the manufactured pulsed power supply met the system requirements

  15. Optical fiber cable for transmission of high power laser energy over great distances (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.; Koblick, Yeshaya


    There is provided a system and apparatus for the transmission of high power laser energy over great distances without substantial power loss and without the presence of stimulated Raman scattering. There is further provided systems and optical fiber cable configurations and optical fiber structures for the delivering high power laser energy over great distances to a tool or surface to perform an operation or work with the tool or upon the surface.

  16. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.


    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  17. High-power 95 GHz pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer (United States)

    Hofbauer, W.; Earle, K. A.; Dunnam, C. R.; Moscicki, J. K.; Freed, J. H.


    High-field/high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) offers improved sensitivity and resolution compared to ESR at conventional fields and frequencies. However, most high-field/high-frequency ESR spectrometers suffer from limited mm-wave power, thereby requiring long mm-wave pulses. This precludes their use when relaxation times are short, e.g., in fluid samples. Low mm-wave power is also a major factor limiting the achievable spectral coverage and thereby the multiplex advantage of Fourier transform ESR (FTESR) experiments. High-power pulses are needed to perform two-dimensional (2D) FTESR experiments, which can unravel the dynamics of a spin system in great detail, making it an excellent tool for studying spin and molecular dynamics. We report on the design and implementation of a high-power, high-bandwidth, pulsed ESR spectrometer operating at 95 GHz. One of the principal design goals was the ability to investigate dynamic processes in aqueous samples at physiological temperatures with the intent to study biological systems. In initial experiments on aqueous samples at room temperature, we achieved 200 MHz spectral coverage at a sensitivity of 1.1×1010√s spins and a dead time of less than 50 ns. 2D-electron-electron double resonance experiments on aqueous samples are discussed to demonstrate the practical application of such a spectrometer.

  18. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce


    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  19. Facet engineering of high power single emitters (United States)

    Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey


    The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/ (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

  20. [Development of a High Power Green Laser Therapeutic Equipment for Hyperplasia of Prostate]. (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Kang, Hongxiang; Shen, Benjian; Zhao, Lusheng; Wu, Xinshe; Chen, Peng; Chang, Aihong; Guo Hua; Guo, Jiayu


    The basic theory of high power green laser equipment for prostate hyperplasia therapy and the components of the system developed are introduced. Considering the requirements of the clinical therapy, the working process of the high power green laser apparatus are designed and the laser with stable output at 120 W is achieved. The controlling hardware and application software are developed, and the safety step is designed. The high power green laser apparatus manufactured with characteristics of stable output, multifunctional and friendly interface provides a choices of prostate hyperplasia therapy for using nationalization instrument.

  1. Simulation, design, and testing of a high power collimator for the RDS-112 cyclotron. (United States)

    Peeples, Johanna L; Stokely, Matthew H; Poorman, Michael C; Bida, Gerald T; Wieland, Bruce W


    A high power [F-18] fluoride target package for the RDS-112 cyclotron has been designed, tested, and commercially deployed. The upgrade includes the CF-1000 target, a 1.3kW water target with an established commercial history on RDS-111/Eclipse cyclotrons, and a redesigned collimator with improved heat rejection capabilities. Conjugate heat transfer analyses were employed to both evaluate the existing collimator capabilities and design a suitable high current replacement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monetary targeting and financial system characteristics : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, A..


    This paper investigates how reforms and characteristics of the financial system affect the likelihood of countries to abandon their strategy of monetary targeting. Apart from financial system characteristics, we include macroeconomic, fiscal, and institutional factors potentially associated with

  3. Compactness of cores of targets for nonlinear delay systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A relationship is established between the boundedness of cores of targets and the Euclidean controllability of the nonlinear system. This relationship gives vent to the establishment of the compactness of cores of target for the system. We complement Ukwu [9] and Chukwu [1] by answering in the affirmative that under ...

  4. High power diode laser Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier (MOPA) (United States)

    Andrews, John R.; Mouroulis, P.; Wicks, G.


    High power multiple quantum well AlGaAs diode laser master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) systems were examined both experimentally and theoretically. For two pass operation, it was found that powers in excess of 0.3 W per 100 micrometers of facet length were achievable while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. Internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies as high as 25 percent were observed at an internal amplifier gain of 9 dB. Theoretical modeling of multiple quantum well amplifiers was done using appropriate rate equations and a heuristic model of the carrier density dependent gain. The model gave a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the model allowed exploration of a wider design space for the amplifiers. The model predicted that internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in excess of 50 percent should be achievable with careful system design. The model predicted that no global optimum design exists, but gain, efficiency, and optical confinement (coupling efficiency) can be mutually adjusted to meet a specific system requirement. A three quantum well, low optical confinement amplifier was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial growth. Coherent beam combining of two high power amplifiers injected from a common master oscillator was also examined. Coherent beam combining with an efficiency of 93 percent resulted in a single beam having diffraction-limited characteristics. This beam combining efficiency is a world record result for such a system. Interferometric observations of the output of the amplifier indicated that spatial mode matching was a significant factor in the less than perfect beam combining. Finally, the system issues of arrays of amplifiers in a coherent beam combining system were investigated. Based upon experimentally observed parameters coherent beam combining could result in a megawatt-scale coherent beam with a 10 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  5. Targeting the endocannabinoid system for therapeutic purposes


    Busquets Garcia, Arnau


    The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous neuromodulatory system that regulates a plethora of physiological functions, including the modulation of memory, anxiety, pain, synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability, among others. The activation of this system through exogenous or endogenous cannabinoid agonists has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy in different pathological states, although an important caveat to their use is the possible central adverse effects, such as memory impai...

  6. Active beam integrator for high power coherent lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguarta, F.; Armengol, J.; Vega, F.; Lupon, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. d`Optica i Optometria


    In laser materials processing applications it is often necessary to work with uniform intensity distributions. This goal is quite difficult to achieve when dealing with high power laser beams, and becomes critical for a successful application involving surface heat treatment of non-metallic materials. The authors have designed and tested a very simple beam shaper for transforming the initial intensity distribution of a CO{sub 2} laser beam mode into a more uniform intensity profile. The beam shaper is a two-faceted mirror for active integration of high power coherent laser beams. After reflection in the faceted mirror, a TEM00 or TEM01 CO{sub 2} laser beam is divided into two beamlets that overlap to give a more uniform intensity distribution. A sharp interference pattern due to the high spatial coherence of the incident beam appears. This interference pattern is actively integrated by a high-frequency longitudinal displacement of one of the facets. This provides a change in the relative phase of the two beamlets, and consequently the interference pattern vibrates and its contribution to the intensity distribution averages out. When sweeping this distribution over a sample, a uniform amount of energy is deposited at every point of its surface. It must be emphasized that unlike multifaceted mirrors, the two-facet integrator may provide uniform intensity profiles over any working distance. Finally, as in other integration devices an imaging system may be used to obtain a spot of the shape and the size desired for a particular application.

  7. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Hinas


    Full Text Available In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  8. Vision-Based Target Finding and Inspection of a Ground Target Using a Multirotor UAV System. (United States)

    Hinas, Ajmal; Roberts, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Felipe


    In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target. A high-level decision algorithm based on an OODA (observe, orient, decide, and act) loop was developed as a solution to address the problem. Navigation of the UAV was achieved by continuously sending local position messages to the autopilot via Mavros. The proposed system performed hovering above the target in three different stages: locate, descend, and hover. The system was tested in multiple trials, in simulations and outdoor tests, from heights of 10 m to 40 m. Results show that the system is highly reliable and robust to sensor errors, drift, and external disturbance.

  9. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakawa Y.


    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  10. Thermal management methods for compact high power LED arrays (United States)

    Christensen, Adam; Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel


    The package and system level temperature distributions of a high power (>1W) light emitting diode (LED) array has been investigated using numerical heat flow models. For this analysis, a thermal resistor network model was combined with a 3D finite element submodel of an LED structure to predict system and die level temperatures. The impact of LED array density, LED power density, and active versus passive cooling methods on device operation were calculated. In order to help understand the role of various thermal resistances in cooling such compact arrays, the thermal resistance network was analyzed in order to estimate the contributions from materials as well as active and passive cooling schemes. An analysis of thermal stresses and residual stresses in the die are also calculated based on power dissipation and convection heat transfer coefficients. Results show that the thermal stress in the GaN layer are compressive which can impact the band gap and performance of the LEDs.

  11. Support for High Power Laser Ablation 2010 (United States)


    Spaces from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport , Science and Technology, Japan. 27 [24] An Analytical Model of Ablation in Gas Flow Leonid...Targets at 0.1-10 TW/cm2 John L. Remo Dept. of Astronomy and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St. and Harvard...modeling of planetary cores and high velocity impact. [43] Laser and Z-pinch Simulation of High Energy Density Planetary Interactions John L. Remo

  12. Workshop: Research and development plans for high power spallation neutron testing at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of vugraphs from presentations at the meeting. The papers covered the following topics: (1) APS as a proton source; (2) target status for NSNS (National Spallation Neutron Source); (3) spallation neutron source in Japan; (4) liquid LiBi flow loop; and (5) research and development plans for high power tests at the AGS.

  13. Low-loss electron beam transport in a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, M.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Urbanus, W. H.


    At the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics ''Rijnhuizen'', The Netherlands, the commissioning of a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser is in progress. The design target is the generation of 1 MW microwave power in the frequency range 130-260 GHz. The foreseen application

  14. Experiments with very high-power lasers. Report of a workshop, November 29-30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J.; Rice, S. A.; Trainor, R. J.; Bass, M.; Hendricks, R. W.; Reader, J.


    Among possible experiments of general interest in physics are the study of the spectroscopy and cross section measurements of highly ionized species, the study of nuclear conversion processes, vacuum-ultraviolet lasers, multiphoton absorption, and the Kapitza-Dirac effect. Shock waves driven by ultrahigh-power lasers are capable of attaining pressures of the order of 1 to 4 TPa in material targets, providing a means of deriving equation-of-state data under such extreme conditions. Modifications observed in the structures of materials subjected to high-power laser radiation can lead to studies of damage and phase change processes. Classes of useful experiments in this area are given. The x rays produced when a pulse of ultrahigh-power laser radiation is focussed on a target are sufficiently intense to generate diffraction patterns and EXAFS spectra on a nanosecond time scale. A major application of ultrahigh-power lasers to chemistry and biology may consist in such time-resolved diffraction and EXAFS studies of dynamical systems. The laser systems at the National Laser User Facility at the University of Rochester are described. These systems are available to qualified investigators for user experiments.

  15. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  16. Low-flying target position finding with a seismic system (United States)

    Cechak, Jaroslav; Hubacek, Petr; Vesely, Jiri


    The development of new sensor systems able to detect, identify and find position of the targets equipped with STEALTH technology began early in 1990s. Some of the sensor systems utilise acoustic, magnetic, seismic and/or other physical effects of target activity. A reason motivating the development of new sensor systems based on other than radar or optical principal of operation in detecting targets is that the systems usually emit no electromagnetic energy during operation. Thanks to their passive principle they provide the users with the advantages of hidden positioning and difficult discovery with reconnaissance tools. Therefore, some of the new UGS systems also allow detecting low-flying targets, such as helicopters, propeller or jet aircraft, etc., in the detection range of up to several kilometres. The information of flight direction is usually estimated and deduced from spatiotemporal sequence detections by multiple interlinked UGS systems. The submitted paper analyses low-flying target position finding principle on Time Direction Of Arrival (TDOA) basis. It presents the qualities of found UGS arrangement topologies and the characteristics of the unambiguous position determination of low-flying targets. It also contains mathematical description of signal digital processing intended to find low-flying target's position. The processed results are presented in table and diagram forms created in Matlab mathematical environment. All the presented detection and identification results were obtained from real recorded signals.

  17. Tutorial: Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (R-HiPIMS) (United States)

    Anders, André


    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is a coating technology that combines magnetron sputtering with pulsed power concepts. By applying power in pulses of high amplitude and a relatively low duty cycle, large fractions of sputtered atoms and near-target gases are ionized. In contrast to conventional magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS is characterized by self-sputtering or repeated gas recycling for high and low sputter yield materials, respectively, and both for most intermediate materials. The dense plasma in front of the target has the dual function of sustaining the discharge and providing plasma-assistance to film growth, affecting the microstructure of growing films. Many technologically interesting thin films are compound films, which are composed of one or more metals and a reactive gas, most often oxygen or nitrogen. When reactive gas is added, non-trivial consequences arise for the system because the target may become "poisoned," i.e., a compound layer forms on the target surface affecting the sputtering yield and the yield of secondary electron emission and thereby all other parameters. It is emphasized that the target state depends not only on the reactive gas' partial pressure (balanced via gas flow and pumping) but also on the ion flux to the target, which can be controlled by pulse parameters. This is a critical technological opportunity for reactive HiPIMS (R-HiPIMS). The scope of this tutorial is focused on plasma processes and mechanisms of operation and only briefly touches upon film properties. It introduces R-HiPIMS in a systematic, step-by-step approach by covering sputtering, magnetron sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering, pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS, and finally R-HiPIMS. The tutorial is concluded by considering variations of R-HiPIMS known as modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering and deep-oscillation magnetron sputtering and combinations of R-HiPIMS with superimposed dc magnetron sputtering.

  18. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook


    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  19. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Mosca, Marta; Bertsias, George


    guidance for healthcare providers and administrators. Thus, an initiative to evaluate possible therapeutic targets and develop treat-to-target guidance was believed to be highly appropriate in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as well. Specialists in rheumatology, nephrology...

  20. High Power Operation of the JLab IR FEL Driver Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hovater; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Rui Li; Steven Moore; George Neil; Benard Poelker; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Robert Rimmer; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Gwyn Williams; Shukui Zhang


    Operation of the JLab IR Upgrade FEL at CW powers in excess of 10 kW requires sustained production of high electron beam powers by the driver ERL. This in turn demands attention to numerous issues and effects, including: cathode lifetime; control of beamline and RF system vacuum during high current operation; longitudinal space charge; longitudinal and transverse matching of irregular/large volume phase space distributions; halo management; management of remnant dispersive effects; resistive wall, wake-field, and RF heating of beam vacuum chambers; the beam break up instability; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (both on beam quality and the performance of laser optics); magnetic component stability and reproducibility; and RF stability and reproducibility. We discuss our experience with these issues and describe the modus vivendi that has evolved during prolonged high current, high power beam and laser operation.

  1. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense (United States)

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael


    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  2. High-power laser source evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.



  3. LEO to GEO (and Beyond) Transfers Using High Power Solar Electric Propulsion (HP-SEP) (United States)

    Loghry, Christopher S.; Oleson, Steven R.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Martini, Michael C.; Smith, David A.; Fittje, James E.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Aimee; hide


    Rideshare, or Multi-Payload launch configurations, are becoming more and more commonplace but access to space is only one part of the overall mission needs. The ability for payloads to achieve their target orbits or destinations can still be difficult and potentially not feasible with on-board propulsion limitations. The High Power Solar Electric Propulsion (HP-SEP) Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) provides transfer capabilities for both large and small payload in excess of what is possible with chemical propulsion. Leveraging existing secondary payload adapter technology like the ESPA provides a platform to support Multi-Payload launch and missions. When coupled with HP-SEP, meaning greater than 30 kW system power, very large delta-V maneuvers can be accomplished. The HP-SEP OMV concept is designed to perform a Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Orbit (LEO-GEO) transfer of up to six payloads each with 300kg mass. The OMV has enough capability to perform this 6 kms maneuver and have residual capacity to extend an additional transfer from GEO to Lunar orbit. This high deltaV capability is achieved using state of the art 12.5kW Hall Effect Thrusters (HET) coupled with high power roll up solar arrays. The HP-SEP OMV also provides a demonstration platform for other SEP technologies such as advanced Power Processing Units (PPU), Xenon Feed Systems (XFS), and other HET technologies. The HP-SEP OMV platform can be leveraged for other missions as well such as interplanetary science missions and applications for resilient space architectures.

  4. High-Power Triggered Gas Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giri, David


    .... There are several reasons to build triggered versions of the basic high-voltage spark gap. They include synchronization with an external event, timed-array antenna for steering directed energy systems etc...

  5. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser (United States)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute


    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  6. Compact High Power Fiber Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is the development of a portable and efficient pulsed laser system for LIDAR and ranging applications, which make use of the latest...

  7. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose that high-power electron beam from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron beam coming out of the undulator can still be used for the intended industrial applications. This will enhance the utilization of a high-power industrial ...

  8. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  9. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove


    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  10. 3-D Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad


    The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of 3-D printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the 3-D printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.

  11. High-power converters for space applications (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy


    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  12. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael


    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  13. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G


    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  14. The Research Progress of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems (United States)

    Zhan, Jiayin; Ting, Xizi Liang; Zhu, Junjie


    Targeted drug delivery system (DDS) means to selectively transport drugs to targeted tissues, organs, and cells through a variety of drugs carrier. It is usually designed to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and to overcome problems such as limited solubility, drug aggregation, poor bio distribution and lack of selectivity, controlling drug release carrier and to reduce normal tissue damage. With the characteristics of nontoxic and biodegradable, it can increase the retention of drug in lesion site and the permeability, improve the concentration of the drug in lesion site. at present, there are some kinds of DDS using at test phase, such as slow controlled release drug delivery system, targeted drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery system, adhesion dosing system and so on. This paper makes a review for DDS.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available For the next generation, conventional weapon will touch the best performance limits and will became more and more what in what more an important part plans of improvement systems of weapon to the future. Physical laws that govern electromagnetic propulsion of guns, enabling them higher speeds than those of conventional arms projectiles. This is substantially benefit electromagnetic weapons - using electricity as energy for an lectromagnetic weapons.

  16. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre


    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  17. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus


    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  18. Rapid prototyping with high power fiber lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, R.M. [Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University Lisbon (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lopes, G. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Quintino, L. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail:; Rodrigues, J.P. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, TULISBON, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Williams, S. [Welding Engineering Research Centre, Building 46, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)


    Laser rapid prototyping technologies comprise a set of technologies used in a wide range of materials to produce prototypes or small batches of complex shaped components. This paper presents a research work on rapid prototyping technology with laser additive manufacture of wire based alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an 8 kW fiber laser for the production of components with cylindrical geometry. For this, an engineering system was developed, a demonstration part produced and the deposition process was characterized. Two processing parameters were investigated: and these were the relative position between the wire feeding system and the substrate and the laser beam to wire width ratio. The former affects the molten metal transfer mode and the pressure exerted by the wire tip on the molten pool, while the laser beam to wire width ratio affects the process efficiency, since this is a compromise of process stability and process speed. Both parameters control surface finishing and the smoothness of the part. The melting efficiency of the process is low when compared to alternative processes involving powder pre deposition, but the density of the part is improved with homogeneous structural characteristics.

  19. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)


    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  20. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.


    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  1. Targeted Drug Delivery System for Platinum-based Anticancer Drugs. (United States)

    Gao, Chuanzhu; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji; Wang, Tianshuai; Qian, Yunxu; Yang, Bo; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Yingjie


    Platinum-based (Pt-based) anticancer drugs have been recognised as one of the most effective drugs for clinical treatment of malignant tumors due to its unique mechanism of action and broad range of anticancer spectrum. But, there are still some limitations such as side effects, drug resistance/cross resistance, no-specific targeting, becoming obstacles to restrict its expanding of clinical application. Targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) is a promising strategy for the research of novel Pt-based anticancer drugs. A variety of TDDS have been explored to improve the antitumor activity of Pt-based drugs such as nanoparticle drug systems, polymer-drug systems, drugs-macrocyclic compounds systems, etc. The review concentrates on recent development of various targeted drug delivery techniques, which could provide more opportunities for the development of Pt-based drugs with better efficiency, lower toxicity and less resistance.

  2. [Research and application of microcontroller system for target controlled infusion]. (United States)

    Cheng, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong; Zhang, Xingan; Wang, Ruosong


    This paper presents a microcontroller system for target controlled infusion according to pharmacodynamic parameters of intravenous anesthetics. It can control the depth of anesthesia by adjusting the level of plasma concentrations. The system has the advantages of high precision, extending power and easy manipulation. It has been used in the clinical anesthesia.

  3. System for manipulating and optically targeting micro objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system 100 for independently holding and manipulating one or more microscopic objects 158 and for targeting at least a part of the one or more microscopic objects within a trapping volume 102 with electromagnetic radiation 138. The system comprises trapping means...... for holding and manipulating the one or more microscopic objects and electromagnetic radiation targeting means (116). The light means comprising a light source and a spatial light modulator which serve to modify the light from the light source so as to enable specific illumination of at least a part...... of the one or more microscopic objects. The trapping means and the electromagnetic radiation targeting means (116) are enabled to function independently of each other, so that the trapped objects may be moved around without taking being dependent on which parts are being targeted and vice versa....

  4. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin


    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  5. Particulate Systems for Targeting of Macrophages: Basic and Therapeutic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud


    Particulate systems in the form of liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric nano- and microparticles, and many others offer a rational approach for selective delivery of therapeutic agents to the macrophage from different physiological portals of entry. Particulate targeting of macrophages and in...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  6. The Study on the Reliability of High Power LED Streetlights (United States)

    Dong-Ge, Yao; Jian-Xin, Chen


    This paper was about a reliable research on high-power LED lighting. Based on the samples of the self-developed high-power LED streetlights, an electrical stress ageing test was carried out and thermocouple method was used in the temperature test. The ageing test showed that the initial flux reduction was mainly due to the absorption of the light lamp or the block by some parts of the lighting. And the late light decling was mainly caused by the decay of the high-power LED light source itself. Some suggestions on improving the design of streetlights will be given according to my research.

  7. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark


    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At EU level, the funds transfer systems have undergone significant changes starting with the introduction of euro. The launch of the euro, the emergence of new technologies, introduction of financial innovations and the globalization have led to reorganization of funds transfer systems` infrastructure. The paper aims to offer an analysis of actual payment system for Euro area, a trans-European funds transfer system with gross settlement in real-time for payments in euro TARGET- to increase economical and operational efficiency of payments and also to reduce the risks in the electronic funds transfer system by creating efficient and secure payment systems.

  9. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, K.F.


    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given.

  10. Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth green external-cavity GaN diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system.......A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system....

  11. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  12. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency...

  13. Present and Future Trends in High Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijster, R.M.E.M. van; Schouten, J.M.


    Modern warfare requires high levels of microwave power for various applications. Semiconductors are only suitable for low and medium power levels, for high power generation microwave tubes are still the most effective solution.

  14. High-Power Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions (United States)

    Manzella, David; Hack, Kurt


    NASA has sought to utilize high-power solar electric propulsion as means of improving the affordability of in-space transportation for almost 50 years. Early efforts focused on 25 to 50 kilowatt systems that could be used with the Space Shuttle, while later efforts focused on systems nearly an order of magnitude higher power that could be used with heavy lift launch vehicles. These efforts never left the concept development phase in part because the technology required was not sufficiently mature. Since 2012 the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has had a coordinated plan to mature the requisite solar array and electric propulsion technology needed to implement a 30 to 50 kilowatt solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. Multiple solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission concepts have been developed based on these maturing technologies with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission. If implemented, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle will form the basis for a capability that can be cost-effectively evolved over time to provide solar electric propulsion transportation for a range of follow-on mission applications at power levels in excess of 100 kilowatts.

  15. Plasma characteristics of a high power helicon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, T; Euripides, P; Slough, J; Winglee, R; Giersch, L; Carscadden, J; Schnackenberg, T; Isley, S [Box 351310, University of Washington, Seattle WA, 98195 (United States)


    A new high power helicon (HPH) plasma system has been designed to provide input powers of several tens of kilowatts to produce a large area (0.5 m{sup 2}) of uniform high-density, of at least 5 x 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, plasma downstream from the helicon coil. Axial and radial plasma characteristics show that the plasma is to a lesser extent created in and near the helicon coil and then is accelerated into the axial and equatorial regions. The bulk acceleration of the plasma is believed to be due to a coupling of the bulk of the electrons to the helicon field, which in turn transfers energy to the ions via ambipolar diffusion. The plasma beta is near unity a few centimetres away from the HPH system and Bdot measurements show {delta}B perturbations in the order of the vacuum magnetic field magnitude. In the equatorial region, a magnetic separatrix is seen to develop roughly at the mid-point between the helicon and chamber wall. The magnetic perturbation develops on the time scale of the plasma flow speed and upon the plasma reaching the chamber wall decays to the vacuum magnetic field configuration within 200 {mu}s.

  16. Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling in high power fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.


    Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W.......Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W....

  17. Oral Nano-Delivery Systems for Colon Targeting Therapy. (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxu; Zhu, Guanyin; Lu, Boyao; Peng, Qiang


    Targeting drug delivery is an attractive research area, as it enables localized treatment, improves the efficacy of therapeutics and reduces systemic toxicity. Colon targeting delivery is particularly beneficial to the treatment of colon diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer, due to the improved local drug concentrations. The traditional strategies for colon targeting delivery include time-dependent and pH-dependent technologies, etc. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a novel and efficient tool for targeting drug delivery. After oral administration, nano-based formulations are able to protect drug from the harsh gastrointestinal environment and selectively increase the drug concentration at the disease site. Various orally administered drug-loaded nano-systems for colon targeting delivery have been well documented and shown great potentials in colon disease therapy. In this work, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the recent progress in the area of colon targeting delivery in combination with introduction of the pathophysiological changes of diseased colon sites and the obstacles for drug delivery. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  18. Target plane imaging system for the Nova laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, C.D.; Bliss, E.S.; Jones, W.A.; Reeves, R.J.; Seppala, L.G.; Shelton, R.T.; VanArsdall, P.J.


    The Nova laser, in operation since December 1984, is capable of irradiating targets with light at 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 Correct alignment of these harmonic beams uses a system called a target plane imager (TPI). It is a large microscope (four meters long, weighing one thousand kilograms) that relays images from the target chamber center to a video optics module located on the outside of the chamber. Several modes of operation are possible including: near-field viewing and far-field viewing at three magnifications and three wavelengths. In addition, the entire instrument can be scanned in X,Y,Z to examine various planes near chamber center. Performance of this system and its computer controls will be described.

  19. High-Power Fiber Lasers Using Photonic Band Gap Materials (United States)

    DiDomenico, Leo; Dowling, Jonathan


    High-power fiber lasers (HPFLs) would be made from photonic band gap (PBG) materials, according to the proposal. Such lasers would be scalable in the sense that a large number of fiber lasers could be arranged in an array or bundle and then operated in phase-locked condition to generate a superposition and highly directed high-power laser beam. It has been estimated that an average power level as high as 1,000 W per fiber could be achieved in such an array. Examples of potential applications for the proposed single-fiber lasers include welding and laser surgery. Additionally, the bundled fibers have applications in beaming power through free space for autonomous vehicles, laser weapons, free-space communications, and inducing photochemical reactions in large-scale industrial processes. The proposal has been inspired in part by recent improvements in the capabilities of single-mode fiber amplifiers and lasers to produce continuous high-power radiation. In particular, it has been found that the average output power of a single strand of a fiber laser can be increased by suitably changing the doping profile of active ions in its gain medium to optimize the spatial overlap of the electromagnetic field with the distribution of active ions. Such optimization minimizes pump power losses and increases the gain in the fiber laser system. The proposal would expand the basic concept of this type of optimization to incorporate exploitation of the properties (including, in some cases, nonlinearities) of PBG materials to obtain power levels and efficiencies higher than are now possible. Another element of the proposal is to enable pumping by concentrated sunlight. Somewhat more specifically, the proposal calls for exploitation of the properties of PBG materials to overcome a number of stubborn adverse phenomena that have impeded prior efforts to perfect HPFLs. The most relevant of those phenomena is amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which causes saturation of gain and power

  20. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry


    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  1. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications: comment. (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Weyrauch, Thomas


    Sprangle et al. [Appl. Opt.54, F201 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.00F201] recently concluded that our experiments on coherent combining of laser beams over an atmospheric path [Opt. Lett.36, 4455 (2011)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.36.004455] were "effective only because at these low-power levels the linewidth of the lasers was very narrow… and the level of atmospheric turbulence was low…." These conclusions are inaccurate, not relevant to practical high-power coherently combined laser systems, and contradict our most recent experiments with coherent combining of 21 laser beams with a linewidth of about 1 GHz over 7 km distance. In this comment we also challenge the major conclusion of Sprangle et al. [Appl. Opt.54, F201 (2015)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.54.00F201] and the more recently published paper by Nelson et al. [Appl. Opt.55, 1757 (2016)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.55.001757] regarding inefficiency of coherent beam combining under typical atmospheric conditions.

  2. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James


    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  3. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  4. Thermo-hydraulic analysis of the windowless target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Fosco [ENEA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:; Ferri, Roberta [SIET, Via Nino Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Moreau, Vincent [CRS4, Polaris Edificio 1 CP25, 09010 Pula (Canada) (Italy)


    The target system, whose function is to supply an external neutron source to a subcritical core in order to sustain the neutron chain reaction, is the most critical part of an ADS being subject to severe thermo-mechanical loading and material damage due to accelerator protons and fission neutrons. In order to reduce the material damage and to increase the life of the target system a windowless option was chosen in the framework of the European PDS-XADS project as reference configuration for the experimental ADS cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic alloy. This document deals with the results of the thermo-hydraulic analysis performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes to assess the behaviour of the windowless target system during off-normal operating conditions. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes for studying this kind of plant. The windowless target system shows a satisfactory thermo-hydraulic behaviour for the analysed accidents, except for the loss of both pumps without proton beam shut-off and for the beam trips lasting more than 1 s.

  5. Targeting the orexinergic system: Mainly but not only for sleep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin receptors belong to the big family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that constitute the main targets in the modern pharmacological approaches. Although the orexinergic system is involved in a variety of processes, treating sleep-wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy and insomnia, remains the main ...

  6. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Marta; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Bruce, Ian N


    on May 8, 2012 to discuss whether a treat-to-target approach could be applied in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (T2T/SLE), define a research agenda, and establish a plan for moving forward. In the present paper, observations raised at the meeting and literature data on potential...

  7. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system


    Isao Oishi; Kyoko Yoshii; Daichi Miyahara; Hiroshi Kagami; Takahiro Tagami


    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, ...

  8. Colon targeted drug delivery system: A review on current approaches


    Altamash M. Qureshi*; Munira Momin; Sudha Rathod; Asish Dev; Chaitrali Kute


    The colon is the terminal part of the GIT which has gained as a potential site for delivery of various novel therapeutic drugs i.e. peptides. Colon targeted drug delivery system (CDDS) is an Promising tool for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, crohn’s disease, colon cancer, amobebiasis by both systemic and topical delivery of dug. This article review a detailed study about disease of colon, diagnosis of diseases of colon, anatomy of colon, factors affecting ...

  9. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver


    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  10. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system windowless targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno ePanella


    Full Text Available The study of the fluid dynamics of the windowless spallation target of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS is presented. Several target mockup configurations have been investigated: the first one was a symmetrical target, that was made by two concentric cylinders, the other configurations are not symmetrical. In the experiments water has been used as hydraulic equivalent to lead-bismuth eutectic fluid. The experiments have been carried out at room temperature and flow rate up to 24 kg/s. The fluid velocity components have been measured by an ultrasound technique. The velocity field of the liquid within the target region either for the approximately axial-symmetrical configuration or for the not symmetrical ones as a function of the flow rate and the initial liquid level is presented. A comparison of experimental data with the prediction of the finite volume FLUENT code is also presented. Moreover the results of a 2D-3D numerical analysis that investigates the effect on the steady state thermal and flow fields due to the insertion of guide vanes in the windowless target unit of the EFIT project ADS nuclear reactor are presented, by analysing both the cold flow case (absence of power generation and the hot flow case (nominal power generation inside the target unit.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting β-globin and CCR5 genes have substantial off-target activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Antico, Christopher J; Bao, Gang


    .... Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting the human hemoglobin β and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 genes have substantial off-target cleavage, especially within the hemoglobin δ...

  12. High power laser-mechanical drilling bit and methods of use (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Allen, Erik C.; Underwood, Lance D.; Zediker, Mark S.


    An apparatus with a high power laser-mechanical bit for use with a laser drilling system and a method for advancing a borehole. The laser-mechanical bit has a beam path and mechanical removal devices that provide for the removal of laser-affected rock to advance a borehole.

  13. Recent Results in High Power CO2-Laser Cutting for Shipbuilding Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov


    In 1997 a high power laser cutting and welding test facility was established at the Danish shipyard Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). Research and development projects were initiated in order to establish the basis for applying the full power of the laser for laser-cutting, by developing mirror based...... cutting systems. In this paper the results of these projects will be presented....

  14. Progress in brain targeting drug delivery system by nasal route. (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rauf; Liu, Mengrui; Khan, Muhammad Wasim; Zhai, Guangxi


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the transport of potential therapeutic moieties to the brain. Direct targeting the brain via olfactory and trigeminal neural pathways by passing the BBB has gained an important consideration for delivery of wide range of therapeutics to brain. Intranasal route of transportation directly delivers the drugs to brain without systemic absorption, thus avoiding the side effects and enhancing the efficacy of neurotherapeutics. Over the last several decades, different drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been studied for targeting the brain by the nasal route. Novel DDSs such as nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes and polymeric micelles have gained potential as useful tools for targeting the brain without toxicity in nasal mucosa and central nervous system (CNS). Complex geometry of the nasal cavity presented a big challenge to effective delivery of drugs beyond the nasal valve. Recently, pharmaceutical firms utilized latest and emerging nasal drug delivery technologies to overcome these barriers. This review aims to describe the latest development of brain targeted DDSs via nasal administration. Carbopol 934p (PubChem CID: 6581) Carboxy methylcellulose (PubChem CID: 24748) Penetratin (PubChem CID: 101111470) Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PubChem CID: 23111554) Tween 80 (PubChem CID: 5284448). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Erection of the 380 kW high power cable system in Berlin for the interconnection to BEWAG; Errichtung des 380-kV-Hochleistungskabelsystems in Berlin fuer den Verbundanschluss der Bewag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenisch, L. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag) AG, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Kabeltechnik; Hecklau, D. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag) AG, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Kabeltechnik; Schroth, R. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftssegment HS-Kabelanlagen im Kabelwerk


    After long drawn out investigations and tests, the Berlin Senate took a decision at the beginning of 1991, to have the part of the approximately 170 km long interconnection between the West European UCPTE network and the existing 380 kV network of BEWAG lying in the Berlin city area made as an underground cable system. During a construction period of about three years, from Autumn 1991 onwards, an approx. 7.6 km long double cable system, between a newly erected switching station SA Teufelsbruch at the north-western edge of the city and the existing 380/110 kV transformer substation UW Reuter, was erected and set to work in December 1994. The authors describe the concepts and their realisation in the construction of the cable route, in the laying of cooling pipes and in the laying and mounting of cables. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anfang 1991 hatte der Senat von Berlin nach langwierigen Untersuchungen und Pruefungen eine Entscheidung bewirkt, das auf Berliner Stadtgebiet liegende Teilstueck des rd. 170 km langen Verbundanschlusses zwischen dem westeuropaeischen UCPTE-Netz und dem bestehenden 380-kV-Netz der Bewag vorwiegend als unterirdisches Kabelsystem ausfuehren zu lassen. In etwa dreijaehriger Bauzeit wurde dafuer ab Herbst 1991 zwischen einer am nordwestlichen Stadtrand neu errichteten Schaltanlage SA Teufelsbruch und dem vorhandenen 380/110-kV-Umspannwerk UW Reuter ein rd. 7,6 km langes Kabeldoppelsystem errichtet und im Dezember 1994 in Betrieb genommen. Die Verfasser beschreiben die Konzepte und deren Realisierung beim Bau der Trasse, bei der Kuehlrohrlegung sowie bei der Kabellegung und -montage. (orig.)

  16. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin


    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  17. Analysis of an XADS Target with the System Code TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Reactor Safety, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Feng, Bo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NW12-219, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) present an option to reduce the radioactive waste of the nuclear industry. The experimental Accelerator-Driven System (XADS) has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using ADS on an industrial scale to burn minor actinides. The target section lies in the middle of the subcritical core and is bombarded by a proton beam to produce spallation neutrons. The thermal energy produced from this reaction requires a heat removal system for the target section. The target is cooled by liquid lead-bismuth-eutectics (LBE) in the primary system which in turn transfers the heat via a heat exchanger (HX) to the secondary coolant, Diphyl THT (DTHT), a synthetic diathermic fluid. Since this design is still in development, a detailed investigation of the system is necessary to evaluate the behavior during normal and transient operations. Due to the lack of experimental facilities and data for ADS, the analyses are mostly done using thermal hydraulic codes. In addition to evaluating the thermal hydraulics of the XADS, this paper also benchmarks a new code developed by the NRC, TRACE, against other established codes. The events used in this study are beam power switch-on/off transients and a loss of heat sink accident. The obtained results from TRACE were in good agreement with the results of various other codes. (authors)

  18. Cooperative nanomaterial system to sensitize, target, and treat tumors (United States)

    Park, Ji-Ho; von Maltzahn, Geoffrey; Xu, Mary Jue; Fogal, Valentina; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.


    A significant barrier to the clinical translation of systemically administered therapeutic nanoparticles is their tendency to be removed from circulation by the mononuclear phagocyte system. The addition of a targeting ligand that selectively interacts with cancer cells can improve the therapeutic efficacy of nanomaterials, although these systems have met with only limited success. Here, we present a cooperative nanosystem consisting of two discrete nanomaterials. The first component is gold nanorod (NR) “activators” that populate the porous tumor vessels and act as photothermal antennas to specify tumor heating via remote near-infrared laser irradiation. We find that local tumor heating accelerates the recruitment of the second component: a targeted nanoparticle consisting of either magnetic nanoworms (NW) or doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (LP). The targeting species employed in this work is a cyclic nine-amino acid peptide LyP-1 (Cys-Gly-Asn-Lys-Arg-Thr-Arg-Gly-Cys) that binds to the stress-related protein, p32, which we find to be upregulated on the surface of tumor-associated cells upon thermal treatment. Mice containing xenografted MDA-MB-435 tumors that are treated with the combined NR/LyP-1LP therapeutic system display significant reductions in tumor volume compared with individual nanoparticles or untargeted cooperative system. PMID:20080556

  19. Treat-to-target in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Marta; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Bruce, Ian N


    Multiple clinical trials performed over twenty years in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have clearly demonstrated that patients have better outcomes if their disease activity at each time-point for follow-up includes a pre-specified target. A European SLE expert panel met in Zurich...... on May 8, 2012 to discuss whether a treat-to-target approach could be applied in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (T2T/SLE), define a research agenda, and establish a plan for moving forward. In the present paper, observations raised at the meeting and literature data on potential...... therapeutic targets are reported. The working group on T2T/SLE will continue work over the coming year....

  20. Anaesthesia synchronization software: target controlled infusion system evaluation. (United States)

    Bressan, Nadja; Paulo Moreira, A; Amorim, Pedro; Nunes, Catarina S


    Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) systems are based in drug Pharmacokinetic (Pk) and Pharmacodynamic (Pd) models implemented in an algorithm to drive an infusion device. Several studies had compare manual titration of anesthesia and TCI system use; some studies evaluate the performance of the control algorithms for TCI systems, and a considerable number of studies assess the performance of Pk/Pd models implemented into TCI systems. This study presents a set of tests to validate the performance of a TCI system as a computer-aided. The goal of the current study was to assess the performance of the TCI system, Anaesthesia Synchronization Software (ASYS), on clinical set up to evaluate communication consistence (computer - infusion device) and controller performance in real time. These measures provided quantitative and qualitative evidences of software robustness and accuracy to be used at clinical environment.

  1. Design and Validation of the APT Target/Blanket System (United States)

    Waters, L. S.


    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project is now under development as part of DOE's dual track strategy for the replenishment of the nation's tritium supply. APT produces tritium through the He^3(n,p)t reaction, with neutrons generated in a tungsten spallation target and moderated in a surrounding lead blanket filled with He^3 gas tubes. A 100 mA, 1.7 GeV linac provides source protons for the target, and a separate tritium extraction facility continually processes the helium gas stream. Within APT, the Target/Blanket and Materials Engineering Development and Demonstration Project has primary responsibility for validating the neutronics performance of the Target/Blanket system, and for addressing materials issues for all of APT. The APT target design and T/B & Materials ED&D activities will be briefly reviewed, with special emphasis placed on activities leading to the development and validation of radiation transport codes and nuclear data used in the APT design. These include the evolution of the MCNPX simulation code, as well as theoretical work and cross section measurements now underway to support high energy nuclear data library evaluations. Large scale benchmarking measurements completed or planned at LANSCE, the Brookhaven AGS, and Saturne will also be discussed.

  2. Plasma"anti-assistance" and"self-assistance" to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.


    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contra-productive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  3. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing (United States)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas


    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  4. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices (United States)

    Haag, T. W.


    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  5. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian


    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  6. Flyer acceleration experiments using high-power laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadono T.


    Full Text Available Flyer acceleration technique using high-power lasers has several advantages such as the achieved velocities higher than 10 km/s and non-contamination to the products generated by impacts. In this study, we show that a high-power laser can achieve flyer velocities higher than 10 km/s up to 60 km/s using spherical projectiles with a diameter of 0.1 − 0.3mm. We discuss the projectile condition during the flight based on the results of numerical simulations.

  7. High Resolution Software Defined Radar System for Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo


    Full Text Available The Universal Software Radio Peripheral USRP NI2920, a software defined transceiver so far mainly used in Software Defined Radio applications, is adopted in this work to design a high resolution L-Band Software Defined Radar system. The enhanced available bandwidth, due to the Gigabit Ethernet interface, is exploited to obtain a higher slant-range resolution with respect to the existing Software Defined Radar implementations. A specific LabVIEW application, performing radar operations, is discussed, and successful validations are presented to demonstrate the accurate target detection capability of the proposed software radar architecture. In particular, outdoor and indoor test are performed by adopting a metal plate as reference structure located at different distances from the designed radar system, and results obtained from the measured echo are successfully processed to accurately reveal the correct target position, with the predicted slant-range resolution equal to 6 m.

  8. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL


    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  9. The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Cairns


    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease which produces progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss. Intraocular pressure (IOP is currently the only modifiable risk factor, and lowering IOP results in reduced risk of progression of the disorder. The endocannabinoid system (ECS has attracted considerable attention as a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma, largely due to the observed IOP lowering effects seen after administration of exogenous cannabinoids. However, recent evidence has suggested that modulation of the ECS may also be neuroprotective. This paper will review the use of cannabinoids in glaucoma, presenting pertinent information regarding the pathophysiology of glaucoma and how alterations in cannabinoid signalling may contribute to glaucoma pathology. Additionally, the mechanisms and potential for the use of cannabinoids and other novel agents that target the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of glaucoma will be discussed.

  10. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai


    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  11. Overview of target systems for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Tony A.; Barnes, John M.; Charlton, Lowell A. [and others; DiStefano, James; Farrell, Ken; Haines, John; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mansur, Louis K.; Pawel, Steve J.; Siman-Tov, Moshe; Taleyarkhan, Rusi; Wendel, Mark W.; McManamy, Thomas J.; Rennich, Mark J.


    The purpose and requirements of target systems as well as the technologies that are being utilized to design and build a state-of-the-art neutron spallation source, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), are discussed. Emphasis is given to the technology issues that present the greatest scientific challenges. The present facility configuration, ongoing analysis, and the planned hardware research and development program are also described.

  12. Targeting the immune system to treat hypertension: where are we? (United States)

    Gooch, Jennifer L; Sharma, Avadhesh C


    Research over the past decade has significantly deepened our understanding of mechanisms that drive the development of hypertension. In particular, a novel paradigm of inflammation as a common mediator of cardiovascular and kidney disease has emerged. This review will summarize the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease, explore some of the most promising new therapeutic directions and consider their potential as new treatments for hypertension. Recent data continue to demonstrate that targeting the immune system can prevent hypertension in a variety of experimental models. Tempering the enthusiasm for a long-awaited new approach to treating hypertension is decades of clinical data, showing that classic immunosuppression regimens are associated with significant side-effects - including cardiovascular disease - that effectively preclude their use in the setting of chronic hypertension. New, more specific therapies are being developed that target cytokines including IL-17, IL-6 and TNFα. Preclinical data convincingly demonstrate a key role for the immune system and specific cytokine mediators. Several biotherapeutics targeting these pathways are on the market and more are in development. Side-effects, however, continue to resemble those of classic immunosuppressants, highlighting the challenge of translating these research advances into new therapies for hypertension.

  13. The UK High Power RF Faraday Partnership Industrial, Academia, and Public Collaboration (United States)

    Phelps, A. D. R.; Carter, R. G.; Clunie, D.; Bowater, S. P.; Ellis, D.; Gamble, D.; Large, T.; Lucas, W.; Pettit, C.; Poole, M. W.; Smith, H.; Smith, P. W.; Wilcox, D. M.


    The High Power Radio Frequency (HPRF) Faraday Partnership is a UK technology forum for all users, designers, developers and researchers of RF and microwave devices and systems. High power RF and microwave engineering are key enabling technologies in a wide range of industrial sectors. Formed in October 2001 and funded initially by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the purpose of the HPRF Faraday Partnership is the development of a vibrant research, development and manufacturing base capable of exploiting opportunities in high power radio-frequency engineering. The partnership includes the key UK industrial companies, research laboratories and university research groups. The number of partners is constantly growing and already numbers over thirty. The partnership provides the enabling technology for future high power RF systems and their power supplies through its research programme. It is training people for the sector through PhD studentships and employment as Research Associates. It is planned to develop a Masters Training program. Support and involvement in research for companies in the supply chain is provided through a Partnership Office, a web site and through a range of government funded research schemes. The HPRF Faraday Partnership is seeking to establish more long term international research and development collaborations.

  14. High-power IR laser in SMT package (United States)

    Pritsch, Benedikt; Behringer, Martin; Arzberger, Markus; Wiesner, Christoph; Fehse, Robin; Heerlein, Jörg; Maric, Josip; Giziewicz, Wojciech


    Laser dies in an optical power range of 1-3 Watts are widely assembled in popular TO- packages. TO-packages suffer from high thermal resistance and limited output power. Bad thermal contact between circuit boards and TO-devices can cause overheating of laser chips, significantly reducing the operating life time. We developed a compact high heat-load SMT package for an optical power up to 7 Watts in CW operation with good life time results. The new package for high power laser chips combines highly efficient heat dissipation with Surface-mount technology. A Direct-Bonded-Copper (DBC) substrate acts as a base plate for the laser chip and heat sink. The attached frame is used for electrical contacting and acts as beam reflector where the laser light is reflected at a 45° mirror. In the application the DBC base plate of the SMT-Laser is directly soldered to a Metal-Core-PCB by reflow soldering. The overall thermal resistance from laser chip to the bottom of a MC-PCB was measured as low as 2.5 K/W. The device placement process can be operated by modern high-speed mounting equipment. The direct link between device and MC-PCB allows CW laser operation up to 6-7 watts at wavelengths of 808nm to 940nm without facing any overheating symptom like thermal roll over. The device is suitable for CW and QCW operation. In pulsed operation short rise and fall times of <2ns have been demonstrated. New application fields like infrared illumination for sensing purposes in the automotive industry and 3D imaging systems could be opened by this new technology.

  15. Mechanical beam isolator for high-power laser systems (United States)

    Post, Richard F.; Vann, Charles S.


    A mechanical beam isolator uses rod-shaped elements having a Gaussian configuration to interrupt the path of a beam of photons or particles when the time-scale of the needed interruption is of the order of a microsecond or less. One or more of these rods is mounted transversely to, and penetrates through, a rotating shaft supported by bearings. Owing to the Gaussian geometry of the rods, they are able to withstand much higher rotation speeds, without tensile failure, than rods having any other geometrical shape.

  16. Detection of Perfectly-Conducting Targets with Airborne Electromagnetic Systems (United States)

    Smiarowski, Adam

    A significant problem with exploring for electrically conductive mineral deposits with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods is that many of the most valuable sulphide deposits are too conductive to be detected with conventional systems. High-grade sulphide deposits with bulk electrical conductivities on the order of 100,000 S/m can appear as "perfect conductors" to most EM systems because the decay of secondary fields (the "time constant" of the deposit) generated in the target by the system transmitter takes much longer than the short measuring time of EM systems. Their EM response is essentially undetectable with off-time measurements. One solution is to make measurements during the transmitter on-time when the secondary field of the target produced by magnetic flux exclusion is large. The difficulty is that the secondary field must be measured in the presence of a primary field which is orders of magnitude larger. The goal of this thesis is to advance the methodology of making AEM measurements during transmitter on-time by analysing experimental data from three different AEM systems. The first system analysed is a very large separation, two helicopter system where geometry is measured using GPS sensors. In order to calculate the primary field at the receiver with sufficient accuracy, the very large (nominally 400 m) separation requires geometry to be known to better than 1 m. Using the measured geometry to estimate and remove the primary field, I show that a very conductive target can be detected at depths of 200m using the total secondary field. I then used fluxgate magnetometers to correct for receiver rotation which allowed the component of the secondary field to be determined. The second system I examined was a large separation fixed-wing AEM system. Using a towed receiver bird with a smaller (≈ 135m) separation, the geometry must be known much more accurately. In the absence of direct measurement of this geometry, I used a least-squares prediction

  17. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.


    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  18. High Powered Rocketry: Design, Construction, and Launching Experience and Analysis (United States)

    Paulson, Pryce; Curtis, Jarret; Bartel, Evan; Cyr, Waycen Owens; Lamsal, Chiranjivi


    In this study, the nuts and bolts of designing and building a high powered rocket have been presented. A computer simulation program called RockSim was used to design the rocket. Simulation results are consistent with time variations of altitude, velocity, and acceleration obtained in the actual flight. The actual drag coefficient was determined…

  19. High Power Factor Hybrid Rectifier | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the analysis of a new single-phase hybrid rectifier with high power factor (PF) and low harmonic distortion current. The proposed rectifier structure is composed of an ordinary single-phase diode rectifier with parallel connection of a switched converter. It is outlined that the switched converter is capable of ...

  20. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Bratman, V. L.; Bongers, W. A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G. G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Poelman, A. J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A. V.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.


    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 mus.

  1. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JTM; Ocelík, Vašek; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T


    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  2. In-situ strain observation in high power laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Bosgra, J.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.


    The modern experimental technique - so called Digital Image Correlation - is applied during high power laser surface treatments for in-situ observation of displacements and strains near the processing area during and a short time after laser processing. An experimental setup has been designed and

  3. Possibilities of production of nanopowders with high power ELV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 4. Possibilities of production of nanopowders with high power ELV electron accelerator. Vladimir Ivanovich Lysenko Sergey Bardakhanov Alexey Korchagin Nikolay Kuksanov Alexander Lavrukhin Rustam Salimov Sergey Fadeev Vladislav Cherepkov Mikhail ...

  4. High Power Wind Generator Designs with Less or No PMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede


    synchronous generators, by doubly-fed (wound rotor) induction and cage induction generators and by introducing new topologies with pertinent costs for high power (MW range) wind energy conversion units. The present overview attempts, based on recent grid specifications, an evaluation of commercial and novel...

  5. A computational framework for modeling targets as complex adaptive systems (United States)

    Santos, Eugene; Santos, Eunice E.; Korah, John; Murugappan, Vairavan; Subramanian, Suresh


    Modeling large military targets is a challenge as they can be complex systems encompassing myriad combinations of human, technological, and social elements that interact, leading to complex behaviors. Moreover, such targets have multiple components and structures, extending across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and are in a state of change, either in response to events in the environment or changes within the system. Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory can help in capturing the dynamism, interactions, and more importantly various emergent behaviors, displayed by the targets. However, a key stumbling block is incorporating information from various intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) sources, while dealing with the inherent uncertainty, incompleteness and time criticality of real world information. To overcome these challenges, we present a probabilistic reasoning network based framework called complex adaptive Bayesian Knowledge Base (caBKB). caBKB is a rigorous, overarching and axiomatic framework that models two key processes, namely information aggregation and information composition. While information aggregation deals with the union, merger and concatenation of information and takes into account issues such as source reliability and information inconsistencies, information composition focuses on combining information components where such components may have well defined operations. Since caBKBs can explicitly model the relationships between information pieces at various scales, it provides unique capabilities such as the ability to de-aggregate and de-compose information for detailed analysis. Using a scenario from the Network Centric Operations (NCO) domain, we will describe how our framework can be used for modeling targets with a focus on methodologies for quantifying NCO performance metrics.

  6. Progress on high-power 808nm VCSELs and applications (United States)

    Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Kovsh, Alexey; Ghosh, Chuni


    High power 808nm semiconductor lasers are widely used for pumping neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal to produce high-brightness lasing at 1064nm. In addition, there are growing interest to use such high power 808nm lasers in the field of automotive infra-red (IR) illumination and medical aesthetic treatment. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have emerged as a promising candidate and attracted increased interests for those applications, due to their combined advantages of high efficiency, low diverging circular beam, narrow emission spectrum with reduced temperature sensitivity, low-cost manufacturability, simpler coupling optics, and increased reliability, especially at high temperatures. They can emit very high power with very high power density as they can be conveniently configured into large two-dimensional arrays and modules of arrays. We report recent development on such high-power, high-efficiency 808nm VCSELs with industrial leading 55% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Top emitting VCSELs were grown by MOCVD and processed into single devices and 2D arrays using selective wet oxidation process and substrate removal technique for efficient current confinement and heat removal. Peak PCE of 51% and peak power of 800W were achieved from 5x5mm array, corresponding to peak power density of 4kW/cm2. Pumped with new generation of 2.3kW VCSEL module, Q-switched laser pulse energy at 1064nm reached 46.9mJ, more than doubled from previously reported results.

  7. A moving target detecting and tracking system based on DSP (United States)

    Cai, Daonan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua


    In order to solve the target fast tracking problem in embedded system, a moving target detecting and tracking algorithm based on a combination of three-frame difference and template matching is proposed. The system utilizes DSP to design a set of image processing equipment and DSP uses TI company's DM6437.Three-frame difference can detect a initial position of the target, then Mean Normalized Product Correlation(NNPROD) template matching algorithm was utilized in a partial area to achieve a precise position and reduce the amount of calculation. The algorithm utilized four templates and image compression to fit pose and scale changes when moving. To meet the real-time requirement, an improved algorithm of NNPROD was proposed under certain lighting conditions, what ' s more the C language code was optimized and TI company's highly optimized VLIB vision library was reasonably utilized. After several tests, the results showed that NNPROD can fit the changing of environmental light well, but more time was needed. The improved method can still work well with the changes of pose and scale when the light changes less intensely , and the processing speed of the improved method increased from the previous 11F / s to 23F / s.

  8. The modeling of thermal fields in high power multi-disk cryogenic laser amplifier (United States)

    Petrov, V. A.; Kuptsov, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Laptev, A. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.


    In this paper we focus on the second unit of multipass amplification of the cryogenic diode-pumped high power laser system operating at 1 kHz repetition rate. Thermal fields in the cooling system of the amplifier were calculated and compared with experimental data. Numerical algorithm based on 3+1D heat transfer equation is proposed. The results of modeling are discussed and analyzed.

  9. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas W


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  10. Role of the immune system in hypertensive target organ damage. (United States)

    Kvakan, Heda; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N


    Recent advances in our understanding of cardiovascular diseases clearly show that inflammation and activation of immunity are central features in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, ischemic myocardial injury, and also in hypertension-induced target organ damage. However, the idea that special immune cells could regulate immune responses in these conditions in favor of minimizing disease is a novel concept. Regulatory T cells have unique immune modulatory properties that offer an attractive alternative to common immunosuppressant drugs. Their application in animal models of autoimmunity and neoplastic conditions offers exciting therapeutic avenues. Thus, with the use of regulatory T cells in hypertension-induced target organ damage enables new insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms and widen our knowledge of the role of the immune system in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this review was to summarize and discuss some of the most recent insights and put them into a perspective based on well-known interactions between immunity and hypertensive damage.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillat, Cristina, E-mail:; Jose, Anabel; Ros, Xavier Bofill-De; Mato-Berciano, Ana; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Sobrevals, Luciano [Programa Gens i Malaltia, Centre de Regulació Genòmica-CRG, UPF, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona-PRBB and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Barcelona (Spain)


    The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  12. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas Walter


    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  13. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary FY 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Douglas Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  14. Why Targeted Therapies are Necessary for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Petri, Michelle


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) continues to have important morbidity and accelerated mortality despite therapeutic advances. Targeted therapies offer the possibility of improved efficacy with fewer side-effects. Current management strategies rely heavily on non-specific immunosuppressive agents. Prednisone, in particular, is responsible for a considerable burden of later organ damage. There are a multitude of diverse mechanisms of disease activity, immunogenic abnormalities and clinical manifestations to take into consideration in SLE. Many targeted agents with robust mechanistic pre-clinical data and promising early phase studies have ultimately been disappointing in phase III randomized controlled studies. Recent efforts have focused on B cell therapies, in particular given the success of belimumab in clinical trials, with limited success. We remain optimistic regarding other specific therapies being evaluated including interferon alpha blockade. It is likely that in SLE, given the heterogeneity of the population involved, precision medicine is needed, rather than expecting that any single biologic will be universally effective. PMID:27497251

  15. High-power diode laser versus electrocautery surgery on human papillomavirus lesion treatment. (United States)

    Baeder, Fernando Martins; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti R; Pelino, Jose Eduardo Pelizon; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Genovese, Walter Joao


    The use of high-power lasers has facilitated and improved human papillomavirus (HPV) treatment protocols and has also become very popular in recent years. This application has been more frequently used in hospitals, especially in gynecology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of high-power diode laser to remove oral lesions caused by HPV and the consequent effects on virus load following the wound tissue healing process compared with one of the most conventional surgical techniques involving electrocautery. Surgeries were performed on 5 patients who had 2 distinct lesions caused by HPV. All patients were submitted to both electrocautery and high-power diode laser. Following a 20-day period, when the area was healed, sample material was collected through curettage for virus load quantitative analysis.Observation verified the presence of virus in all the samples; however, surgeries performed with the laser also revealed a significant reduction in virus load per cell compared with those performed with electrocautery. The ease when handling the diode laser, because of the flexibility of its fibers and precision of its energy delivery system, provides high-accuracy surgery, which facilitates the treatment of large and/or multifocal lesions. The use of high-power diode laser is more effective in treatment protocols of lesions caused by HPV.

  16. Pathogenic Inflammation and Its Therapeutic Targeting in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (United States)

    Gottschalk, Timothy A.; Tsantikos, Evelyn; Hibbs, Margaret L.


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is a highly complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disease that most often afflicts women in their child-bearing years. It is characterized by circulating self-reactive antibodies that deposit in tissues, including skin, kidneys, and brain, and the ensuing inflammatory response can lead to irreparable tissue damage. Over many years, clinical trials in SLE have focused on agents that control B- and T-lymphocyte activation, and, with the single exception of an agent known as belimumab which targets the B-cell survival factor BAFF, they have been disappointing. At present, standard therapy for SLE with mild disease is the agent hydroxychloroquine. During disease flares, steroids are often used, while the more severe manifestations with major organ involvement warrant potent, broad-spectrum immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate. Current treatments have severe and dose-limiting toxicities and thus a more specific therapy targeting a causative factor or signaling pathway would be greatly beneficial in SLE treatment. Moreover, the ability to control inflammation alongside B-cell activation may be a superior approach for disease control. There has been a recent focus on the innate immune system and associated inflammation, which has uncovered key players in driving the pathogenesis of SLE. Delineating some of these intricate inflammatory mechanisms has been possible with studies using spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice. These strains, to varying degrees, exhibit hallmarks of the human disease and therefore have been utilized to model human SLE and to test new drugs. Developing a better understanding of the initiation and perpetuation of disease in SLE may uncover suitable novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we discuss the involvement of inflammation in SLE disease pathogenesis, with a focus on several key proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid growth factors, and review the known


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL


    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  18. Observing Solar System Targets with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre


    With its anticipated launch date in October 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope will tremendously advance astronomy in the near- and mid-infrared, offering sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. We have developed a white paper that explores observations of Solar System targets with JWST, with the goals of highlighting anticipated Solar System capabilities, motivation of potential observers, and encouragement of further interest and discussion. This paper presents the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. It also illustrates example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System objects, including the giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Europa, Titan, and more. We are also collaborating with a set of focus groups that have expanded upon this work, producing a series of further white papers dealing with individual subdisciplines. This work has been supported by NASA Grant NAG5-12457.

  19. The new control system of the SPS target sector

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Mecredy, N; O'Leary, J


    The SPS, the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN, is an accelerator originally designed and commissioned in 1976 for protons. The control system of the SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices was developed in the seventies. It was mainly based on home made electronics and equipment dependent software. With time, this electronics has become obsolete, difficult to maintain in operation and not suitable for integration into a modern control system. In 1997, a project was set up to modernise the electronics and the related software. The new control system is largely based on standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers have been used as equipment controllers and connected through PROFIBUS to a Windows-NT front-end PC running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and remote access gateway. This fully industrial solution has been successfully integrated into the actual SPS accelerator control infrast...

  20. Development of a high-power blue laser (445  nm) for material processing. (United States)

    Wang, Hongze; Kawahito, Yosuke; Yoshida, Ryohei; Nakashima, Yuya; Shiokawa, Kunio


    A blue diode laser has a higher absorption rate than a traditional laser, while the maximum power is limited. We report the structure and laser beam profile of a 250 W high-power blue laser (445 nm) for material processing. The absorption rate of the blue laser system for the steel was 2.75 times that of a single-mode fiber laser system (1070 nm). The characteristics of the steel after laser irradiation were determined, validating the potential of this high-power blue laser for material processing, such as heat treatment and cladding. The cost of the developed laser system was lower than that of the existing one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first blue laser with a power as high as 250 W.

  1. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A


    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  2. Efficiency evaluation of proposed EAGLE target acquisition systems (United States)

    Taylor, William D.; Evans, Chris J.; Schnetler, Hermine


    Efficient assignment of science targets to the individual channels of a multi-object astronomical instrument, such as EAGLE for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), is crucial for maximising the utility of the instrument. This paper presents the results obtained by modelling the efficiencies of various pick-off system concepts: free standing Pick-Off Mirrors (POMs), POMs at the tip of moving arms, or a tiled focal plane. Consideration is also taken of the way in which the freestanding POMs are placed: by a pick and place robot, or a swarm of micro autonomous robots. Allocation algorithms were developed for each concept and applied to target fields which are representative of EAGLE's likely science cases. It is shown how the results of the modelling were used to generate a new system comparison criterion called Allocation Flexibility and how this influences the choice of the baseline solution. The allocation flexibility suggests that the best system will use free standing POMs with as small a footprint as possible, which reflect light to a raised beam steering mirror.

  3. Target-Tracking Camera for a Metrology System (United States)

    Liebe, Carl; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Abramovici, Alexander; Brown, David


    An analog electronic camera that is part of a metrology system measures the varying direction to a light-emitting diode that serves as a bright point target. In the original application for which the camera was developed, the metrological system is used to determine the varying relative positions of radiating elements of an airborne synthetic aperture-radar (SAR) antenna as the airplane flexes during flight; precise knowledge of the relative positions as a function of time is needed for processing SAR readings. It has been common metrology system practice to measure the varying direction to a bright target by use of an electronic camera of the charge-coupled-device or active-pixel-sensor type. A major disadvantage of this practice arises from the necessity of reading out and digitizing the outputs from a large number of pixels and processing the resulting digital values in a computer to determine the centroid of a target: Because of the time taken by the readout, digitization, and computation, the update rate is limited to tens of hertz. In contrast, the analog nature of the present camera makes it possible to achieve an update rate of hundreds of hertz, and no computer is needed to determine the centroid. The camera is based on a position-sensitive detector (PSD), which is a rectangular photodiode with output contacts at opposite ends. PSDs are usually used in triangulation for measuring small distances. PSDs are manufactured in both one- and two-dimensional versions. Because it is very difficult to calibrate two-dimensional PSDs accurately, the focal-plane sensors used in this camera are two orthogonally mounted one-dimensional PSDs.

  4. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms. (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang


    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  5. Targeting the Eph System with Peptides and Peptide Conjugates. (United States)

    Riedl, Stefan J; Pasquale, Elena B


    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands constitute an important cell communication system that controls development, tissue homeostasis and many pathological processes. Various Eph receptors/ephrins are present in essentially all cell types and their expression is often dysregulated by injury and disease. Thus, the 14 Eph receptors are attracting increasing attention as a major class of potential drug targets. In particular, agents that bind to the extracellular ephrin-binding pocket of these receptors show promise for medical applications. This pocket comprises a broad and shallow groove surrounded by several flexible loops, which makes peptides particularly suitable to target it with high affinity and selectivity. Accordingly, a number of peptides that bind to Eph receptors with micromolar affinity have been identified using phage display and other approaches. These peptides are generally antagonists that inhibit ephrin binding and Eph receptor/ ephrin signaling, but some are agonists mimicking ephrin-induced Eph receptor activation. Importantly, some of the peptides are exquisitely selective for single Eph receptors. Most identified peptides are linear, but recently the considerable advantages of cyclic scaffolds have been recognized, particularly in light of potential optimization towards drug leads. To date, peptide improvements have yielded derivatives with low nanomolar Eph receptor binding affinity, high resistance to plasma proteases and/or long in vivo half-life, exemplifying the merits of peptides for Eph receptor targeting. Besides their modulation of Eph receptor/ephrin function, peptides can also serve to deliver conjugated imaging and therapeutic agents or various types of nanoparticles to tumors and other diseased tissues presenting target Eph receptors.

  6. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario for the b......In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario...... for the blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  7. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushan Zhu


    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  8. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed


    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlating with both Hofstede’s and Hall’s cultural dimensions. It also reviews how website localisation may be accomplished more effectively by extracting the guidelines from two different yet compatible cultural dimensions: high power distance and high context.

  9. Iron loss in high-power arc steelmaking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Karasyov


    Full Text Available There is considered the power operating mode of a high-power arc steelmaking furnaces (ASMF in the period of the flat bath. It is revealed that electric energy is mainly spent for heating and overheating the foamed slag. Heat transferring from slag to metal is carried out by the convective agitation of the bath. For agitation there is used intensive purging of the bath with oxygen that causes increased iron losses with the running foamed slag. There are noted the negative points of working with the foamed slag. It is recommended to expand R&D in the field of optimizing the power operating mode of high-power ASMF.

  10. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers. (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H


    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  11. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    , 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation......This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  12. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Ronald J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  13. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  14. Thermal Response to High-Power Holmium Laser Lithotripsy. (United States)

    Aldoukhi, Ali H; Ghani, Khurshid R; Hall, Timothy L; Roberts, William W


    The aim of this study was to investigate "caliceal" fluid temperature changes during holmium laser activation/lithotripsy using settings up to 40 W power output with different irrigation flow rates. The experimental system consisted of a glass test tube (diameter 10 mm/length 75 mm) filled with deionized water, to mimic a calix. Real-time temperature was recorded using a thermocouple (Physitemp, NJ) positioned 5 mm from the bottom of the tube. A 200 μm laser fiber (Flexiva; Boston Scientific, MA) was introduced through the working channel of a disposable ureteroscope (LithoVue; Boston Scientific) and the laser fiber tip was positioned 15 mm above the bottom of the test tube. Deionized water irrigation (room temperature) through the working channel of the ureteroscope was delivered at flow rates of 0, 7-8, 14-15, and 38-40 mL/minute. A 120-W holmium laser (pulse 120; Lumenis, CA) was used. The following settings were explored: 0.5 J × 10 Hz, 1.0 J × 10 Hz, 0.5 J × 20 Hz, 1.0 J × 20 Hz, 0.5 J × 40 Hz, 1.0 J × 40 Hz, and 0.5 J × 80 Hz. During each experiment, the laser was activated continuously for 60 seconds. Temperature increased with increasing laser power output and decreasing irrigation flow rate. The highest temperature, 70.3°C (standard deviation 2.7), occurred with laser setting of 1.0 J × 40 Hz and no irrigation after 60 seconds of continuous laser firing. None of the tested laser settings and irrigation parameters produced temperature exceeding 51°C when activated for only 10 seconds of continuous laser firing. High-power holmium settings fired in long bursts with low irrigation flow rates can generate high fluid temperatures in a laboratory "caliceal" model. Awareness of this risk allows urologist to implement a variety of techniques (higher irrigation flow rates, intermittent laser activation, and potentially cooled irrigation fluid) to control and mitigate thermal

  15. High power operational experience with the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The heart of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a pulsed linear accelerator that is used to simultaneously provide H+ and H- beams to several user facilities. This accelerator contains two Cockcroft-Walton style injectors, a 100-MeV drift tube linac and an 800-MeV coupled cavity linac. This presentation will touch on various aspects of the high power operation including performance, tune-up strategy, beam losses and machine protection.

  16. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers. (United States)

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P


    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  17. High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform. (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Purnawirman, P; Su, Zhan; Salih Magden, E; Callahan, Patrick T; Shtyrkova, Katia; Xin, Ming; Ruocco, Alfonso; Baiocco, Christopher; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Watts, Michael R


    Mid-infrared laser sources are of great interest for various applications, including light detection and ranging, spectroscopy, communication, trace-gas detection, and medical sensing. Silicon photonics is a promising platform that enables these applications to be integrated on a single chip with low cost and compact size. Silicon-based high-power lasers have been demonstrated at 1.55 μm wavelength, while in the 2 μm region, to the best of our knowledge, high-power, high-efficiency, and monolithic light sources have been minimally investigated. In this Letter, we report on high-power CMOS-compatible thulium-doped distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with single-mode output powers up to 267 and 387 mW, and slope efficiencies of 14% and 23%, respectively. More than 70 dB side-mode suppression ratio is achieved for both lasers. This work extends the applicability of silicon photonic microsystems in the 2 μm region.

  18. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu


    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  19. IRAG and novel PKG targeting in the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Schlossmann, Jens; Desch, Matthias


    Signaling by nitric oxide (NO) determines several cardiovascular functions including blood pressure regulation, cardiac and smooth muscle hypertrophy, and platelet function. NO stimulates the synthesis of cGMP by soluble guanylyl cyclases and thereby activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), mediating most of the cGMP functions. Hence, an elucidation of the PKG signaling cascade is essential for the understanding of the (patho)physiological aspects of NO. Several PKG signaling pathways were identified, meanwhile regulating the intracellular calcium concentration, mediating calcium desensitization or cytoskeletal rearrangement. During the last decade it emerged that the inositol trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP-kinase substrate (IRAG), an endoplasmic reticulum-anchored 125-kDa membrane protein, is a main signal transducer of PKG activity in the cardiovascular system. IRAG interacts specifically in a trimeric complex with the PKG1β isoform and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor I and, upon phosphorylation, reduces the intracellular calcium release from the intracellular stores. IRAG motifs for phosphorylation and for targeting to PKG1β and 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor I were identified by several approaches. The (patho)physiological functions for the regulation of smooth muscle contractility and the inhibition of platelet activation were perceived. In this review, the IRAG recognition, targeting, and function are summarized compared with PKG and several PKG substrates in the cardiovascular system.

  20. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O' Brien, D W


    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  1. CHAOS: An SDN-Based Moving Target Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi


    Full Text Available Moving target defense (MTD has provided a dynamic and proactive network defense to reduce or move the attack surface that is available for exploitation. However, traditional network is difficult to realize dynamic and active security defense effectively and comprehensively. Software-defined networking (SDN points out a brand-new path for building dynamic and proactive defense system. In this paper, we propose CHAOS, an SDN-based MTD system. Utilizing the programmability and flexibility of SDN, CHAOS obfuscates the attack surface including host mutation obfuscation, ports obfuscation, and obfuscation based on decoy servers, thereby enhancing the unpredictability of the networking environment. We propose the Chaos Tower Obfuscation (CTO method, which uses the Chaos Tower Structure (CTS to depict the hierarchy of all the hosts in an intranet and define expected connection and unexpected connection. Moreover, we develop fast CTO algorithms to achieve a different degree of obfuscation for the hosts in each layer. We design and implement CHAOS as an application of SDN controller. Our approach makes it very easy to realize moving target defense in networks. Our experimental results show that a network protected by CHAOS is capable of decreasing the percentage of information disclosure effectively to guarantee the normal flow of traffic.

  2. Automated Navigation System based on Weapon-Target Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairudin


    Full Text Available Operating of weapon on the tank is mostly by manually. It is not desired performance for a critical operation. An automatic control system is required to operate the weapon with the target while maintaining the accuracy. In this paper has designed an automatic weapon control system using object image proccessing. Various an image processing methods used to improve the weapon accuracy to obtain the intended target. The method used in digital image processing is the Camshift motion tracking method. This method is compared with the Lucas Canade motion tracking method. This comparison is conducted to found more precise results between the two methods. Results of object image processing are used to control the direction of the weapon that towards the desired goal. The results show that the implementation of the Lucas Canade motion tracking method using fire simulation tools have been successful. The performance of the Lucas Canade motion tracking methods is better than the CamShift method. Using Lucas Canade method for weapon controller is accordance with the purposes.

  3. Evaluation of high-voltage, high-power, solid-state remote power controllers for amps (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.


    The Electrical Power Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center has a Power System Development Facility where various power circuit breadboards are tested and evaluated. This project relates to the evaluation of a particular remote power controller (RPC) energizing high power loads. The Facility equipment permits the thorough testing and evaluation of high-voltage, high-power solid-state remote power controllers. The purpose is to evaluate a Type E, 30 Ampere, 200 V dc remote power controller. Three phases of the RPC evaluation are presented. The RPC is evaluated within a low-voltage, low-power circuit to check its operational capability. The RPC is then evaluated while performing switch/circuit breaker functions within a 200 V dc, 30 Ampere power circuit. The final effort of the project relates to the recommended procedures for installing these RPC's into the existing Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard/test facility at MSFC.

  4. State of art survey for design of medium frequency high power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisambhayana, Sriram; Dincan, Catalin; Shuyu, Cao


    Medium and high frequency, high power transformers play an important role in footprint reduction along with their functions of galvanic isolation, and voltage transformation in all high power converters typically used in traction power systems, offshore wind plant power converters, and solid state...... transformer based distribution system grids. This state of art report analysis the various materials and design tradeoffs that govern the electromagnetic behavior and loss mechanisms of the medium frequency transformer applications. Typical winding and core geometries that have been reported extensively...... in the literature are described, and some design procedures and flow charts are analyzed including specific optimization routines. Estimation of core loss at high frequency using Steinmetz method and other modified methods are shown in detail. Thermal modelling including static and dynamic methods available...

  5. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  6. [Research on Anti-Camouflaged Target System Based on Spectral Detection and Image Recognition]. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Gao, Yu-bin; Lu, Xu-tao


    To be able to quickly and efficiently identify Enemy camouflaged maneuvering targets in the wild environment, target recognition system was designed based on spectral detection technology and video target recognition method. System was composed of the visible light image acquisition module and static interferometer module. The system used image recognition technology to obtain two dimensional video images of measurement region, and through spectrum detection technology to identify targets. Ultimately, measured target was rebuilt on the corresponding position in the image, so the visual target recognition was realized. After the theoretical derivation, identifiable target function formula of the system was obtained, and based on the functional relationship to complete the quantitative experiments for target recognition. In the experiments, maneuvering target in the battlefield environment was simulated by a car. At different distances, the background was respectively selected to detect a flat wasteland, bushes and abandoned buildings. Obvious target, coated camouflage target and covered disguises target was respectively spectrum detection. Experimental results show that spectrum detection technology can overcome the shortcomings of unrecognized the camouflaged target by traditional image target recognition method. Testing background had some influence on spectrum detection results, and the continuity of the background was conducive to target recognition. Covered disguises target was the hardest to identify in various camouflage mode. As the distance between the target and the system increases, signal to noise ratio of the system was reduced. In summary, the system can achieve effective recognition of camouflaged targets to meet the design requirements.

  7. A CFD model for determining mixing and mass transfer in a high power agitated bioreactor


    Bach, Christian; Albæk, Mads O.; Stocks, Stuart M.; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V.


    Prediction of mixing and mass transfer in agitated systems is a vital tool for process development and scale up in industrial biotechnology. In particular key process parameters such as mixing time and kLa are essential for bioprocess development [1]. In this work the mixing and mass transfer performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulenc...

  8. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  9. General 3D Lumped Thermal Model with Various Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules


    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Accurate thermal dynamics modeling of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behaviors in the IGBTs. In this paper, a new three-dimensional (3D) lumped thermal model is proposed, which can easily be characterized from Finite Element Methods (FEM) based simulation and acqu...

  10. Method and apparatus for reducing coherence of high-power laser beams (United States)

    Moncur, Norman K.; Mayer, Frederick J.


    Method and apparatus for reducing the coherence and for smoothing the power density profile of a collimated high-power laser beam in which the beam is focused at a point on the surface of a target fabricated of material having a low atomic number. The initial portion of the focused beam heats the material to form a hot reflective plasma at the material surface. The remaining, major portion of the focused beam is reflected by the plasma and recollected to form a collimated beam having reduced beam coherence.

  11. Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge (United States)

    Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P.


    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti1+, Ti2+, Ar1+, and Ar2+ ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

  12. A compact high power Er:Yb:glass eyesafe laser for infrared remote sensing applications (United States)

    Vitiello, Marco; Pizzarulli, Andrea; Ruffini, Andrea


    The key features and performances of a compact, lightweight, high power Er3+:Yb3+ glass laser transmitter are reported on. The theory employed to get an optimal design of the device is also described. In free running regime high energies of about 15mJ in 3ms long pulses were obtained, with an optical efficiency close to 85%. When q-switched by a Co: MALO crystal of carefully selected initial transmittivity, a high peak power in excess of 500 kW was obtained in about 9ns pulse duration, with an optical efficiency of 60%. The laser was successfully run with no significant power losses at repetition rates up to 5Hz due to a carefully designed heat sink which allowed an efficient conduction cooling of both the diode bars and the phosphate glass. The transmitter emits at a wavelength of 1535nm in the so-called "eyesafe" region of the light spectrum thus being highly attractive for any application involving the risk of human injury as is typically the case in remote sensing activities. Moreover, the spectral band around 1,5mm corresponds to a peak in the athmospheric transmittance thus being more effective in adverse weather conditions with respect to other wavelengths. Actually, the device has been successfully integrated into a rangefinder system allowing a reliable and precise detection of small targets at distances up to 20Km. Moreover, the transmitter capabilities were used into a state of the art infrared laser illuminator for night vision allowing even the recognition of a human being at distances in excess of 5Km.

  13. Aging of the Immune System. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets. (United States)

    Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J


    Beginning with the sixth decade of life, the human immune system undergoes dramatic aging-related changes, which continuously progress to a state of immunosenescence. The aging immune system loses the ability to protect against infections and cancer and fails to support appropriate wound healing. Vaccine responses are typically impaired in older individuals. Conversely, inflammatory responses mediated by the innate immune system gain in intensity and duration, rendering older individuals susceptible to tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease. Immune system aging functions as an accelerator for other age-related pathologies. It occurs prematurely in some clinical conditions, most prominently in patients with the autoimmune syndrome rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and such patients serve as an informative model system to study molecular mechanisms of immune aging. T cells from patients with RA are prone to differentiate into proinflammatory effector cells, sustaining chronic-persistent inflammatory lesions in the joints and many other organ systems. RA T cells have several hallmarks of cellular aging; most importantly, they accumulate damaged DNA. Because of deficiency of the DNA repair kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated, RA T cells carry a higher burden of DNA double-strand breaks, triggering cell-indigenous stress signals that shift the cell's survival potential and differentiation pattern. Immune aging in RA T cells is also associated with metabolic reprogramming; specifically, with reduced glycolytic flux and diminished ATP production. Chronic energy stress affects the longevity and the functional differentiation of older T cells. Altered metabolic patterns provide opportunities to therapeutically target the immune aging process through metabolic interference.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Gene Therapy: From Molecular Targets to Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Maliandi


    Full Text Available The continuous identification of molecular changes deregulating critical pathways in pancreatic tumor cells provides us with a large number of novel candidates to engineer gene-targeted approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. Targets—both protein coding and non-coding—are being exploited in gene therapy to influence the deregulated pathways to facilitate cytotoxicity, enhance the immune response or sensitize to current treatments. Delivery vehicles based on viral or non-viral systems as well as cellular vectors with tumor homing characteristics are a critical part of the design of gene therapy strategies. The different behavior of tumoral versus non-tumoral cells inspires vector engineering with the generation of tumor selective products that can prevent potential toxic-associated effects. In the current review, a detailed analysis of the different targets, the delivery vectors, the preclinical approaches and a descriptive update on the conducted clinical trials are presented. Moreover, future possibilities in pancreatic cancer treatment by gene therapy strategies are discussed.

  15. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Duchovskis, P [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Bliznikas, Z [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Breive, K [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ulinskaite, R [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Brazaityte, A [Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Novickovas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Zukauskas, A [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  16. High power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Gao, Gan; Li, Qinghua; Gong, Mali


    Generation of high power double-scale pulses from a gain-guided double-clad fiber laser is experimentally demonstrated. By employing the Yb-doped 10/130 double-clad fiber as the gain medium, the laser realizes an output power of 5.1 W and pulse energy of 0.175 µJ at repetition rate of 29.14 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this average output power is the highest among the reported double-scale pulse oscillators. The autocorrelation trace of pulses contains the short (98 fs) and long (29.5 ps) components, and the spectral bandwidth of the pulse is 27.3 nm. Such double-scale pulses are well suited for seeding the high power MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) systems, nonlinear frequency conversion and optical coherence tomography.

  17. Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers. (United States)

    Drachenberg, Derrek R; Andrusyak, Oleksiy; Venus, George; Smirnov, Vadim; Glebov, Leonid B


    High-radiance lasers are desired for many applications in defense and manufacturing. Spectral beam combining (SBC) by volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is a very promising method for high-radiance lasers that need to achieve 100 kW level power. Laser-induced heating of VBGs under high-power radiation presents a challenge for maintaining Bragg resonance at various power levels without mechanical realignment. A novel thermal tuning technique and apparatus is presented that enables maintaining peak efficiency operation of the SBC system at various power levels without any mechanical adjustment. The method is demonstrated by combining two high-power ytterbium fiber lasers with high efficiency from low power to full combined power of 300 W (1.5 kW effective power), while maintaining peak combining efficiency within 0.5%.

  18. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shengren, E-mail:; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)


    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM{sub 01} mode into a circularly polarized TE{sub 11} mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  19. Design and experiment of a cross-shaped mode converter for high-power microwave applications (United States)

    Peng, Shengren; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhong, Huihuang; Fan, Yuwei


    A compact mode converter, which is capable of converting a TM01 mode into a circularly polarized TE11 mode, was developed and experimentally studied with high-power microwaves. The converter, consisting of two turnstile junctions, is very short along the wave propagation direction, and therefore is suitable for designing compact and axially aligned high-power microwave radiation systems. In this paper, the principle of a converter working at 1.75 GHz is demonstrated, as well as the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. At the center frequency, the conversion efficiency is more than 95%, the measured axial ratio is about 0.4 dB, and the power-handing capacity is excess of 1.9 GW.

  20. Self-commutating converters for high power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J


    For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr

  1. Ion energy characteristics downstream of a high power helicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Ziemba, Tim; Roberson, B Race; Quetin, Gregory [University of Washington, Johnson Hall 070, Box 351310, 4000 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)], E-mail:


    The High Power Helicon eXperiment operates at higher powers (37 kW) and lower background neutral pressure than other helicon experiments. The ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) has been measured at multiple locations downstream of the helicon source and a mach 3-6 flowing plasma was observed. The helicon antenna has a direct effect in accelerating the plasma downstream of the source. Also, the IVDF is affected by the cloud of neutrals from the initial gas puff, which keeps the plasma speed low at early times near the source.

  2. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binford, F.T.


    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  3. High power test of a 30 GHz planar accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich; Henke, H; Wuensch, Walter; Yu, D


    A 30-GHz muffin-tin, traveling-wave accelerating structure consisting of 37 cells was tested at high power using the CTF2 at CERN. The structure was fabricated with conventional milling and brazing, including tuning holes at cavity roofs. No special surface preparation or treatment was done to the structure. A maximum peak power in excess of 100 MW at a pulse width of 4 ns was transported through the structure before electron bursts were initiated. A maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m was achieved with a peak RF power of 40 MW at a pulse width of 8 ns.

  4. Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers (United States)

    Goodno, G. D.; Komine, H.; McNaught, S. J.; Weiss, S. B.; Redmond, S.; Long, W.; Simpson, R.; Cheung, E. C.; Howland, D.; Epp, P.; Weber, M.; McClellan, M.; Sollee, J.; Injeyan, H.


    We demonstrate a scalable architecture for a high-power, high-brightness, solid-state laser based on coherent combinations of master oscillator power amplifier chains. A common master oscillator injects a sequence of multikilowatt Nd:YAG zigzag slab amplifiers. Adaptive optics correct the wavefront of each amplified beamlet. The beamlets are tiled side by side and actively phase locked to form a single output beam. The laser produces 19 kW with beam quality <2× diffraction limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest cw solid-state laser demonstrated to date.

  5. Using high-power light emitting diodes for photoacoustic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Skov

    The preliminary result of using a high-power light emitting diode, LED, for photoacoustic imaging is presented. The pulsed light source is created by a 1Watt red Luxeon LED. The LED delivers light pulses with 25W peak power when supplied by 40A peak, 60ns wide current pulses. The phantom used...... for the experiment consists of a 3mm high x 5mm wide slice of green colored gelatine overlaid by a 3cm layer of colorless gelatine. The light pulses from the LED is focused on the green gelatine. The photoacoustic response from the green gelatine is detected by a single transducer on the opposite (top) surface...

  6. Highly-efficient high-power pumps for fiber lasers (United States)

    Gapontsev, V.; Moshegov, N.; Berezin, I.; Komissarov, A.; Trubenko, P.; Miftakhutdinov, D.; Berishev, I.; Chuyanov, V.; Raisky, O.; Ovtchinnikov, A.


    We report on high efficiency multimode pumps that enable ultra-high efficiency high power ECO Fiber Lasers. We discuss chip and packaged pump design and performance. Peak out-of-fiber power efficiency of ECO Fiber Laser pumps was reported to be as high as 68% and was achieved with passive cooling. For applications that do not require Fiber Lasers with ultimate power efficiency, we have developed passively cooled pumps with out-of-fiber power efficiency greater than 50%, maintained at operating current up to 22A. We report on approaches to diode chip and packaged pump design that possess such performance.

  7. Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers (United States)

    2015-01-01 Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers Figure 2. Results from the 220 GHz TWT . (a) Small signal...Completed tube under hot test. 220 GHz TWT Demonstration The 220 GHz TWT device was based on spare parts from a commercially available CPI VKY2444T G...existing parts, our TWT bested this COTS EIK performance by a factor of 12x in power and 50x in bandwidth for the same size, weight and prime power

  8. High power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Li, Cheng; Yan, Dapeng


    A high power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm is demonstrated experimentally. Performances of the 1120 nm single fiber laser oscillator and the composite cavity are investigated and compared, and the parasitic oscillation created by the strong amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) can be suppressed effectively in the composite cavity scheme. 2.04-kW 1120-nm signal light with a good beam quality (M2=1.15) is obtained, and the optical conversion efficiency of the composite cavity fiber laser oscillator is about 63% in the experiment. The compact architecture of composite cavity provides an effective scheme for power scaling of long wavelength lasers.

  9. Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.

  10. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    . This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential...... records have been set using this ber. An output power of 167 W has been achieved, which, at the time of writing, is the highest output power generated from ytterbium bers in this wavelength region and from photonic bandgap bers in general. The 1178 nm light has subsequently been frequency doubled to 589...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation.

  12. Green targeting predictor and ambiguous targeting predictor 2: the pitfalls of plant protein targeting prediction and of transient protein expression in heterologous systems. (United States)

    Fuss, Janina; Liegmann, Oliver; Krause, Kirsten; Rensing, Stefan A


    The challenges of plant protein targeting prediction are the existence of dual subcellular targets and the bias of experimentally confirmed data towards few and mostly nonplant model species. To assess whether training with proteins from evolutionarily distant species has a negative impact on prediction accuracy, we developed the Green Targeting Predictor tool, which was trained with a species-specific data set for Physcomitrella patens. Its performance was compared with that of the same tool trained with a mixed data set. In addition, we updated the Ambiguous Targeting Predictor. We found that predictions deviated from in vivo observations predominantly for proteins diverging within the green lineage, as well as for dual targeted proteins. To evaluate the usefulness of heterologous expression systems, selected proteins were subjected to localization studies in P. patens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Four out of six proteins that show dual targeting in the original plant system were located only in a single compartment in one or both heterologous systems. We conclude that targeting signals of divergent plant species exhibit differences, calling for custom in silico and in vivo approaches when aiming to unravel the actual distribution patterns of proteins within a plant cell. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Reliability of high-power multimode pump modules (United States)

    Pflueger, Silke; Duesterberg, Richard L.; Rossin, Victor V.; Strite, Toby; Tai, Kuochou; Wolak, Edmund L.; Wong, Andre W.; Xu, Lei; Zucker, Erik


    Developers building high-power fiber lasers and diode pumped solid state lasers can receive significant benefits in thermal management and reliability by using single emitter multi-mode diodes in distributed pump architectures. This proposed distributed architecture relies on independent single emitter pump lasers and a modest level of pump redundancy. Driving the remaining diodes slightly harder componensates individual diode failures. A model of the ensemble lifetime based on module failure rates and power-scaling factors demonstrates that the distributed pump architecture requires random failure rates corresponding to better than 200,000h mean time between failure (MTBF), which meets typical industrial requirements. A high power, pigtailed, multi-mode pump module suitable for commercial applications is created through this model. Critical elements are based on telecom architectures, including the optical train and the fiber alignment. The module has a low thermal resistance of 4°C/W from the chip-on-sub-mount to the external heat sink, coupling efficiency of over 80% into 0.2 NA, and demonstrated reliable output power of over 5W cw with peak wavelengths near 915 nm. Individual pump modules are predicted to produce 5W cw output power with an MTBF of more than 400,000h. The relationship between anticipated MTBF requirements, test duration and test population is shown.

  14. High-power CO lasers for materials processing (United States)

    Averin, A.; Erofeev, E.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Malysh, M.


    Two high-power CO laser installations for industrial applications are being developed now in Russia within the framework of the Eureka Project EU113 (`CO-Eurolaser'). The electron- beam-controlled-discharge (EBCD) method for pumping those lasers is used. The first one, EBCD 10 kW CO laser, operates in continuous wave and `gentle' repetitively pulsed (RP) (peak power 20 kW, laser pulse duration 0.5 - 1 ms, pulse repetition rate 500 - 1,000 Hz) modes. The second laser, EBCD 5 - 10 kW CO laser will operate in `tough' RP mode (peak power 0.2 - 1.0 MW, single pulse energy 100 J, pulse duration 0.1 - 0.5 ms, repetition rate 50 - 100 Hz). A detander-compressor device, the main characteristics of which are reported, will be used for cooling the laser mixture of the second CO laser. Those high-power CO laser installations are supposed to be used for investigation of different laser materials processing methods on 5 micrometers wavelength for deep penetration welding, cutting, and surface treatment and also for comparative materials processing studies on CO and CO2 laser wavelengths.

  15. High-Power Lasers for Science and Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haefner, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Since the first demonstration of the laser in 1960 by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, the principal defining characteristic of lasers has been their ability to focus unprecedented powers of light in space, time, and frequency. High-power lasers have, over the ensuing five and a half decades, illuminated entirely new fields of scientific endeavor as well as made a profound impact on society. While the United States pioneered lasers and their early applications, we have been eclipsed in the past decade by highly effective national and international networks in both Europe and Asia, which have effectively focused their energies, efforts, and resources to achieve greater scientific and societal impact. This white paper calls for strategic investment which, by striking an appropriate balance between distributing our precious national funds and establishing centers of excellence, will ensure a broad pipeline of people and transformative ideas connecting our world-leading universities, defining flagship facilities stewarded by our national laboratories, and driving innovation across industry, to fully exploit the potential of high-power lasers.

  16. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa


    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  17. BBO sapphire compound for high-power frequency conversion (United States)

    Rothhardt, Carolin; Rothhardt, Jan; Klenke, Arno; Peschel, Thomas; Eberhardt, Ramona; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    Lasers used for diverse applications from industry to fundamental science tend to increasing output powers. Some applications require frequency conversion via nonlinear optical crystals, which suffer from the formation of temperature gradients at high power operation which causes thermal lensing or destruction of the crystal due to tensile stresses. To avoid these unwanted effects we joined a beta barium borate (BBO) crystal with sapphire disks serving as effective heat spreaders due to their high thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity κ = 42 W/Km). Therefore, smooth and flat crystal surfaces were joined by plasma-activated bonding. The joining relies on covalent bonds, which are formed via a condensation reaction of the surfaces which are first connected by Van der Waals forces. The cleaned surfaces are activated by plasma and brought into contact, pressed together and heat treated at a temperature of about 100°C. Special attention has been paid to the cleaning of the surfaces. Therefor the surfaces have been evaluated before and after treatment by means of atomic force microscopy. A stable connection has been formed successfully, which has been tested in a proof of principle experiment and demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation at up to 253 W of input power. Compared to a bare single BBO crystal it could be shown that the temperature within the crystal compound is significantly reduced. Such hybrid structures pave the way for frequency conversion at kilowatts of average power for future high power lasers.

  18. High-power disk lasers based on dilute nitride heterostructures (United States)

    Guina, M.; Leinonen, T.; Härkönen, A.; Pessa, M.


    We report the development of InGaAsN-based gain mirrors for high-power optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers with direct emission at wavelengths around 1180 nm. The gain mirrors were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. They consist of 10 dilute nitride quantum wells, which were placed within a GaAs micro-cavity on top of a GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. We demonstrated laser operation at ~1180 nm with record high output power (~7 W). The differential efficiency was ~30% for operation at 5 °C and ~28% when operating at 15 °C. The lasers exhibited excellent tuning characteristics, delivering an output power of more than 5 W in a narrow spectrum and providing over 30 nm tuning band. These features represent significant progress towards demonstration of practical high-power lasers with frequency-doubled yellow emission required for laser guide stars, life sciences and spectroscopy. At the same time the results emphasize the importance of dilute nitride heterostructures in the development of novel optoelectronic devices.

  19. Spallation Neutron Source High Power RF Installation and Commissioning Progress

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Michael P; Bradley, Joseph T; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Hardek, Thomas; Kang, Yoon W; Rees, Daniel; Roybal, William; Young, Karen A


    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac will provide a 1 GeV proton beam for injection into the accumulator ring. In the normal conducting (NC) section of this linac, the Radio Frequency Quadupole (RFQ) and six drift tube linac (DTL) tanks are powered by seven 2.5 MW, 402.5 MHz klystrons and the four coupled cavity linac (CCL) cavities are powered by four 5.0 MW, 805 MHz klystrons. Eighty-one 550 kW, 805 MHz klystrons each drive a single cavity in the superconducting (SC) section of the linac. The high power radio frequency (HPRF) equipment was specified and procured by LANL and tested before delivery to ensure a smooth transition from installation to commissioning. Installation of RF equipment to support klystron operation in the 350-meter long klystron gallery started in June 2002. The final klystron was set in place in September 2004. Presently, all RF stations have been installed and high power testing has been completed. This paper reviews the progression of the installation and testing of the HPRF Sys...

  20. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.


    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  1. High power 1060-nm super large vertical cavity semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen


    High power single-mode ridge waveguide 1060-nm semiconductor lasers are reported. The lasers consist of compressively strained double InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and a GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement vertical structure. A super large vertical optical cavity is employed to have a low internal loss, large optical spot size and low vertical optical divergence angle. The material composition and thickness of waveguide layers and claddings layer are optimized systematically. The active layer is detuned from center of the waveguide and thickness of cladding layers is optimized to guaranty single mode lasing of the large optical cavity. The large vertical cavity laser structure with thickness of 4 μm allows the lasers have a low internal loss of less than 0.6 /cm, a large optical spot size about 1μm and a vertical divergence angle about 20 degree. For lateral optical confinement, a double trench ridge waveguide is employed to maintain single-lateral-mode operation. Based on the optimization, 1.5 W continue wave optical power is achieved for broad area lasers with 1mm longitude cavity length. Narrow stripe ridge waveguide lasers of 1mm cavity length with single mode current and optical power of 700 mA and 340 mW is obtained. Suggestions for further improvements in terms of single mode power and applications of the high power semiconductors are discussed.

  2. Enhanced stability of magnetoelectric gyrators under high power conditions (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Zhuang, Xin; Gao, Min; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Junran; Li, Jiefang; Zhang, Jitao; Srinivasan, G.; Viehland, D.


    In this study, three different coil-based magnetoelectric (ME) gyrators of different geometries, including gyrators with high power output, have been designed and characterized. These included two magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive (M-P-M) and one piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric (P-M-P) type ME gyrators, which consisted of nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic plates. Compared with M-P-M ME gyrators, the P-M-P ones exhibited a higher power efficiency (η) of 85% when operated at resonance under an optimal magnetic bias field (HBias) of 40 Oe at low power conditions. It retained a relatively high efficiency of η = 79% under a high input power density of 2.87 W/cm3. A low reduction in the magnetomechanical coupling and mechanical quality (k33,m and Qm) factors of the NZFO ferrite layer in the ME gyrator explains the resilience of the P-M-P type structure with increasing power drive. The findings open the possibility of using ME gyrators in high power applications.

  3. High power compatible internally sensed optical phased array. (United States)

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Francis, Samuel P; Sibley, Paul G; Fleddermann, Roland; Sutton, Andrew J; Smith, Craig; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A


    The technical embodiment of the Huygens-Fresnel principle, an optical phased array (OPA) is an arrangement of optical emitters with relative phases controlled to create a desired beam profile after propagation. One important application of an OPA is coherent beam combining (CBC), which can be used to create beams of higher power than is possible with a single laser source, especially for narrow linewidth sources. Here we present an all-fiber architecture that stabilizes the relative output phase by inferring the relative path length differences between lasers using the small fraction of light that is back-reflected into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface, without the need for any external sampling optics. This architecture is compatible with high power continuous wave laser sources (e.g., fiber amplifiers) up to 100 W per channel. The high-power compatible internally sensed OPA was implemented experimentally using commercial 15 W fiber amplifiers, demonstrating an output RMS phase stability of λ/194, and the ability to steer the beam at up to 10 kHz.

  4. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor (United States)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan


    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.

  5. Aliskiren targets multiple systems to alleviate cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyi; Guo, Dunwei; Wang, Qiang; You, Song; Qiao, Zhongpeng; Liu, Yong; Dai, Hang; Tang, Hua


    To examine the effects of aliskiren, a small-molecule renin inhibitor, on cancer cachexia and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A cancer cachexia model was established by subcutaneously injecting C26 mouse colon carcinoma cells into isogenic BALB/c mice. Aliskiren was administered intragastrically [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on day 5 (as a preventive strategy, AP group) or on day 12 (as a therapeutic strategy, AT group) after C26 injection. Mice that received no C26 injection (healthy controls, HC group) or only C26 injection but not aliskiren (cancer, CA group) were used as controls. BW, tumor growth, whole body functions, and survival were monitored daily in half of the mice in each group, whereas serum, tumors, and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested from the other mice after sacrifice on day 20 for further analysis. Aliskiren significantly alleviated multiple cachexia‑associated symptoms, including BW loss, tumor burden, muscle wasting, muscular dysfunction, and shortened survival. On the molecular level, aliskiren antagonized cachexia‑induced activation of the renin‑angiotensin system (RAS), systematic and muscular inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy‑lysosome as well as ubiquitin‑proteasome stimulation. In addition, early administration of aliskiren before cachexia development (AP group) resulted in more robust effects in alleviating cachexia or targeting underlying mechanisms than administration after cachexia development (AT group). Aliskiren exhibited potent anti‑cachexia activities. These activities were achieved through the targeting of at least four mechanisms underlying cachexia development: RAS activation, increase in systematic inflammation, upregulation of oxidative stress, and stimulation of autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP).

  6. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  7. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted.

  8. Noncontact measurement of substrate temperature by optical low-coherence interferometry in high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Hattori, Katsuhiro; Ohta, Takayuki; Oda, Akinori; Kousaka, Hiroyuki


    Substrate temperature is one of the important parameters that affect the quality of deposited films. The monitoring of the substrate temperature is an important technique of controlling the deposition process precisely. In this study, the Si substrate temperature in high-power pulse magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) was measured by a noncontact method based on optical low-coherence interferometry (LCI). The measurement was simultaneously performed using an LCI system and a thermocouple (TC) as a contact measurement method. The difference in measured value between the LCI system and the TC was about 7.4 °C. The reproducibilities of measurement for the LCI system and TC were ±0.7 and ±2.0 °C, respectively. The heat influx from the plasma to the substrate was estimated using the temporal variation of substrate temperature and increased from 19.7 to 160.0 mW/cm2 with increasing target applied voltage. The major factor for the enhancement of the heat influx would be charged species such as ions and electrons owing to the high ionization degree of sputtered metal particles in HPPMS.

  9. Study on the Temperature Measurement of High-Power Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Fiber Optic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofei Wu


    Full Text Available In order to ensure high-power PMSM normal operation and monitor its fault online, its stator and rotor temperature is need to in real time high accuracy measurement. The temperature measurement principle of fiber optic sensor has been briefly introduced. The high- power PMSM rotor’s temperature measurement adopted semiconductor absorption optical fiber sensor, and its stator temperature measurement adopted optical fiber grating temperature sensor. The temperature measurement systems were designed respectively. The characteristics of the two temperature measurement systems are summarized. When they were applied to actual industrial field, the problems that needed to resolve were pointed.





    The in-vivo targeting of tumors with magnetic microspheres is currently realized through the applicationof external non-uniform magnetic fields generated by rare-earth permanent magnets or electromagnets.This technique can be applied to magnetically targeted cancer therapy, magnetic embolization therapywith magnetic particles that contain anticancer agent, such as chemotherapeutic drugs or therapeuticradioisotopes. Drug targeting is one way of local or regional antitumor treatment. Magnetical...

  11. Muon-catalyzed fusion experiment target and detector system. Preliminary design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Watts, K.D.; Caffrey, A.J.; Walter, J.B.


    We present detailed plans for the target and particle detector systems for the muon-catalyzed fusion experiment. Requirements imposed on the target vessel by experimental conditions and safety considerations are delineated. Preliminary designs for the target vessel capsule and secondary containment vessel have been developed which meet these requirements. In addition, the particle detection system is outlined, including associated fast electronics and on-line data acquisition. Computer programs developed to study the target and detector system designs are described.

  12. Design and High Power Measurements of a 3 GHz Rotary Joint for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Garlasche, Marco; Giner-Navarro, Jorge; Magagnin, Paolo; Mcmonagle, Gerard; Syratchev, Igor; Wuensch, Walter


    The TUrning LInac for Protontherapy (TULIP) project requires the transport of RF power from modulator/klystron systems at rest on the floor to the linac structures mounted on a rotating gantry, via a waveguide system that can operate over a range of angles of rotation. A waveguide rotary joint capable of transporting RF power at 3 GHz and up to 20 MW has been designed and built in collaboration between TERA Foundation, CERN Beams and CERN Engineering Departments. A high-power test of the prototype has been performed at the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3), at CERN. The design and the results of the tests are reported in this article.

  13. Design of a High-Power White Light Source with Colloidal Quantum Dots and Non-Rare-Earth Phosphors (United States)

    Bicanic, Kristopher T.

    This thesis describes the design process of a high-power white light source, using novel phosphor and colloidal quantum dot materials. To incorporate multiple light emitters, we generalized and extended a down-converting layer model. We employed a phosphor mixture comprising of YAG:Ce and K2TiF 6:Mn4+ powders to illustrate the effectiveness of the model. By incorporating experimental photophysical results from the phosphors and colloidal quantum dots, we modeled our system and chose the design suitable for high-power applications. We report a reduction in the correlated color temperature by 600K for phosphor and quantum dot systems, enabling the creation of a warm white light emission at power densities up to 5 kW/cm 2. Furthermore, at this high-power, their emission achieves the digital cinema initiative (DCI) requirements with a luminescence efficacy improvement up to 32% over the stand-alone ceramic YAG:Ce phosphor.

  14. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, R. E-mail:


    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity requires that both the formed molecules and molecular ions are thermally stable, a gain in speed requires only sufficient stability of the molecule: e.g. antimony, which hardly forms sulfide ions, also migrates orders of magnitude faster in the presence of sulphur vapour.

  15. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, R


    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity ...

  16. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar


    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  17. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij


    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  18. Characterization of the voltage control systems and speed of a synchronous machine of high power for short circuit testing; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de control de voltaje y velocidad de una maquina sincrona de alta potencia para pruebas de corto circuito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio; Hernandez Rodriguez, Isaura Victoria; Alcaide Godinez, Indira Xochiquetzal; Garduno Ramirez, Raul; Montero Cervantes, Julio Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ruiz Rodriguez, Genaro; Martinez Torres; Ricardo [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)


    This paper introduces a characterization of the behavior of the speed and voltage control systems of a special purpose synchronous machine (GCC) based on measuring and monitoring physical signals, and recording of the sampled waveforms. Basically, the GCC supplies the energy to perform high-power short-circuits tests to certify electrical equipment and components, as required by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico. The GCC operates alternately as motor and generator. With the GCC operating as motor, speed control during startup, acceleration, re-acceleration and braking is carried out by a static frequency converter (SFC). Complementary, the voltage controller manipulates excitation power to control terminal voltage when the GCC operates as generator and regulates excitation current when the GCC operates as motor. Compared to conventional voltage regulation systems, which must go off in case of short-circuit, the GCC voltage regulator must keep controlling field excitation to maintain the required line current and terminal voltage during short-circuit tests. Monitoring of physical signals was carried out with a portable data acquisition system based on SCXI and PXI digital platforms. A total of 78 signals were monitored with a 6 kHz sampling rate that was enough to obtain detailed signal waveforms. Data captured was processed and plotted for analysis. The signal graphs show the current real behavior of both, the voltage control system and the speed control system, and constitute a precise characterization of their behavior. [Spanish] Este documento presenta una caracterizacion del comportamiento de los sistemas de control de velocidad y voltaje de una maquina sincrona de proposito especial (GCC) basada en la medicion y monitoreo de senales fisicas, asi como en el registro de las formas de onda muestreadas. Basicamente, la GCC suministra la energia para efectuar pruebas de corto circuito de alta potencia para certificar equipo y componentes

  19. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan


    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well.

  20. High power continuous-wave dual-wavelength alexandrite laser (United States)

    Ghanbari, Shirin; Major, Arkady


    A high power dual-wavelength alexandrite (Cr:BeAl2O4) laser using a single plate birefringent filter (BRF) was demonstrated. Using a 6 mm thick BRF, dual-wavelength output at 745.2 nm and 756.2 nm (5.9 THz of frequency difference) with 850 mW of average output power was achieved as well as with 16.8% optical-to-optical and 24.2% slope efficiency. The tunability of dual-wavelength separation was also demonstrated by employing the 4 mm and 2 mm thick BRFs with similar output powers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a dual-wavelength alexandrite laser.

  1. Liquid state DNP using a 260 GHz high power gyrotron. (United States)

    Denysenkov, Vasyl; Prandolini, Mark J; Gafurov, Marat; Sezer, Deniz; Endeward, Burkhard; Prisner, Thomas F


    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at high magnetic fields (9.2 T, 400 MHz (1)H NMR frequency) requires high microwave power sources to achieve saturation of the EPR transitions. Here we describe the first high-field liquid-state DNP results using a high-power gyrotron microwave source (20 W at 260 GHz). A DNP enhancement of -29 on water protons was obtained for an aqueous solution of Fremy's Salt; in comparison the previous highest value was -10 using a solid-state microwave power source (maximum power 45 mW). The increased enhancements are partly due to larger microwave saturation and elevated sample temperature. These experimentally observed DNP enhancements, which by far exceed the predicted values extrapolated from low-field DNP experiments, demonstrate experimentally that DNP is possible in the liquid state also at high magnetic fields.

  2. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel


    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  3. Advanced Electrodes for High Power Li-ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien


    Full Text Available While little success has been obtained over the past few years in attempts to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries, significant improvement in the power density has been achieved, opening the route to new applications, from hybrid electric vehicles to high-power electronics and regulation of the intermittency problem of electric energy supply on smart grids. This success has been achieved not only by decreasing the size of the active particles of the electrodes to few tens of nanometers, but also by surface modification and the synthesis of new multi-composite particles. It is the aim of this work to review the different approaches that have been successful to obtain Li-ion batteries with improved high-rate performance and to discuss how these results prefigure further improvement in the near future.

  4. High power and single mode quantum cascade lasers. (United States)

    Bismuto, Alfredo; Bidaux, Yves; Blaser, Stéphane; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Rochat, Michel; Muller, Antoine; Bonzon, Christopher; Faist, Jerome


    We present a single mode quantum cascade laser with nearly 1 W optical power. A buried distributed feedback reflector is used on the back section for wavelength selection. The laser is 6 mm long, 3.5 μm wide, mounted episide-up and the laser facets are left uncoated. Laser emission is centered at 4.68 μm. Single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of more than 30 dB is obtained in whole range of operation. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 41° and 33° in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively. This work shows the potential for simple fabrication of high power lasers compatible with standard DFB processing.

  5. High power optical transmitter package for free space optical communication (United States)

    Hildebrand, U.; Menke, B.; Wiesmann, Th.; Ohm, G.


    This paper discusses the characteristics of a new concept involving high-power laser diode (HPLD) arrays which are able to emit up to 1000 mW of optical output power but which suffer from poor far-field pattern and poor optical quality, related to the gain guiding mechanism used in such devices. Methods are proposed for improving the optical quality of HPLDs. These include the use of apertured AM scheme for HPLDs and the use of a graded-index lens and a stripe mirror to stabilize the HPLD. A HPLD optical transmitter is designed which will have the capability of operating the HPLD in the 180 deg phase alternating mode under modulation.

  6. High-power diode lasers and their direct industrial applications (United States)

    Loosen, Peter; Treusch, Hans-Georg; Haas, C. R.; Gardenier, U.; Weck, Manfred; Sinnhoff, V.; Kasperowski, S.; vor dem Esche, R.


    The paper summarizes activities of the two Fraunhofer-Institutes ILT and IPT concerning the development of high-power laser-diode stacks and their direct industrial applications. With microchannel coolers in copper technology and ultra-precision machined micro-optics a stack of 330 - 400 W total power with a maximum intensity of the focused beam of 2 104 W/cm2 has been built and tested in first applications. By further improvements of the lens-fabrication and -alignment technology as well as increase of the number of stacked diodes an output power in the kW-range and intensities up to about 105 W/cm2 shall be achieved in the near future. Applications of such laser sources in surface technology, in the processing of plastics, in laser-assisted machining and in brazing are discussed.

  7. High powered rocketry: design, construction, and launching experience and analysis (United States)

    Paulson, Pryce; Curtis, Jarret; Bartel, Evan; Owens Cyr, Waycen; Lamsal, Chiranjivi


    In this study, the nuts and bolts of designing and building a high powered rocket have been presented. A computer simulation program called RockSim was used to design the rocket. Simulation results are consistent with time variations of altitude, velocity, and acceleration obtained in the actual flight. The actual drag coefficient was determined by using altitude back-tracking method and found to be 0.825. Speed of the exhaust determined to be 2.5 km s‑1 by analyzing the thrust curve of the rocket. Acceleration in the coasting phase of the flight, represented by the second-degree polynomial of a small leading coefficient, have been found to approach ‘-g’ asymptotically.

  8. The interaction of high-power lasers with plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, Shalom


    The Interaction of High-Power Lasers with Plasmas provides a thorough self-contained discussion of the physical processes occurring in laser-plasma interactions, including a detailed review of the relevant plasma and laser physics. The book analyzes laser absorption and propagation, electron transport, and the relevant plasma waves in detail. It also discusses the physics of the electric and magnetic fields in a laser-induced plasma medium, laser-induced shock waves, rarefaction waves, heat waves, and the related hydrodynamic instabilities (Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and Kelvin-Helmholtz).A pedagogical presentation, the book addresses the basic physics issues from first principles, using simple models wherever appropriate. The coverage provides a foundation on which the graduate student can build an understanding of the past and present research in this field. For the experienced researcher, the book is a comprehensive and useful presentation of laser-plasma interactions.

  9. Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays (United States)

    Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.


    Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.

  10. Multiple pulse electron beam converter design for high power radiography (United States)

    Pincosy, P. A.; Back, N.; Bergstrom, P. M.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Poulsen, P.


    The typical response of the x-ray converter material to the passage of a high-powered relativistic electron beam is vaporization and rapid dispersal. The effect of this dispersal on subsequent pulses for multi-pulse radiography is the collective effects on the propagation of the electron beam through the expanding plasma and the reduced number of electron to photon interactions. Thus, for the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility, the converter material must either be replaced or confined long enough to accommodate the entire pulse train. Typically the 1-mm-thick high Z and full density converter material is chosen to give peak dose and minimum radiographic spot. For repeated pulses we propose a modified converter, constructed of either low density, high Z material in the form of foam or of foils spaced over ten times the axial thickness of the standard 1 mm converter. The converter material is confined within a tube to impede outward motion in radius outside the beam interaction region. We report single-pulse experiments which measure the dose and spot size produced by the modified converter and compare them to similar measurements made by the standard converter. For multiple pulses over a microsecond time scale, we calculate the radial and axial hydrodynamic flow to study the material reflux into the converter volume and the resultant density decrease as the electron beam energy is deposited. Both the electron transport through the expanding low density plasma and beam in the higher density material are modeled. The x-ray source dose and spot size are calculated to evaluate the impact of the changing converter material density distribution on the radiographic spot size and dose. The results indicate that a multiple-pulse converter design for three or four high-power beam pulses is feasible.

  11. Application of High Power Ultrasound in Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner, Z.


    Full Text Available Ultrasound is a sound frequency in the range between 18 and 100 kHz that is above hearing of the human ear. High power ultrasound means application of intensities higher than 1 W cm–2 (usually in the range between I=10–1000Wcm–2. High power and low frequency ultrasound (f = 20 to 100 kHz is considered as “power ultrasound” because its application causes cavitation and is applied in the food industry. High power ultrasound is applied for degassing of liquid food, for induction of oxidation/reduction reactions, for extraction of enzymes and proteins, for inactivation of enzymes and induction of nucleation for crystallization. Ultrasound is anticipating heat transfer; it is used for emulsifying, sterilization, extraction, degassing, filtrating, drying and induction of oxidation. Conventional hot air drying is a very energy- and cost-intensive process. Drying is a simultaneous operation of heat and mass exchange that is followed by phase changes. Application of different pretreatments, like osmotic dehydration, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration has shown different effects on fruits and vegetables. When the high intensity acoustic energy is passing through solid material, it causes several fast and successive compressions and rarefactions with speeds that depend on the frequency applied. Thus, material is exposed to a series of exchangeable squeezing and relaxations, very like continuous squeezing and releasing of the sponge. This mechanism known as "rectified diffusion" is very important in acoustic drying and migration of water. Application of ultrasound as a pretreatment has shown great influence on reducing afterward hot air drying thereby reducing total drying time. It is also shown that pretreatment before drying facilitates better mass transfer and water diffusivity than osmotic dehydration. Quality of the product after drying is better because ultrasound pretreatment is applied at room temperature thus reducing

  12. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab


    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45–1 and the much lower 0.2–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  13. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.


    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  14. Ion implantation system and process for ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, III, Orville T.; Liezers, Martin


    A system and process are disclosed for ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes of analytical interest in a sample. Target isotopes may be implanted in an implant area on a high-purity substrate to pre-concentrate the target isotopes free of contaminants. A known quantity of a tracer isotope may also be implanted. Target isotopes and tracer isotopes may be determined in a mass spectrometer. The present invention provides ultrasensitive determination of target isotopes in the sample.

  15. Radial current high power dummy load for characterizing the high power laser triggered transformer-type accelerator. (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ren, He-Ming; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Hong, Zhi-qiang


    A radial-current aqueous resistive solution load was applied to characterize a laser triggered transformer-type accelerator. The current direction in the dummy load is radial and is different from the traditional load in the axial. Therefore, this type of dummy load has smaller inductance and fast response characteristic. The load was designed to accommodate both the resistance requirement of accelerator and to allow optical access for the laser. Theoretical and numerical calculations of the load's inductance and capacitance are given. The equivalent circuit of the dummy load is calculated in theory and analyzed with a PSPICE code. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis. At last, experiments of the dummy load applied to the high power spiral pulse forming line were performed; a quasisquare pulse voltage is obtained at the dummy load.

  16. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  17. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.


    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  18. Reflective Optical Chopper Used in NIST High-Power Laser Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromer, Chris


    Full Text Available For the past ten years, NIST has used high-reflectivity, optical choppers as beamsplitters and attenuators when calibrating the absolute responsivity and response linearity of detectors used with high-power CW lasers. The chopper-based technique has several advantages over the use of wedge-shaped transparent materials (usually crystals often used as beam splitters in this type of measurement system. We describe the design, operation and calibration of these choppers. A comparison between choppers and transparent wedge beampslitters is also discussed.

  19. Analysis of a passive heat sink for temperature stabilization of high-power LED bulbs (United States)

    Balvís, Eduardo; Bendaña, Ricardo; Michinel, Humberto; Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro; Paredes, Angel


    In this paper we present a numerical analysis and experimental measurements of the temperature stabilization of high-power LED chips that we have obtained by employing an aluminum passive heat sink, designed to be used in a compact light bulb configuration. We demonstrate that our system keeps the temperature of the LED chip well-below 70° C yielding long-term operation of the device. Our simulations have been performed for a low-cost device ready to install in public streetlights. The experimental measurements performed in different configurations show a nice agreement with the numerical calculations.

  20. Analysis of a passive heat sink for temperature stabilization of high-power LED bulbs


    Balvis, Eduardo; Bendaña, Ricardo; MICHINEL ALVAREZ, HUMBERTO; Fernández de Córdoba Castellá, Pedro José; Paredes, Angel


    In this paper we present a numerical analysis and experimental measurements of the temperature stabilization of high-power LED chips that we have obtained by employing an aluminum passive heat sink, designed to be used in a compact light bulb configuration. We demonstrate that our system keeps the temperature of the LED chip well-below 70 degrees C yielding long-term operation of the device. Our simulations have been performed for a low-cost device ready to install in public streetlights. The...